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Fall 2010 - Solution

1. Warmer. Because energy is added to the room air in the form of electrical work.

**2. A water pump increases water pressure. The power input is to be determined.
**

Analysis The power input is determined from

W V ( P P )

2 1 50 psia

1 Btu 1 hp

(1.2 ft 3 /s)(50 10 )psia

0.7068 Btu/s

Water

5.404 psia ft 3

10 psia

12.6 hp

The water temperature at the inlet does not have any significant effect on the required power.

3. The available head, flow rate, and efficiency of a hydroelectric turbine are given. The electric power output is to

be determined.

Assumptions 1 The flow is steady. 2 Water levels at the reservoir and the discharge site remain constant. 3 Frictional

losses in piping are negligible.

Properties We take the density of water to be = 1000

kg/m3 = 1 kg/L. 1

Analysis The total mechanical energy the water in a dam

possesses is equivalent to the potential energy of water

at the free surface of the dam (relative to free surface of

discharge water), and it can be converted to work

entirely. Therefore, the power potential of water is its 120 m overall = 80%

potential energy, which is gz per unit mass, and m gz for

a given mass flow rate.

1 kJ/kg Turbin Generator

emech pe gz (9.81 m/s 2 )(120 m) 1.177 kJ/kg e

1000 m 2 /s2 2

The mass flow rate is

m V (1000 kg/m3 )(100 m3/s) 100,000 kg/s

Then the maximum and actual electric power generation become

1 MW

Wmax E mech m emech (100 ,000 kg/s)(1.17 7 kJ/kg) 117 .7 MW

1000 kJ/s

W electric overallW max 0.80(117.7 MW) 94.2 MW

Discussion Note that the power generation would increase by more than 1 MW for each percentage point

improvement in the efficiency of the turbine–generator unit.

4. Superheated water vapor cools at constant volume until the temperature drops to 250°F. At the final state, the

pressure, the quality, and the enthalpy are to be determined.

Analysis This is a constant volume process (v = V/m = constant), and the initial specific volume is determined to be

124 kPa m /kg K)(293 K) 3 V = 0. the tank will contain saturated liquid-vapor 180 psia mixture since vf < v < vg .41 426.0 Btu/lbm v 5. One side of a two-sided tank contains an ideal gas while the other side is evacuated.5 0.124 kPa m 3 /kg K)(288 K) P 264 kPa V 1. The gas is also heated to a final pressure. P Psat@250 F 29.01700 (c) The enthalpy at the final state is determined from 2 h h f xh fg 218. P2 P1 V 2 V1 2V1 3V 1 Ideal Evacuated gas Applying these.1655 0. Assumptions The gas is specified as an ideal gas so that ideal gas relation can be used.219 945. the total volume and the total mass of H2 are V V A V B 0. Thus H2O at the final state. Analysis According to the ideal gas equation of state. 2V1 927°C Q m1 m1 V1 P1V 1 P2V 2 T1 T2 V1 V2 T1 T2 V2 3V T2 T1 T1 1 3T1 3927 273 ) K 3600 K 3327 C V1 V1 6. Properties The gas constant for hydrogen is 4.1655 kg H2 H2 RT1 A (4.2218 kg Then the final pressure can be determined from mRT 2 (0. vf = 0.0563 kg P=400 kPa P=150 kPa RT1 B (4.5 m ) 3 m A 1 0. Now a valve is opened.5 m3 V = 0. Treating H 2 as an ideal gas.124 kPa·m3/kg·K (Table A-1).5 m3 PV (150 kPa)(0. P1 180 psia v 3.0563 0.01700 x2 0. The final temperature is to be determined.219 v fg 13 . Analysis Let's call the first and the second tanks A and B.84 psia (b) The quality at the final state is determined from T 1 v 2 v f 3.0 m 3 .816 ft3/lbm. and the final pressure must be the 500F saturation pressure at the final temperature.0433 ft /lbm 3 (Table A-6E) T1 500 F 1 At 250°F.0433 0.816 0.63 0. Two rigid tanks that contain hydrogen at two different states are connected to each other. The partition is removed and the gas fills the entire tank. The final pressure in the tanks is to be determined.124 kPa m /kg K)(323 K) 3 m m A m B 0.5 m 3 ) T=20C T=50C m B 1 0.2218 kg)(4.5 1.0 m 3 A B PV (400 kPa)(0.01700 ft3/lbm and vg = 13. and the two gases are allowed to mix while achieving thermal equilibrium with the surroundings.

νf < ν < νfg so the water is saturated and.7. P = Psat = 618 kPa. the final temperature in the tank is (a) 186°C (b) 59°C (c) -43°C (d) 20°C (e) 230°C Answer (a) 186°C For R = constant and V = constant P1 m1 T1 P2 m2 T2 m1 P2 6 2. If the final pressure in the tank is 2. A rigid tank contains 6 kg of an ideal gas at 3 atm and 40°C. .01 m3/kg. from Table A-4. At this specific volume.2 T2 T1 40 273 459 K (186C ) m2 P1 3 3 8. Now a valve is opened.2 atm. A 1-m3 rigid tank contains 10 kg of water (in any phase or phases) at 160°C. and half of mass of the gas is allowed to escape. The pressure in the tank is (a) 738 kPa (b) 618 kPa (c) 370 kPa (d) 2000 kPa (e) 1618 kPa Answer (b) 618 kPa Specific volume ν = 1 (m3) /10 (kg)/ = 0.

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