You are on page 1of 193

~- ---

i

by Hugh Macinnes

••

TIISLE 1I1111111TEIITI
Introduction .... · ... 4
Supercharging & Turbocharging .. . .. 6
Turbocharger
, Design . . . . . . . . .. 12
ChOOS'lng the Engine . . . . . . . . . . .. 27
Chaos n9 the Turbocharger . . . . . . . . 32
Ca rburet ion & Fuel Injection . .. . .. 49
19nitier. . . . .. 64
Exhaust Systems. . . . . . ... 67
Lubrication . . . . . . . . ...•..... 74
Contr~ls ... . . ..... 78
Intercooling . . . . 91
Marine Engines. . .... 97
Two -S troke Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
High·Altitude Turbocharging. 110
Installations Do's Don'ts & Maybe's . 119
Tractor Pulling . · . 128
Maintenance. . . . . .. . ..... . · . 132
Kits &fWhere to Buy Them · . 136
Exhau t EmisSions .. . · . 152
Waler nlectlon .
Motorcycles ..
Turbocharging the Indy Engine
. 157
...... 160
.. 163
-
"Hurry Round Hondo" jet boat is Gale Banks Engineering's racing test bed. Engine in
hull is same as the one on the cOlier of this book. Boat holds A.P.B.A. "K" Class (un·
Appenrix. . . . . . . . . . .... 168
GIOfsary . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 limited) Jet Boat 1600 meter course record: 1 12.5 MPH for 5 miles. Boat also won
Symbols . . . 169 1975 Jet Boat Nationals. Stock bore & stroke 454 cm Chellrolet big·block produced
Y -rabies .... 170 1,067 Ibs. ft. torque at 8,300 RPM; 1,687 HP at 281bs. boost with straight alcohol.
Alti;tude Chart .... . 172 Engine equipment includes Carillo rods, forged pistons with 1.094·inch Chrysler
Turbocharger Failure Analysis ... 173 Nascar pins, /skenderian roUer camshaft and rocker arms, O·ringed block and heads,
Acknowledgements .... .. 174 polished combustion chambers, stock ports, 7116-inch push rods. TE0-691 turbo·
Compressor Selection Chart. . . 175 chargers and the 2·3/8 inch wastegate are AiResearch units. Banks' shop did the blue-
Horrepower Increase Chart .. · . 175 printing and assembly and supplied the stainless·steel exhaust system featuring O·rings
Manufacturers & Distributors. · . 188 on cast stainless header flanges and expansion bellows to prellent stress cracking. No
,
Kit Makers & Instaliers ... intercooler was used in this configuration. Boat photo bV A. Bond.
. 192

Editor & publisher: ISBN: 0-912656·49-2 NOTICE: The information con tamed in
I
Bill Fisher Library of Congress Catalog this book IS true and complete to the best
COlier design; Card No. 76·6002 of our knowledge. All of the recommenda·
I Josh Young H. P. Book No . 49 tions on turbocharger sizing. matching, in·
© 1976 Printed in U.S.A. 676 stallation and use are made without any
BtOk design & assembly: H. P. Books, P. O. Box 5367 guarantees on the part of the authors or
Nancy Fisher Tucson, AZ 85703 H. P Books_ Because design matters,
Text & caption typography ; 602/888 ·2150 engineering changes and methods of appli·
Lou Duerr, Marcia Redding cation are beyond our control. the author
Figures: and publisher disclaim any liability in -
William Pine, Erwin Acuntius curred in connection with the use of this
An independent pUblication -nO! asso· dara or specific derails.
Cdller photo;
ciated with AIResearch Industrial Divi-
IPhotomation
sion of Garrett Corporation, Rajay
Photography: Industries. Inc., Schwitzer Corporation.
Hugh Macinnes. Bill Fisher. Roto.Master, or any other rurbocharger
Howard Fisher, others manufacturer or instalier. or kit builder.

2

. Photo by McGuir. Either W.OO~ 0 HP on methanol fuel. 3 .4. .or in a tractor-pulling contest.:Y'I. Now built as the Foyt engine. Ai Research T18A turbos. i the old gear-driven supe rcharger gains 200 HP. this is typical of the' V·8 powerplants used in some USAC Championship Cars.~:. Studio.Allison 1720 CID engine turbocharged by Skip Cooley might end up in an unlimited hydroplane. Schwitzer waste gates and Aviaid scavenge pumps are part of the pack- l age.5 CID pro- duces 700·900 HP. USAC Ford Race Engine 159.~~::. Bellows connector to turbine still needs to be connected here. It won all USAC 500- mile races from 1969-71.

it was due 'l':.the engine.about trying this method of added power instead of the old i ~::':~~heads. V·8's. been reinstated in motorboat racing. the original book was published about a haLf-do ze n turbo- kits for passenger cars and light Today at least 25 kits are avail- for 11l1lrinc engines and first book I pointed out that men had successfully applied 'o.'" 1 "0 get more usable horsepower for than you'd spend blueprinting engine. it slllrted out as a JO-pagc but kept growing.omponent and labor you (.".lr sport in the midwest. I decided to star! <It the begin - rewrite each chapter besides about five more.b"<). stroking.~'~1.~0~f.."g. of boring. Inflation has rapidly engine.ome all cX\1'emely popu].an turbocharge an . and trar. It soon became apparent 1 new items were being added it far more than a simple revi- . of this rise in interest in engines .oki'I. After three years. turbo- d<lsSCS have been added to the circuits. By the time it had grown to a J 44- . was so high that 4 .:tor has be(. particularly I: . Select alld Install Turbochargers.Qll' lurbocharging in the past are now 'hi. [n the short time . many perfor· people who had nOI (.~~~:'l This book started out as r . special ctc.(. introduction to my book.men'" between then and now.:iO:.""l'" to high·performance in spite of the fact that their should hilve sparked interest many morC.:..tt. of the deterrents to turbocharging engine in tlle past was the com· ~:.

controls 11 passenger cars has caused a engine to do the job of:i large one with· There are many variations of this system considera Ie drop in compression ratio out sacrificing fuel economy. without ~siJ1g ~n anti-detonant even the information contained ill this book Other engines with a good chance of with the highest octane gasoline available. stress that wert neccssilry seve ral years agu they l:{JUld become a major factor in the :J!lalysis. including thermodynamics. This truthfully say there has never been a of SlIcecs'. ledge on which to learn. smoke. ignition rcciprOC:iling engine because the become acquainted with !HallY interesting [hope this book will accomplish three vaSI majority of engines in this country people that I would never have met things: 1irst. This Be. Second. will be helpful to ellgine manufacturers becoming more popular are those using As we 311~know.!ve hardly broad spectrum of mecltanical engineer- design. In tlte 23 years I have been motive enthusiast to turboch:lTge his di('sel engines knows turbochargers associated with turbochargers. machine design. but the type using the Texaco Controlled to reduce combustIon temperatures. build and ttst kits withoul h:iving made il dent in the passenger-car market ing. Diesel engincs h. manuf:Jcturing techniques and because 110 one had any previous ku()w. I . the turbocharger can help candidate for the "Engine of the F uture. I hope consumption and low emissions. Iloise.." '.onservalion has Combustion System lends itself very well lowers o+des of nitrogen in the exhaust become a fadar equally as important as to the use of a turbocharger and is a and also allows using Juw-oct<lnc gasoline." '.m.ltes but lurgy. I can own eng/'ne with a reasonable chance improve them ffllm any viewpoint. it Iws given me the opportunity to ratio is fI~c for lurbocharging.".ause energy .. metal- to go thr~ugh:ill the cut-and -try methods purticubrly in the United St. On the other hand. ". future becausc of their excellent fuel internal-combustiu!l engines..!! gilsoline-fueled spark.. buok is sitting down and doing the work least 10 110unds boost pressure \Vir/IOU! Most of the book is devoted to the of putting it together. dull day. The compression cOl1vcntion.. the Jdvcnt of emission who may wnsider turbocltarging a small the so-called stratified-charge system . ' . 5 . air pollution. lubric:Jtion. power outpu1.." T he lowef compression ralio means it is to crcilte engines with 1II/1lill1U11/ exhaust The hardest thing about writing a possible to turbocharge these engines to at emissiuns and maximulII fucl economy. do".11 typc. arc of 111. r doubt if there are many other or comp nics who manufacture turbo. Anyone familiar with otherwise ..my Iittl~ .bod"'g. allow the individuals includes fuel consulnpti. Third ."g could b. allY major modificatio/ls. cnilble the average auto. cngine life and exhaust manufactured items that cover such a charger ~its for 1he after-market 10 emis~ions. '.

D Erhaust Stroke . llSll. B. Standard automobile engines made in the unled Sta tes are nalumlly aspira ted fuur-s!Tke cydc.Burnt gases el. an engine is classified by ils cubic-inch displacement. This is lIe number of cubic inches of :.Jffcds its operation and output.jr to all persons who have workedlwith <lulol11obilc el1g.pelled through open exhaust. the engine does not flow an amo u nt of air equal to the displace- ment be~ause I Ther is always a sligh t pressure drop POWER C EX HA UST D th rOl gh the carburetor. I have used 60 cubic inches t the liter to make the chnrt a lot easier tread. spark-ignition. illternal-combustioll engine show- ing how supercharging and. Ifltake Stroke-Fuel/air charge is drawn through open In take valve. I will sl. turboch<lrging . in particular. This Sl:hc- malic.llIsc it is only a mailer f time before the United States joins th~ rest of Ihe world in using the mel ric system.!l1y :. Bec. t~lIllili.illc~. with fouT. For this reason. The sdrclTlatic cross section of one cylinder of this Iype engine is shown in FigllTc I.Simple four -cycle engine 6 .Charge com · INTA KE A COMP RESSION B pressed with both valves closed.tbbreviateu CID. 2 [nta ports and valves offer some reSin 'lion Figure l .tir wldch \ illlhe~)retically !low through a four-sIr ke cycle engine during two COI1)- plete re olulions. BUPEIIIIHIIIIIIIIIIIIIJ 1UIIBIIIIHIIIIIIIIIIII Mn~ Limes when disclissing engines <Ind tu~ocharging with hotrodders and auto enthusiasts it is assumed they are f<lllli!ia~ with the principles involved and ImHlY '!lings aTC left unsaid which should have bjCn expbined. ha~ the follOWi?g sequence: A.. [n pr~ctice. • In addltfon to Ihe number of cylmders. engine displacement is frequently listed il1 cubic centimeters (ce) or literSl!)' One liter is almost exactly 61 cubic in 'hes but where both are listed on 3 chart i I Ihis book. CompressIOn Stroke. sif or eight cylinders. P6wer Stroke-Charge ignited by I spark plug pushes piston down. C.! t this chapter with the basic prin- ciples f oper:llion of:1 typic~1 four-stroke cycle.

Figure 2 shows a . 4. Roots blower ru ns at 80% normal speed and puts o ut o nl y 5. include reciprocating. make it possible to have . gears or chains.below 50%. placement and dynamic."Orn". D(!II~i/l' lIS used in this book IS the weight 1. This type of supercharger has the advantagp of delivering approximately the same llla!lifold pressure at all engine speeds but has the disadvantage of using crankshaft power to drive it. The exhaust valve and exhaust pipe offer some restriction. I n either casc..dlarge density compared to the density or the surrounding atmosphere.:ausc it is a positive-displacement devicc.)mpressor capacity is greater than Ihal of the engine. ~e int3ke·manifold pressure must rise to e able the engine to flow the same COMPRESSO R weight 0 charge delivered by the COrll- pressor. coupled wilh oversil. It is possible 10 tune an engine l0tSC1 higher volumetric efficiency by using ihe correct length intake and exhaust ~ipcs for 3 given engine speed .Jssages. it will force more air into I~e engi ne than it would consume n:lturallyLspiratcd. There are lesser- known t pes ill this category. The amount of add i_ tional ai r will be a funct ion of the intake- manifold.3. Figure 3. all of thiS charge Ill ust pass through the engine. Schwitze r turbos do the rest.. run i (If air per ullit of volume. T he Roots- Iype lobe compressor also has the disad- vantage of inherent low efficiency. if c!..10 Ibs." Flo"" I. There arc two dragster.:ompressor added to tIle basil: ~ngine. c~led 80% valwllf/lric effiL'iellcy or Tlvol '" 8096. Figure 2-E ngine wi th supe rcharger lobe andf:l1le compressors. Tit '''''os . This.. Assuming the compressor displace- ment is twice that of a norlll~I1Y'Jspirated engine.cd valves and ports lmd' c3refully designed intake and exhaust p.cedin 100% at a certain speed.Icing engines but il is not practical for street usc where a broad speed r:mgc is required. This 1ll:IY be dOlle either before or after the carburetor.Hl engine with ~ volumetric efficiency cx\. basic typ s of compressors: Positive-dis. ""'g' "w'''g 7 . A normal laulOmobl1e engine nows only ilbollt 80$ of the calculated 3mOllnl of charge. This 9 is frequently done wilh (. and be. Engine has been ru n at 6 to 1 comp ression ratio. Posilive-displ:!ce- ment ty~s.m"'. These COI))- pressors· re usually driven from the enginc cranksha t through belts. The compressor pumps essentially the samc am?ullt of d13rge for c3c11 revolution of tJ1C en~jnc regardless of speed. boost . The exllaust stroke docs not expel aB » burnt ~ases because of the dearance volume.

I sivc we r on the sliding v.. il TUns at nankshJfI speed. eMS. [ very ex pensive III siLes large enough fl)r most U S. tis Tallier large and cumbersome for use in :m automobile engine. Diffusion is the process of B . mixed f:J1h the charge \0 prcvenl execs.F. I - RECIPROCATING LOBE VANE Figure 3. devices because they depend on aceelerat. Pa~enger / Car Engincs docs nOI require lubrication of the vanes but like the Lysholm-lype is '" • Irl l • I ---.lin a compres.~o~m~p~. it is necessary to have several stage~ -' • when tllis type is used. / sion rat 0 mllch higher than 1. Because of Ihis. Th is lubri- c:lling ( illowers Ih~ fuel's ocla ne raling. DY'E11ic . 11le slid· ing-va ne type is sealed internally by the vanes Tl. Beeau 11 usu:.illy is atlached diredly to th e crarkshaft. The Latham supe r- charger fits this category.lbbing agllinsl the ouler housing.:. All dynamic NLET l[Jr • OUTLET compressors are inherently high-speed 1/ . The recipro.g"""'o'~4~~::A~x~ .S. ROTATING BLADES ing the (13S to 3 high velocity and then slowing it down by diffusioll to ob1ain com pre sion.. /' - f\~ ~ ~ Be":llus it is difficult 10 obt:. Figure 4 shows an axial ":0111- pressor~ hid1 is basically II fan or propeller.:ompressors alst) come in several ypes.Positive-displacement comllrCSSors and Ih~rcforc higher thermal s lrcs~ 011 the cngine" Thc Lysholm-typc lobe l'01l1prCS- SOT has much higher effio..mes.lubricating oil is IIsu:llly . . An ccc nl ric·vane Iy pe such as the smog STATIONARY VANEs air pUll~P used on many U. _______________________.::iency up to 90%-b t is ext remely expensive ~lId 1\01 pTactic 1 for automutive usc.1 in a single slllge.:ating type has beel! used for Illa y yt:!:m un large station:HY engi nes.o'~"~o:..:'.

\ / Ch.000 units.1 about 60. These same turbos are now made by Rajay Industries. Cutaway photo- drawing I shows the inlet and exhaust system connections to the turbocharger. Corvairs represented the largest automotive use of turbochargers in history. Line drawing shows ultimate simpl icity of a turbocharger installation. Turbocharging raised the output of these 90 to 100 I i to 150 HP in 1962-64. . to laO HP in 1965-66. 9 ..mll'l Corvairs were produced with a TRW turbocharger..

33 1-11' per cu~ic inch displ3cclTlcnt. a compressor capable of '.6 I-IP per .!>acit y large enough for a 350 C ID COMPRESSOR MAP RAJAY TURBOCHARGE~ I engine Illlls1 rlill at afllund 115. A -\ pressure r:l1iu is nul uncommon. It is possible to achieve \-~+_ DI ffUSER cOllsid rably higher pressure ralio in a VANES single l:Jge of a cCllIrifugal flow cOmpres- sor. --/ Al l lOugh there arc other types uf dyn:lIl ie comprCl'sms such as mixed-nllw and dr g-type. Becruse the l'clltrirugal compressor lIlllS1 be driven <It very high speed.. . Engine builder back in those days lacked the high-stength ntaterial~ we lwve today.slowin pdown the gas without turbulence so vell1dty energy is converted into pres- sure CI ergy.:ubi.Typical centrifugal compressor map Rajay 300E in F igl!rc 6. That was 3.000 R PM .u~t 10 drive froill the cr. the sume e ginc equipped with a lurboch. 2.4 supply ng a pressure ratio of 3: 1 Wilh 'J flow c.: inch or <l 4 0% i 11provement in 45 YCMS. OUTLET-- flow il lh~t the di rection of the g:lS is chang d approximately 90<) and becallse the air is in contact with the blades of /- Ihe co llpressor impeller for a \ongt!f period of lime per stage Ih:lll in an axial· INLET • flow c mpressur... 1m is impractical.:e -(. A centrifugal type is shown in Fig re 5.8 would wipe out the sllper<..}usc the gear-driven sliper.Ir<: producing about 900 I-IP frum 160 Cit about 5.. During the 1920's..lf of higher than 2 : Ion an enginc runningut5. so they c oled tilC charge betwecn the cum.6 system l Q .:.r..4 K- prcssor and the engine. MODEL 370E II wou d require 'J step·up gl'.. I have Figure 5 . b u l .~'''"rl-++-+- [ +-H--+---i - increas ng the outpll I.:ost of the Irunsmissioll.[- coolin are discussed in Chapter 10.1 .. Thc tup ru. AIR Fl!NI ~ -CFM 10 . gcur-driven (cntri fu- gal supfrch<lrgers were used with suc<.}rs turning out as Iligh as 300 liP from 9 0 em engines. 13c. Advan tages of in lef- V K I' I· ~f-. nol only ~O becaus~ of tilc (.000 RPM.. 1. This differs from the axial. it is d i ffi<. reducing both the the 111al and mcchankal load while ./ !:Xv 1- 1.Ce ntrifugal compressor not corered them in this book.:hurger gears <i unless ~ slip cllItdl we[e included in the .:hargcr probubly used about}O 1-11' from the crankshuft.1I1kslwfL As can be seen from the compressor map Figure 6 . they are 1I0t ordinarily used r r slipercinirging engines. T he biggest dis<ldv<lntage of the celltrifu- 1.lrger wuuld Hive p rodllced aboul 360 liP 4! !P per (II ic inch.llsl) becuuse suddcn changcs in engine Is peed occurring during sh ifling 2.0V 100 200 300 400 I ~ 600 700 800 gal con pressor when used ::IS a super.~r cngines todJY .2 4O''J'1V'I--+~:.ess on rac~ c.

back pressure will not affect varies 1.. During the Paxton supercharger which always be a problem except that a turbine overlap period when both valves are open. Because of the inherent high speed of throttle with a wel1-mat1. Good scavenging can account for it to run much faster.:kfire Illay remove the super· will still require some crankshaft power. As long as this condi. but when the exhaust valve first opens.:harged tion exists. This is true to a certain extent.-::'. When an engine is funning at wide-open boost pressure. Looking again at the typical aspirated engine.000 RPM. In this p<lrtiw.. for a given type of fuel.:onsiderably with com. This temperature drop represents fuel energy returned to I over the positive·displacement Because it is not a positive Critical flow occurs when the cylinder pressure is more than twice the exhaust· the engine by the turbocharger. When the driver ing energy usually dumped overboard in exhaust-manifold pressures have been accelerator to the !loor.. the l<ltter portion of the exhaust stroke same compressor will produce A large ba1. to its higher overall effi. (133°C.:kfire on a turbo. off safety valves mounted somewhere pressure of the turbocharged engine during pounds boost pressure at sea between the supercharger and the engine.:hed high-effi- the speed increased the the centrifugal-type compressor. reversing an engine. can withstand a backfire manifold pressure.• . A smllll exhaust·manifold pressure will definitely puts out 1:2 pressure rllUo at backfire can usuaHy be handled by pop. 1:92 ratio at 80.. more power I device. In sum- mary. the flow through it is criticaL much as 300°F. This intake- speed of the compressor. 13.. After cylinder pressor . A rule of and weight of the unit are considerably sure will be considerably higher than Boost pressure increases as the less th<ln tIle positive-displacement type.000 HP weighs only about 25 pounds._'-' "~l·-·-·-· . A ba. can be obtained from an engine by turbo- I intake system without charging than by any other method..8 charger completely from the engine. The turbine is driven scavenging the cylinder. .-:. in the early '50's had a variable is also a high-speed device. intake-manifold pres- over four times.:ompressors beUer than 80% efficiency- compressor has another exhaust system.. an the form of heat and noise. the accelerator was in normal ou t the use of gears. !low through the valve.. we see this particular positive-displacement compressor. wheel causes back pressure on the engine's Exhaust-gas temperature will drop as i centrifugal 1. exhaust-manifold pressure.~ -. through nozzle vanes as shown in Figure 7. A complete turbocharger system capable manifold pressure will drive the piston only way to overwme this prob· of enabling an engine to produce over down during the intake stroke. utiliz· pressures as much as 10 psi higher than low speed... as much as 15% more power than caleu- worked well but was an added Many people feel this exhaust-gas lated from the increase in manifold pres· energy is not free because the turbine sure of the naturally-aspirated engine. .driven centrifugal 1. the higher intake manifold pressure forces actuated by the accelerator we can couple them directly together with· residual gases out of the clearance volume. This is not so with a pressure drops below the aitical pressure. the process of the engine driving the gases is to have a variable-speed Driving a centrifugal compressor would out during the exhaust stroke. affect the now amI the higher cylinder This represents approxi. 6. EXHAUST GAS FROM charger : Pressure output from the damage. engine is no worse than on a naturally.:. For this reason. Intake-manifold the supercharger ran at by the exhaust gases of the engine. The exhaust measured 011 engines running at about decreased the supercharger·pulley gases are directed to the turbine wheel 900 HP...) when passing through the turbine. the size dency turbocharger. 11 ..

:elcr~tcs the gas passing ~hrough it to a high velocity by centrifugal force. COMP~ESSOR DESIGN The l.:ase of tile engine.. although the mechanical design is more simple. supported by be. The size for a given output is .wd air. Over the years. in tcI11Pcr~ture. In additio 1."!1t oil SYS1~1l1 inciuding. much ~nnl1c r and in spite of the trend toward~ higher prices for everything. SECTION Unlil 1952 most turbodlaTgers used ball or f0l!er bC. See Figure 8. The housing around the diffuser is used to collect this high-pres- sure gas and direct it 10 wherever it is used.. Seals are much bbuer known for keeping oil fr0111 leaking In to the compressor or lurbine Rajay turbocharger internal confiyuration is shown in this display cutaway. Tullay's units u 'floating-sleeve bearings lubri- cated by the engine's oil and pUltlp. is essentially the same as the first one designed by Alfred 13uchi many years ~go.lrings COMPRESSION in betJeen.Ids as a nozzle il\ reverse.:ompressor impeller rotates al very hi~1 speeds and al.. They aTC cooled by a wmbination of all . This causes it to increase in pressure and. Turbocharger design varies from one A'RI".J built·in pump. . Th~ I.:ompressor consists of three el ments whkh must be llIatched to cach ther for optimum effkienl. the price 0t a turbocharger per horsepower TURBINE increa~c is much less now than it WllS 20 years ago. unfortunately. they were water-cl)olcd.. the diffuser and the hOlls. the housing itself is also a diffuser. In some lcases. slowing the gas down without turbulence.lIId als between the bearings and the i turbine This prevents hig. manur~turer to anuthcr but basically all have a . The diffuser .--------"-------------------- .lhe design of compressor impellers used 111 superchargers has varijd considerably due to "state of the arC' in the thcrmodynamk design of com pre sors and in manufacturing lech- 12 . housin~ llow wel! they do Ihis job often depend~ on Ihe installation.Jl1y into Figure a .Cross section of typical turbo the cra1lkl.:l.:olllpressor SECTION .:el~rifUga! I. There are se~ls betweer the bearings and 1he I.Hings and an inclepcllut.h-pressure gases from Ie king into the uil drainage are~ of the bearing housing and evelltu.:Y: The impeller. ing.zomprcssor on one cild ami a IUT- bine ani the other.

:onomical blades.6ackward-cur'led impeller has beenlcast by the investment or lost. thereby In Ih is design.lmpeller wit h curved inducer I niques.:~sting h:Js made possible shod 10Sf'es at t. These not h~ve:. the blade elements :ItC nul reducing inlet losses lu 1I minimum. After the rubber pattern is removed from the plaster. The wax is then of this Iype wheel. T~\e angle oft:llrv.n this method. il returns to its original shape and may be used ~gain. radial but :tdually curved backward from n~lly.ls high a pressure ratio for 1I cores wete then pasted together by IUl!1d given diameter and speed :.ll wax is cast into speed and the inherently lower strength the die r ther than metal. When a wheel is cast by this bend Ihe blades at Iheir roOIS. Figure 10 shows the usc uf compressor impeller shapes :I similar impeller. the process bladed il peller with no curved inducer differs ill tha t the nexibte rubber pauern 1 section . This rubber pattern is then covered With liquid plaster which is allowed to harden the same as with the . permanent-mold c:Jsting. the same angle:ls the blade. Because method . his shape is relatively easy 10 produce y die casting. wax pattern.. it s relnti1 lY low efficiency t:aused by This method of . centrifugal force at high speed tends to wax mel lad. Figure 9 shows il simple straight.~s()r impeller.Figure 9-Simple compressor impeller Figure lO. a die similar to the wax die is constructed but instead of being fiI cd with molten wax . high-strength impeller! bUI is still expensive. but with curved inducer which were not considered e. thif type o fwhecl W:lS rather expen.Jge. It has noi become 100 popular bccliuse uf can be removed from the plaster :trter it hardens. plaster has hardened. Wheels uf this sive to cast becausc it required a separn te type produce very high efficiency bUI do pl:lsler c~)fe for e:lch gas pass. plaster casting. it is filled with a r bber compound which solidifies in the die . In more recenl wheel s. la die is made similar to that for of the lower pressure ra li o for a given die cliStilg except th:.h e inlet. or even milling. More recently foundries have been using a process called the rubber-pattern proceSS'I. This process makes smooth. Strength is inherently less than years this type of com pressor impeller that of the 90° radial wheel because the Figure ll . The molten aJuminu~l alloy is then poured into the cavity lcrt after the wax is removed.lture.IS the 90° radial to l1wke ~he final mold. it is not normall y covered rith liquid plaster and after the used at pressure mtios above 2: I.:It the inlet from a casting viewpoint a few years lIgo. Origi. At this po int . the direclil)1l of rt)tatiun. of the inducer blades is designed so the In Figure II we see what is known as air entenpg th e impeller will be lit eXli ctiy a baL'klvard-('urved COlllpre. it is heated to remove ~he wax by melting.

1lhe service 11l. 12-S hrouded impeller Ii . he weight of the shroud <IS well as their 9wn. vane curvature will force the gas to now and be slowed down to 14 . ment. the gas velocit at the ollter diameter of the dif- fuser i ('.I preVe!~iV e-1I13intenance prueedure show- ing ho v to Hush sOi.lllleler of the diffuser to the oul- side <Ii meier propurtillnal to these twu diametrrs. In the late 1950's when shrouded impell~r s were used o n constructioll e4uip.lS great as RI then A! is twice as great a AI' Assuming tile gas were flow- ing in' ri. The simplest is the scroll· type d ffuser. Figure 14A. When designed cor- rectly.lPY water Ihrougll tlie Figure 13-Scroll-type diffuser comp 'ssm tu remove dirt buildup Oil the shwmj. The low strength. The gas actu~lIy flows i 1 a spir:!! rather tlt:!n a purely radial directi n but regardless of this. The vanes are designed so the lea ing edge will be i/1 line with the directi n of g~s now from the impe!Jer. the cn ss-sect iul1 Jrei. il sklws Ihe gas down and cOllverts • velucit energy into prc&SlITe energy.onsiderab!y less than at lhe inner diamctrL Figl\.I volute or sJl ~il sl lapc aruund the outside of the 'o11lpressur impeller.:tioll.12 shows a shrouded impeller.isb of i. high cost and tendency for the Shfoul to cuHed dirt has just about elimi· nated the use of the shruuded impeller in auton ol ive usc. From t lis point. II con.ldial dire<. In 952. In this design.re 16 is a compressor witil a vane- type di[fuser.IY be lised singly or in combination with e eh olber.lnui. the IUrbol:hargcd Cummins diesel-powered race car which ran in the lndiarj1apOliS 500 had t~) refire from the r:Jt:c d Ie to dirt buildup on J shrouded impeller. the velocity :!t R2 would e half that at R I .:luded i. M~~iHlUl1l efficiency of a shrouded impe!\er is usually very high because there is min~mal recirculation from the impeller dischllrge back to the inducer. Figure 15. Thtce Iypes M diffusers .llIlount of air coming from I lC impeller. B.--------------~Figure This design is certainly the most expen- sive manufacture and is the weakest of all th designs because the blades must carry . ~nd Ihey 1\ .ll illi. Figure 13.HC nUl'I\wlly used +111centrifugalc()ll1pressors. Figure.! from the inside i.Parallel-wall diffuser Figfre 14 shows ~ parallel-wall diffuser which las all inc rease in are.l of Ihe scrull increases in pru oniun to tile i. In other words if R2 is twicf i.

. A static-pre sure probe is not affected by the veloc ty of the gas. A total-pressure probe lTl9asures the static pressure plus tlle veloc ty pressure of the gas. This design does not have m IchanicaJ seal on compressor end.Static and total pressure STATIC TOTAL • PRESSURE \ / PRESSURE PITOT TUBE ! DIRECTION OF FLOW = I I AiFesearch TE0670 used on champion· ship race cars. /~R //. the ~A~ diffuser ipcreases the slatic pressure of the gas ljthe compressor.01.type diffuser Figure 17. . Compressors Figure 15-Area increase of parallet-wall ~-----------{f---'----' with van -type diffusers normally have a diffuser very high peak efficiency but frequently a narrow r range than a vane!ess diffuser.favor a sI*cific condition. Figure l~-Vane. The difference between tatie and tot31 pressures is shown sc lematiealJy in Figure 17. In each case. Broadnes of range is the number of dif· ferent siz engines on which a given com- pressor ay be used.

Although this is very commend. a centrifug<ll compressor.7"5i.tble for compressor impel· lers of three-inches diameter. Any roughness 011 these surfaces may cause some of the gas to detach itself from the surface causing eddy currents which reduce the over311 efficiency of the compressor..16)"183 T2 = 530 x 1. The surface of the compressor impeller.7 psia = 14.7 T1 = 530(2. will always raise the temperature of the gas whcn it raises the pressure. The for· mula for this temperature increase at 100% efficiency is: T~= Tl (~y283 Where T I :: Inlellcrnperalure oR T 1:: Outlet temperature ° R ° R= of + 460 PI = Inlet pressure absulute (ABS) = Usually b.uometric pressure P2 = Outlet pressure ABS = USH.2 14 T 1 '" 657°R (or 197°F"~a temperature rise of 127° F. Compressors referred to in this buok are capable of putting out around 70% efficiency. it tends to increase the temperature of the com- 16 .: 530 R Assume inlel pressure is 0 psiS Then III = 0 + b.) This caicul:llion 3ssumed 100% adi.7 )· ~ 14. Then 1'1=70+460 0 .uumeler = 0 + 14.7 psia =3 1.llly gage pressure + barome ter Example: Assume inlet temperature of 70°F. The Theoretical outlet tempcT3ture T 2 will be 283 T :: (70+460)x(17+ 14.7 psiiJ Assume oullet pressure is 17 psig Then PI = 17 + barometer = 17 + 14. Figure 18 SllOWS examples of various types of compressor housings and diffusers.tbatil: efficiency-about as obtainable as perpet· ual motion.and the compressor housing are made as slIlooth as is economically practical. the diffuser . even a good one. As mentioned earlier in this chapter.

_. 1 ""'c".traCfor boys now run mani· fold pr ssures of over 100 psig ill the ..: f/. == 80°F.053 1.162 2.the actual temperature rise is compute : TABLE 1 1 ldeal Te .. air. ' pressed aJr still further. ~ ~ I I '" (460" + . .217 2.199 I» '" 107. If this sounds bad.9 .. = 80+ 165. •.5" " V/~ ~ ~ Actual t mperature ri..7 . '~ ~ /p ~ r» i I Id~a! tell perature ~se I:~ r..0 . lITid'" .3 .. .199 . y . = T.' .199 2. At 70% adiabatic efficienc .. Pressure atiu r == 1. a routs- 8 II.9 .1 ~ I» rnl t Temp..65 I where r = 1. I is actually over 100 psig intake· " PHESSURE RAno " COMPRESSOR DISCHARGE HMPERA TURE VS PRESSURE RATIO manitol pressure! 17 I .5 .365 on a 70" ay will result in an intake-mani- fold tern erature of 251°F.:harger compressor pro. Rise = Actual Temp.181 2. Adding 1. + liT".4°F.7 .9 " J 1/ / i Com pres or Efficiency l<i From Tarle tic == .4 '" 245./..4 ..338 end user.352 ducing ItPSi boost pressure at sea level I 1.6 .. .296 3. com pre it to a pressure ratio of 1 . The Chart in Table 1 is for demon- stration purposes only.. I but thetfann.100 1.3 .TxY / rI:~ t/.9 Y == .4° Compre sor Discharge Temperature t@ BI:W T.8 .281 2. Assume the folluwin conditions: Figure 19-Compressor discharge temperature VS. OF.2 . pressure ratio I ..• ". A few years ago 3: 1 pressure ratio w s considered more than adequate .8 . 1.266 2.6 .0 ..5 .121 2. .2 .077 1.311 1 . j tractor· ulling contests._- . In thisca e. a super.234 2. W~ tr = 165. d~~ ::p 1 This me ns if yuu start with 80°F..:. I type hI wer with 45% effidency wiJ! " produc a temperature of 319"F. . A more detailed table in the appendix has pressure ratios '00· up to 1 : 1. With he table you can cakulate dis- charge Ie perature diret:tly with simple addition nd multiplication. .~ .4 .. 70° + 18 0 = 251°F.' ~.. .250 2. .1 .. Rise ..7 I 1.1 . That is not a mis- print.142 2..e L'lT actLJal= ~Tideal "c = 107. y j Adiahat cEil. !.5 .325 this to th compressor inlet temperature.65 /.9 with 65% effciency _you will end up with air at 245. the 127°= 181°F. y y . r'" pressure ratio Y_r· 238 _1 This s ries of cakulations may look like 11 lot of work but most of it call be eliminat d by the use of Table I. '~ -.sao) x . In terms useful to the 1..027 1.

:ating engine. This conside rably reduces the ting rall~e of a re.:ielll. Radial-now turbines were turboch:Hger hns a I..Ik effil.alculating intllke- manifpld pressure is still 100 comp!ic~led.:ipro.iI rule tile broauer the of m~nllfildure is Lo 11l~ke the disk oj" high.:olllpressors willi extremely cases whe-re the mdi:d wheel is Loo I~rge . COIll.'om pres- sors. These terms could have S VCr:lllllCJnings. By designing the turbine used O l~ all ilidustrl. bine. number of nozzle vanes. If this is not enough. Turbine blades Jre made (Jf ot" 110/lle vanes is not critical on J radiul· a very ijigh pe-. resistancc..: .lterial and attach the t urbine lI111e we watch water go uown . This Ille liS IllJXimUIll useful now at 2: [ small \lJrbine housing does not cost pressur ratIo will be twke the now at the any more to m:lllufo.000 HP because . In a turbocharger..lin.)wn in Figure 2 J. Depend.ted brood rr.le.[t hcat and corrosill!l 11.!() ~ siush-ppmp-like ~di()n.lrrower tht rJnge of the COlllpr ssor.l on the left side of eFM eFM eFM c. Example : If 3 ~nd gilS urb!nes.:tion ofJ - :i spend sqveral chapters on the theory of single noule opening multiplicd by the turbine~ sl1<.:hargers uSliully liuve ~~ ber of d ffere-Ilt siLes to a minimum. and brge tllrbo.:Y. llofmalulHl bro:Jd FLOW FLOW FLOW rallgcs.. l - dition.4 in.:teristil. Turbo.. but Th e radial-now turbine also h:ls a IWLlIt: o:ost of building ~ rJdi.:Y sudl JS that malcri. Why The axial·nuw turbine is used ill most bC":JUSC the gases will continue 011 at not de ign all ..~lly in Figure 22 is used almost elusively in turbochargers wi th cilpacities up to about 1.nges"! This wltllid he nllc ex.Iwkward but it b not expensive-.[11 angle to m:!ke the Lurbine shown in Figure 13.lctilre thJ11 <l Slllilil surge [illit a good compromise of peak Figure 21 . \ pUlling out 100 much boost ~I a given ('. The noute an::J of either an <lxia[-Ilow TURB[~E DESIGN turbine or J radial-now turbine with multi- Textpooks Oil turbine design normn lly P ":::::o. 2 nozzle and is e!lher c· sually referred to or ignored com. b needed. lluid a free vortex can be observed any range'lhe lower the I.Lbiiity will vJry fr JIll J silJrp hJlIging sound. 2 .valle no! on If must work over the broad opera. A normalf ' llave a now r~nge of about 2' 1.IThC surge afC.or.! with 1.: n.) change-turbine sizes so ]th at a different compressor need wheel <ltthe best possible angle.al - CllllltJtlS by using the chart in Figure 19 prepa d by Don Hllbbard orCTanc Cams. rotate. must bd used 011 cngincs oflllany different to direct tllc flow of gases to the turbine ~Ithough it i~ ncce-ssJry t. :1 sepurate noa!e wilh llIuny vanes.:ross-sc. thi~ iml. has been the larger the nozzle area. 011 the other hand.Ipproxilllate-ly lIle s:.Flow raoges of three different type centrifugat comprtlssors ing on Ihe <:Oll1pres. the nozzle 11l~y be ~'hanged to an are:. The norm:! ! mellwd hy the 1I0011e \'~nes.:al as for the Jxiol-llow turbine. but the housings r:lther tliJn IWUle-S whcn the not be 1esigned for cadi ellgine.:hara.11 gas turbine.leli iliaI' is:J region or pre~surc and Ilow 15A 15B 15e where he compressor is unstable.!mc Jngle as dire.Y line. to IlO surge Jt ~!1.2 in. Stationary noale vanes direct housing In J scwll or volute slwpe as dlargerl~ompressors. the slower the used fo almost lOa years on lilrge steam IUrbochuger will run. promis9' J (UrbocilJrger com pressor will noule vanes amI the turbine wheel is not Changing turbinc housings !\lay bc :IS criti.ISler yet withuut any I. the area mny it is eco omical to produce in small sizes . distance between the trailing edge of the !illbine is IIsed in difiercTlt cllndilions. NOrm'jlY til.l1-il!tlnw turbine. This spiml now of thot ~s ~ gcncr.[ses at ..!] with gre.U in. To COIll.)w turbinc.cak effidelll...v ple nozzle VJnes is the .l11d by Welding.. oll[y llnc 1101l.m.:ing the boost fr0111 the ':01TI- pressor.or designed to operate JI only one blades to the disk e-tther mcchanically or Because l)f this pllclhullen.. strength m. 2 which 18 . Th is is not true with ~ large tur- efikiel11'y . the g. Figure 20.. Wh n discussing centrifllga l . be increased still falther 10 [. bUI in tu rbocharger work i is normally [I\e width of the COI11 - press()! m~p al ahout:2: I pressure ralio.Axial flow turbine and nozzle nOlLle. The w dlh of a compressor m:lp is wken from I lC surge line to the 60'% rffkicl1(.:ept to Cilst in one fliece. slowing down the tUf- bine and rcduo.. known }s an uxia/-jluw IIIrbille. This design. tlle number ilow ha~'e a very n~lrr()w .! e term~ broad fange or ItarrolV range!'rc often used.[lId milu surge to keep the nUlll.the silJrper the surge. Figure 20 indudes eX:JmpJes of CU111· PEAl( Hf >SlAND prcsso~s wilh nurrew.a dr. pres. If tllis method of I.on- PletelYihC radial-inflow tu rbine shown hematit. . it c~n pc done e.

This is discussed R.. In this case. as shown in Figure 24. However. the I area alone shown as A in Figure 23 will not necessarily determine the alllount of gas 1low into the turbine. On most turbochargers.5 will cause the turbocharger to run faster and give it more boost. if he wants it to run faster. On the other hand. This is done on large axial-flow turbines by running a separate I stack from each cylinder to the turbine I nozzle. their turbine housing sizes are not comparable to those of AiResearch or R<ljay. he knows a turbine housing with an AIR of . area A divided by R---the distance from the cen- ter of the turbine wheel to the centroid j of area A-will determine the flow of the gas for a given turbine wheel. This is not practical on a radial- inflow turbine so housings are divided in 0 180 increments as shown in Figure 25. further in the chapter on sizing and match- ing and also in the chapter on kits and where to buy them. If A is increased. A must be increased to retain the same AIR Ratio. 1 This makes some improvement at very . Figure turbine This is important to the turbine designer but not to the user sin<. The same is true with area alone in the Schwitzer vaneless turbine housing or any turbocharger with a multi-vaned nozzle. Schwitzer uses area A only and because of this. Not all turbocharger manu- facturers use the A/R method of sizing turbine housings. the turbine will slow down in the same manner as one with a multi·vane nozzle. Nozzle area is measured a little differ- 1 ently when the single opening or vaneless turbine housing is used.7 and he wants to run his turbocharger slower. wiU further reduce the speed and therefore the compressor boost. If a housing is used with a larger j R. he knows that a turbine housing designed to fit this sume turbine wheel with an AIR of . changing the turbine housing is a simple task involving a few bolts or a V-band damp.::e the variation in R from housing to housing are usually insignificant. The thing that is important to the user is if he has a turbodIarger with a turbine housing AIR of .9 will definitely cause his turbine R turbocharger to run slower.6 or . 19 • . Turbine designers try to use the pulse energy of gases coming from the individual cylinders to increase the boost pressure at very low speeds. This r<ltio or area is usually cast or stamped into the turbine housing by the manufacturer.

/ __ .Jnd 3.. YelHs ago.:urved or exducer portion was cast from a material su.mce to corro· sion from sea water than oth er type:..:umc avail- able:lt almust the same ..:\l!npressor-impelkr vlHiations Ihan turbine-wheel vllriatiul1s.292. it is CU!llIl)()n for ~ givl!n turbucharger m\ldel to hllve many mure o....495 divide the turbine huusillg axially. differenl con- tours are machined 011 the wheels.364 .. 1\1ost turbine housings are now m~ llu fac­ tured from this male rial. Connor's 3.:k type face car or ~n airplane.:osl:ls gray iron.tip height and the inducer diameter so an impeller may be identified even if the part number has been obliterated.383. Because the turbine is nOI as sensitive to !low changes as IIlI! c\)lllpressor... Compressor maps usually specify both (he blade.092. mos) turbine housinj?f were m:lde frolll dudile type Ni·Resist l ) cast • iron which contained somewhere between 20% and 30% nickel. Figure ~7 shows three different contours on both turhine llild compressor.O1ll- pressor-impeller c~slillgs for more than one flow size turbocharger. COMPRESSOR IMPELLER l Some of the earlier automotive-type turbine wheels were made by machining the blades from solid forgings..:hnrger ~ or Ihose designed for inler111i\lcnt use on passenger Figure :2J7-Contour relationship for different flo ws ':UfS.. :lIld D. II.. of cast iron.. <lnd the .. Figure 26.r--~---:::.270. Fur many years turbine housings for Ihis type applkation were made frum a c~st iron similar to [II~I used in exhaust FLOW manifolds of automobiles and diesel /"'"'"" FLOW engines.:=--------lFigUre 25-180° divided turbine low engine speeds but the gas does have housing a tendency to reverse its flow due to cen- trifugal force when there is no high-pres- sure pulse in the housing... It is :1150 recomnH!nded for marine usc because it has beller resiSI.. The high cost of nickel has made it almost prohibitive to usc Ni_ Resist IR ) in diesel·engine turbo. Turbine 110usings designed by John Cazier P:ltents 3. FLOW bUI :lbout 1960 ductile iron be. This material worked fuirly we!! .:h us Haslelloy(RI B and welded 20 . as on a tra. Ductile iron not INDUCER only machines well but it can bc welded DIAMETER more re~dily than gray iron. This prevents the gas pulses from reversing :md is used 011 engines where high torque is desired al low engine speed . I I is re':Ollllllended where Ihe engine is going to rUIl continuo ously at extremely high temperature. To use both turbine-wheel :Jnd (.

This method Jorkcd well but quality control was a pToplem because it was difficult to Figure 28A-Friction welding detCTlllill whether the bnll:e was satisfac- J tory until. process t~kes only a few secnnds. them or they have a bad rub on a housing material. hellt soakback from the wheel is turned off. or bolt or valve goes through Babbitt was frequently used as II bearing shaft is h~ld in a vise and simultaneously. WiLh the floating. The rough·turned untilll nut. and the SJry turbine to hold the whole thing IOgether. from full load . to the turpine wheel.gas welding. The lutest 7l3C (Rl seem to be most popular. It was a Ito little laiC be finding out. Many years ago. This would haJc been done earlier but materials suitable for high stress at the temperatures ellcounte~ed wefe not available at reason· able prker until about 1955. T urbochargers now use either 1I1umi- tremendous heat generated in both the Although bearing ltousings come in many Hum or bronze bellrings and heat soakback shaft 3nlthe turbine wheel weld them shapes and sizes. and it is not necessary to have jpurnal hilrdness in the range of RockwcV C60. H1the braze was fJulIY. This whole The bearing housing is kind of a neces· evil betweenlhe compressor and the was a water jacket in the vicinity. worked ut for ~ given wheel <lnu shaft.9 DL. resisla1ll:e weld· alloys such as GMR 235 (RI and Inco bearings in the bore ~Jld an oil seal at ing and e edrun·bcam welding. The firkl change was to cast the turbine wheel and exducer as a single unit. they are basically all is not critical. the shaft is jammed turbine wheel was enough 10 mel t the against a flub on Ihe center of the turbine BEARING HOUSING Babbitt from the bearings unless there wheel as shown in Figure 28. Stellite 31 (Rl and Stellite 51 (Rl but nickel·based super 21 . They have ~ bearing or almost eliminated. Since h<lt time. several very satisf~dory bonding prOl:esses have peen devel oped. Shafts cast integral with the turbine wheel have a hardness of about R?ckwell C35 and do not seem to wear ou~ any faster than those with harder jdurnals. the turbocharger was run on an engine. Anot1!er method in current use is to cast the lhaf! and turbine whee! in one piece. Once the process time is about the same. it was necessary 10 have extremely hard journals on the turbine shaft to ~eep them from wearing out quickly. These each end. Water jackets have been together olidly. The n~xt step was to braze the turbine wheel to the s!wft rather than bolt it. If the engine was shut down as the motor wllidl rotah::s Ihe turbine due !o a bearing failurc.type bearings • used on today's turbochargers. there is almost nb contact between the bearings lllld the journals. and i! good weld is a~hieved every time. such as [jerl. the repe1wbility is excellent. In the early dJys when turbo· chargers were run on bushing~ pressed Figure 28B-Sectio n throu gh shaft friction ·welded to turbine wheel inlo the housing. bearing hous· method i friction welding the turPine alloys will [lot corrode or melt even under ings had internal water passages to keep wheel is iltached to a heavy flywheel and extreme conditions and will usulilly l<lst the bell ring temperature down because rotated al a high speed. Seveml materials have been usef1 in the past for turbine wheels such as 19. This met!~od was expensive and time con- suming SOlbetter methods had to be evolved fqr mass production . The turbine cxduccr assembly tas then bolted to the shaft.

e between the be:lring and be<Hing housing and the bell ring and the journal is about the same. it is (WI unly imp~lrt:rnt Il) have a mu. Pressurized oil enters the oil inlet and tlows over and through the bearings. Oill!llters till' turbocharger frvlll the Figure 30. The piston 22 . the gas pres· ~lIre bellind the turbine wheel and thai behind lite compressor impeller is much greater than the presslirc inside Ihe bear· ing huusing. .md the bearing is pr3clically eliminated.1fging Ihe cngine. This piston ring fits snugly in the be ~ ring huusing and does nOI rot3!e. i. it tlows by gr:lVlty to tlte bottom of the be<.lt :Ihuut 30 11) SO poumls pressure. Thus. But the bearing hllS a slight bit of give due 10 the oil cushion. sume ul" the oil also enlers tlie thrust bearing where it is duded tu the twu tilrusl surf:Jces tu lubrio.unp out vibration c~used by imbalance ill the turbine Tolor. if it were great enough. Oil flowing between the bearing and the bearing housing tends to d.:harger with 110 pressure . the life of the turbod13rger is COil· siderablyexlcnded. superdl<. Arter it i~ mixed up with air III passing through the bearings. the L"r()s~·sel·tion of dll Figu re 29-Cartridge assembly cross section Ai Rese<. would cause the jour· n:. These componen ts are usually rererred to 3S a cartridge or cart· ridge (Jsj'emb~)'. Figure 29 shows 3 turbocharger cross· section without the compressor or turbine housing in place.:d by a hose to the cranko.lin line thall oil-inlet line but also to be Slire this drain line ha~ nu kinks or traps.md looks like dirty whipped creaill. Whcn the turbucharger is doing irs job.3use pressllre in the turbine hOllsing is always positive.. In Figure 30. Seals mllst be pl:Jccd between the bea ring housing and lite other two housings..c.:h :1 larger nil-dr<..11 10 rub 011 the bearing. This is relatively easy un t he lurbine elld in spi te of the higher tempera· tures encuuntered bC".l rch T04 Turbo.Cross section of T04 tu rbocharger engine:.:harger. T his subjed is nlVerrd ill detail in the lubricatiun chapter. For this reaSOll. it !lows fro m the turbo.lring and Ihe thrust shuulders.:ate tile Span: b\!lween the Ihrust be<..lring housing where it is ':llrrio. This imbalance. This is norma\ly done by lIsing . The main job is to kcep hut gases ou t of the bearing hOUSing. Arter the oil has passed through the bcaring.:asc uf the cilgine. The dearam.md contact betwecn the j uurna l . Figure 31.( piston ring in 3 grouve ~t the tur· bine en d of the sh'lft.

Figure 3:! . T hi wurks fairly well 011 . it is possible to have almust "~ :----'.Mechanical face seal L~~~~~~='.:::. SPRING closed .J diesel engine w lere Ihe cOlllpressor-i n lake V. HOUStNG cngine al)d dues . COMPRE SSOR gJses tMPE LLE R .ulll- pressor 1I1pclier. Ihe compr. huusing. On:J diesel engine:lt alll' or :!I very low puwer. WtTH SLI NGER ing..lile hearing.SEAL \.. il is ery difficult 10 prevent it frum being in Itc area uf Iltc l'umpressor cud Figure 33. PI STO N RI NG TURBIN E TURBINE WH EEL WHEE L '~ " .ring se al seal.~ end.i '\ total Val' Hill) when the engine is running al high seed and Ihe IhrOllle is suddenly \~ '.-~~~~~~ 23 .:en tri· . MATING R I NG rug:J! rU~I JP bltill illlO Ihe ~lingcr whidl SHAFT attempt lu prevent o il from read)ing the seal. Because lite uil PUMP HOLES TH COll A R wel s :111 tl'1C sllrbces in the bearing huus.. H o~vcver.Jpc. will CllI."h""'\~ '---~ l'ompres~l()r. J gasuline engine is pl3ced upst re:llll of the <.JCUUIll \s in the order uf 3 few ino. ben a lillie oillcabge into 111<' COl11pres.)b ur prcvcnling Ihe hUI fru!~ cnlering. T he sial al the compressor end is a slightly dlllcrcnt pruhlem.. ~vcn il" il is in guod sh.tll o.e a slight VKlIUl11 hellimJ the ._ ..J fairly guud jub. T his '0' RING seal has J piston ring . The l'umpressor end seal in Figuf9 33 is designed fur u~e UI1 ..Compressor-end piston .. A piston-ring type seal is not \ satisfact1 ry under Ihese conditions and IMPELLER Figure 34.Piston-rlng·seal detail Figure 32.or hOllsing m:lkes tllings pretty IllCSSY ill a hurry. when 3 <.'slur will be prudllcing practically n.J diesel ..J '/ 'I .. lIere t he hoi gas is preven cd rrolll cnlering the be:Jring f!ol!sing fry :J se ries uf dams.' e::.hargers usc:! l:Jhyrinlh-lypc sc:J1 on II c lurbi!ll. This vanillin will tend BE ARIN G PISTON 10 slIo.~ BEARING BEARING HOUSIN G BE A RIN G HOUSI NG Fi gure 3 ..:k uil frum the heuring 11I1II~ing mlu SC REW the cumpressur hOllsing..:arburelor fur.o:::.. Je)U'RNAC BEARING Some lur o.:hes mer- cury.) bouSI Prl'ssure drop through the :lir dC:lIla.labyrinth-type seal ring is Jbn :! very dus(' III bel ween Ihc IWU w:!I1~ of Illc pislun ring gruuvc Jnd SEAL THRU ST docs J gu~)d j.Jlld a sm .

Because the bear- where rlow h..... This rol3tion causes two thickness.Jring-housing wear.J hi h vaCtllllll_ Figurc 35_ As len Ii oiled e<lrlier in this chapter. will act ubserv d 01\ ...llions caused by rotor irnbalilnce.---jFigure 36-Floating bearing QILSUPPLY tiveliSP. re. housing. introduced..ritiC.1 lest stand . the vibration level dropped Ways have been devised 10 prevent this.ll! thei r lurboduJrgers with se.. exami.:rfly HOuStNG duwnSrrca111 of the (..000 oil whi).! with tile piston-ring type seal for ~11 BUTTERFLY appli..1 great job o f damp.ifka!ly designed for usc un g.bOl:h3rgcrs designed to be used wilh the carburetor upstream of the COJJl - pressor lIsulllly have a lTll'Cil:Hlkal f:Jcc seal siI1lil~ 1 to lhat .!] 1l1. it will suddenly (. has occ Irred for any length of lime. If this should OC(.Jfl. stand equipped with a vib ration meter. OR BUTTERFL Y Tu.JS oil whir! or S:lllle clearance on the outside o f the bear.. known. In addition..058. llo.Jting bearings have about the ing is rotating ilt approximately half thc ullstab e condition.:ilOSCIl CARBURETOR to sl..Uf.as lline cngmcs.omprcssor as llsed on the Furd-powcred race Glrs_ Whcn pro- perly 001l11ecled to the carburetor butler- ny _ thj' sec()nd bliltcrny prevcnts the compr 'ssor IlUllSiug irom being subjected to.willie k large quantities of oil into the ...0002-inch peak-to..:c sc.000 where arollnd the natum! flequency of Without pHlling any spedal grooves in RPM. When turbochargers surface of the bearing lIlay be enough tu one six ecntlt inch . it will rotate:J1 about 50.. This is often referred to as the the be.1 SOmCltJ1CS :lppcur to move ~s IllUC11 as the cri tical speed. thereby minimizing the pump- ferent t-ndS of grooves and wedges to kept from l)loving axially either by a ing actioll.. holes in this area help sta ilize the condnioll :lIld prevent snap ring or a shoulder in the bearing. no oil nals and tht" bearing may only be three . In spite of the fact the bearing may the Sh. wlli.Jlf the shaft 'peeu.lring. In CaterpillartR! Pate nt 3. only h:lve il wall thickness of about 1/8 criticlll speed.hown in Figure 34.787 24 .:omes so ing vibr. usually occurs at a speed some.-. Schwitzer has . As mcntioned eJrlicr in this be. The Mea of the bearing where the oil far mor' than was allowed by Lhe clearance_ Because these bearings are loose in the enlers has a thinner wall than Ihe rest of Be:Hings were designed with many dif. inclt..----.. The motion heo.Jh 01 this type wllilc AiResearch uSllall~ uses IllC(halikal fa<. It will work SECONDARY BU TTERFLY vent vacuum at compressor inlet as Ion JS the carburetor is downstre3I1l ALWAYS SLIGHTL Y MORE CLOSED THAN CARBURE T - of IhelClll1lprCssor. shaft speed.Jtively large compared to the wall oil whi from occurring_ Nothing worked hOllsing bore...)llI of the engine. When Iloilting beurings were llill and rapid fa ilure wilt occur. it doeS.indicating the were changed to about.: . a cross-section of show s vere wear on both .lls only on • turb()~hargcr~ spct..:oll1lllcnt!s J second bull. nation f the bearing :lnd journals will so low thut the limits of acceptability as shown in Figure 37.000 RPM becumJ a blur due to the violent excur· is pradically no difference ill the vibration the pressure differential between the sion of It he center of the shaft.. O!l~·e this nOfllWI. the fir I ::llllOlliotive-type turbochargers SHAFT JOuRNAL g had bClHlllgS which were pressed into tile beariJllhOUSing in llie sanl(" 11lil 11 ncr <IS a low-sp cd busllillg. Ihe centcr of the shaft starts to nwvc in its own orbil in the same direc- tion 0lrolation as the shaft bulal sume. . the Schwitzer Model 3LD Turbocharger. the engine.:er TlIroochurger for automo. adopted.j-I.. cente r r the shaft was actually moving peak displucemellt. Rajay has dwscn tu make:. Cfllnc Clms. Th is is impossihle with fixed bearings were run on a test overcome the oil prl!SSllrC ilpplied from beC::lUS the dearan. Ii OilS.. holes through the bearing walls used violent that if the end of the flltor can be 11 is almost impussible to determinc the to supp ly oil to its inner su rface. they arc free to rotate and <Ire the bearing.. ure rel. Figure 36_ RPM when the ro tor is turning at 100.. ings as they do 011 thc inside.onsidered will fl ow through the bearing to the jour- or four thousulIdtlts of illl illch..lrkets the S. i ..11 spe\!d of the rotor because there as a cen trifugal pump.001 inch displacement wus .hwill. This type ufbearing becom s unstable when used with a lightly- RETAIN tNG RtNG l oad~d high-speed sh. This chapter...e between Ihe jom. At 50.. It will level of the turbocharger when runn ing at inner surfuce of Ihe bearing and the outer . At extremely high s*eds.. making it a ve ry inefficient very we I until noating bearings were problems~ possible oil starvation and pump. Figure 35-Secondary butterfly to pre- intak manif..

Wlw~1 2 locknu.~H & Turb'''~ Nhrel " Au"mhly "" I ". 6u.hly St.."" R. 6 Insert SI..-" O .h T_PI. A.lt" s... N.) 9 TIr"".:.! B '0" R'rIg U" ..~ 8u". .Crou section of Schwitzer 3LD turbocharger 25 .n9 2J loci< W.. 0. PARTS LIST I' . mll T.' " E\l=J""q ". J Co"'Pt~"'" Cov~r •5 Fhn'le r Sleeve P."'J (tnSfr..II".w"."lI "" Th.'9 Kou"n" A'oem!>lv 'r CI"mp lTuu""pl " Afld Nu.sor Par . ."O" Arng .p A.. I Ien"..".. Hoo.lrol.nq o.''1 P"I"" R. 10 Figure 37. N~"'" of Compo-e.

Rilj.: shaft and the t'nds of \ \ r}b I''' . An lther design feature worth men· tiOilin is some l1I<lnuf<lcturers press or shrink the compressor impeller on the tend to loosen during operation."-. the S. J ~. Some bearing hOIlSi gs llsing full.. 26 .. R.-. HOUS ING thrust surface. This type bearin' works very well in an aluminum bearin housing.Jn be used ror a \ . Oil which passes through the bl:JTin g lhen passes between Ihe shoul ers on til. The flange prevenh the b ilring rrom rotating . but a turbocharger \ /' ~. il is POS~ible 10 opemle turbuchargers of this t pc with very little oil pressure. Bonneville Salt F[ats Speed the turbocharger rotates counter-clockwise hand nuts must be assembled with the Trials for many YC(lrs.noating bearings h<lve been lade frolllll\uminuill but they were equip )cd with a hardened steel sleeve in the b Ire. Bernson attacked the problem in a diffe ent way.-. SHAFT FLOATING BEARING This ends to increase the oil pressure as the oil is ala led from the oil-supply hole to the h Ie in the bearing.~~c~~~.C ... Figure 38.E.. ~ r the baring 10 lubricate the thrust bearings_ Be1ause the bearing does IIOt rotale.IY l'a lenI3. Extrc lcly low oil pressllfe is not a re. Figure 39. Tile cost of man\lf~durillg and aSSClliblillg :1 steel sleeve makes the use of an al lllinu1ll be:lring housing prohihitive. II is k 'pt rrol1l rotating by pinning ~ flang 011 Ihe end of the be~rlllg or IIlakh· ing tli fbnge tll an irregularly . a turbo· turbo harger. The turbo still works fine but the tend I tighten during operation or the Smull turbochargers are all basicully. seal p ate.A. The oil passage which sup- plies ~he bearing h~s a wedge-shaped groove. so ~Il the ullils ~'ere \Hade in this manner. Cluck· Jack Lufkin has run turbo. '~" -1 ~'..nillgs first <':dlllC mla geneT 1 use in turbochargers.as it does not necd (l hard Sfrrace 011 the bore or the bear- ing ho sing.043.:Lr\:~'. only last ten seconds ._ . rugged devices and when treated charger which is not trealed properly may docb ise rotation. !r the turbocharger has a simple..lIld also prevents il rroll moving 'D::iaity. On the other hand. it was "_""d-__ BEAR ING HOUSING assullfd they had \0 rolall'.. the unit..:olll· & i ~dJ 3~SHAFT mendll procedure. will last as long as the engine . Because oil fl wing ~1[ol1lld Ille out side of the bear- ing d( es tile dlltnpinp. n right · /lUI very tight even to the point of charger for six ye<lrs without disassembling hnnd ut on the compressor impeller wiJ! stretching the shaft.. WI ell nUlIting bc./ BEARING which will operate under adverse condi· tions I as certain advantages.:hllrged cars at shaft while uthers prefer (l looser fit....-. [I' wise-rot~tioll turbodlilrgers with right.... car was retired... rather than the rota· lion (r the bearing.. a right-hand nut wi!! properly. -----.. Ihe semi·noaling Figure 38-Bernson patent be. The w(lll thickness \ SNAP RING ( OIL SUPPL Y at the end or the be(lring C.:k t in the bearing h()(lsillg or the oil- Figure 39-Semj·floating bearing r . used the same turbo- viewc9 fWIll the compressor end.shaped po.636 (Hugh Mach nes) is IIsed by SOI1)": IlHlllufadurers. Tir other problem-bearing-housing wear Ut' to the rutaling bearing is WEDGE SHAPE OIL SUPP LY parti: Ily solved by making the bearing GROOVE housi g from cast iron.T....lrii g.

any automobile or motor. followed by. "AI what. THE II one) the firs! questions usually engine will stand." 1he next question is usually.:harge my to get boost?" The answer here often insta!1ation is made. "Can r turbo<." And this one is usually llble units. "Yes. There isn'. built today which cannot be turbocharged reganlJess /of the make or age of the ever speed you wall/''' beyond its physical t:apabllities. all engine engine?" the answer is. of course. but results will depend on how asked by'Jperson interested in doing lur. startles the unknowledgeable. "At what speed will r start S!fUtlg the engine is and how well the bochargink is. The fact is. Turbo- engine. psiS and t}IIS could be iI/creased witllOur 27 . chargers have already been staged to pro- "How muph power can r get from it?" cycle engine from about 30 CID (sOOec) duce intake-manifold pressures above 100 The answ r to this one-"As much as the can be turbocharged with presently avail.

" an H. P. 4~"". Corvairs are especially easy to turbocharge because stock and special equip· ment is readily available. boost pressure from ex· ""d.>0 Reeves CaUaway's A/SR SCCA road racer. Rajay turbo is fed by a Crown. Corvalr engine hotrodding and chassis modifications are detailed in " Ho w to Hotrod Corvair Engines. The Alex Dearborn " Deserter" dune·buggy chassis is powered by a tu rbocharged Corvair engine with a Porsche 911 cooling fan . :1. Rajay turbocharged a 1971 Vega to interest Vega owners in performance improvement Datsun 510 wi th Rajay turbo and LPG 28 .adapted Weber 45DCOE carburetor with Crown water injection."bl preset levels. Book .

d Matching. "The octa ne require.'.'. This has all dauged recently bcc. ment. il is 1101 necessary 10 narrow Ihe choice down 10 one or '\Vo models. charged flathead engine compared to an each pound of boost from the turbo. Because any engine can be turbocharged. did. although it is certainly easier to turbocharge an engine where a bolt-on type kit is available. and therefore.md exhaust Illanifolds on the same side of Who says you can't turbocharge a Buick straight eight? Charles Seabrook of Seabrook. if an engine with advent of the high-compressioll overhe:Jd. A few years ago fours and sixes were mure desirable than the eights from a cost viewpoint. Those with the intake . Most of Illese engines had crank· because turbochargers tend to be reqUIre Water IIljectlOn. 29 . because they usually had a low-compression ratio while the eights all nus t irwariably had high-compression ratios up to 10: I. the capabilities of existing turbochargers. ." For example. When turbochargill8 an opposed or V engine. without any major modification is other hand. on the rule of thumb says. shafts with only onc main bearing for eq ualizers Wilh respect to the breathing 8"'"1' just 'boot a" pwdoction ability of the engine . Flathead engines disappeared with the overhead-valve engine of the same displace.0. For sdmcone lurbocharging an cllgine for the first time... The effect of turbochargers 011 engine emissions is covered in Chapter 19. Wher~ and when maximum boost is achieved is covered jl) Ihe chapter On Sizing an. it will require 9B·oclane volume of the combustion chamber did about the same horsepower per cubic inch to ru n with eight pou nd s of boost and no not lend itself to very high compression with the same amount of boost pressure delo~latiqn. charger. arc nOI power wh ich could be gained easily with low compression ratios. When engines had high compression r:Jtios the y were designed to run well on 100- oc tane fuel.ch things as drag racing and/or track racing. A ~I~thi~g above th is rnay ratios.11d must be modi- fied for ~. This should be done after it is decided what the use of the vehicle i!\80ing 10 be and how much time and money is to be invested. further. exceedi"..rusc a low compression ratio is aile of the ways the engine lll11nU- faclllrers h:Jve reduced emissions. It would not be surprising if the 8: I compression rat io runs well on 90. the choice of recommended for a big horsepower the addition o f a turbocharger. the head simplify the installation still . This limited the amount of engines :Jvailable in the mid-70's have every two throws.probably because the ext ra flathead engines were able to produce octane gasoline. valve engines. However. there's:l problem in ducting half of the exhaust gases to the otlter side of the engine. an in-line four-cylinder or six-cylinder engine preSClllS the least problems.. Most kits arc designed Ifor street usc . the kit Illay 901 be designed to produce maxi- mum horsepower at the speed you want for your ~pp1icatioJ\. Must V-6 Engines aTe 100 small 10 consider the usc or two turbo- chargers but two small or mediunHype turbochargers work very well 011 a V-B. to see the results of a turbo- ment of an engine goes up one point with unlimited. It would be interesting. . Ak Miller's engines which can be highly turbocharged increase.

Thett if the engine drops Bill Aeiste says the perfor'Tlance of his to 3.. pre·ignition will oc(. Slip· ]XIge will get worse rather than bettcr with time until the transmission will nOI even transmit the engine torque. The problem anothr len ponies..:hanislI1 10 engine was no problem..hargjll~ ~ir~ooled engines is keeping the ye. and the manual transmission ably more popular than others bec~use or ligh 10 provide a warning before pre· doesn't seem to care one way or Ihe other.1 bad results.lrs 01 developmenl and seem 10 stand mission is capable of handling the exira headS1'OOJ.. cooled.1(. These are frequently designed to Small·block Fords.ause line to the intake manifold. Thc VW engine t<Jkcs vcry well tv llf the detrimental clTec! on the apex se.111<.:rease shaft speed.: larging and a 100% power ino. Modern three· . engine will! gears and bearings strong I'II enough to put up with considerably Illore horsepower.tTe liqllid· case. the shifting mecha· nism. one fue l injected and then the full roote with a tail. Corvair Spyders had such Automatic transmissions are anolhcr can stand a lot more overload than others.. Anyone or perhaps all may is p(lS~ ble with no other engine modi· TRANSM ISS IONS have to be modified when Ihe engine is fkatiu IS. il can probably be turbo· sc.ln sometimes be overcome by turbo~harger .cept the torque of the nalUrally·aspirated V·8's are all popular.'... turbodlilrged engine requires differenl charged.'tll)]CU engine is nor mudl uf a prob.1rged.m.t1ld CJuses adjusting the front height for the lighter ..ils.000... marked.)1 leasl scven pOlmds boost great and he gets 21 MPG over the road. lflhe heJds are allowed 10 up well under the increased torque pro. I t is ~dvisable \0 use a hcad·lem..:hargcr will still be 292 CID Chevy powered Toronado is pruuucing. however. But as with hopping up naturally· pcratu e indicator on a lurbo. The lurbo. will de troy the enginc in a lIIatter of doesn't take long to lind OUT that the If it runs. In addi tion. if possible... the is usually controlled by Ihe mcdmlical liqUid. A symp l ~ml of this problem occurs during a full·throttle a('. Chevys and Chrysler The Wankell:ngine has been turbo· . power. II sive setup wilh outstanding performance.ce/eration where slippage occurs at each gear change. 30 . it is possible to h"ve a very respon· gel to hot... where tlte turque delivered before :mu afler the shift is equal. & do things it was 1101 designed to do..I. the car will suddenl y slow down while the engine will speed up.lIIcously... ddonaliol1 is to be avoided bCl.tys have enough surface area to work without slipping when extra torque is 3vailable al the shift points. triHlsmission comhination is designed 10 shirt. This c..'o.lt road load. stretched it to 1800cc's and is now offering it in three stages throttle shift becomes a real boot ill the of tune : One with dual 44mm Solexes. With the dual Solexes they claim 145 HP. Assume the engine has revved up tu say 4. the shift Iwint IS almost IInperceptible. However. When aTld how the Irittlsmi~ion shifts ("hl osing belwcl'll an air-cooled and a charged with good .. Fuel injection runs it up about changing the shift points.ur which dlll. On a super highway at cruising speed.. some become consider· COOledjcngine with some kind of a bUller engine. ~ .500 PRM befure the sh ift attd the lurbochargcr is pUlling nut seven puumls boost pressure. the transl1t1ssion shif"1tng tlle. is <I different slory. which was o riginally an optional engine the and brake b:111US. really produces a 101 of torque . the transmission has a governor to sense turbo.... If these dtanges arc done Th bl~l'st singlc problem with turbo· tr"n~missillns have resulted from many by a transmissinn expert. but they won't say what they get out of the turbocharged unit . here is the nattlrally·aspimted engine/ Bob Dunham photo. and if the Irans· (.internal clutches and brake bands- do not alw.:ond ..lnd tour·speed manual turbudl..ed by a turbocharged engine.:h'Hged air· shift points than the naturaIlY·<Jspirated aspirated engines. In this linkage to the carburetor and a V'Jcuum lem be 'allse most CIl)tincs . the parts are available and some engines igllllio occurs. tIle IUrbo.:harged ensltle. story. a warn ng device. One of the ways to prevent Ihis is to tighten up the clutches cam. sallle as with rccip({)~aring engines. in sla nl :. This bunst at low RPM Because the front end has torsion bars.H.. after which a full · c. When this is dono:.

r.97 seconds for the quarter mile at terminal speed of 175 MPH.500 RPM. \ Mt NO '' ' i."d Steve Ho99 fielded this rad ical gas dragster during 1974-75.500 HP at 7. Engine is equipped with 10. 31 . Car ran best e lapsed time of 7 .5 c. Art Nolte of Scottsdale Automotive was testing this 465 CID big-block Chevrolet with alcohol fuel as we went to press. Iniection is by Crower. pis- tons. FOUT Ai- Research turbos are used. 302 CID smaU-block Chevrolet w ith two AiResea rch turbos produced HP on gasoline. Power development was just getting started with 1.

but it is important injec tion to select the unit with the correct com· pressor flow size for the engine.4 THE TABLE I I TURBOCHARGER APPLICATIONS Engimt Speed Range Duration of Ma)(imum Boost Category For Max imum Torque Power Burst Pressure psi Fuel S reet machine As ureal as possible 10 seconds ma xi mlJm 10 Gasuli"" or Propan e Tuck or bUI Medium to hIgh Continuous 10 Sort fis hing HIgh Continuous b " R ad racer As grea t as poss. Patent No. v F rm tractor. as explained in this chapter. D lIing contest Medium 10 high 2 minu tes 40 DieS1l1 he was Vice President and Chief Engi. Echlin Co. 3941437. 32 . He subsequently o ag-racing joined Rajay Industries as Chief Engi. As this book went to press. These tiny 14·pound units can easi ly double the HP III S ME AS II ABOVE 30 Ga$olil\o with water-alCOhol output of an e ngine . neer of Roto-Master.course Macinnes directed the design efforts at racing boat High ContinuouS 45 TRW where this line of turbochargers was originally created. . Match- ing the turbine housing to the engine is IV 0 a l track . Ltng. High 45 b " neer where he developed the Rajay Die·Cast Bearing Housing. Medium to high Almost continUOUS 45 M~thanol the other essential to get good perfor- mance. " some long 20 Gasoline or Prop_me D a9 racer Medium to high 10 seconds maximum 20 S ort -courSI! r cing boat Hig h Off and on but almost continuous 20 D a9 racing b . 10 >cconds maximum 20 Author Macinnes holds a Rajay turbo- charger for automotive use. This firm manufactures piling contest Medium 10 high 2 minutes 110 Diesel replacement turbochargers and parts.ble Some short. a subsidiary of VI F rrn tractor.

changing Cnme Cams suggests that turbocharged Figures 40 and 4 1 have been included so John Goddard's 192B B·liter Bentley re- sides in a 3. How To Select and Illstoll Turbo. Don Hubbard of in choosing the compressor for the engine. it is apparent from engine speed dependent on the applica- good results. Using tc correct turbocharger on an the turbine nozzle will not help. but this is the only turbocharged one. It jJst isn't so. it will probably not be a good method.5·titer chassis. Irs at the end of this chapter. Antique engines are not ordinarily selected for tutbocharg- ing because components are not capable of handling high HP outputs. 33 .speed operat ing range.md takes match for a 400 CID Engine at 4. A look at any of the closest size ava ilable. Therefore. it is range necessary for various applications of fhe tIlrbochargcr iI/creases Ille pressure covered in detail in the next few pages and the power-burst duration . Turbucharger simila r to that in the previous book but speed selected. presented in a manner which should make manifold pressure :He the key facto rs nozzle siz¢ but if the compressor is not it easier to follow. makh for a 200 elD Engine at 4. sized corr~c!ly to the engine. pick the r<lcing machine.000 tion of turbochargers to be used on most into account whether the engine is to be RPM. it wi~l work on an engi ne twice as If your engine is not listed.000 don't feel confident in doing it by this Table II is very useful in matching the RPM. I've included a selec.you'll find it will important when chOOsing the turbine- compressor maps in the appendix of this be a good match. This information is large. Two Ai- Research turbos with seals on the com· pressor side suck fuel from SU carbu· retors. The engine ratio ratli fT thall the flow. plus the required intake- speed is varied by changing Ihe turbine. and increasillg /fIe . engines be classified by application engine crJates more power than by any cess was described in my earlier H. This pro. "Blower Bentleys" are famous. nozzle size or deciding whether or not book will show you the turbocharger For the sake of those willing to go to use a waste gate or other controls. Book . P.~peed size turbocharger for their engine . If a turbocharger is a good talking to many hot·rodders that they tion as shown in Table II. However. maximum torque and horsepower at an charger on lln engine does not guarantee chargers. SOlve people have the notion that of the popular engines for different run ~t steady power 3S in an offshore- by funning the turbocharger twice as applications. because the user will want to achieve other me~ns. correc t compressor 10 Ule engine . putting any turho. racing boat or on·and-off as in a road- fast. However. speed lines :lrC relatively horizontal in the through the process of choosing the right Table II points out the engine.

26 pressure ratio.::: .I 1J./ ~ 1.• this engine with 332 CFM each at 2. where it 34 . Assum ing the engine ENGI NE o<P'l.0 ' . Figure 41 is Compressor Density R~ti () vs.' 2.. < ./ : pressor efficiency is to be avoided. The density ratio is 1. Ellicitncv only these twu lines are shown on the cha rI. ~ .0 2. star! at 350 CID as shown on the doned line and draw a line vertically to intersect the 5. t approxim~tely I.2. In this case.. See text. Comp.2 : 2. draw a horilOn· tal line left to intersect the volume·fl ow scale. Figure 4 3. From this point.Density ratio 'IS . psia (Appendix pilge 173).r-. -. Prl$sure Ratio for Air chargers avnilab le tuday will be between . Any point falling below 60% com· . Figure 42 . draw n hori7.62..M(NT _ CUIIIC INCHU is to be run . Looking V : at the Rajay Model 300E Map. V.. running on gasoline with a 7: I compression ratio at 18 psi boost. -.000 PIUI L On Figure 40.26 pres- .Naturally·aspirated volume flow for 4-cycle engines. we sce this point is off to the right of the " 1. PI'essure Ratio for Air. " /' efficiency lines.u t is necessnry to determine the amount of air entering the compressor.3 + 18 = 2.• Q .' ' . This chart has been compensated for a volumetric efficiency of 80%. it is firs t necessary Il) cOllvert boost pressure • iOO to pressure ratio.0 .:.--. Draw . the n<lturaIlY-<lspirated volume- now chart where we obtained 4 I 0 CFM.. if two turbochargers were used on 1..3 Most of the running dune un turb u· I Comprenor Density Ratio ¥s.0nlOll li ne 10 • /' .t.OOO-feet Figure 40.3 350 CID engine at 5000 RPM. pressure ratio 14...26 pressure ratio.C(.. (HGIN( DI5~l"'c(M~NT _ LITERS volume now at the peak cond itions may . Bec~use the turbo- ch~rger compressor squeezes· the air down considerably from nmbient conditions. .7 the difference and bring it up to about 65%. How· ever.2 : 1l1np. It is desired to meet these conditions al r 5.00()' RPM line. Going back to "~ 1.• . To use the chart. this point looks very good PRESSURE RATIO on Rajay 300F map . . -.I vertical line from 2. Dotted line is for a altitude where the ambient pressure is 14.62 density ratio 10 ge t I . • be calculated with the least effort. this ch. 2.coillpressor maps ~re based on inlet nmd itions. . a good round figure for ~verage engi nes.. In this case the engine will flow 4 10 CFM .' 2.K /' Figure 40. --. . 60% to 70% compressor effic iency. and 2.26 Figu re 41 . the pressure rJl io is cumputed: Ambient Pressure + Boos\ Pressure Ambient Pressure = Pressure RJlio 14. sure rOllio until il intersects one of the 2.• I 664 CFM at 2...•. /' /' the left to intersect the density-rntio scale. For example. All cen trifugnl.2 ..--. . we will spl il 1 " . ' . v/ I I llIultiply 410 by 1..nlo. start with 350 CID engine in Application II.2 . AI this point.

0 I ... on.'. 011 .~#6Q~OO 1/ k' V . "0'" 0 ••• CT .! 300 350 400 • 35 ..6 G'''CT"".Jf'*""ESSOA MAP RAJAY TUR80C 1201{ • .. '-' 5000 RPM & 18 PSI •t . ~COMPRESSOR MAP RAJAY fUREIOCHARGE:R 2 MODEL 300f 110..1/ 100 100 .'.. .. SURE RATIO (TWO TURBO."..... 2 4QOOO ." 150 /IIR fLOW· 200 2~O o/ve.eFt.26 PRES· 1I ..J' . 40 f< 1.00{) 350 CIO ENGINE AIR FLOW AT 5000 RPM & 2. ~ I.C . . l-•" SQOOO .4 I.00 Figure 43-Rajay Model 300F compressor map J.... " 0'11< .:.'_ '....... TO . ro 68 .••-•• 11<' """""" . .... it" .1/1 . • '5. "'~ .. 0 •• ...' ~ "'~ 'OK 'I" I! I. I...~ 0'. CHARGERS) "'''~ f-- ..n. -. 'u •• oe ... BOOST PRESSURE lOOK • ~ ... .-. t I u 0 ~ go I I.."( $" WHIlif!!.. ...... +. .. .....""". h( $ 70000 " o ....'c.. . IT ... 000' "" 350CIDENGINEAT 1i0K . · "'020 ...qa-- Figure 42-Rajay Model 300E compressor map •• J:. . ...

. . .f18 .0.- (.s. AIR Ft./M . S~/JWlr.. fl . i}t J j-90K .SChwitzer Model 4MD459 compressor map COMP.. ~ . II 'f ." .1/ 1 = -.. .I ' ").. 0.~'e~~":~':~T 5000 RPM 8....t.-• '.~ ~ • 36 .c~ 4L E-.901« 350 C IO ENG I NE AT 5000 RPM So 18 PSI 80K BOOST PRESSURE .- AIR . -' f-r .. .. . ~&ll'OK o t±_~~~ l 't.. . .0 IN/PIllER ..JIllllrLGJi' 'I1tfl! -I$9 4 . OW Figure 44-Schwitzer Model 4LF556 compressor map -. ... .'. . ~ .o is~'~. I . . C".~ • COM!'! £FF.~ Fl OW ~ CFM ...J .£1..~ ~- Typical 159 CID Offenhauser engine with AiResearch turbo- charger and waste gale.~ 1II/ 0 {J 70K sf f!. 18 PSI BOOST PRESSURE • ... I .. r .. $OK ~ I) ... .I ('OMA/MSSOP """P . Figure!4S. ~(J/{Jt&CT1tJN f. .:lr ...~ .. • . ..f~S$OIi' MAP . %'-. S(.} ~ .. ·60l)c ..I 407.--.. II '''''i:Jf•i ~ VI "'~Ii I"- .lttTt). •• 1\ 'ii.+ COI1l1lCntW M<TW".. r 'ill ..' .• £$1". .56 VIA N~O O/FFU-SEP .. . .' 8 • . ~ .

. t.Schw itzer Model 4 LE444 compressor map ..0 BOOST PRESSUR E 3 M BOOST PRESSURE (TWO T U RBOS) . . 4 OK " l...' 350CI D ENGINE A T 5000 RPM & 18 PSI 5000 RPM 8. ~ II '-A® 22 I~ ® . 18 PS I BOOST PRESSURE or. "'K '.1/ IU· 100 2.I<~ 9. Co/'.. C OMP £F.I< .CFM AIR FLOW ~ +CFM 37 . S( HW' TL ER VNJu' ES$ OlnUSER ~L£· ~4f 31".& l.• COIl. EFF (f) .71""< I I 1\ " .' t.."~ 1 .2 350 elD ENG INE AT 3..-1 COMPREf:SOR. .S l>o~ 6 Il IT 'U 1t I.( IW • . "0 . 2S f. 'j .. . II .Schwitzer Model 3LD279 compressor map 3.. j r ..1/ 1. . ~j. "" [j • .j '" IA II 111X""..63i ""/ 17 " "'" . "" 'If " .TIIIf tfo . / .~ /OOK 2 ~." 1if . Figure 47_ Schw itzer Model 3L0305 compressor map " COI"fPIfE S50R. I~ I < I . 140(1 . ~. •• < . l. 18 PS I .. ./S#S'R .!JOo AIR HOW o/.-o)' " 8'K II 1\ . f.. "00 HO • .n.-{J II 'I-f.. 1/ '" . L •• CONPIiESS OR M'P Figure 46.• SOK! . . MA P StllWl r llR ' LD..~l .I I .: V 1\ ..R'CftfYol f<N:.::: 3." ' <0 .~ VI' " .soo 600 700 ..MPEU € R ••0 350 CID ENGINE AT • 5000 RPM 8. . 1l. ' COMPo £.~ " OK Nil . f II 1/'" ..:.~ . . t-. 1-'901( • . .. .3Q> SCHl'lfTZEI? 3LO-2?f 3. 1)<1/ I.. -'~~ f\. To ~~tf ·R . N AP Figure 48.LI-? .I."1.". " <~ Ii '.81.00 300 400 500 600 70 0 800 o I()() 200 300 400 .t-"''' ..." .

• . {)IA. -."" ". r./." .~ ..~ ::-~TO'" 7 " . 2. ® ".l£1i' . . ' h..• "...1 -.. EH 97-56 ".I.75 Ii'. I.• [/ R' i7 •.0 .... .1 ~ "7 I. Chuck's Corl/air held the AHRA National Record for Formula I R/Stoc k at 12 . TIP DlA .p .A/RESEARCH ro~8 fl!S~ I V-I TRIM l .~~ . l 6{'-. ..6(1.1$ .79 MPH for the quarter-mile drags.. . but with a differe nt aim in mind. 0 . OHIO 72 ~ .6~7 • B~ l C . ~ I. !('.60 seconds and 114./'II' (N/).. • t" I "" ''''.. .-~". . 0 .~LP '198 I COMPRES SOR M.-0" I / I ..u5~ . I 0~ 9. Chuck built his own waste gate (page 8 1 in Conirols chapter) and his own water-injection system. Trim compressor m ap Chuck Sarson started with a car like Tom Keosababian's.' '" '50 AIR '00 Flow-q/R C. NIIIJl'lr '" .= .0 I 70Jf J II • I-f.!PR~S'JOR AMP SC'~lVlr." 7 . ~'_-16' #iWSING NCO ~t:8I 7.t . •00 $00 000 . 'f.1:>(' 'f ..:A/ ~. " uo '00 u.!0 <.ISS /M" T/I" wlor".Z 1/ .AiResearch T04B V·.L. l zrA I .J • ... .. .160 1M". 7. 38 .:'10 V f---. 3 50 em ENGINE AT 1• .Schwitzer Model 3L0198 compressor map Figu re 50.. I V I . . .1 " r 32 1~'~L.00 JOO AIR flOW o/./'. ~.m i):' . ..o 5000 RPM 80 18 PSI BOOST PReSSURE I T~O TURBOS) ". . 6~~~1 . 1c · ((I"" e· %. . 5000 RPM 80 18 PSI I BOOST PRESSURE . 350 CIO ENG IN E AT '--..t.fS~ Il £~t: -. I f ". ..'"{IMP FFF . /)/~F. ... 2a .?. 2~J Ir---./9·CFM 8 Figure 49.LhI _. 0 . . I • "'" II • J II II .'" .

<f ~~r70K D' SS"1c it is oft n easier to fit two small turbo- 1/ ch:Hger under the hood than one large • 60K V one_ . T/P tvA :? 75& decide n one.. would all work 3..0 IMP TII>JN/N'II £)/"1': NEIGHr. or at least join the two •• I exhaus manifolds_ Because the exhuast .'f07#B. COl'll' ~I'I': yS" •• m 7 KI' ~ is very! igh. the V-I trim. Wha this points out is: More than one model r make of turbocharger will fre- .n..- 3-4 COMPRESSOR. . The 3LD-305 in Figure 47 26BOOSTPRESSUR~E~~t-~+-t~_t-+-++_ . 5000 RPM & 18 PSt f--+. +-f-+*~I--+-+-j-f-+--I Map. __. In addition to this.4 i: q. or LE444-Figure 46. ~o73Z4-S O/PPV'S£>e NO. you have BOOST PRESSURE IfOK II to pipe the exhaust gases from one side (TWO TURBOS) to the ther.f-+++-I""l-'tft-++-I-I- away f J1l the surge line but stm in a high. the 3L -l98---Figure 49 would be ideal for a d a1 installation.(>.: 1--'2"K'A---l-ik+-+-f-+-+- best m teh because the point is well 2. 8 350 CID ENGINE AT. If one unit is 10 be used.!.l.<i.29 . IMP. AIR FLOW}Y.OIA /'9# 1-125k' ~tc+-j-f-+-+-j--l 4LE55 -Figure 44.r9 CFM 39 . The oper- ating pint would fall on the surge line of the LD279-Figure 48. " the co pressor side.1-B IMP/NO. they will expand more a d unless some sort of flexibility is built . Nt) 4()8J?. 40794"-s engine' a small in-line four.sao oof) 700 800 quentl do a good job for a specific appli.2 S·3 TR"lM #1I.~" " t--- units el minates this problem because 1.eoz.'<: BOK I. When it comes to a V or /9..- -I-'''!!--t-I-+-+-t--l very w n. (TWO TURBOS) iiO/( h would e borderline and anything smaller in the ree-inch size could not be COll- sidered ias a single unit. In this case.rao good w th one unless the desired output .t. Ano her decision to be made is whether E-! TRIM IMP£~l'€R..re -(PM cation nd the engine builder is not Figure 51-AiResearch T048 S-3 Trim compressor map limited to one particular size and is not Figure 52-AiResearch T04 E-1 Trim compressor map forced 0 compromise and choose a turbo- 3. or 4MD4S9-Figure /. If th AiResean:h T04B Model is used. INO I!'~ I. ~. .w.22'1" '-+-j~' . Even an in-line six looks IM~ TIP w/prH .--.0 1M/'.tlR .300 400 .># T//I)(. 1100J( t--- rest of he engine. S~ ~ . 0 50 740 150 200 MO 300 'fSO #)0 l'X AIR FLOW Q/. lotting this point on the Schwitzer AI/USEA«Cf. < TSS I ' '" 45.4 charger which is not a good match for the COMPRESSOR MAP AIRES£ARCJ1 TO< engine.-A !MPtll." .' os '" 1 / . Here again if we decide 0 use two turbochargers where only 33 CFM is required per turbo- charger all the Schwitzer four-inch sizes shown ere would be too large. Figure 50 is borderline for a single installation_ However./ pipes g t considerably hotter than the . 5000 RPM & 18 PSI " sidered.'--!-I-k-I+-++-I-I- effici~n 'Y area. slows a single Schwitzer Model h'()i/$iMi.. The 4LE444 is probably the 1" e.< TOM f-+-t-t-+-t-I-+-+--!---. Using two smaller .' the syst III need be connected only on .. an 8-3- Figure lor E-l-Figure 52 trim will work very w I on 11 dual installation.. 407:323-5 13~K to use ne or two turbochargers_ If the h'()V$IN<S NO.- 0 COrl!' ~FF 7345'. they will eventually crack and . 'fOK lL N leak ex] aust pressure.i/ . Olr/"!J<ST 1~. !'II/IP" falls in n area of better than 68% effi- ciency. 3. it is easy to 3 . 350CIO ENGINE AT YI oppose engine other factors must be COll.

I recommend The vehicle will be on the line with of inert a you use two small units instead of one no boost and start out similar to the pre- I= 2M large one. of inert a.. Assuming a radius K of engine until steady-state conditions are depend on the engine/turbocharger/gear 1. 2 of air.!. lb. lb. This time we will look at than on larger one.. vious illustration. There are times charger speed remains constant. 0259 in. "They lag behind he engine. Turbine wheels are designed G The fact that the turbocharger is not with a linimum of material near the out. Where turbocharger 55.. Moment of inertia TURBINE WHEEL is the r sistance of a rotating body to a change n speed. a turbine wheel ne foot in diameter might be represe ted by a ring with a diameter of 7 inche . Dotted lines parallel to "". = . 40 . Figure 3. there will be an immediate low RPM.--~ Besi es installation problems. in other words. Total Ii le required to reach maximum speed i a function of overall turbocharger REPRESENTATIVE R'NG efficien y and the polar moment of inertia of the r tating group. -~ -~. with a of I·inch will have a moment acceleration is important. represented by the Figure 53-Turbine wheel and representative ring with same moment of inertia Jetter I I"" 2M where is the radius of gyration and M is the ass of the body.>o mech:tnically connected to the engine side dia eler to reduce K because the 386 and must overcome inertia has some advan- momen varies as the square of K.. 1 ft.~ . including drag racing. 2S'c'''X'c''I. the inertia f the rotor should also be con- sidered One of the standard complaints about t e turbochargers is.•• ~----. is a sud en increase in exhaust-gas volume and the turbocharger accelerates rapidly.25 in hes. Radius of gyra- tion is he distance from the rotating axis to poin where all the mass of the body could b located to have the same I as the bo itself." This can occur due to poo carburetion or ignition timing but red cing rotor inertia is a step in the right di ection. it is often advantageous 386 cations. the moment of inertia will be achieved. sec.00607 in. As shown on tIle compressor map the turbocharger speed lines are drawn If one I rger turbocharger is used instead in Figure 54.. 100 CFM noticeable push. sec? gear shifting. As an example. . for example. at each shift point and gives the car a 386 diately demand.VI.. For ood rotor acceleration it is essen- time between maximum acceleration and tial to ave the lowest possible moment I == K2~ shut-off is very short. which represents this application. a 3- This is about 2 1/2 times as great as the the path on the compressor map Figure inch di meter turbine weighing one pound smaller turbocharger.-S = 'cI..5 inches.5 lbs. Many appli- Beca se of this.In this case. This occurs I=lx -'. opened wide and the engine will imme. which may not occur if the combination. it may have a turbine boost. this will happen with no to show how much boost increase will of two mall ones. As s on as the throttle is opened there 7 in.. require to use t 0 small turbochargers rather 1= . One of the toughest applications is the engine speed will drop off while turbo- G that of the road racer.5 inches and a rotor weight accelerate but will not catch up with the are general and the actual amount will of abou 1.2~~ tages as well as disadvantages. These curves diamet of 3. The turbocharger will immediately occur at each shift point. K "" 3. . The throttle will then be increase in manifold pressure. Because were G s the acceleration of gravity and when the car is making a turn with the the compressor puts out more boost at the W is th weight throttle closed and the turbo running at lower flows. When the shift is made.

RAJAY RMA TUFleoa-tARGeR 1.IL b II a perfee match. and Iud this kind of calculation to . This leads to START OF ACCELERATION the gues ion: What is the maximum speed? In geneT 1. Ll ..". ") tions to determine which size unit to use • for thei particular application. not only for a higher boost but for the 90 2 'I II aCCeleral-011 lag as well. can actu lJy redw. f1 V 1"- The rst requirement is to find out how mu 'h air will flow through lhe engine a maximum speed.• IiItOOEL 300F PATH FOLLO\NEO DURING so the erygine can live with the maximum EXTREME boost wl~kh will occur when climbing .. MODEL 300F ... A drag-race engine has to pro- 11"- duce ful power for only a few seconds.." . (530"R) Barome er 29. • / Sizin and matching a turbocharger for a sh rt-duration application must take into ace unt both the maximum boost ~r . and the urbocharger must be matched EN) OF KCELERATIQN ~ ...000 RPM .. < " 1/'i~ cr Engine ize 250 CID Four Stroke Cycle IL V II< Maxim m Speed 5.! 1/ 1/ V If . -". For those who are interested. First of all. '4" I derive tI e charts at the end of the chapter.0 in HG L " f--' . . and each application must I." experie 'e..tiull chart at e end of this chapter will prove ·~68. The main thing is to know V WV I>< which w y to go after some results have . I '\. • will slo down the turbine and therefore PATH FOLLOWED PTOducetess boost.L __ . "AR " '" "" i 41 _ . Ther is no set rule on how to arrive at L " . A bus 0 truck engine must be matched ... the cam will determine the best '" = AlII FLDW Q. One con ment along this line is Ihat a turboch' rged engine does not always Figure 55-Path followed during upshifting require· s much valve overlap as a natu- rally-asp raled engine. " II . DURING UPSHIFTING '" As n ntioned earlier in this chapter. the following example '"i " •Q .lJL 90 II l"> goes thT ugh the whole process longhand . " .. [2< yr~ . ~ Maxim m Boost Pressure 10 psig /.. desired nd turbocharger acceleration. .:e the output by cooling ~:~R~P '* IlAJAY TURBOCHARGER 1 down th exhaust gases.. . V b Ambien Temperature 70"F.. .fotf'CFIII "'" engine seed and the turbocharger is Figure 54-Path followed during extreme acceleration matche lo increase output at that speed.. lL' been ob ained. we must start with some known uantities: '/"'"tj" Y' Gi~ .•• ENGINE ACCELERATION '" a longhl!.. many t rbocharger enthusiasts don't [ike " U"- the idea of going through a lot of calcula.f'£> D very use uL The fellows who supplied the informa ion have done it based un :Ietual . Too much overlap .' II 1\ be matd etl either by "cut and try" or A " II i 'f experie ceo This is where the seleo:. which in turn ..

ft. like the solid line on the compressor map sor. will not be at standard <..162 have this point on the right (high. Try plotting this point adequate boost.5 CFM if the volumetric Intake-manifold Temp.7:1 . Schwitzer's 3LD-279 is a little on the Re 2 ~T 85. =290CPM x 1. CFM x .-'-'-- Start b converting the displacement to It is necessary to add 460"to the tempera. It would be desirable to 10 psi./Min. is 70°F.:. + Tactual very difficult to match one to an engine without a compressor map or from pre- == 70° + 132 0 Beea se of restrictions through the ports a d residual gases left in the clear.throttle acceleration line Camp. job so the user will have a choice. flow th ugh the turbo<. Rankine.).0 turbine nozzle is used. If you are using a compressor map scaled here will improve the mid-range torque fold air. to these makes of turbochargers but it is efficien 'y (t1vod is 100%.162 x (70 + 460°) No doubt anyone of several will do the line on Figure 56.5 CFM Camp. I. compressor maps are run at SIZE LIMITATION = 10 psig + Barometer 85°F. t1 is engine wi!! probably flow only get this hot because fuel has a cooling housing AIR or nozzle area because one about 8 % of its theoretical capacity. Efr. effect.:-. there will also be some too small might overboost on the first run known s . it will have == Compo Inlet Abs.8 to achieve the original boost level of Where R= 1.deal = 85. This leaves something to be Compo Inlet Press.e. It would be nice if we could 530 49. Rise. pressor inlet wi!! result in the density Bec~use air entering the intake manifold If the engine is operated with the ratio.flow) pressure drop at the lower speeds and the Ideal Te p.. in. Controls and ture rise which accompanies the pressure == 1.3 29. smaller turbine housing will still deliver =Yx T t imum engine RPM.8t1vol = 290 CFM Actual but at least the engine will be intact. on several maps to determine which is best. pute th actual density to determine air a wide-open. will produce this flow and pressure ratio 6T. = wmpressor inlet temp. ft. in Lbs. ance sp' ce between the piston and the Air in the intake manifold will not actually It is best to start with a large turbine head. This can inlet flo . vious experience with another engine.f . all the maps sure drop of about 4 in.0 such as a wastegate but these are expen· sure rati but unfortunately the tempera. = 202"P. desired at the mid-range but if a smaller flow so he outlet flow (engine How) 70 + 460 x 20.7 The above calculations show 394. follow a speed line similar to the dotted Q 6T ideal= . If the hOUSing is Comparing this to the air at the com.. possible exhaust restrictions. = .. Starting cubic ~ et per revolution.9" at about 73% compressor efficiency.9 small side.36 their application are covered in Chapter 9. 6Tideal with airflow to spare.3 be overcome by using a control device "--x-- just mul iply the outlet flow by the pres. the AiResearch absolute temperature.4 in. Rise flT ideal side of the map because it will occur at max. Hg a d 60°F. This engine 6Tactual = 132" This is not an attempt to limit the user should ow 362. This is discussed in detail in the x Density Ratio shown by a dotted line in Figure 56. without over boosting at maximum engine sary to convert by multiplying by .000- in this book <lre scaled in cubic feet per RPM point. ratlter than CFM it is neces.:onditions (29.0 overboosted at maximum RPM. Pressure Ratio '" Manifold Pressure Abs Inlet Pressure Abs obtain the correct flow because most CARBURETOR VENTURI Lbs. A Rajay 300E flow will also work well throug the engine. The use of a smaller AIR turbine housing will eause more 42 . Tel!!£.069 to speed. too large.4 CFM a combination of the methods described calculat the density of the intake mani. the boost pressure will be low 362. "----"-. 1728 cu.:harger wmpres.7 pressure ratio. Hg. Inlet Flow II is possible to have a more desirable would b if the temperature remained == Compo Outlet Flow (Engine Flow) wide-open-throttle operating line. it is necessary to com.36 out using a movable controL Anyone or Assu ing 65% compressor eft1ciency.145 cu ft. Hopefully. .145 cu. the engine will be must be multiplied by the density ratio across t e compressor to determine the 202 + 460 29.P~t~'''"'' in Figure 56.000 RPM = 362. = 394.4 CFM a smaller turbine housing of perhaps AIR From T ble I Page 17 flowing through the compressor at 1. Next c lculate the ideal volume flow Actual Temp. Outlet Abs.~O~u~t~\o~t~A~b~'~. All ompressors are rated on inlet x _Co_m"p~.8t1vol' heat loss through the dUding. Hg at the 5. as constan . the depression at the com- minute. very wel1. but the 4LE-556 should work '-' actual = . with· chapter n Interwoling. degrees T04B V-I trim looks very good because it 250 cu. Temp. If a carburetor is used which has a pres- For convenience reasons. ture because this calculation must be in in alphabetical order. This carburetor will have ~ lower yo: .. 662 29. 6Tactual -. Speed i divided by 2 because this is a . and destroy the engine. in./cu. .65 four·str ke-eyde engine./Min. and 28. This arrangement would Because inlet temp. Density Ratio sive and hard to come by.92 Density Ratio l<lrgest possible carburetor and the lowest in. pressor inlet will make it necessary to use = 1. x 5. rise rna es the gas less dense than it Comp.

One of the measures of overall turbo· charger perfOnl1<HlCC is the alllount of positive ldifferential across the engine. J ~~i"""". If steady-state conditions of high-pres- sure tUflbOCharging occur with a carburetor 43 .~:~nGq~~~r~~:~~I~~ine.f\ A sirviiar result may be obtained by 3. This is only crilical when the engine is used for "'~:OfIIPRE55OA MAP . No raw fuel is ever blown into the exhaust system because all diesels have cylinder-Iype fuel injeclior· Gaso/ine engines. Either of these systems work well with a mode~atelY turbOCharged engine because the con~bination of intake and exhaust restrictipns :lJld the fact that most turbo- charging takes place only under extreme acceler~tion conditions causes the exhaust- manifold pressure to be higher than intake- mnnifolp pressure at afl times.He designed to favor 4. this will ~:U~~J . Although a turbochhrged engine is relatively quiet without 1the use of a muffler. This differen1hll occurs when intake-manifold pressur~ is higher than exhaml-manifold pressure and it is extremely bencfkial to the engi/le.H+--1 in. Hobbs switch at left area over the piston <Ind drives oul illly side of carburetor senses manifold pressure. causing a WITH & WITHOUT IIOK~ -t-' f-I--i'c-. I j H TYPE CONTROL 1. Fuel is supplied directly from pump into unburned exhaust gases which might still 51 for more be ther~.000 RPM . This conlrib les to longer turbo life.000 RPM but if the cam and valve Ir' in . will hav~ the same tendency turbocharged. back pressure on the engine. . Hg a maximum speed. OUf theoretical engine will reach peak boost 3)5. seldom have cylinder injection. Figure 56.air through the cleur<lnce Sid Cook turbocharged his 390 CI D Ford engine in a motorhome.. this positive difTerenli:il blows clean- reJativelr cold. 32 t.+-+="IdI. A val~c cam profile which favors a certain engine speed naturally aspirated.-. when b91h intake and exhaust valves are open.0 FULL LOAD LINE I I restricting the turbine exhaust.01- I steady-sfate high-output. it is possible to match the turbine housing so the boost ngain will follow the dotted line on the compressor map. RAJA'!' TURBOCHARGEF 1201(. un the other hand. 250 CIO ENGINE L/ -.-~ back prjlssure on the turbine of about 4 RESTRICTION ---+--. Almost all gasoline and LPG cngincs havc either carburetors or port injection. As a result. which might raise exl.IOOEl 300 E EXHAUST MUFFLER RESTRICTION .. il cools the engine and prorides exIra air.1aust-valve temperature.which in turn 1I11ows IJoTe fuel to be burned wilhout increasi g exhaust-gas temperature.. In Ihe case of a diesel engine..

there is a tendency RPM. If it explodes. or other steady-state applica. This gives great one because the fest will be done in the cause' power loss and possibly harm the power readings but they are less than same manner. can be rogrammed to simulate accelera.-- and e aust system having a very low Horsepower measured by this method tion. the by the tires to the road.. If it burns con. le maximum scale reading should calibrate by driving at a constant speed charger-development work. great as you expected but if the power road loads_ The two readings are added to tion is 1 at steady-state.--=-'""'-'. sure it.OOO-lb_ Oldsmoble with an automatic readings. which will to add 30% or more for "power train necessary to obtain that engine speed in definit ly shorten the life of the turbo and losses. The rest of the l . This can cause either doesn't give as high a reading as a dynamo. If the valve overlap can be dynamometer and in a car with manual drop down a gear.---'--•. I ca I it the Griffin System because 2. The method often used obtain a power curve but we will go and ex lode intermittently and/or it can is to rev the engine and catch the needle through the process completely for only burn c ntinuously. When the produc is to be used on J truck. Even with an auto.. t ·s is undoubtedly the best way to The point here is. Install an accelerometer_ used for editing. increase is 100% no matter how you mea.. it may at the end of its swing. It is desirable to make several The say. losses are not as great The driver keeps one eye on the speedome- Red cing the size of the turbine wheel as some would like us to believe_ Passenger ter and when it reaches the required speed." Having run the same engine on a high gear. the fan disconnected! again calls out mark. . elabora e set-up. time in 1/ I 00 seconds. Weigh the car and occupants In this case. The larger engine obtained after the turbocharger has been determine the total acceleration delivered manufa turers have dynamometers which added is twice as much as before. to one f lower capacity may also help if cars are rated fairly honestly these days he calls out mark or some other pre- it is lar e enough to handle the gas flow but a few years ago. this can be a simple or rather This is how it is done· shown in the accompanying photo.". the same two people included exhau t manifold. We never measured more accuracy is desired. first determine the road speed inlet te peratures of 2 . inventi n. Calibrate the speedometer. weight f the vehicle to resist the accelera. charts showed this required are to be done regularly and extreme suring I orsepower in the vehicle and almost 400 HP. exhaus valves. Many tests will have to be run to be igni ed by the hot exhaust manifold power directly. After a speed of about The final matching of a turbine nozzle higher horsepower. it is possible to have turbine. tory tires. namely cost and the applica. the 210 HP car you determined word. we charged the loss 5 MPH above the required speed is size to btain best overall performance is against the drive train. The tachometer can acceleration. Install a tachometer. In either case. This time the decel- tion. The longer the distance. These are not usually avail. engine speed and road speed_ aircraft-type accelerometer be calibrated by a strobe light or a revolu. If the end That 210 HP engine never saw much more in neutral and starts coasting. camera was mounted in the car to photo- ter. It just wasn't so! reached. sport. a 4. Many enthusiasts After all the calibrations have been throu the clearance space into the don't go for the method because it completed. as there is no change in grade or wind able to he average hot rodder and even A few years ago when we turbocharged direction during the interval between the if they ere. The actual speed is obtained by restric ion-and a high-overlap cam-it is is wheel horsepower or that actually dividing the distance by the time. not be eater than 1 G. Instruments used mea- The ask idea is to mount a reliable sured compressor inlet and outlet pressure. manifo d will also be reduced_ matic transmission. acceler eter in the vehicle and use the The car and occupants may be weighed turbocharger speed. Because we liked to believe the accelerometer. made at the rear wheels. and most readings will be e10w . I found only about 4% dif. it will be worthwhile depend g on the amount of information than 275 HP at the rear wheels." so naturally somebody has quarter at better than 103 MPH on fac. The turbocharger tachometer is very expen- won't rk because the divisions are too tion counter. the ten. it is far 1.000 tinuou y. The other occupant at max mum engine RPM with a little bought only put out Jbout 117 at the rear then reads and records the reading on the higher ack pressure_ wheels. transmission. The second go_ The e are a couple of drawbacks for if your rear-wheel horsepower is not as reading is taken to measure windage and most a us. runs.000° F. a surplus 16mm movie less cos Iy than a programmed dynamome. possib e to blow a mixture of air and fuel delivered to the road. don't be disappointed eration is read and recorded. the more accurate the calibra- instruments are commercially available and the results obtained will be as good as from a high-quality recorder at consider- ably less cost.3 G if the vehicle is a street machin on any highway equipped with mile posts. the cost would be prohibitive. If it is above the legal limit. Starting at a speed well below that dency a blow raw fuel into the exhaust ference in the output. engine nd turbocharger. Film was viewed on a small screen to do it 4. A stopwatch is used to measure the exact time for a given distance. ~~. reduce without losing power. at any public scale. accurately. than 150 HP at the flywheel--even with speed again reaches the required MPH he fishing oat. required. If the road-load-horsepower readings come u with an accurate method of mea. These readings will be accurate so long tion co ditions. the driver puts the transmission often d ne on a dynamometer. 44 . open the throttle all the way. to invest in some additional equipment as desired. The speedometer is easy to sive and not required except in turbo- small. graph the instruments during acceleration Dick G ·ffin was the first to tell me how 3. with the weight of the car will run the of two things-or both! This mixture can meter with a needle which reads horse. reliable_ Even when reliable readings are To find maximum horsepower at 4. tests. --. "Necessity is the mother of transmission and were able to turn the runs and average the readings.

/sec. Figure 57-Road horsepower ..-. To do this.. horse- power can be calculated directly.18 x 32.'..-". the cam fa will not slant readings in the Corrected road speed 60 MPH Acceleration of Gravity directio desired by the observer. af..-~ .2 back to a couple of formulas from high. " • • • • • • 0<..lb. •_ • _ _ _• • ' ...IBG The ext step is to make use of the reading is converted to fLisec..c.z a ~ ~ ~.. it is necessary to go 3650 x ._-:::cc HP= Force x Velocity strain.....- w TORQUE..2 =: Velocity (MPH) x -"- 3600 F =: 6571bs. F =MA reading....-- a: w ~a: a'" NATURALLY ASPIRATED :I: HORSEPOWER ENGINE SPEED RPM An 8 nm camera is not recommended F =MA Because 1 horsepower equals 550 ft.. . but Acceleration of Gravity 550 I've nev r tried them...... A small calculation shows how simple this If the accelerometer readings are in G The iggest single advantage of the cam.. Force'" Mass x Acceleration the road horsepower is then: to read he dials accurately without eye. 32. S per. 45 --...--.. If the speedometer Total acceleration . because the definition is not sharp enough or.. Every./sec. units which is is: era met od over direct observation is that Acceleration ofVehide Weight of car and occupants 36501bs....: a: HORSEPOWER ~a w '" aa " ~w ~ ~ w a'" a: => a aa: a: " :I: -. TURBOCHARGED HORSEPOWER ".. the road by the tires.8 cameras may work. Velocity (ft...06G figures t an actually occur.. . Engine speed 2800 RPM F '" Weight x Accelerometer Reading one wh is making modifications to his Full throttle acceleration ...-... " z wa z '" '" "'" w ENGINE RPM Figure 8-Turbo matched for high RPM -. and Mass =: -:----cc-"W~'~igh'"'t-..12G engine s the tendency of reading higher This force is the actual effort applied to Neutral deceleration ..) 5'180 school hysics...

96 track racers..81 range is not only possible. / After the installation has been made / and the necessary settings have been estab· / lished for idll' speed <lud ignition timing. Results of several speeds can then be EN GINE RPM plaited to let IlS look .25 2-375ESO 2 -5-3 0·.96 cars and trucks which are to be used on the street but is impractical for road or ' ·V·l "' P ·.4 SCHWITZER A IRESEARCH T04 ItP curve similar to Figure 60 cOIn be estab- CID IM PReSSURE RATtO MODEL TURBINE AREA RAJAY MODEL TRIM TURBIN E A/R lished. I ENGINE RPM Too slllall a turbine huusing may push Figure 60.0::"".79 2·375E90 2-5·3 0·... This method of matching is fine fur l ·V. is often ratai til engines and sh\)ukl TABLE III be . HP '" 657 x 88 / 550 / HP '" 105.Oc. Velocity'" 60 x 5280 3600 / TURBOCHARGED HORSEPOWER V '" 88 fL/see. Figure 59-Turbo matched for low RPM If pussible. I NATURALl Y ASP IR ATED I r the power curve looks like Figure 58..Jvuided. including disconnect· 500 4000 609 2·3LO·305 2. When this is done correctly.96 46 .-.Turbo matched for tlroad speed range the bOllst out uf sight at high speeds.'"H~P / HORSEPOWER mT RPM I I = ". Changing 427 4qOO 520 2·3LD·279 1. Figure 59.. ". fl.00 2·375E90 2-5-3 0·. I <E". I HORSE POWER it means the cum pressor is the right sile o I but the turbine housing has been Ilwtched / flIT illcre:lse in puwer at tlte h)p end only. One of the various types of restrictiuns mentiuncd previously shuuld Suggested turbochargers for low· boost (10 psi Maximum) v·a engines be used. Figure 57. 350 400 425 2·3LD·279 1..5 cC' / 2800 Torque"" 1971bs.S1 be matched to the track cond itions JUS! . but has been 305 500 462 2·3LD-279 1.' 2800 RPM Engine torque can then be calcul.0.96 establish cd..' P ·. Please remember these cu rvcs arc for c01l1p:nisun unly ~nd do not represent Rr 283 5000 2·3LD-219 a specific engine.]1 the horsepower :llld torque curves.25 2·375F80 2·E-l 0·...81 327 5 0 496 2 -3LD·279 1. An incrc<lse of 1OO'J1O in "0 1. / Ihe acceleration test should be rerun 10 / determine if thefc has beell" power gain / / and 11llw much. an CFM@1.81 demonstrated many times...52 "5". re~dings should first be . thc turbine housing should 400 4000 484 2·3LD-219 1.45 2·375El0 2·5·3 0 ·.79 2·375F90 2·E ·l 0·..81 as final gear ratios are matched . 111i... Using ~ wrbine housing with a sillaller AIR should give more boust it! the luw· speed end.69 road horsepower wilh a broad speed I l·V·l "' p ·.96 about five minutes./ / ' TUR BOCHARGED HO RSEPOWER taken and plotted in the n~turaJly·~spirated condition SO:I base line cOI n be established before the engine is turbocharged.8' After the sizc of compressor has been I·V· ' "' P-.25 2·375ESO 2·5·3 0.lIed from / Hp :: Tx RPM / 5250 / NATURALLY ASPIRATED = ~52~5C..10 2·315Fl0 2 ·E· l 0·. 396 4qOO 482 2·3LD·279 1.. .96 turbine housings on tu rbochargers takes 454 4000 551 2·3LD·305 2.10 2-375F90 2·E· ' 0·.".

and in VII.96 frum get Ilei p someonc with turbo cxpe· '" SOO 6500 1349 2·3LO·305 3.02 2·375El0 2-V·' P· . process f~r just about any engine or ilppli· Michigan in 1962. Suggested turbochargers for moderate·output (20 psi Maximum) V·S engines If "V" bahd .buch:lrger 10 usc for my applicati n~" The p ople who sellturbocilargers fur special applio.:itarger IIsers will luuk over litis nut on these tables and it Heeds overhaul. manuraclllTers !ll . it is important 10 buy your IUrb o fronl an organiZation whidl has Ihe various tyrbinc It ollsiugs in sloo.I 283 7000 822 2·3 LO ·305 3. one of the s:Jl11e size chapter. carbs calion tl~ey o.02 ' 2·375E80 2·V·l P·. BIHh ali(I rep~lir:lble.ing and cqnnec ting the inlet and outlet TABLE IV dueling.:h tU.I P-. another example of mismating .96 396 6500 1068 2·3LO·305 3. VI and turbo sizing and construction .:ould imagine. They have cont ributed infornw. bles. ke muny models of [f you calHlOl f'ind your engine among As lllenliulwd:Jt Ihe beginning ufthis lurbochargcrs but ouly cCr!:Jin OllCS .96 past.81 be picked which will flow air or air-fuel 327 7000 935 2·3LO·279 3.96 · al the req.02 2·375El0 2-V-l P-. and ChUl:k Mclnerney no seals to protect against gasoline flow· of AiResearch In dUStrial Division h:Jve ull ing through compressor into turbo bear· spent yeJrs matching turbochargers to ing. I 283 7000 822 2-3LD-279 2.02 2·375E70 2·5·3 0-.mgc til e 305 7000 883 2·3LO·305 3.02 2-375E70 2-5·3 0·. exactly n gh!.02 2·375El0 2-V· I P·.7 SCHwtTZER AIRESEARCH T04 inst:Jllers of tu rbos h:lve nearly :Jlways PRESSURE TURBINE RAJAY TURBINE blamed the unit for producing too Illuch DISPL RPM RATIO MODEL AREA MODEL TRIM AIR or 100 li tlle boost when :Ill they had to 2-V .BI To summarize.J Schwiller or Ai Rese<lfch turbo· Those shown on the t:Jbles ure :lv:liluble turbine IYHlsings lIntil lhe instaliutiull is o. mounted on a "trunk" manifold to the Don Hubba rd of Crane Cams.Jking the lurboch.ke the turbochatger work correctly.96 400 6500 1078 2·3LO-305 3. Junction box connected right and left ex- tion o n l11att:hing turbochargers to various haust manifolds next to turbo. IV . Asbestos gloves are recommended. produce the required boost 454 6500 1212 2·3LO -305 3.02' 2-375EIO· 2-V·I P·. T1ms. the same size IUrbo(.. T hese men. ~ goorJ pero.:umpletely 2-375El0 2V ·I P·_96 427 6500 11"8 2·3LO 305 3.o if you have a Illode! :lnd mcthod of valving will norm~l1y take turboo.96 turbine housing.uired speed and if necessary .1fe those on the t .:hed to.02' 2·375E80 2·V·' P·. carburetion requirements.02 overl ooked unless tlte tuner was able lu 6500 1212 2·3LD·305 3_02 2375El0 2·V-l P·. V. Tuning TABLE V .3 SCHWITZER AIR ESE ARCH T04 the oil su~p l y and drain. inlet and ou tlet connections lIrc used along with quick disconnects 011 CFM &11 2. the comprc5sor should 305 7000 883 2·3LD·279 2.96 mixture i~ the arclI of the map between 3SO 6500 936 2·3LO·279 3. This is engines depending on the ~pplication. 47 .:k and will No doubl.02 2·375E10 P·. engines.02" 2-375EIO" 2·V · ' P-..96 " means should be provided 10 prevent over· boosling ~1 maximum engine speed. the instull:lIioll with the correct turbine- Suggested turbochargers for high·output (45 psi Maximum) V-S engines housing 1/R is essentio:l! to TIl:.02' 2-375E I0" 2-V ·l P-. 'Soost control required I fboo~t pressure is tou high .02 2·375El0 2·V . melhod . 50 turbo bearing failure resulted.in the This is silown in Tables Ill.81· the surge ~ine and the 60% efficiency line. "But how do I knuw whio.. PRESSURE TURBINE RAJAV TURBINE charger can be replaced in less than a DlSPL RPM RATIO MODEL AREA MODEL TRIM AIR minute.harger. Diesel-type turbo had of RajaY ll ndustries. Two large 4-bbl.jnd say. the whole turbo.:ations ure unxious tu make Small diesel turbo was seen on a Buick· money s9 Ihey h<lve gone through the powered competition roadster in Flint.02 2-375El0 2·V-1 P .llld such. 500 6500 '''9 2·3LO-305 3. someone will ask why such you Illighl have trouble finding parts.96" 427 6500 ma((. :Jgrec 10 work with you by swapping .9£ Ilus nol bben COIllTllOn knowlerJge in the 350 6500 936 2·3LO-305 3. use:l tur- bine housing with a larger AIR.81 · The turbine housing AI R should be 11.45 2·375 F80 2-5·3 0 ·.96 rience.96 do to Ilwke it right W:lS (u ch. this lpart ofnt.8 2·3LO·305 3..96 inst31l:lli9n wurk hus beel! o.00 2·375 FBO 2·5·3 O·.02 2-375EIO 2 V·I P·. 396 6500 H'£8 2·3LD-305 3.:ent:Jge u f potc ntiul readily llvailable. Pau l Uiui compressor inlet . Novic~ CFM@2.lfger 400 6500 1078 2·3LO·30S 3..:h arger is not shown on the list. Bec:luse the illfonnutiun 327 7000 935 2-3LO-305 3.

58 or N-.225 3 l D·279 1.58 or N·. S·' 0·.25 375F60 S3 0·.58 or N·.103.32 VW 78.58 Triumph 70.250 3LD-279 1.87 377825 J ·1 N·.00 375E 10 V·.o MODEL AREA MODEL TRIM AIR Am.25 377840 E· l N·_58 Toyola 71. l N·.50 Ford 91. p·. lSI 3LD·I98 1.o MODEL AREA MODEL TRIM A/R ChevrOlet Vt!9il 140 3LD.101 3 LD-I68 .96 AStOn Martin 244 3lD·279 '19 375E80 V·.87 377825 J.81 Ford 300 3LD·305 200 375EIO V· .' N·.58 SlIao 104.79 375F70 11701 S·3 0 .79 375E80 S·3 0·.114 3LD·168 . l N-. Plymou th 170..68 377825 J.32 o r N-.97.99.87 377840 E· I 0 ·. TABLE VI Suggested turbochargers for 4-cy linder engines lone turbo per engine) SCHWITZER AIRESEARCH T04 TURBINE RAJAV TURBINE VEHICLE c.8 1 Ch evr o let 230.198 '25 375860 E· ' 0 ·.nto 98 3 LD·I68 .87 377840 E-I N·.137.68 377825 J·l N·.87 377825 J·l N·.32 Toyo ta 97.69 375F70 n 701 S·3 0·.87 377825 J· l N·.79 375E80 S·3 0-..103 3LD· 168 .58 Austin Healey Sprite 67.25 377840 E· ' 0 ·.121 3LD-I68 .58 Dal1un 79.81 AustIn Heal ey 178 3LD· 198 1.121 3LO-168 87 377840 E' N-. N·.79 375E80 S·3 0-.69 Jaquar 210.121 3LD-198 1.s 199.87 377B25 J.87 377825 J ·I N ·.79 375F60 377840 11211 .50 Porsche 96.81 Po.58 T riumph 122.79 375F80 S·3 0·.69 N·.79 1.91.79 375E80 S·3 0 ·.32 Opel 91.69 Ford 200.250 3LD-279 1. 102 3LD-I68 68 377825 J I N·..58 48 .58 or N-..120 3LD·'68 .58 Ford PintO 12' 3lD-198 1.81 375E 70 (225) S·3 0 ·.81 Ford 240 3LD-279 1.152 3LD 377840 (122) S·3 0-.68 377825 J·I N-.170 3LD· 198 1.79 375F70 S·3 0·.97.81 GMC 270.79 375E80 V·.156 3LO·198 3LD·198 1.l 0-_69 MG 78.121 3lD-198 1. P-_96 Dodge..302 3lD-305 2 .86 3LD-1G8 87 377825 J .t N·_58 or N-.. Mo to.108 3LD-I 68 .58 Ford P.00 375El0 V·.58 375860 (137) N·.. P·.58 Renaul t 96.32 Volvo 108.58 375F60 (156) S·3 0-.87 377840 E· I N·.81 Chevrolet 292 3LD-305 2.231.58 BMW 108.79 375F60 1144) S·3 0-.116 3LD· I68 .50 Honda 750 46 3LD·I68 .69 Alia Romeo 96.58 Ford V·6 155 3LD·198 1.87.58 375F60 (152) S·3 0·.79.87 377840 E· 1 N·. P·.87 377825 J.25 377840 E· I N·.96 Ford 144 .58 TABLE VII SU9gested turbochargers for 6-cylinder e ngines (one turbo per engine) SCHWITZER AIRESEARCH TD4 TURBINE RAJAY TURBINE VEHICLE c.258 3LD·279 1.69 Dodye Colt 98 3lD.sche Toyota 143 121.58 or N-.58 Merced es 134 3LD·I68 .I68 .32 Mercedes 121 3LD· 168 .120 3lD· 168 .79 375F80 S3 0 ·.87 377825 J·I N·.87 377825 E·' N·.232.69 Jaqua.81 BMW 182 3LD·198 1.81 Datsun 146 3LD·198 1.79 375F60 S·3 0·. P·.58 or N-.78 3lD·168 .110 3LD· 168 .87 377825 E.69 Avdl 103.91 3LD-168 .258 3LD·279 1.32 Opel 66 3LD· 168 .

2. The duty 3. The secondary bar- they ditheir job hut. 1. an extra shot of fuel to the mixture engine speeds so the engine can ach ieve Modern carbure tors differ in the way each time the throttle is opened so its maximum power.duplicated in injection system is to add fuel to th e air engine to start and run when it is a good fuel·injection system-have been entering the engine at the correct raliu cold. point where the average carburetor is a tion chamber :l1Id. 4. all have there will not be a lag between the rels will usually only contain as many system to cover the rollowing modes of idle circuit and the main circuit or systems as necessary for their operation. the second<try barrels are added to reduce Ihe inlake-manifold pressure is higher 5. at the sallle lime. the secondaries ordina rily circuit. operati n: the main circuit and the power For instance. Progreuive carburetors such as the early destruction of the engine. nol fect air-fuet ratio 10 the engine very reliable device needing little atten- crcale too hOI a fire which would cause when it is idling with no outpUI. An idle system to provide the COf.25·inch thro ttle bores has blow-off val ves for closed throttle manifold-press ure relief . This is the choke system. II 1.200 HP at 60 inches Hg manifold pressure. and may no t 49 . The purpose of a c~rburcl or or fuel. two·barrel type used on the Pinto and is the same for a naturally-aspir:ltcd or tion at cruise. do not have a choke circuit . fuel air mixture under extreme the s. Lucas timed mechanica l fu el injectio n wit h 2. developed over the past 75 years to a so it wiJI burn efficiently in the combus. An accelerator pump which gives the pressure drop at extremely high than ambient. Ph o lo bv Bill HoweLl.IEII1111.block Che vrolet aluminum engine. An enri(.hing system to enable the These carburetor Circuits. in general. Vega and the fou r-b:HTel type used on turbocharged engine except in a turbo. Ii McLare n CanAm car with a 465 CID big. ti ol1. A power system which enriches the just about every V-8 built are basically Ch'Hgcd engine one more problem is added. A main fuel system which 1$ in opera.Ulle as the single barrel except th:1I that of the supercharged condit ion where power or acceleration conditiolls. Two AiResearch T EO·670 t urbos wit h was tegated ex haus~produces 1.

~ develop a carburetor particularly for this r:: ~f........_~-~ See Figure 61.. 9 power valve open system worked fairly well but was a com- promise and never had the feel desired by many hot rodders. r power circuit. VACUUM POWER VALVE At the same time Oldsmobile was CHAMBER PISTON MAIN AIR developing its Jetfire. Oldsmobile's approach was quite different in that they started with a high- compression ratio engine. This dia- phragm actually retarded the spark about 10 crankshaft degrees when the intake manifold pressure reached 2 psig. --. accelerator pump .-====~: • C--- for a turboch~rged engine. This carburetor had two fea- "'~ tures which were in the right direction \" E=~: ~. :~=LC ~-: MAIN JET _~ neeted to the intake manifold of the engine downstream of the turbocharger. The other was to put a pressure-retard dia- phragm r~ther than a vacuum-advanced diaphragm on the distributor.. . . but they did ~ . ----..-~. it is possible to have a POWER partially dosed throttle plate creating a • good vacuum at the power-valve port while the turbocharger is turning this vacuum / into pressure and the engine sees pressure MANIFOLD VACUUM PASSAGE THROTTLE FOR SENSING ENGINE LOAD above atmospheric. MAIN WELL_=_---..---.-->IiIf~. With an ordinary o::arburetor. I--~ . ". the engine will TUniean and probably 50 . ~:c: external line which enabled it to be con- .~ I I .. - - invented before the turbocharger became ( \ j( r~~~' readily available for gasoline engines. do not take into ae<:ount the " )~~ ~ fact that it is necessary to run richer when -17.. First the power piston was not connected to the down· ~tl [~= stream side of the butterfly but had an ~. I . and. When this happens.. . ~ --.un " Looking back over the years when the LOCATION\OF LOCATION Corvair was first turbocharged. One thing was to choose a metering rod and jet which resulted in an overrich condition at full throttle. O. where the power piston or diaphragm POWER CHANNEL RESTRICTION ~ ~~~~~ SEAT senses pressure immediately downstream of the throttle. The F'. the intake manifold pressure is above IS I ~ I psia than it is on a natural1y-aspirated " engine where this condition cannot occur. or idle system. Chevrolet MANIFOLD MANIFOLD PRESSURE used a carburetor (Carter YH) which was SENSING LINE SENSING LINE ON TUR· already available because it had been used BOCHARGED ENGINE on an early-model Corvette. therefore. This carbu- tf0 retor did not have any way to sense intake· manifold pressure so two things were necessary to keep the engine out of trou- ble when the boost went up to about 7 Figure draft Rochester with external manifold-pressure sensing line or 8 psig. a turbocharged ver- BLEED sion of its 215 elD V-8 F85 Cutlass \ ~ / Engine. "'" .:-> -:. .c .~ . ~ ~ ~ I .. The main problems with carburetors and fuel-injection systems are: They were -_. include a power system.> ~~7 application.

senses pressure just dowfslream of the throttle valve.Jterial in lhe wall to drill twd tap for a tube fitting.:t sign I to the carburetor power system wlren oPjc rating with a turbO<. Figure 62 shows the power circuit of a IL="E:l~~ FUEL PUMP typic. The solenoid valve may be a lit!le I~arder 10 cOme by but should be JVJill!bl~ at II recrealionJl-vehic1e outlet. General Motors styling asked TRW to turbocharge a Corvair engine for a this without redesigning the carburetor. the Corvair Spyder was introduced. Th e actual point where the switch closes is adjustable with a small screw dJiver. After t wo The deVj'ce in Figure 63 can be added to warmup runs to calibrate the carbureto r and set the ignition timing.. tllat of giving the cor- re!. The sile of the orifice thich adds the extra fuel to the carbure or will vary with the engine but 1 have fa nd .. 11 was necessary \0 add SOLENOID VALVE this <lnti-detonan! because of the engine's high compression ratio. normally a drilled internal passage.detonatc 1The other thing Oldsmobile did was add anti-delonan! fluid \0 the carbu. show car..040" works pretty weI! in my case.lphragm. These come in various pressure ranges but mine has a 0-4 psi range. As soon as the intake maf. Make SU fe the valve se(!t is made from a gasolinelresistant ma terial. BOWL severa! t!~ings can be done to modify them to do a better job on a turbocharged engine. it can be Figure 63. One year after the fir st run. II docs nol.llion only solves orle problem. Get the Hobbs pressure switch at an automotive pans supply house f9r a nominal price .:arburetor. A Solex carburetor allowed easy jet changes during development.JYs to do In early 1961. PRESSURE SWITCH retor wh1n the engine ran in the super- charged oondition . do rnything for enriching the fuelhrir mix lure iWhen the intake manifold is above . There are several W. On some carbu- retors th~re is enough J1l. how- ever. this e ngine p roduced the carb Hetor with the leasl effort.Jtlllospheric. as described previously . run this ~ystem on a turbocharged Corvair with goqd results.Pressure-sensitive enriching de vice TOuted t4 the intake manifold with a short length o~ copper tubing. NOlc the sensing line. This modifi. Because we have to live with carbure tors COMPRESSOR designed lfor nu[unllly-aspirated engines. I f this sensit g line.)! c~rburelor.:harger down- stream or the !.ifold pressure reaches 51 .Jnd then epoxy the tubing ill place. I have 155 HP.. This same system works w911 with <I low-compression-ratio AUXILlIARY - engine wl1erc the anti-detonan! can be r added at much higher manifold pressure. IS plugged up and a new line con- j nected to the power di. The usc of this fuel-enriching device allows tllc carburetor power valve to be set at a ruel /air rntio which would be too lean fo rla supercharged engine. On others It is necessary to drill a hole about the sile of the tubing .

the secondary is used to get the maximum out of an engine at very high RPM.. This problem does not exist on a turbocharged engine because any pressure drop through the carburetor within reason can be made up by the compressor of the turbocharger. Even before that. NOZZLE tion is also a good fuel-saving device.--~--~-' -.-. the engine can only put out 3~O 4 or 87% of 52 . pressure-sensitive enriching device it will require considerably more development. It is an off-and-on system.. amic problems 40 years ago as it does today.-. In this case. Just to make sure we don't think we are inventing the wheel again.-'~ about 2 pSi. It can be carried one step BOWL further by building a system shown in Figure 64. so it is also a com- promise where the engine will still be run- ning too rich at 2 or 3 pounds boost pressure and too lean at 8 to 10 pounds boost pressure./ SUPPLY VALVE If a progressive two-barrel or four- barrel carburetor is used. two Englishmen. cooling the engine down and preventing detonation. ----.610. Because it is possi- ble to drive all day without ever reaching the supercharged condition.~ ~---. This device was designed for an aircraft engine but not exclusively limited to one. When a progressive Iype of car- buretor is used. Fedden and Anderson designed a method of introducing anti-detonant to a super- charged engine. • -. Figure 65 shows a device patented by Maurice Goudard in 1942.. On a naturally-aspirated engine if the ambient pressure is 30 inches Hg. extra fuel is sprayed into the ACTUATED MODULATING FUEL VALVE carburetor. Patent 2.. added fuel is COll- trolled by a diaphragm which senses intake- manifold pressure.290. •. 611 issued in 1936 is shown in Figure 66. These are shown for historical reasons but point oul that .-. the primary barrel or barrels have all the systems necessary to run the engine and. ~. The power-valve modifi- cation is still valid but the extra fuel ___ TO ENGINE enriching can be done completely in the ~- secondary. Goudard device Patent supercharging had the same thermodyn ..--". as mentioned before. Although it call be made to do a better job than the pressure switch and solenoid. ·_---------' . /~:'~~:~~~~CONTROLLEO ANTI- . this modifica- L. the problem can be approached in a completely dif- ferent manner.-. A schematic drawing of British Patent 458. This system which will modulate the added fuel can be designed to enrich the mixture gradually as a func- tion of the intake-manifold pressure.

Figure 67. The jets OPERATED in the s~condary system can be sized for BY PRIMARY a rich cond ition which is more compatible LINKAGE with hi~l intake-manifold pressures. But. All modes of engine operation take place using the primaries only until the inwke. RFLY tion as used . Y sure uf 10 or 15 psig.m were connected 10 the intake DI APH RAGM manifol~ without any other modifications. OPE RATES SECON DARY the secondaries would not close when the BUTTERF L Y I 53 . The link:!ge was Figu re 67-Schematic of progressive carburetor with pressure·operated secondary reworked so th~1 pressure on the dia- T phragm would open the secondary while INTAKE MANt FOLD SECONDARY PRIMARY SUR the spring would tend to close il. there is no mechanical linkage between the ' prim:lfY flld the secondary buttcrnics. The dia~hragm assembly was taken ilpart and the spring moved to the opposite side of the di~phragm. l Secondary butterf!y/s on a progressive carburetor C:ln be actuated by several dif· ferent mflhods. A simple mechanical linkage cpn start to open the secondary when the primary is three-quarters open or the sCfondaries may be diaphragm- operated using the vacuum drop through the primary venturi :IS a vacuum source. When il VEN T URI VENTURI c<lrhured. it is possible to sclec~ main and power jets for the primarY lto give the ideal air-fuel ratio al MEAD VA L VE naturally-aspirated conditions. on the Holley 4150 Series carburetors lends itself 10 modification. the use of a progressive car· buretor on a turbocharged engine is not MOOU L A T tNG significari. The modificati on is as follows: The interlock between the primaries and Figure 66. llhe case is quite different with a turbocharged engine because it is possible to have even 8 inches drop through the ANTI·OETONANT carburetqr and still have II manifold pres. This type of actua.In inter- lock to p. These carburetors usually have . V. its two separate fuel/air systems can be utilized very well to give the correc l fucl- air ratio 10 the engine under both naturally- aspirated and supercharged conditions. The poinl ram making is.H is modified in this Wily. When the secondaries of a TO ENG I NE progressiJe carburetor open and drop this restrictio(1 down to practically nothing. COMPRESSOR DISCHARGER cerned. from a power viewpoint. British Patent 458.Fedden and Anderson anti-detonant. the engine can then achieve its ful! poten- tial as far as breathing capacity is con. BeclJUse this can only Occur in I the supe1rcharged condition .ial.611 secondaries was removed comp!crely.revent the secondaries from CARBURETOR opening ~l part load.its potent. VENT TO manifold pressure overcomcs the spring ATMOSPHERE in the d~aphraglll and opens the secondary butterflies. If the diaphra~.

ornpressor as w~s done 011 to run n the supercharged condition on the question as to whether il is better 10 Schwitzer Turbochargers used on the se.:king through the carburetor will have a lot of blue smoke come out of the exhaust. methods. Fuel lines.Ill be lert as fold to conduct the air fuel mixture from and shape as a stand~rd Micmswitch and is. than efficiency.I pretty causing the secondaries 10 dose illlllledi· iutakc system. this size dif- ference is insignificant. as when the carburetor lS because the secondaries will not open until of the design of the turbocharger and can· rcmoved from the intake manifold and rnanifo[~ pres~ure has re:tCi1ed about 1 psig. fuol was removed from the <l(:cel· Ever sinl. nut be changed by carburetor location.harge in a swirl which must be broken 54 . Because the centrifugal compressor is a CFM device..hanisrn good job of designing the intake mani· :llely.y of the turbocharger is a function is changed. mixture comes oul of the compressor I think they actuaJ!y mean capacity rather diso:. the distribution This carb uretor set-up gives ~ different more efficient bu! this is I/O/ so.Jrll of the o:. there is not olily a sud. a slightly higher capacity compressor is needed when sucking through the carburetor to achieve the same maximum horsepower. This second from happening. One big advant~ge of blowing through the carburetor is it is not necessary to have a positive seal on the compressor end of the turboch~rger. the connection s den jump in the manifold pressure but a pressor is 75%. it won't lakc long to use up all the oil in the crank ~ase. Because it may have to sec vacuum as high as 29 inches !-Ig. the maxi· mum flow which it can handle will be the same but the maximum pounds per minute will be greater when the intake condit ions never go below ambient. downstream of it. In :Jddition. The fuel/air rear. second:jry diaphragm to the atlllosphere reyuircs the teast lllodilic. When people say thiS. As soon as the pri.Jtion III the engine in the c:Jse ofa passcnger car. If a turbocharger placed between the car- When tIl is happens. If this system feeling 10 the car than the standard set -up cieno:. Don Hubbard driver'. SOllle people say that blowing through the c. blowing througll the carburetor. The em.Jrger is scrounged from II farm tractor or. an engine with this type turbocharger sUl.:omes llldi~n~p ()lis-type race cars. the 1 val1c actuated only when the primaries results have been obtained with buth Getting back to the advantages of were rtf Iy opened.Jrburetor to the cylinders . it will be 75% regardless from the compressor to the intake mani· definite feeling of being pushed from the of whether the carburetor is upstream or fold become very critical. the pe~k adiabatic efficiency of a com. To prevent this suck or blow through the c<lrburetor I.:J small lhrce-way MCJtl up.:ed in the sensing linc .: )!Id~ries "lone.ind cillrcr way and before we star! knocking so the cumpressor seal never sees a high mount d on the side of the carburetor so one ur the other remember excellent vaCUUIll. When is actuated in the same rmmner. the carburetur makes the turbocharger this system is left intact. chances are il will have a piston-ring seal on the com- Author's twin turbocharged Corvair engine before it was installed shows diaphragm pressor end. the engine would continue :lvllilable for use on carbureted engines.{)nd bUllcrfly dow n- erator cda!. the maries lose.Iccelerator linkage maY:. This type of seal is not recom- actuatqr for secondary throttles rearranged to open them with manifold pressure mended for use downstre:lI11 from:r ra the r than prim ::. a turbocharger compressor downst ream of the carburetor sees air below atmos- pheric pressure. If II turboch. Saying this in a different way. Because there will always be a pressure drop through the carburetor.:e turbochargers have been suggests ~dding a sc(. If a large enough carburetor is used.ry vacuum. did .J piece of construction equipment. choke llleo:. C:Jrburetor bec:Juse it will not seal oil much beyond 5 inches lig. The biggest advantage uf blow. remains aboutlhe same. buretor and the manifold. the Mead v:llve venls the ing through the o:. vacuum..llhiS Me:lll valve is the same size and :. There arc advantages and disadvantages bUllerfly is linked tll the main butterfly valve wilS plao.:nburelor is that it people who designed the original engine. strC.

it is possible fur the tube bet een the turbo and the manifold and 4S DCOE sidedraft carbs to Rajay carburetor to "ice up" and also for fuel might ha e accomplished the same end turbos. Trevor claims only a little effort to condense in the compressor hOUSing. Looking ram effect at a certain engine RPM is not Another lldvantage to blowing through at Figure 68. intllke manifold underneath the carburetor. the inlets For every sidedraft built there must have manifold is heated by jacket water. lllllde good use of Weber and SU-type the comp essor discharges should be tion. burning I oles in some of the pistons tal.. some of the cylinders will at one speed only and could be a detriment Hccomplished on an in-line engine by bolt- run lean hile others will run rich. vidual runners of speci/1c lengths to get a charged applications.Cj. a sidedrllft carburetor On some in-line engines. . head rllth r than tllngentially. direction or another. An ntercooler or a slightly longer He developed kits to adllpt the Weber 40 intake manifold. . by slaloms. the left sketch shows two recommended. -.r __ . .. "One engines have jacket water passages in the turbo ou let into a doghollse atop the drawback with most V_So passenger-car intake manifold to keep it warm and some intake-m nifold carb flange. but manifold in the carburetor area. There llre. sharp bends to promote turbulence but will note from some of the accompanying asonaV8. 1/4·inch oles had to be added to restore mixture chllnges due to G forces in one When tlle turbocharger compressor is turbulen flow for equal mixture distribu.. the engine whio:. • .-~- -' . The turbocharger COlll. spacer is plm. A y device between the turbo and is required to get the Webers to provide Some turbochargers have been designed • • 55 . placed between the carburetor and the tion. It is usually this happ ns.. ger cars have some method of warming entering he plenum tangentially.. In however. TOlld racing... ( 1B~ TU 11 11 III 11 ( TURB TURB ) I I I~ ( cO~P ) ~)(~ TURB II I _COMP ) ( COMP 'lJ~ COMF lJl{ l~ I J C :>::: WRONG ~ c x RIGHT ~ Figure 68 Method of dueting compressor outlets when using two turbochargers up before it enters the intake m:mifold.. and the intake manifold. hill climbs-or cornered lenum at the junction of the nitely recommended.. is further developed. .. result.. There are a few excep. Most turbochargers are ing the exhaust nlllnii'old directly to the situation -lln cause the engine to fail by designed to be run with the shafi horizon.-- .. This at other speeds. through the intake mllnifold to Simila problems have occurred where and easier to service. . the two exhaust mani- in the ri t sketch and no further distri. were cha ged to the contiguration shown been a million downdrafts. even the fast manuevering required for compress r-disch:Hge pipe lind the intake Cast manifolds usually hllve enough evasive action in everydllY driving. Because of this. Some V 289-CID ord installation directed the they are usually quite expensive. the carburetor is all carburetors on passen- compress rs mounted with their discharge pressor should provide all the air needed.ed between the carburetor over-rich 'ondition in other cylinders." says Ted Trevor.-~. a water-heated while the spark plugs are fouled from an is ideal for mounting purposes. Duke Hallock's tionally good sidedraft carburetors.. .. a few drllwbacks to using them. both Trevor lind David Inal! have is not onl important. -. allow hot exhaust gases to heat the intllke only one turbo was used. or the intake one case hen this happened... ~~" " -. _ • C'~·_ _-:---". A plate with downdraft carbs is that they are subject to have both a heat riser and a water jacket.. easier to procure passage. By sheer num. -. .. . laminar !low into turbulent flow is deft. sided raft carburetors in various turbo- mounted to enter the plenum head-to. bers. the squme plenum chamber fabricated intake manifolds lllust be care. "-- --. the llverage downdraft carburetor folds are often connected by a heat-riser bution pr blems were encountered. Tuning the inlet system with indi.-. -'" . On a V engine. When Chances are II tuned system will work well to prevent icing conditions. As you manifold If two turbochargers llre used.-. but in addition fully designed to prevent some fuel separa.:h will break up swirls or wrreel mixtures under G loads imposed This is us llll y done by 11llving a square. -. photos.

1 the c~rburelor and !lood the engine. a spacer should be plat:ed between the carburetor and the compressor similar [0 Figure 69. neither icing r/oTconde nsa tion will normally take P""j If downdraft c:lrburetor is used. a liq uid slug will be ca+ed inl0 the cylinder when the thrott. This C. If the turboch. To pre- verll carburetor icing. bu1loca ted betwee n the flHrcll:lnical pump . The :lverage fuel pump will not produce more IIwn abou t 5 psig fuel pressu re to the ca~bu re tor. This is line on a naturally- aspira ted engme hUI will not work on a blown carburetor. One way to overn me this problem is to add a high- pressure elec tric pump in series with the engi n9-driven pump. 56 .Hid the carb ure tor. with water-jacketed compressor housings. Figure 70 .tboul 60"F .nal manifold flange to get turbulent flow and good mixture distribution . If the carbure tor-discharge tem p~rature remains :.uger is delif. Tllis will deliver enough ruel pressure when the engine is super- ch arged bu t will also deliver high pressu re at pa r~ load. A plate per- f~rated with 1/4 ·inch holes is used at the ~fig. it is im p ssible fur fuel tu now.. has been driving the same 1937 Ford pickup since it was new. but Illost 3rc designed to keep the com- pressor housing 3S cool as possible to increase the volumetric efficiency.l11 cause ~Ily' thing from stallHlg to ()ver~peed.e is opened. In some cases the exhaust pipe will ac l like:l blow torch. the mecha nical pu mp will act as a rcgu!:llor. fuel will po ur throu . Otherwise. A drilled or cored passage through the sp3cer should be connec ted in series with the he31c~ to allow hot wa ter to flow through th e passage. If fue is al lowed to cullee! :mywhere in the in uction system. form er high-performance coordinator and test-lab supervisor for AiResearch . If the additional pressure is gre<llllough tu uvercome the buoyancy of the 'nle1 valve float. 292 CID engine with AiResearch T-7 turbo is ore of many engines he has installed in the chassis over the years. Duke Hallock. a w3ter paSS<lgc shuuld be drilled or cored OJlthlbOHorn of the elbow.erins to psi to the carbure tor. Onb of the disadvan1~ges of blowing throU~l the carburetor is fuel pressure.

the cffcclive fuel pressure \ ill be reduced by the amount that tlw bfoost exceeds 6 psi.P"~'"'l ". ~he pump in effect becomes Figure 73-Cross section VW fuel pump .pump the fuel. if a fitting is attached 0 the vent hole and a line con· nected to the compressor discharge.. Tlf'S will work but it costs money. Lookiryg at the cross section of a typical rurl pump in Figu re 71 . The switch should be set to start the pump only when the manifold ~ressure goes above atmos- CARBURETOR pheric. SPRING tions of orvair and Volkswagen fuel CHAMBER pumps.ltion is 6 psi.. T Ie Corvair pump has its oper- ating spri g localed on the top side of the diaphragm. the mllximulll I ~~~~~~ SPRING boost tlla can be accolllmodated with the (j CHAMBER pump/reg 11<Jtor (.Qlllbir1. o""J". The fuel pressure will remain constant ~s long as the now is less than Figure 72-Corvair fuel pump pump ca~acity. a ds another potential suurce CARBURETOR of trouble and does not control the fuel pressure S oOlhly. Figur~72 and Figure 73 are cross sec.. The pump itself is fadory-a justcd to give J 2 psi through {he EXHAUST HEAT fuel line ~ the regulator. tile fuel pressure will VENT HOLE rem<lin :11 16 psi. The pressure c:m be increased by pulling in a stiffer spring: bu t. it will del~ver the higher pressure even when not needed. In this case. The regulalor OR WATER JACKET vent call c hose-connected to the duct which fee s air to the carburetor from Figure 69 Sided raft carburetor adapter Figure 70 Downdraft carbu retor adapte r the IllTbota Ih3t any boost pressure will with built-in heater with built-in heater automati ally raise the ouilel pressure by the alllou It of the boost In the normally aspirated 'ondition.0<' 57 . these pumps and regulators can be llsid wilh buust pressures in excess of 6 psi bi reworking the pump to oper- <lIe at a h~her pressure. it is Figure 71~ Typical automotive fuel pump <lpparent he rocker shaft. 8 psi boo 1 will lower the fuel pressure to 4 pSI. For example. One side of Ih~ remote regulator is vented VI to alll1os~feric pressure tlHough a set- screw fac~)ry-set 10 give 6 psi Qutlet from IhCJcgul<Jlor. serves only to compress <l spring wh ch is the force used to. p"""ted by operating ~he electric fuel pump with a pressure s~itch. operated by the engine C:. At any boos above 6 psi. 1-10 ever.l 1. CO" b.1". the PUSH ROD spring wi I be assisted by the compressor- discharge pressure and will always deliver standard pump pressure pIllS supercharge pressure. liS in 1the case of the electic pump. The l\l~l_perforlll~nce HoUey electric fuel pum has a remote regulator which is mounle near the carburetor. BeCllUse the ]Jolley pump produces 2 psi pressure.

Photo <.:. Turbo is a Rajay un it. This is a blow-through-the- cost kept this one out of production. even with all of the emission controls kept intact. Pat Bedard photo....QUrtuy Ford of England.' V -6 Ford turbocharged by engineer Eric Fuchs of Ford's "'>0"1'"'' fuel. Note how neatty eve rything works together.\ i on a ". Performance was phenomenal Advanced Vehicle Operations. Car & Driver magazine staffers turbocharged this Opel and wrote an article on it.. Co.injection system. carburetor installation. 58 .

Relay.Pressure-actuated switch . 2 .Holley electric fuel pump. 4 . 5 .Nova V-S installation by Chevrolet Engi- neering. / 59 . 3 .Pressure line from air cleaner. Chevrolet Engineering Photographs. Air·cleaner pressure adiusts Hol- ley fuel-pressure regulator to maintain fuel pressure greater than air-cleaner pres- sure. 1 .By-pass line for fuel when Holley pump is not running.Holley fuel -pressure reg- ulator. 6 . Air-cleaner pressure also activates switch to turn on Holley electric fuel pump to supply fuel pressures greater than 3 psi as required.

After the pl~stic foam has h~rdened. It is neither practical nor safe gear i to supercharge the engine cran kcase on housings on Ford 302 elD v-a for marine usc. The push rod fits loosely in a plastic guide. In this case. The Volkswagen fuel pum p has the spring on the bottom of the diaphragm but the rocker arm is driven by a push rod. ENGINE CAM If the throttle shaft has no linkage required on one end. it can be shortened and a plug pressed into th e end of the bore. This melhorl may be used on any fuel pump where the spring chamber can be sealed from the crankcase. Brass SU cylin- BOOST' PRESSURE drical floats are usu1l11y strong enough to withstand boost pressure. The choke shaft unly leaks dry air so it needs no seal. The rod call also stick in the up position. it may still be impossible to pres· surize a carburetor because the design of the carburetor may not lend itself 10 being seilled. it will be necessilry to build a box around the carburetor and run the linkage Through a seal in the box.Irea so that air or air fuel mixture cannot be bluwn outside thc carburetor Figu re 74-Diaphragm-type fuel pump with rod seal if the carburetor is to be pressurized from the :lir-deaner flange. causing the pump to cease operating. the lower chamber of the pump Illay be pres- surized by connecting an air line from the compressor discharge and will always deliver ~dequate fuel pressure.l small hole drillcd in it ~nd the plastic foaming liquid poured in. Many modern carburetors come with foam floats ur replilcements are available.. Figure 74. pressure will tend to prevent sticking if the rod is very smooth. a four-cycle engine. the hole CUll be resealed. However. which is in turn driven by the engine cam. A brass float can have:. Don then sug- gests sealing the throttle shafts. but will not work on a fuel pump where the spring chamber is essentially open to the CT<lnkcasc. when running supercharged. After all these probtems have been solved. Don Hubb~rd has done quite a bit of turbocharging by blowing through the carbu retor and makes the following suggestions: The carburetor needs to be inspected to make sure tha! all float bowl :llld otlll::r vents arc vented into the air· horn :.:cidental back t !il firing and then sink and flood the engine . If Ihe push rod is replaced with one which fits snugly in the guide. 60 . The next thing needed is 10 get a foam·pl:lstic or Nitro· FUEL phyl flU:l\. Brass floats with !lat sides may INLET collapse under pressure or ao.

0. som~ leaks into the throttle bore ADAPTlR "r . In addition to this.:e the drilled hole areas so that one hole will not rob pressure from the ollicr holes.or at least thoif which blow through the car- buretor. The fel10ws who invented this system d id nOl have ~urb~harged cars in mind. has many of the same problems as blow. But also. Take dry air . Some car- buretor castings can be merely drilled '""""" '''~ o CARBUR ETOR 0 while some may require drilling and press- ing in small tubing connected with flexible e INTAO<l MAN . To eliminate this prob- l lem. C "~B Lf "'~ O" T~ RO TH[ Pl AH o TH RO rT U TIle best fay is an air seal.. TURBOCHARGERt:.:onditions.IAnd. 77. :. canister.pecause pressure from the com- FUE L pressor ~11 supercharge the float-bowl TO ENGINE chamber.25" 1.-lED H[) . The air pressure o O"'ll TWO ~OLE5 T" R U fI ~:~m.Adapter for carbure to r-flange sealing the carburetor throttle shafTS by ai r seal machininb a special adapter flange..1""" " O above the venturi is slightly higher than that below so some dry air leaks oul. " .-- from suc~ing fuel from the nozzle at idle or very low load o. In a two-shaft carbu- retor.=::~::==l One of the modifications made to car- buretors in an effort to reduce air pollu- tion is a vent frolll the fuel bowl to a charcoal canister. 311d drilling holes through the bot- tom o f the carburetor flange directly into the throttle shaft.0. 187" 1.:rease the fuel- injection pressure to ensure good fuel BOOST AIR FROM now al s4pw. '. unless a check valve is placed in the vent line to the charcoal Figure 78-Fuel injection ASPIRATION VEN TS. ----. engines with this type fuel injet. Don also suggests another method of Figure 75-Air-sealed throttle shaft Figure 76. ~ CAABI)RHOR "" llW SLOT CON N ~cT5 carrying t)lC fuel/air mixture with it. SH AfT from above the venturi and duct it into the throttle shaft boss. FOUR HO LES ing through a tarburetor benluse the injection nozzles are always 011 the pres- sure side of the o. 0 . Figure 75. it is necessary to int. €SAL'G " w. This same canister is usually connected to the fuel tank to cap- ture gasoli ne fumes from that source. T urbocharging a fucl-injected engine FOUR BARREl ADAPT ER . .-. " TVi ODR'. too. the aspiration vents must be COllnected 10 the compressor discharge. This is done mostly to prevent vacuum . When .:ed out thro ugh the nozzle preventing the fuel from entering. pressurized air is lort. This " -' .. it will also supercharge the aspiration venting 61 . POri fuel Figure 77-Adapter fo r 4-ba rrel injections such as used on the Chevrolet carburetor flange Corve tte fngines have aspirated nozzles.--.125" 1.WlD (ubing.:omprcssar.- '." " .:harged conditions. Figures 76 . suggested by Don Hubbard.:tion are TWO PASSAGES supercharged.four barrel or staged two-barrel- be sure to balano.'.oUSTO TUBE / 0 also creatbs no extra friction.Mechanical seals are not the best way to seal a thr9ttle shaft because of friction. . Figure 78.

Compresso r SIze Inlet pressure a lways atmos· Inlet pressure below atmos· and su king through the CllrburelOr. 2. This shuuld be done very care· 8. Positive crankcase Must be moved 10 compressor No chang\) used. Crown Manu· Advantages and disadvantages of btowing or sucking through the carburetor racturi~lg's Datsun 240Z inst<lll<ltioll uses PROBLEM BLOW THROUGH SUCK THROUGH only one of the two SU·Type carburetors providfd 011 the engine. A simplc blowo\fline which opens at 1/4. either method will do in some cases a good job when done correctly." A small 5.erM double·pumper. Figure 79-Compressor impeUer with chopped·up blades canist1T and the fllel t<lllk. In ~ener~1. Carburetor Iiont Might collapse if not made No change staked III place tu prevent them i"rom back· Irom Nitrolil ing OUI.oulput natura IY·<lspir~led enginc. '~e d Trevor says.sor dischar~ pressure in Fig~re 79 is u good example of wh<lt can h<l~pen when <III <lir cleaner is not 3. when ajay turbocharged a 1971 Olds· mobil 350 CID engine whicll normally ~spir~~cd h~d a 725-CFM Quadra-jet. Location of carburelOr No ch-3nge Must be moved MPH performance in the 1/4 mile. ~ high.. Fuel evapo rati on Must be eQulpp~d wi th check No cl.ti~e seal fully using a backup anvil on the opposite on compressor end side o f the shuft so there will be no chance of bending the sh3ft. Fuel fjumlJ Requi res either e~ Ira pump No chnnge mancc 1cnginc. ·'There may be v~ntil~tlon inlet illStan~es where an air cleaner is not desired-like <I boa I which never comes to 4. Compressor surge Can bEl a problem on Not ordinarily II problem deceleration Tabje VlIl was compiled to show the advanl1ges <llld disadvantages of blowl!lg 10.ge system valve to pre~enl superchargmg port or ~11 airplane which never lands.". As an example. Carburetor leakage All holes alld shalts must be No change rock or a piece of metal such as a screw sealed or complete carburetor ur nut will wipe out a compressor impeller. The compressor impeller or one compensated for com · pre. perhaps causing 10 cylinder extremf dam<lge. luel tank All other applicatiulls uf internuJ combus· tion engines need air cleilners. Distal'ce from Carburetor No change Much longer throug'l the engine. boxed Part s0'· the impeller will then pass 6.tner shoul1 do the job. a lways available phvsical size is required on the blher hand. TABLE VIII they g~lt best results with <I single llolley 600. 62 . ear~urctor butte rfly screws should be 7. and linkage Some people think an air cleaner is a w~ste?f lime and power un a high·perfur.pound pressuJc and connected to thc air cle. 9. Turbocharger oil seal No thing special required Must have pos.output turbucharged cngine requires the same or evcn less e FM carbUflion capucity than a high. As phenc so maximum capacity pheric so slightly larger you ca see neither method is perfect but. yet gels near J00· 1.

Porsche's Turbo Carrera coupe was introduced to the wo rld market in 1975 and became available in the U. INTAKE • '\ ~"-COMPRESSOR WASTEGA TE HOUSING TURBINE 63 . in 1976. DISTRIBUTOR PR ESSURE / PIPE D EXHAUST GASES AIR . Wastegate allows turbo response to be much quicker than would be the case if exhaust/intake restrictions were used as Schematic of exhaust and intake plumbing on the Porsche a control for boost pressure.S. Engine for the Turbo Carrera is a fla t·sill: wi th an Eberspacher turbocharger pumping pressuriZed ai r to the fu el·injection sys· tern. Car is a true race·bred machine which offers outstanding appeal to the motoring enthusiast. Turbo Carrera six·cylinder engine.

Crossover ne. Ignition systems on present d:lY pas. disturhtng the emission-cont rol devices.::l1 passengcr C:lr where the plugs .lrged lIlode. ..:harge ignition advall.. no va. :I turbo· lime III fire the charge and the things On a typ1. speed and advanced the spa rk another 12 than produc tion is recommended.:c this 10 0. This is done III reduce radio and TV :lI1d ~t engi ne idlc. in the ~lao..:h3rgcd advance in the lower gears. the .~ for fcrent story.:e.B The ignition system for a turbocharged Somc ignition c:lbles consist of cot Ion before u preset engine speed...000 ohms.es.:rcascd.. It is u good systems. In addition. degrces al 2 psig boost.:hine where the sp:lrkplug 1..:kly thc spark :lpproxirnately 10 erankslwft idCit to rcdu.ldv3nlages of crossover al wide-open throttle. seemed to be thc best COIll- aspiratrd engine.800 RP M lhe adding a turbocl13rger. engine was able 10 stand more spark Plug heat r3nge-as in a naturally · senger cars arc equipped with several :Idvance even with the high intake-mani- aspirated engine-is determined by the me. rcmuved ~1ll1 rep l ~ced do/ens of limes.:hambc r the resistunce of thc spark-plug leads. Thi s SlIlIle problelll cxists in a with stcel-core wires or with the MSW was do ne on the COfvair Spyder where turbocjlargcd cngine.. engine. the pressure- boost is developed.tIl older engine b!:lslillt there is usuallY:J little chamber possiblY:ln incre~se in the resistunce. The centrifugal advance of use of the engine. The .. At this point.. As bad as these things sound. At 3. an engine was missing badly the spurk . The recommended noted that rcsist:lllce·type wirc (.IIlifold pressure goes ensure positive ignitioll when maximum disadvantages. The rallo engine running on high·octane g:lso- mentati oll will show as the pn:ssurc in whole wiring harness was replaced and line.llIy itspir<lted or the turbo- atmosnhcrk conditions. Some engine ~s nul 111lu.llcd with car. degrees by 4.Jl resistance was supposed to be 20. This 24° :ldvance will be considerably higher than on 3 f3di o . it should be ahove ambient. ~bgnet i c-Suppressiotl Wire.ed liming.:.500 RPM.:urvc should he ~djllsled to get be inscned and pressure applied 10 sec if f{)r no apparent reaSon. Don' t These devi.:hanis)lls 10 prevent spark advance fold pressure.used inste:ld of:J V:lcuum- g:Jp on most n3turallY-Jspirated passengcr be used with capaci tive-dis.035 inches...performance naturally.:eSS3ry to reduce the spark gap 10 the resist311ce-type wire with none of the is when the intake m:. temperature alld no vacuum advance promise to get maximum power from the 64 . even in :lny lime when such advance might the distributor came into effed at this ordinary street use.equipped or if there is any rC:lson S:lve pretty guod perforlll:lnce until naturally·aspirated engine of the S:IIllC to be concerned ahout r:ldio/TV inter· ahout 2.tlso have spark retard dllring deceleration a high. it was dccided to check III the llatur..lclLl.1\ thc luwer speeds on th e plug must bc dccreased 10 make TVR·type wires should be repbced when [10 turbocharging takcs pJ~ce. A hUle ex pen.:uulll was worked out on the dyn:llllornetcr and.:hed (. In tllc hands very good performan.. engine as you wo uld have on a l1:ltura1Jy· advance until t he engine has come lip to at the time.:h different than tll:l! fur or similar material impregn:.:es vary frolll car to car but.:itble with these ignition deviccs and st ill get aTC about the same in either case. The whole h3f1lCSS might be increase in engine perfurrnitll":c withoul the turbocharged cllginc. Because a lurhodl:lrged has a little gl:!$S window so the .000 RPM when the engine re:l.all11ot ret.rct:lrdcd cars is jlround 0. These systcms will qui... WIHlll spllrkplugs are cleaned by somd This will C~lIse fl ex ing of thc cables and Whcn turbocharging.025 inches when des t roy Ihe TVR wire . It has \ll make a sp:Hk at Ihe right interferen.lrd device..:c :lnd thc wircs are "::llIcd TVR. it's a dif· is one of the few wuys of gelling:l large chambers crea te a few extra problcll1. This it fire. one range colder increase NO x in the engine exhaust. it IS able to :lceept extremely the chambcr is in. :ldv~n.111 one insl~ncc. thc spark gup the cngine rall withou t missing. A turbocharger higher pressures inside [he combust ion of a hot rodder or e nthusiast. they consist of no vacuum of centrifugal advance and pressure retard plug-fouling problems on a turbo. 111 nut cqlllppcd with these emissi()n devi. Tltis .omprtssion ratio and.. It has all of the .. but one lead had 200..:harger may he :lpplied tu an e ngHlc going on outside the combustion chamber ~re changed m:lybc O I1 ":C ~ ycar. :lltlwugh w uld last the life of the car. After trying the maximum uut of thc e nginc eithc r it will fire under pressure as well as at cverything clse.. therefo re. However. It is ference.000 ohms engi ne is normitllY:l low-comprcssion- spark may be observed.aspirated bon.:h.:e device on the di~tributor . The combustion. This combination go too cold or you will have the salllC in general. The MSW the distributor was set with:lll initi~1 chambh pressure :11 the time {)f ignition type should be installed if the vchidc is advunce of 24DBTDC.

with less than 0 carburetor used on this engine had no pro. " > Cl <{ 8 /v/ Insulation !. nects one port to the intake manifold and to the inl~ ke manifold where it will sense For example. Corvair Spyder fits other four. He can· recomme ded to attach the vacuum line either on a dynamometer or on the road. Imtial distributor setting is 24° BTDe. the spark was advanced beyond this.hapter. the engine seemed to operate best doing this he can have retard at idle. in the case of 1. result- 65 .and six-cyJ. the other to the carburetor... Figure 81. 0 2 PRESSURE Lbs/ln2 3 4 I Corvair pyder distributors used a pressure-retard unit instead of a vacuum-advance unit. Fiberglass Support CENTRIFUGAL ADVAr..-CARBURETOR I ""'".. By manifold pressure rather than pressure at wagen. -. exhaust temperature cooled down. '" CC 4 VVV Glass Braid /// "'" "- vvv o Hvpalon Jacket § •• o • ENGINE APM Magnetic-suppression wire construction details. Figure 80-Vacuum-advance sensing line location . some of the newer combination vacuum· good res Its have been obtained with a sarily be the best for another engine and advance/vacuum-retard mechanisms used vacuum. power.000 RPM. As or should be connected to the intake mani. to the late ignition... 26 spark advance. ing in lower boost pressure and less horse- mention d in the carburelion (. Using either a fuel· inder distributors used by General Motors I:aused a sizable increase in head tempera- enriching device or some type of water from 1962-74.JCE Magnetic Initial timing 24° BTDe Hypalon •• ~ " Monel W"e v ~ ~ • "w 12 // ConductIve Neoprene U Z VVl/' I.:.F{\ . the supercharged.t. engine w'thout detonation problems..vance device although it is the best spark curve must be worked out on emission-controlled engines. Spark re~ards when manifold sees boost.. ture. 0 the spark advance port. PRESSURE RETARD •e ~ • " " Cl cc 8 II DISTRIBUTOR " f- w cc 4 1/ /VACUUM·SENSING LINE I / '"cc i\l. the fold instead of sensing butterfly pressure. When advance at part load and retard when the powe valve sensing line of the carburet. for the same reason at 26 spark advance at 4. Curves show advance/retard production toleranc~s of the centrifugal and pressure-retard mechanisms. or water/~ICOhOI injection eliminates the The centrifugal-advance curve and pres· Bill Reiste has had good success with need for he pressure-retard device and sure retard for the Corvair may not neces.. Figure 80.600cc Volks. boost pressure went vision tO~dd extra fuel to the mixture The pressure-retard diaphragm from the up a little but the engine lost power due when the engine was running in the turbo.. partially opposing the effects of centrifugal ad- vance. Retarded timing also charged andition. On the other hand.

ignition does not pose any mo e difficult problems on a turbo- l charge engine than on a naturally-aspi- rated e gine but the timing is quite differe t and enough effort should be spent 0 this item or the results might be disa pointing. This is ometimes caused by too lean a mixtur but can be the result of not enough secondary voltage.. the primary on the spark c il receives a charge of current from t e battery. A good solid· state ig ition system is sometimes the answer hen this problem occurs. t e secondary voltage will not be great e ough to fire across the spark plug. 66 . SENSING LINE The difference between a transistor- switch d ignition and the ordinary dis- tribulo and coil type is that with the conven ional type of ignition.-" - Uq id-cooled engines do not seem to be as s nsitive to spark timing and can usually stand more advance at less than 3.. Startin and stopping of the current flow is accO! plished by a solid-state diode. ADVANCE low-cu rent triggering device. When the points open. To s mmarize. there is no best ignition timing for all urbocharged engines and the ideal timing or any engine will probably be CARBURETOR the res It of a lot of cutting and trying. ----. the points are use merely as a trigger of a high- voltage electronic device which steps up the attery voltage before it enters the coi and therefore does not need as 1. As i the case of naturally-aspirated engine. As long as SPARK the poi ts are used only as a low-voltage. they should last a I ng time. In a breakerless ignition system the triggering device is magnetic Figure 81-Bill Reiste's double-acting diaphragm or opti al rather than a mechanical switch. whenever the poi ts are dosed.-" ---. In the ransislor system.800 M.. Sam turbocharged engines running at high sp ed and high boost pressores will sudden y backfire for no apparent reason. the les time the coil has to build up a charge nd if the engine speed gets too high. S me ignition systems have been INTAKE MANIFOLD built w th the higber voltage going through PRESSURE LINE t the poi Is but this has a tendency to burn out the points very quickly.-/ much t me to build up a charge in the coil. this ch rge is immediately discharged througl the condenser causing a high voltage in the secondary which fires the spark pugs. The faster the engine runs.

·bl.~spirated engine. feet per second in the turbine housing. swerving bends. pressure or velocity if pos.... but in the case of turbo- lillie bac pressure as possible on the where around 2. Smo key V" " . "to. They duct the hal. This cll:Irged engine s. three-inch-diameter turbine wheel rotating when comparing turbocharged and non- times cut to a certain length to make use at 120.d engine eve r to run at Indianapo lis. Turbocharged of the pulses and cause a V3wum to be second.m. right for the lTli.000 RPM is about 1. This overlap of 67 .'ol... all extremely large-diameler engines is they have 90° crankshafts.II.. In either 300 feel per second .k·bl. .b. If the exhaust gas comes QUI of engines have rel:lliveJy simple exhaust created ai the exhaust port at the instant the exhaust port of the engine at abo ut systems while the naturally-aspirated or the exhaust valve is opened. causes two adjacent cylinders on each 0 sure. their use is more esthetic engine. exhaust stacks is necessary because the tip speed of a than power·increasing.600 feet per turbocharged race cars. As mentioned in the chapter about There is nOlhing wrong with smooth vehicle and reduces the noise level." "".elocity gases from the engine bank to fire 90 apart."k Ch" . a turbine hot/slllg Oowing exhaust headers with beautiful the S3mCJill1C it is desirable to create as increases the exhaust·gas velocity to some. Photo by Hetb Fishel.. At turbocharger design. fro m the ~ngine to the rear of the sible.000 feet per second. exltallsllllalli[old is lIot recommended.8 MPH.. This are diITerent. we don't gain very mechanically supercharged engines usually case.."d 19 0...If. E• •III1'T 1 -- F". On a racing car. the 10 the turbocllarger without reducing its The :Irea of th e exhaust port is :Ibout exhaust system gels combustion products temperature. This is evident from the individual cylinders are some. possible. One of the drawbacks of most V-S T urbocharged engine exhaust systems For this reason.lnifold.'. higlT . high-pres. On :I naturally.000 nate all back pressure if possible. best fin ish was 13 th in 1975. k'.. the exhaust system is designed \0 much if we slow it down to 100 feel per have exhaust headers designed to elimi- rob the engine of as little power as second just so we can speed it up to 2.

. If the ends of Ihe pipe are restrained. it tends to grow longer be. Straight asbestos-compound material is not satisfactory <lnd will blow out in a short time. Manifolds and piping can be made from ftanges and readily available sib le in the exhaust gases. this ten- den.:ars lod ~y do nut have EXHAU5T g:lskels between the exhaust manifold _IFOLD . This type has been used 011 aircraft engines for lJlany years . The cffe. particularly V·g -. Don suggests 0. ___I 1 7 .1I1d surprisingly lillie le<lkage takes place hecause the inside pipe always gelS hotter than the outside... exhaust pulses is not important unless . This problem is partio. The problem is easily solved by using 0 a 180 crankshaft if you can stand the vibration.. Fo rd Cortina components are illustrated here. bul also because the COmpressor will now be putting ou t less pressure due to the lower turbine speed making less pressure available to the turbine as well.:t is double because th e lur- bine will slow down . This is not import:lllt as far <IS engine power is concerned although a leak could be dangerous to the passengers..and the cost of hav ing one specially made.OIL DRAIN <lsbestos material backed with perforated metal. When a pipe is insulated.005 10 0. It is not unCOllllllon to insulate an exhaust pipe on a turbocharged engine <IS DFRE sent this dra wing to show how simple it is to fabricate a turbo installation a lllC<lIlS of keeping as much heat as pos- witho ut a kit .. causing the j oint to become very tight. This insulation tubing. Embossed stainless 68 .008-im:h on stainless steel.. To ~ obtain maximum performance. nOI only from the lower volume nowing through it due to the leak... Don Hubbard suggests the joint shown in Figure 83.005·inch dial1letr~1 clearance for mild steel and 0 . it is desirable to have a slip joint in the exhaust duct between the two heads.004 to 0.:allse of the higher 1emperature. can cause other problems. Many passenger . EXHAUST FLOW . Even if the pipe does not burn out./4" TO 1/2" END GAP ~ 1" T O 2" SLIP ENGAGEMEN T TYPICAL SLlPJOt NT FIgure 83 Typical slI p Joint for exhaust.:ulnrly evident with the Volkswagen Iype exh uast. engines with Ol1e turbocharger.. WELD tile engine is used for all-out racing. A good sandwich·type metal asbestos gasket should be used if available. i! becomes consider:lbly hotter :lnd may eve n gel hoI enough to burn uut. The nexl best thillg to use is a gasket cu t from 11--. the gases from the two ports should be ducted ·1 separately. A small leak at this joint on a turboc harged engine could cause a cOllsiderable boost loss.:y 10 grow longer will put ex cessive stress on any bends ~l11d may cause the pi pe to crack. I ~ . rather than th rough a collector. WELD On some engines.md the heJd.

it is desirable to use some type WELD PLATE IN OPENING ofbalan e tube between the two manifolds. Fgure 84 shows how the opening in the ex aust manifold can be blocked by weldi g a plate in place and machining it flat so t will not interfere with the intake m nifold.. there may not be enough room to get an elbow between the turbine I turbine eel they will rotate in the same help quiet exhaust noise.i 69 . be going aster than the turbine-wheel bulent flow is established. When a muffler is used.. When direction from the rotation of the tur- bine.. expansion to convert swirl to turbulent exhaust anifolds should be joined with flow a balance tube of not less than 3/4-inch diameter 1 In-lin engines with intake and exhaust manifold on the same side of the head ordinarii have a hot spot in the intake manifold over an opening in the exhaust manifold It is used for the same purpose as the Y... In some cases direction as the turbine. Actual exhaust-pipe diameter used on i out axiall .. the joint between he exhaust and intake manifold may not e perfect and will allow exhaust- gas leaka e if used on a turbocharged engine..... Wh n they are going slower than the section of the exhaust pipe wi!! not create much additional back pressure and will this happens.. ~::::.EXHAUST MANIFOLD put out e same boost pressure. Sometimes installation considerations exducer and sometimes slower. it will do such a good job that a muffler outlet and the exhaust pipe. For this reason.. don't be mis- times used in close quarters. it is desirable led by the amount of noise you hear at a turbocharger system often depends on ..... best results can be \ / obtained only if al! of the turbochargers '""'-.. Figure 85_ The reason for this way to do this is to have a sharp diffuser to the system. Figure 85. The heat riser sha Id be left open because it will ensure e ual pressures in both exhaust \ --= j f . Figure 86 sllOWS a banjo-type turbine discharge some. steel gas ets work well if both surfaces are very at but are not recommended .. The original the turb charger ideally should be tlow.::::::. .engine heat riser... Spent exhaust gases coming out of to break up the swirl and change the gases the back of the vehicle. 1 the path or the exhaust gases will be con- siderably longer than if they were coming will not be required. When tant for the exhaust pipe to be that big cause the turbocharger to end up with the they are oing faster than the turbine and after about eighteen to twenty-four exhaust very close to an obstacle such as wheel th y will rotate in the opposite inches..... Because minor ex aust leaks are not important on a nat rally-aspirated engine. If a heat riser is not available....' F i g u r e 84-0ne way to close off in-line /CARBURETOR engine heat riser 1 . Check f==="""=:!/ '" /MANIFOLD j the mati] g surfaces for warpage and if HOT any is ev dent have them machined to restore f1 tness. for use ith stamped-steel flanges. For this reas n. Once tur. muffler to the other it is best to have range of ngine speed and power and This requires a large-diameter exhaust a pressure gage between the turbine therefore the exhaust gases will sometimes pipe from the turbine housing. One quiet but added very little back pressure like a hel x. exhaust and the muffler...i F i g u r e 85-Turbine discharge with rapid manifold.. to turbulent flow as soon as possible Corvair Spyder muffler was extremely ing axiall but actually will be rotating after they leave the turbine housing.. In either case...::~'='i ~~~~SPOT When two or more turbochargers are used on n engine.. Even he best gaskets will not work if INTAKE the exha st manifold is warped... When comparing one is the tur ocharger is used over a broad angle on the turbine housing... a smooth reduction in the cross the engine-compartment firewall. \AND MACHINE TO MATCH j A V-S en One ordinarily has a heat riser \ INTAKE MANIFOLD 1.. it is not impor. ~ which pa ses through the intake manifold to preve t fuel condensation in the mani- fold and dog in the carburetor.

) -to (..lll-oul racing I:lrgc leak between the enginc <lnd turbinc engine it may not be desirable to usc <IS is h~rd tv find. .. I'.Banjo·type turbine d ischarge .h ooi" "'0' 70 . the application. S im ple exhaust design is all that is requ ired fo r the turbo. I power. ..--p6l' -.. Pinto 2000ce kit components with cast exhaust manif4'd. o .: • Figure a6. the turbocharger will always be A leak in the engine·exhaust systcm bl<ll1led... Even on an . ""YTOg o"k" so ".. the leiJk is too big. . The be much more effedivc al high engine easiest WiJY to check this is to block off speeds 'thlm at lower speeds.... .. II . Free-flowing or " tuned " heade rs are not necessary and sometimes actually detract from the perfor. • (" Il /. chances are 100 to J there is a ear because it will not necessarily leak at leak in the exhaust system le<lding to the idle conditions. ! • . power ~ellalty al low and medium engine When an engine does nol deliver full speed...md the shaft c... This can be the turbocharger exhaust cumpletc!y used a~ a fail-safe method of limiting while the engine is idling. '~ . Tu rbo Systems now makes this kit. Ex ploded par ts drawing of Car Corp. . mance of t he engine.: .m be of boost may not be detectable to the rotated. Duke Hallock wrapped the exhaust pipe coming from the turbine to reduce unde r· hood temperature. Ths can be very aggrnvating large an exhaust pipe :IS possible because bccause the turbvchargcr will not pro- a s1igh~ restriction in the exhaust pipe will duce full boost and maximum power. and at high engine speed turbo." V ( ~ . If thc engine manifold pressure witJlout p:lying any continues to run. If the turbine and compressor large enough to cause considerable loss wheels are intiJct ..

Gary and Jerry Mallicoat held B-Gas-Super- charged record in 1965-66 with this turbo- ed 327 CIO Chevy in a 3000-pound 1941 Willys coupe. Photo courtesy Mallicoat Brothers. 714 HP at 7000 with turbos. 71 . la-second ET's. 139 MPH quarter-mile speed with 10. Spec- ial turbine housing simplified exhaust connections to center·mounted turbo. En· gine produced 590 HP at 7200 RPM with Roots blower. I T~W put this turbocharger in a 1962 C~rysler 300 with a Solex two-barrel progressive side-draft carburetor. Two Ai Research turbos with seals on compressor side were fed by twin four-barrel carbs. Rochester FI manifold distributed the mixture.

fO'din9.3l -second ET in 1971 . Photos by Bill Fisher. . 72 . Expe rimental Oldsmobile 350 Cutlass in- stallation by Rajay had new o utlet weld· ed onto each stock exhallst manifold. < . Note Simple ex- haustmrO. Two turbos were used in thi s installation. Intake manifolds and Injectors are Hilborn units. .45 MPH at an B. Aluminum foil on turbine inlet reduces heat loss so turbine o perates wit h best efficiency_ Wrapping the turbine hous- ing a nd outlet pipe is done for safety and to reduce heating of the engine compartment. Car was 10 MPH faster In turbocharged form.•. . Chrysler hemi 467 CID engine produced 843 HP with a fully blueprinted Roots-t ype blowe r. 1. Mallicoat Brothers' 2400-pound glass-bodied BS Altered Gas class car turned 172. 130 HP at 7000 RPM wit h two AiRe- search ~E06 turbos.

73 . Gasoline and LPG kits are available.manifold.. Bill F. ' '''IIIf/II '1f1ll1l1l1ll fill . Specially made turbine housing simplified exhaust connections to single center·mounted turbo. photo.sh.. • . i II •• 1963 Pontiac Grand Prix with 389 e lo V-8 engine used single TRW turbocharger with custom·made two·barrel side·draft Rochester carburetor with progressive linkage. Manifold locates turbo so bat· tery must be moved to left side....111111 IIJ III II ' /I ' ' '11. Air cleaner drew cold air from area ahead of windshield.

engine is idling and measure the aU flow S in Chapter 2.5 t that is only half the story.-. WRONG RIGHT Oil SHOULD DRAIN INTO CRANKCASE ABOVE THE OIL LEVEL Figure 8'-':.~. actual type and viscosity will turbocharger from the opening where for a three and a half or four-inch turbo- be dictated by the engine hut. then a filter is definitely which should be made to ensure adequate at the turbucharger will show this. crankcase. If the oil viscosity It is n t necessary to install a special and the switch or pressure gage connected in the engine is too high for the ambient oil filter 'n the turbocharger oil line if there. to the turbocharger when the engine is which P' sses particles of 30 microns or this wili show up as low oil pressure as first started. It is usua1ly safe to draw oil for the least 5/16-inch OD tubing should be used ing oil.7. These tubing sizes are adequate a turboe arger will operate wen on any is normally connected. If a engine is not equipped with a soon as the engine is started.0 :~~. placed in the line at the turbocharger eod at least 30 psi pressure. -- .~.':~'~ bearing and seal design bypass so oil will still get to the turbo. At least.~~~~. the low-oil-pres- less. It is nol uncommon for a turbo.~O~il totogetthethebearings. the lOW-ail-pressure light or pressure gage charger.t. Another test sure switch or pressure-gage connection full-flow oil filter. --. Turbocharger charger even if the filter is dogged with by running it into a bucket.. for a three-inch turbocharger while al book designed to use engine lubricat. ---. the life of a turbocharger one half or four inch turbocharger. in general.---. '--. A tee should be if the engine is running on hot oil with oil that ill work in the engine. Here again. If there is a restriction at the point temperature conditions. 74 . On gallon per minute for each three and spent oil back the other hand."" and wrong way of draining oil from turbocharger T~~~. A dirt. and just the user has not serviced his oil filter.g" described in this hours. gallon per minute are required for each be provided to get dean charger to fail from lack of oil because three-inch turbocharger and about 1. running on dirty oil can be measured in Quarter·inch OD tubing is suff1cient '"1~b'''I". ~--. no oil will flow the engiJ e is equipped with an oil filter where the oil was taken off the engine. "--~. If the recomm oded in the oil-inlet line and it oil to the unit is to disconnect the oil engine is started and driven off under should b of the type with a built-in line from the turbocharger while the power before oil gets to the turbocharger.

made it "seem pos· sible to meet hydrocarbon standards for the foreseeable future using U.S. 75 . quoted BMW's top engi ne man on that firm's plans for retaining their sporting image and meeting increasingly tough emission requirements. Cars ran successfully in European road·race events during 1969·70.injected BMW 2002cc engines. Photos courtesy 8ayerische Motoran Werke. combined with fue l injection.1971. 280 HP from 122 Cl 0 was produced by turbocharged and fuel . Alex Von Falken· hausen said that the turbocharger he lped to reduce NDx emissions and. test cycles. BMW 2002cc engine uses Kugelfischer fuel injection and Eberspaecher "E BD" Turbolader (turbocharge r). Au tomoti we News for October 4. Electronic ignition triggers precisely from fl yw heel· position sensor." Note large drain line from turbo to sump.

a passenger car. Because of this. If your turbocharger shows signs of as well as the engine. it is probably because whipp d cream. In Innumerable high·capacity oil pumps line en ering the crankcase below the oil many cases. If it is on the urbocharger than on the oil-intake When installing a turbocharger on an established that there is no restriction on line. Remember the scavenge pump years without any visible signs of wear on from t e valve covers to the intake mani. Never use a screen or restrie. an orif ceo the turbocharger and cause leakage Most engines have an oil pump with Oil ntering the turbocharger from the through the seals.5 gallons per minute. if fold. devices on engines. ing thT ugh the bearings running as high leaking oil into either the turbine housing if the oil-pressure gage at the turbocharger as 130 00 RPM. the sketch on the left shows the oil the pan is removed from the engine. oil cuming from the turbochargers can through the bearings. charger because of the air which gets turbocharger even for a short period of This va ve is designed to restrict flow mixed with the oil as it passes through time. If the oil preven ing a free flow of drain oil from draining oil back to the valley. then a larger oil pump should be used.. has a place in the intake extended periods. If a scavenge pump specifically for turbo- early t rbocharger failure. Because the turbu- This pr ssure is caused by blowby whIch flood the rocker housing and back up charger is idling must of the time it is on occurs n all engines and is the result of into the turbocharger. usually advertised for the purpose uf the lin~' and back up into the bearing hous. must have a much greater capacity than the bearing journals. The only place it some other place to drain the oil back to Many turbocharged Volkswagens have can go. Chances of the rocker-box covers. Aviaid tor ari Ice in the turbocharger oil-supply full power when the intake manifold Metal Products Company manufactures line. For this reason. If the oil pres. the oil supply and the oil pressure is still slant d wnward at all points without any on kit-most people do not want to low. The drain line must remove the engine from the vehide unless High-capacity pumps interchangeable with dump il to the crankcase above the oil absolutely necessary. The PCV design used. These fold into the valley between the heads where the turbocharger may be used for breath rs should be serviced regularly or. temperature goes above 250°F. it is check all these points before tearing it of a restriction at the oil source rather necess ry to have a much larger drain line down only to find nothing is wrong. Tte line to the intake manifold is the amount of oil used by the turbo. On the other hand. Additiunal will add about 80°F. sarily true on a truck. of course. this can only be done by available for Volkswagen engines are level. the other hand. it charged engines. it has [ow restriction at capacity of 1. than lack of oil·pump capacity. the PCV valve is not serviced regularly. or the will become partially clogged and manifold which has neither an air or tions I recommend installing an oil-tem- presslIr will build up in the crankcase. it is better to place in the cmnkcase. the crankcase was nor. be sure to has a low reading. The breather allowed rods is often a good place to drain the much hotter than it would if the engine the blo by gases to escape but contained turbocharger oil. charger and pumps it into the engine a press fe-reducing valve in the line than vent the oil from draining properly from sump. rid of the small alllount of oil used to A turbocharger rUJllling at design speed mally uipped with a bre(lther to prevent lubricate the rocker arms.' . dirty oil or no oil at all is supplied to the normal y equipped with a PCV valve. bus or a lllotorhome dirt fr entering the engine. As mentioned earlier. On three-inch turbocharger should have a of min tes. this additional heat occurs high-p S5ure gases leaking by the piston the plate which covers the valve push only occasionally and the oil does not run rings 0 the engine. On in-line engines. A scavenge pump for a short-lived. tu the oil as it passes preS5ur from building up in the crankcase. a scavenge pump must be application but the important thing is to ventila ion (PCV) device. This is not neces- some k nd of a filter element to prevent either a hole through the intake mani. been driven for what would be considered Many people have torn down turbo. ing of he turbocharger. it is desirable tu find lengthening the life of the crankshaft. Ei her will dog quickly and cause vacuum is low and the blowby is high. Some V engines have was naturally aspirated. will va with the engine but usually it engine where the only practical place to A turbocharger lubricated with clean will ha e one line going from the valve mount the turbocharger is beneath the oil at engine pressure can be run for many covers 0 the air cleaner and another line engine. chargers are mounted high enough. It 's also necessary to have the line engine-particularly ifit is part of a bolt. the engine. his causes foamy oil to build up in removing the engine from the vehide. the a high number of miles on a naturally- charge~s to replace leaking seals only to oil may be drained back to one or both aspirated engine without excessive crank- find they appeared as good as new. If the turbocharger is mounted so uil-cooler.the be rings can be wiped out in a matter vacuum is high and blowby is low. This. 76 . will pre. If the turbocharger or turbo. These engines were equipped are the were as good as new. kinks r sink traps. Looking at Figure drain to the pan is rather difficult unless but chances are one won't be necessary. This is often the case on an airplane keep the oil cool to prevent oxidation. This mechanical unit sure is 0 high the added flow causes will stick and cause pressure to build up literally sucks the oil out of the turbo- draina e problems. Attaching the oil stock pumps are available for many engines level in the crankcase. water passage which can be drilled for perature gage on the engine. on some engines but not on others with an oil filter which was probably more Be~ re the days of emission-control because some have a problem of getting important than the high-capacity pump. They are made in several sizes. at least. enough capacity to handle a turbocharger engine's relatively air free but after pass. the chances are the unit will be from t1e crankcase when mtake-mamfold the turbocharger. insta!! an the tur ocharger. rom there is out through the seals. 87. it looks like dirty or the compressor housing. These come in many shapes and All ssenger-car engines built today low it is not practical to drain the oil back sizes depending on the engine and the are eq ·pped with a positive crankcase to the engine. This will work shaft wear. On any of these applica.

77 . Fuel-injection pioneer Stuart Hilborn barely photo." a jet in I line which establishes mixture. Hilborn is changing the "pill. Waste gate plumbed to underside of header does not show clearly in this photo. ~~~~~~O~f~f':n~h~auser engine undergoing dyno test with AiResearch TE0659 unit.

George Spears. Installed by Bob's Automotive in lawndale. California. Lower photo of an MG Midget controls boost by the carburetor size and exhaust restrictions. Original rear-wheel HP was doubled to 70 HP with 11 psi boost. provided these photos of two controlJed turbocharger installations. The top photo is a Porsche 91 1 with fuel injection.. An Impco control is used to regulate boost to 11 psi for about 300 HP. 7B . Rajay 375E. Rajay 3018.7 turbo.25 turbo installed by Shelby- Speareo.

it is possible to design a turbocharger engine combin tion to match the operating TURBINE conditions-assuming they are known- and aChIeve optimum performance without any mo able controls. This again is not an exact control and is sub- disadvantage is the manifold pressure is limited while the rotor speed might I I ~ simples and also the least precise method ject to flutter. This trolling I· t at the same time. when a race d iveT is qualifying his o:. Figure flow to the compressor and limits the nonuan produce more pressure than the engine an stand. and although this will have a rela.:ar. tried as a manifold-pressure-limiting device ling maximum turbocharger speed. neither will be exact. most of us do not have either the time or the money to do this and unless some type of cont 01 is llsed. This s not necessarily true in the case of a rac·ng engine.:al to change Figure 88. valve capacity. The I deSignei to limit compressor-outlet pressur . then it ould probably be neceSS:HY to use a di ferent turbocharger for qualifica- tion thilil for the race. them to figure out it could be fooled by is being controlled. 79 . The problem is. . Although the by some racing officials. When the flow Turb charger controls can generally will be opened by turbine-inlet pressure of the compressor is much larger than the be divi d into twn categories. As an example. and and rotor speed. then horsepower and MANIFOLD reliabilif. The valve using a larger compressor. The lowofr valve in Figure 88 is the fuel-injected engine or where the com- pressor blows through the carburetor.y are equally important. but racers are higher speed also results in higher intake- i valve it If might be either a poppet or smart people and it did not take long for manifold temperature while the pressure flapper ype.. ing unless a damper is attached. It certainl would not be practio:.t Ie control were not used here.Turbocharged engine with simple exhaust-blowoff valve turbine-lOusing sizes between each run. it will be subject to flutter.:ation is over and the race is run. If Figure 90 shows a compressor-inlet- those w ich limit the compressor-outlet nutter does occur. If an adjust. the turbocharged engine ill have to be a compromise and not w:h·eve either maximum available horsepo er or peak response. the valve will destroy controlled system. For street use or p rhaps even for a Bonneville·type COMPRESSOR racer. drag or oat racing. Ano her advantage of a turbocharger control s that it allows the turbocharger to be ru at or near its maximum speed without bursting so long as the control works p operly. he must VALVE get max mum horsepower from the engine INTAKE / but is n t particularly concerned with MANIFOLD EXHAUST durabili y.iecause modern turbochargers wjll It is possible to locate a blowoff valve compressor. It has the advantage of the valve being on the cold end. butterfly between the carburetor and the engine. Give enough time and money. but this is only recommended on a manifold pressure. • < . It is not a good way of control- of sensi g turbocharger speed and con. most controls are 89. This type control has been increase. to prev nt it from destroying itself. Those only. After the qualifio:. a urbocharger can be matched to ~ an engi e without the use of controls and still give excellent perfonnance. A similar situation o could a cur with a drag racer or a drag boat wi ere adjustment of the maximum boost a ailable could be made easily for maxim m overall engine performance. This system places a pressure to keep it from destroying the itself in a short time. whether it be for track. The valve reduces the air on the compressor-discharge duct. the valve no longer limits which Ii nit the speed of the turbocharger tionship to compressor-discharge pressure manifold pressure.

.Figure 94. Figure 95. With this method all the gas goes through the turbine t all times and none is dumped overboa d. by intake-manifold pressure. absolute pressure.-----'s- COMPRESSOR 0 INTAKE/ MANifOLD Ii 1 \ EXHAUST MANIFOLD Figure 9-Turbocharged engine with compressor-blowoff SENSOR Figure 90-Compressor inlet·control system valve Fro a performance and efficiency standpo nt. or poppet valve-· Figure 9 . Even then... The mechanism must be made from materials which have good \ strength and corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures. Figure 9 . The ost popular method of controll- ing turb charger speed is with a wastegate or tUfbi e-bypass valve. VALVE BLOWQFF VALVE TURBINE I / j -~J /. or air flo 80 ... his method is often used on air turbines but is too expensive and unreliab e for tmbochargers because of ACTUATING RING . pressure ratio. com- bustion roducts will tend to jam the vanes and prev nt reliable operation. or by a servo motor. NOZZLE VANES NEAR WIDE OPEN POSITION 1 INLET gage pre ure. The valve may be operated manuall . CLOSED POSITION the hot nlet gases. a variable-area nozzle as shown i Figure 91 is the best way to control urbocharger speed. It can be either a butter y-Figure 92.--'/-. density. The servo in turn may be con- trolled 1 anually or by a device whkh senses tu bocharger speed. The nozzle is opened and Figure 91-Turbine with variable·area nozzle dosed b an actuator controlled by the NOZZLE VANES NEAR sensor.

. OVERBOARD ~~l"" .Ct=================~~~'1-" ~~RBINE FROM TO ENGINE TURBINE 81 . CONTROL PRESSURE ~~'-' b. Figure 93-Poppet-type waste gate Figure 92.~~ - ~~~~-.Butterfly-type waste gate.. Chuck built his own waste·gate valve. Chuck Sarson waste-gate valve disassembled .~=. .. It.

COMPRESSOR COMPRESSOR TURBINE TURBINE Figure 94-Manually-operated waste-gate valve Figure 95-Waste gate controlled by intake-manifold I pressure COMPRESSOR TURBINE SERVO MOTOR L _ _-L______ ________________----' Figure 96-Waste-gate valve controlled by servo motor 82 .

83 . DIAPHRAGM METAL BE LL OWS '" DIAPHRAGM Figure 97. turbocharger speed is normally to the compressor inlet and PC 2 is con.~~. placed in the discharge-air stream of the impeller If an engine equipped with a manifold pressure is reached and will hold compressor because it senses com pressor· r turbochbrger were moved from sea level this pressure constant as the engine speed discharge temperature as well as pressure. engine is to be Ilsed at many different sensed by means of a pressure-ratio sensor nected to Ihe compressor outlet. This type sensor was used extensively mainly. If..j[ one altilude.. how.~~ VALVE sERv. application...==I~~!-- VALVE _ META L BELLOWS Turbocharger speed can be sensed by to be operated at high altitudes without pressure sensur except Ihal the vulume an eleo. we arc talking about here and normally trolled. to some higher altitude. It has because Ihe pressure ratio on any specific ever.Pre ssure·ratio sensor Figure 9a-Differential -pressure sensor Figure 99-Absolute·pressure se nsor Figure 100. the turbocharger and power increases as long as Ihe capacity It is a little fancy for the type of control speed would increase if it were not con. source b~1I rather el:Jborate electronic across the cumpressor if PC] is connecled This sensor type is desirable when the equipment. Figure 100. mtlst be at the pbysicallimits of tile compressor ing exhaust gas when a preset intake. . PC] is vented to almosphere.~[. then it the big advant:lge of limiting the intake- installadon is a direct function of speed. Because A d ifferential-pressure sensor in Figure gives:m absolute·pressure reference but is this reqqires not only an electric powe r 98 will sense the pressure differential 1I0t affected by air. altitudes such as an airpl:me engine. the most manifold pressure to Ihe same absolute A pressure-ratio sensor is shown in Figure popular type used un engines operated value regardless of altitude of baromet ri c 97. COMPRESSOR INLET COMPRESSOR DISCHARGE COMPRESSOR DISCHARGE ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE PRESSURE /PC 2 1 PRESSURE (PC]1 I II j SERv~a~====:. years agp when turbochargers were run connected 10 a wastegate will start dump. of the wastegate is adequate. A density sensor. evacuated of air.Density sensor COMPRESSOR DISCHARGE COMPRESSOR DISCHARGE TEMPERATURE AND PRESSU RE I r---J'' "'] HIGH VACUUM r----J""~""'L NITROGEN aRY I CHARGE SERV"a~====~.ol=a :=. becomes a gage-pressure sensor.~. This Iype sensor conditions.temperature changes. This vacuum not only to contrpl turbocharger speed. rhe pressure-ratio sensor prevented An absolute-pressure sensor shown in would not be used in a racing type of this speed increase and allowed the engine Figure 99 is similar to the differential..~~.~~~~:3~~~ HI GH VACUUM SERVO J'I ~ VA~VE VA LVE .:lronic device and through the usc requiring any changes in the engine or around the spring is enclosed in it bellows of proP9f amplifiers operate a wastegate turbocharger.

However. il could cause tfie compressor to surge if the oper- ating line were too close to the surge line. Arrows indicate IMPCO pressure-limiting 'Ial'les described in text. Figure 102. It is called the lMPCO Te2 Turbocharger Pressure Control Valve ~nd is shown in a typical installation in Figure 102. This type of cont rol would be used where max- imum torque is requ ired at relatively low speed and it is possible with this type of con~rol to h~ve <I higher boost pressure at low and medium speeds than at max- imum engille speed. Figure 104 is an exploded view of the valve. ~ rather simple device has become aV:l ilable which can be placed between the compressor ou tl et and engine on an existing installa tion.Chevrolet big-block 454 CID boat engine with high·boost installation by Gale Sanks. COMPRESSOR TUR elNE fere ntial pressure across the venturi. Figure 101. Figure 103 is a cross-section. Recently . An engine equ ipped with this type of control would have a "OW SENSOR tremendous torque increase as the en- gine is slowed down. senses fompressor-inlct now by the dif. Two holes in end of inter- cooler are for water inlet/ outlet.lila has only two moving parts. ing the fpring. Opera- tion is self-explanatory and the operating pressure may be changed Simply by chang. This valve should be very reliable Figure 101 -Wan e-gate 'Ial'le controlled by fl ow sensor because it is on the cold side . Note intercooler housing atop intake manifold. A flow-control sensor. 111is is a rather remote possibility and probably will not occur on a pllsscnger-c<lr installation . 84 .

52 SPRING.19 SCREW. IMPCO TC2 PARTS AND ASSEMBL Y INDEX PART NO. aooST (PLAINI 52 . HOW THE TC2 OPERATES vAcVE STAYS FUU OP~N UNTil PAESS(JM REACHES VUH 00 NOT f't. 11 LB. BOOST (ORANG E) "7 AC4 .Exploded view of IMPCO valve 85 . BOOST IBlUEI S2 . S LB. NO.. PISTON 52 . 12 24~518" SEMS (4) 01-95 GASK ET .UG' '-..53 SPRING. 7 LB. 56-3 L__:::==::::~__________________JFigure 104. 15 LB. This allows full pres. 9 LB.TC2 control valve has spri ng-loaded pi ston/s leeve As pressure from the turbo increases.27 RING. Piston/sleeve valve can move to close passage almost complete· Iy. Spring pressure keeps piston! shaped face of the piston.56 SPRING . DESCRIPTION ~ Bl~36 BODY .r. SPRING. This t ype of valve also limits RPM as it reduces volume of mixture supplied to e ngine. sure from turbo to flow through .1 CYLINDER ASSY: C4-1. BOOST (REO) 52 .51 SPRING.---. mined control point the spring will be compressed as shown.- SETf'OlNI --- "'~HOW TO[NGINE --- VALVE cLOSED TO M'N ' MUMOI'E"'NG Figure 103. BOOST (SLACK) " -. BODY 4 P4 2 PISTON-VALVE RI .. When pressure reaches the predeter- sleeve valve in open position as shown. it works against the cone- valve in an e nclosed housing. VALVE a S1 .

such .l!e valve is the most common method o f controlling turbo- charger speed.....Was te gate ope ra tlld by hydraulic serv o in. This smaller turbine housing will cause more bark pressure on the engine. Ted Trevor has found the gllge-pressure sensor is not adequate Jlul suggests using an absolute· pressure sensor if one is lIv:lilable.:onuilions.:ol11prcssibk.. ba.ondi- tions will change (t)!lSiderably surh as the Pike's Peak Hill Climb. particularly at road load. If the oil-pressure line fails. The p<lrt-throttle-open valve shown in Figure 52 . as 1I rllcetrack. Pa tent 3257796. this type device is simple and fairly rdiable. I PRESSURE This system h~ s twu advan t:lges over the direct.:olllpli- cation of the hyuro-pneull1 <1tic-servo Figure 106-"Part-thro ttte Ol)en " was te gatll valve leaves somcthing else to go wrong.:hattering is eliminated.. does this and without complicated linkage. Looking ut 86 . Most wlistegatcs of this type usc Ihe intllke-Illanifuld pressure tll open the waste gale :lgllinst the force ofa spring. invented by Stanley Updike. it is 1I1way~ ar. On the other II. automobiles equipped with ~ w:lste- gate will ordill:lrily get poorer fuel mile- age th:. Where ambient conditions arc not likely to . To make:l wastegll1e effective.Jnu.hange abruptly.:ompanicd by a snwller IlIrbine- housing area.... It is desi rable to have the wastegate open at all conditions except when the turbo- charger is needed fur extreme arceleru· lion or top speed . the auued ".an TO OIL SUMP use:l smaller di:lphraglll Ull the wastegate because the oil pressure is usually Illu.operating w~lslc£ate in that it . Also.. For this reason. the valve will move to the full-open position. Figure 95 A more exact method is shown in Figure 105 where the intake-nwnifohl pressure ope rates:l slldl hydraulic v:llve whirh :lllows engine uil pressure to !low through ENGINE the w:lstegat e servo :lnd open the v:llve.:k pressure Ull the cngine at urdinJry road IO<lds is often less than thai witll a l1Or111<11 BlUftler syst(!m.. It t'an be made fail-safe by being spri ng-loaded... Sill'.ln one with ou t wastegate. When an engine such as thai used in a passenger car is equipped with a rree-fioat· ing turbocharger system which will nOI overboost the engine even :11 maximum ..h higher than lite intake manifold pressure to be "':~ll1lrolled. the possihility of the wastcgate valve .. The combination of a device which senses intake-manifold gage pressure and COMPRESSOR TURB IN E a poppe i-type wasteg. If the lIIlIbient .C th(' o il is Figure 105.

power. The lise of a control not only improves the low-e nd performance ofa turbocharged engille but makes the job of choosing a carburetor and tailpipe much easier. Carburetor venturi was st ill prevepts the engine from being over. A snap ring on the valve stem causes the lower diaphragm to open the valve but this diaphragm cannot close the valve . 1[le pressure underneath the Chevy small-block V-S installation in a Ford Ranchero used exclusively for speed runs lower di[l~hraglll will overcome both lhe at Bonneville Salt Flats. An ordinary wastegate. wasteg~te 10 ll1. Note plenums. enlarged to '. This inactivity is frequently the cause o f a wastegate valve sticking. may be operated for weeks without ope ning if the engine is never plls?ed hard enough to reach maxi- mum intake manifold pressure. Figure 106. Car was driven over 70. When the ll1aXinlllll~ desired manifold pressure is reached.luse the waste- gate valve to remain dosed. Another advantage of the PTO Valve is it opens and doses every time the engine is acceler~ted and goes from the full-close to the full~open position every lime the engine is started .'/2-inch diameter and the waste-gate diaphragm diameter was increased boosted at high engine speed. During Jcceler~tiOll and at very high vehide speeds.Jintaill a relatively COll- Bosch fuel injection. the pressure drop through the carb uretor will creatl1 a vacuum in the upper chamber which overcomes the spring and causes the valve \0 open when the pressure drop to the ca rburet or is gre:l1er than th ree inches Hgigage.000 miles without removing the turbine is bypassed at normal cruiSing head. notice that the upper dia- phragm is connected solidly to the valve stem whilk the lower diaphragm is free (0 slide on tlie stem. speed. This type control has the same good low-end per- fonnance as ~ simple w~stegate when con- r nected to small lUrbine housing and Setup sim ilar to that on Chevy I I on author's 230 CID Chevelle. on the ot her hand. The chamber below the lower diaphragm is connected to the intake manifold and senses both vacuum a~' d pressure. Because the for more positive actuation. Duke 1-Ial ~ock has found when a large car- buretor is used in conjunction with a waste· gate control turbocharger . TIle carburetor can be much larger because it will not bf used to limit boost pressure. he uses a 87 . stant inta~e-m<lnifold pressure.nburetor and the upper spring will c. . At cnllslIlg · . Cragar machinist Bill Edwards owns the car and made the lower and upper springs and open the installation of two AiResearch TE0659 turbos with waste gates. there will be lillie or nO drop through the c. The chamber above the upper diaphragm is connected to the compressor inlet where it senses the pressure drop through ttle carburetor. the engine has very liltl e back pres- su re and will get beller fuel mileage.

88 . A. J. Foyt's use of the AiResearch turbo- charger and controller (waste gate) on Ford racing engine was a trendsetter because stan- dard "wear" on these engines had previously been another make turbo. Photo made at Ontario Speedway .1971 California 500 _ by Duke Hallock.

some type of cont rol is necessary and is worth the added expense.) 107. One of the reasons for this is the smaller turbine nozzle AIR nomlally ~sed with a wastegate system could drive a compressor into surge which would neJer occur with a free-floating system. ( discharge pressure. when assembled with th e Accel Turbo-Module ill Figure [08. However.800st pressure limited by fixed restrictions pressure achieved. T~is problem would be remote in a light Sports car but could definitely happen on a heavy vehicle climbing a long hill. boat or airplane. This device allows the engine to act as if it were naturally aspirated until the throttle is open far enough to ask for help from the turbocharger compressur. too large for driving. allows the enginc to run naturally aspi- rated undl the compressor has a positive . For any given turbine as the AIR rlltio decreases. sports car. Charles Mcinerney has found that a turbine housing which works best 011 a dynamometer will nearly always be about l(f. the turbine speed increases up to a point. This means ab1ut 1 AIR riltio. I would say a free-floating turbocharger engine combina- tion. Figure at high speed. it is advisllble to use the next slllllller size turbine wheel and go back to II lilrgec AIR.compressdr with 10% to 15% less flow capacity than he would use with a free- floating turbocharger. I 89 . whether jt be a dragster. If this condition should occur. Bill Reiste and Jim Deatsch have cOllle up with a simil:Jr device except the valve is a free-floating !lapper actullted by the pressure fifferential inside the carburetor box. At this point the priority valve closes the bypass between the carbu~etor and the intake manifold causing the air-fuel-mixture 10 pass through the cornpre~sor and bCl:ome supercharged. it will cause a large drop in the efficiency of the lurbir~e and the added back pressure on the engine mlly cause more losses in power than the added intake-manifold Figure 109. a track racer. As a general . statemenf. for the ultimate in performance. can give low-cost performance to an engine which is out- standing for the amount of work required. FiSttre 109.lf. If the AIR is too small. Bob Keller of Accel has come up with This experimental set up by AiResearch uses one turbo at [ow engine speed and two a neat ide~ called a priority valve. ~This arrangement is NOT recommended for amateurs. This device.

3 4 5 . 90 . which adjusts the boost pressure. ." Screw it down and more HP . Disc-shaped part at right is waste-gate-diaphragm housing. Valye typically opens less than 1/ 8 inch to bypass sufficient exhaust to reduce turbine speed and boost pressure. Bill FishBr phot o.and perhaps a scattered en- gine .will result. Arrow indicates connection for control piping.' --- 6 7 8 9 10 AiResearch T-5 turbocharger used on Oldsmobile 1962 Jetfire. Compressor housing was heated with engine jacket water. Racing mechanics often refer to this as a "horsepower screw. Turbine inlet is at bottom center and outlet at Left. Adjustable waste gates have a screw in the cover to adjust the spring height. --~-----------~-~-. Non-adjustable AiResearch waste gate is actuated by boost pressure from intake manjfold.

and then losc half the pressure. Used on Davtona Marine engines and numerous marine conversions. or cnginejackel water as II cooling mediulIl . Whenever a grou p of engine men get together and somcone brillgs lip the sub· TURB IN E jec t of intercooling. Many engineers usc the all inclusive term c}/arge-oir-coo lillg. In ::Iny case they are usually referring to cm)ling thc ~ir or air-fuel-mixtllrc somewhere between tile COll1pres~or di sc h~rge ::Iud the engine. the tempera- ture of the cooling medium and the avail- able flow rate of the cooling medium. The temperature drop of the charge air passing through the heat cxchanger will be a fu nction of several factors. Figure 110. The charge is cooled by ducling it 10 . someone else says illrercou lillg. ice wtlter. " Air-ta-water intercooler for turbocharged gasoline ma rine engine by Harrison Division of GM. It will vary with heal -exchanger size. There will always be a pressure drop of the chars. with inle'coole. INTERCOOLE R a heal exchanger which may use ambient air. sea w~ler. If the charge air passing thro ugh the heat 91 .Lmount of the pressure drop must be weighed againsl the tClll- perature ~ro p as there would be no advan- tage to lqwering th e cha rge temperature say 100° F. invariably someone else says you mean a!tercouUIIg or if someone discusses ::I ftercooling.e as il goes through the heal exchanger and the .

. the intake-manifold temperature will be reduced to 293° F.s be a pressure drop through the heat exchanger and it is nOI possible to Modine air·to-air intercooler allows cooling charge air to within approximately 20 0 F of lower the charge temperature to the ambient temperature. but cuts down on the heat-rejection requiremcnt of the engine unless jacket water is used as the cooling medium. The intake-manifold temperature. we will also lower the exhaust temperature to 1400°F. drop in exhaust temperature. If a heat exchanger is placed be tween Typical air-to-water intercooler made by the compressor disch:uge and the engine Harrison Oillision of GM. - ~ 487°F . assum· Ing 65% compressor efficiency wil l be . for the same horsepower :md lIir/fuel ratio. on some International Harvester engines. or course.OF. This not only makes it easier on the exhaust valves. the higher charge density will allow mure mass of air per minute to flow through the engine at any given intake· manifold pressure. As an example. then the heat exchanger is doing on ly half its job. As a rule of t. day. if an engine has an exhaust temperature of I S(XtF. is not possible because there will aiway. For example. Two are used to cool charge ai r approximately. lessening stress on the engine. suppose jacket water as the cooling medium. The advantages to the engine are two- fold. 92 . mass now will increase to 941 pounds per hour. and the mass air flow th rough the engine will bc about 900 pounds per hour. and even if the intake-manifold pressure is lowered to 100 inches Hg Abs. Air that can be ducted to such an intercooler reduces the charge cooling-medium temperature.. exh:lUst temperature will be reduced by approxim:l1cly 194° F. Th is. decrease in intake-manifold tempera- ture will result in . temperrture more than a water·to-air unit because a greater temperature difference can usually be ac hieved than provided by 1800 F jacket water. and through the use of an intercooler we are able to reduce the in take manifold temperature by 100°F. If we had a perreci heat exchanger. This means more fuel Modine air-to-water intercooler bolts into intake manifold of Caterpillar 0336-Va can be burned and the engine can produce diesel ~ ngine. 1500 F. at the same time. using engine more horsepower. .. a 151 elD engine running at 10. OF. Fi rst the overall operating tempera- ture of the engine will be red uced and secondly the combustion-chamber pres- sure for a given BMEP will also be reduced. exchanger does not become considerably more dense. In addition.000 RPM with an absolute intake-manirold pressure of 120 inches Hg Abs produces 900 HP.. Besides reducing the heat load on the cllgine.humb. This unit is used wilh only 50% effectiveness on a 100° F.7.-. the temperature of the charge air could be reduced to that of the cooling medium without any drop in pressure.

at sea level with II 30 in.5 : 127.) as an air-1o-air heat exch.discha rge tempera- ture is at least 300° F. and an ambient tem- perature ~f 7S" F.122. 117 +460 30 + 30 577 60 93 . to cool the charge in much the same way that a tank of liquid is used to cool the compressor pressure ratio is: Now if a 70% effect ivc air-Io·air heat engine. . The charge temperature leaving the inter- cooler will be 250 . Ideal Temp. the drop in tempera ture will be (250 . Freon spray on one of his intercooler Whenr=2.lIlger but the air-to-liquid type will be much smaller and will lot require a fan to circul:lte "Turbo Dodge with 7:1 comprcssion ratio hemi engine assembled by Bud the cooli Ig medium.. a compressor Compressor Discharge Temp. Faubel and George Weiler in 1966. the effectiveness is 70%. one in each A dra racer or a Bonneville. turbocharged to 30 in. assume a 2-inch Hg and 80°11.5 =200S-·-. 0 20(t .5°F.. Rise ::: (80 + 460) x .2J7 The lempcrature enlering Ihe engine will ins t allati~)IIs. 0 efHciencr of 700/0. 180) x . !-Ig Barometer Compo Erf. Ifjacket water is used at 180° F. Y""'. If the Fharge-air temperature is 20CtF. media below 32°F. Assuming. ice. This small decrease makes it impractical to use jacket water unless the compressor.OO If a belleT heat exchanger is used which can drop the charge temperature to 130" F.ai r temperature of 20 1° F. Two ice-water·cooted intercoolers.75) x . Thc : 247° F. !-Ig gage boost Actual Temp. the increase in a dynam bmeter and produces 350 HP .-:-. Cau ti on should be used with cooling Compo In Absolute Press. ambient.7 = I 22. 30+ 30 2 it will [ower the charge Icmperaturc.5°F.217 = ll l' F. loss.7'" 49° R.5"F.i JOlt = 100 =.7 Seventy-~er cenl effectiveness is a rcason- able valuf and will be used for examples in this chapter.150 50 S-· = -.type ca r front fender and two T18 fre e-floating AiResearch turbos were used. 3I. Alell Walordv photo. :80 + 167° 247+460 x 30+28 = 707 x 58 = 1. a 70% effeclive air-to- air heal e~chaJlger will reduce the cha rge air temperature (250 . Using a low-temperature liquid such as sea water at 75° F. 0-0 '" . the compressor-dis.7 dcnsity with the heat exchanger witl be at some ~eed. Car turned can carry enough low-temperature liquid 160 MPH in the quarter mile. Because the heat exchanger is nOI ideal . Rise there will be a loss of pressure thro ugh it. exchange r is placed between the compres- or acetone or alcohol with chunks of dry sor discharge and the intake manifold.18 charge tTlperature can be calculated . will result in the same charge-air temperature (127..217 0 now be 247° .: J670F. because the cha rge = =- side might become clogged with ice on a 30 humid day.ld we are able to lower the charge tempe rature 10 150°F. To be conservative. 200" _ 130" 70" 200" . Rise : Ideal Temp. Tom Keosababian used a Refer to Table I. I J7 = 130°F. The engine is run on : 117°. Assur~illg a compressor-discharge tem- perature br 250"F. Using th esc figures. Let us start with a 300 CID engine :540x. the heat exchanger has an effec tiveness of 50%. This will result in a charge. and the eboli ng-medium temperature is IOO"F. llhe tank cou ld contain ice-water CompoOut Absolute Press.

· 327 CID Chevrolet equipped with AiResearch turbos in a free . 94 . Engine is used for Bonneville Salt Flats high-speed attempts.. Bosch fuel injection is used. Inter- "'0'''. Large plenum with modified Rochester fuel injection used Chevrolet heater core as an intercooler. \ • Jim Kinsler installed a 3 27 CID Chevrolet in a Maserati chassis in 1965. Small photo shows intercooler and plenum details. Turbos are E-flow Rajays.floating configuration. Bill E""•• . Carbureted installation with two Ouadrajets was used for street operation.d. mount in housings fabricated by Edwards. Liquid silicone cooled with dry ice circulated through the intercooler.

In some cases.'g it further with <I secondary compress r. the exhaust temperature and pres- sure will drop in proportion to tJ1C int1tke- manifold bonditions . . TIl is is designed for m arine use but would work well 011 eilher a drag racer or a BlHlneville Streamlinkr with a water rese rvoir. It is pJssib1c to connect turbocharge rs ill series and obtain intake manifold pres- sures of oyer 100 psig ifheat excilallgers are used Iktween the cumpressors as well as be tweeh the second compressor and the engir~. ". Th odanc requirement for a l~]~~==={~[~~l given eng+e output can be rc. T om Scahill makes a liqllid-to- <Ii r heat cLhanger available <lS:I bolt-Oil item for big-block Chevy Engines. This method is discussed ill det<li l in (:lpter 15.82 seconds ET at Orange County Race way. Figure 111. Things aren' t quite so bad as they were a few yea)s ago liS to procuring he<lt exch<lnge s. cooling it and expanding it through a tllfbine used 10 drive the second· ary cOmpressor.luced SUb stantj~IY by intcrcooling. "" put out I ~% more power at the same PRIMARY EXHAUST speed witjl 2 inches less manifold pressure . 95 .d . further reducing ~he intake-manifold pressure. the turbothargcr will slow down. occurs. There is. lormoo\. a catch to this.A. Twctor PuHing. Turbo outlets oppose each othe r in con~ector above ma nifold opening.J. 1971 Otds 350 Cutlass turbocharged with two R~jay units was initially equipped with t t o special Rochester sided raft ca r· buretors. When this. th. When this happens. The ten- dency for a combustion chamber to TURBINE develop a lot spot <Ind ignite (he charge before thi plug fires is also reduced by SECONDARY COMPRESSOR intercoolirg· It is pdssible to cool the cJI<lrge below the temp+ature of the cooling medium by compressf. Enginel which run on gasoline are sensitive IIf charge temperature because of both p e-ignition and detonation limits . Figure 111 . This method EXCHANGER is used 011 some large statiorwry diesels with good success but it is rather compli.Turbocharged e ngine wi th air-cycle charge cool ing cated for a small engine. Car turned 105.41 MPH at 13.ngln. ~owever. it is necessary to use a PRIMARY HEAT smaller turbine housing to Blaintaill the EXCHANGER same boost pressure .

". • " '. 4·b"." d j" boat. Gale Banks engine.0.. '.j. High boost with over-transom e)(haust produced 873 HP on dyno R.1. "d . r"'' ' S" """ .y .1. 96 .0.bo.

suppos· t : : R REOUIRED ing a b()~1 is cruising al 20 knots and BY HULL 2200 R P~1 ~nd the Ihrollle is opened fully. I f the enrinc then accelerates to 4400 RPM illlmedia!ely and remains there when the HU LL SPEED buat Tea~hes 30 knots . even those equipped with a torque COllverter. it is TURBOCHARGED ENGINE / obvious that the extra power available at low hull ~peeds is of little use as long:ls the engide can appru.- /' engine speed at fulllhrottle is limited by / the inst<lpt:mcous automob ile speed and the gC:. . Figure 11 2 POWER AVAILABLE FROM il1ustr~ter thi s for ~ non. the engine can be revved up (0 pC:Jk Figure 11 2-Engine powe r available compared to hull requirement with a naturally· speed while the boat i~ still tied 10 the as pirated engine doele F~r this reason.ltl be accelerated ipOWER REQUIRED is until it near its maximulll speed long BY HUll before tlie hull of the bO<Jt reached its mJximuAl speed. marine engines are a lot POWER AVAILABLE easier to turbocharge than automobile FROM NATURAll Y engines ~nd in other ways.lT ratio. POWER AVAILABLE FROM /. The shape of these C\lfves will differ for each hull but fhe situation is ohou! the same./ .l is of no same maximum engi ne speed value. Propellcrs . available power curves POWER REQU IRED / BY HUll are plotted for both naturally·aspi rated CRUISING SPEED and IUrb~chargcd engines in the same hull..lCh full speed regard· less ufhull speed. In an ~lIlOlTI()bile engine. then the exira Figure 11 4-Naturall y·aspirated and tur bocharged engines matched to same hull with torque available at 2200 RPr-.planing hull. ASPIRAlEOENG~_./ CHARGED "- In Fi!~llTe 11 4 .vhen it coi ncides with the power required by the hull./ --- the power available from the engine ~ /' comes dhser to the hull requirement and / -"'~~B~M results i l~ a more efficient system. Excepl in the case or a drag boat. In the case of a jet HULL SPEED bOill.Jrine enginc makes TURBOCHARGEO ENG INE it possib~e 10 produce a power curve which mhches the engine closer to the POWER AVA ILABLE 3000 ~ FROM NATURAllY RPM hull req~irement.--. Ihey pose prob· icms not lencountercd in :Jutolllobile engines. power avaibble Figure 11 3. An engine mounted in a boat driVing" propeller C:. EMIIIME' II In some ways. ASPIRATED ENGINE .Engi ne power ava il able compared to hull requirement with a tu rbocharged from tile engine can only be fully -- engine utilized -. Looking at Figure 113.4500 RPM Turbqcharging a m. As an example.He matched tu the engines to HULLSPHD MAX IMUM SPEED / \ MAXIMUM SPEE D make each power curve cross the hull· NATURALLY ASPIRATED TURBOCHAR GED I 97 .

.nd. turbo kit mounted crosswise on a fo'''..'y!. 181 CID Chris Craft engine. b:perimental M & W installation on 351 CID Ford. 98 .

turbocharged Daytona Engines so dominated the ocean racing seene that turbochargers were Fo rd 460 CID boat engine turbocharged by Gale Bank. Except on rare occasions neve r reach p!:. When the bo~t is slowed down to cruising speed.ed to allow and maximum speed is most important. engine must take a penalty in cubic inch including water·cooled exhaust elbows.:.d. lie has modlf1ed an whe re the hull requireme nt has a hump in the turbocharger matched to give a little automatic transmission and placed it it.-... they have beeJl reinstated but the turbocJl. aspirated engines whid! had to fun up to 7000 RPM 10 achieve the same power. two IMPCO cont rollers. The gate to permit the use of a smaller turbine lot of heads turn when they hear me turbochJrged engine in Figure l i S Curve housing for mOre boost at low speed with· shift!" 99 .'!::: by many V-d ri ye and jet·boat manu fac tu rers. resulling in beller fuel consumption and longer engine life. The high speed. This has been demonstraled many limes in long ocean races where the turbocharged engines rlJnlling at somewhere around 4500 RPM wefc able to outlast the ll<lturally- . Oller lhe hump. Curve 2 shows in a different n1:ll1l1er. ban ned:ls being unfair. Tom says.~:.~.... supercharging will only be required at more power at the low end to get the hull between lhe engille and Vee drive.. a solid coupling and he only uses two for· the engi ne to produce enough power to it may be necessary to employ a waste· ward speeds and reverse.ning speed.300 II I 400·600 300·400 IV 600 .'. If this becomes critical torque cOl1v~rter has been replaced with the tu rbocharger must be siz. the turbocharger is sized to obtain maximum compressor efficiency :11 maximum engine I.800 400·600 V 800· 1000 600·800 VI 800·1000 This seelps fa ir enough and should st ir up some good com pet ition between the old bore and stroke school and the newe r " Push more air into it" practice. Boost is adj ustable from 5-15 psi by use o f thspiacement..requirement curve al the same engine speed.:.... Instead of trying to get a broad torque curve. Figure 115. More recently.:Hged Gale Bank s turbo kit f or 454 Chevrolet boat engine includes everything that's required. A few years ago. the turbo- charged engine will drive the hull COIl- siderably faster than the na turally-aspi rated cngine without resorting to a higher maximum engine speed.~. fhe Pacific Offshore Powerboat Rae· ing Association has six classes for engine sizes as follows (as of 1975): CID elD Class Naturally ASEirated Turbo 0·300 None II 300· 400 0. speed and the turbine housing sized it will never be used because the hull will Tom Scahill has solved this problem accordingly... matching a tu rbocharger to a marine engine is somewhat different than on an au tomobile engine. When this occurs. the turbocharged engine will be running slower than the naturally- aspirated engine. has plenty of power al Ihe top end but ou I overbooslin8 a I maximum speed. " A accelerate the hull through the hump. Where high boat speed is required. Tllis is done by using a higher- pitched propeller on the turbocharged engine. Because of the difference in to rque requirements.

lsure boat with a water- 1/ . VV sea wa er from backing into the turbu- charge when the engine is not running. curiosity and more of a useful tool in get. The fold and after a while . 5['0 8S To compensate for thiS.8 FULL POWER CURVE OF TURBOCHARGED AUTOMOBILE ENGINE SHOWING lOOK . has been sport-fishing boats. 1.70~: V\ ~70K /V Cr r coole exhaust system.cf-CFM tions e lcourltered for the particular Figure tt6-Full-power curve of turbocharged automobile engine showing compressor install.~ be predicted without difficuHy becau e the exhaust energy <lvailable will be sim lar 10 an automobile engine. Inter. and with 70" to 80°F. Inlercooling. do their fishing some fuel condensation in the intake mani- Nor that Tom Scahill has made inler.'k the water jacket aruund the exhaust manifqld will reduce the exhaust-gas / tempetature alleast 200" F. the correct turbine-housing .7 pz >< V water rap after the turbine to prevent / f--. / / / lion wll1 normally use a larger ~ Q' ~~ f" 1\ ~ II comprbssor than the automobile engine. In some cases.:2.2 I / --. at leisure. reduces the octane marine engine. engines have been I sel up to run turbocharged on regular- grade Jasoline. requirement Becruse of the availability of water.2 Afr. are not without manifold vacuum will be very high and availab e at m~rinas. a smaller turbine 100 200 300 400 housinr: is used. thereby 60 1 / J V / V IX reduci g the volume Ilow available tu the turbin .' . This will cause increaJe the overall envelope of the engine. the fishing grounds fast .7 / size c.4 ~ / '\ becau e tJlcrc is rarely any high-torque requirfment at mid-r<lnge . / / 90K the s311C engine size and the same maxi- mum ~eed.t~ 80K I. I::!! MODEL 300F In the case of the automobile engine. To begin with. exchanger. All of a sudden.! l. particularly on a obviously no supercharging takes place. to pro~uce higher torque at mid-range. the high-speed end ~ goes t~1 rough the cen fer of tlle highest emeie ley island of a larger compressor . On the marine engine . and get back horne fast. dis. V .0 II / --.0 COMPRESSOR MAP maps ith power curves superimposed to show ow the different requirements of * RAJAY TURBOCHARGER / autolTlobile and marine engines afC met.4 J.. interc90ling is very practical on marine engines. available to whomever wants to out and back are no problem but it is will actually collect underneath the heat buy them. J is not rue of a ple./ J J Y. one of the fishermen ting thl most out of an engine . This allows the engine 2.. they should become less ofa the leisurely fishing which gives the trouble. water. depending on the condi. water available .-.6 COMPRESSOR REQUIREMENT l/ ----..I " of the lcompressor. ing speed for a half hour or so where the gets a strike and hollers fo r full power 100 . <> On 13 racing boat with dry exhaust ~t / / I \. a puddle of fuel cooler. Starting with ~ a. problems of their own. engine-cooling water dumped into tl. This 8 ~ -jf / . One of the largest uses of The air-fuel mixture will already be quite requirement of a turbocharged engine turboc!rarged marine engines in the past cool when it reaches the intercooler. however.e exhaust pipe after the trap adds still m?fe back pressure to the turbine. These engines usually have a 1. This might appear silly at first bul premium gas is nol always coolers. AIR FLOW Qj. the marine-engine applka- a.tion. The fellows which in turn will cool it still furlher with intercrloler size is small enough not to who own these boals like to get out to nice 70° or 80°F. Suppose the engine is idled down to troll. manif~lds. TIlis c uses back pressure on the turbine. cussed in Chapter 10. II V /' V "" In addition. . 1.. Fir-res 116 and 117 are compressor 3. the hi~l-speed end of the power line exten4s into the lower erficicnt:y region 2. Q 2. .

. ~ a: "- 2.. t/ . all it does is die on the vinc.h~~60K / / ~K..."- "'- / '\ \ . Tom Scahill around the inter-coolcr so during the and Accel.4 7 lI' V K- I '" / / ' / ' ts<. tntake duct from carbu- retor to the turbo is much larger but whcp the engine throttles arc opened..2 FULL POWER CURVE II OF TURBOCHARGED \ 0 MARINE ENGINE SHOWING II0K COMPRESSOR 2 . Fi rst. . Water-heated carburetor ad apters are [n addition.. I 101 .0 <- BOK I II /f'" ~ a: "- ~ o ...6 100r o ~ 2 . Ted used a big fish as a result. RAJAY TURBOCHARGE MODEL 370 E / ." 3.B Iv ii.6 I.Full-powe r curve of turbocharged marine engine showing compressor requirement Single Rajay turbo is used to add HP to this 180 CID Chevrolet four-cyl- inder engine in a Mercury outdtive installation.. he added a bypass valve now available from Ak Miller.8 REQUIREMENT .4 I"--- .4 COMPRESSOR MAP 12bK * . sarne as is done on an automobile engine..s? . he cuuld shut off than necessary..2 l 90K II i g. This can be the water and prevent fuel fWIll condens- vcry anrioying. long periods of idling. II 17 ill 2.2 1-~7 r- >< 00 1/ " " I~ 100 200 300 «Xl 500 600 700 800 AIR FLOW ~ -CFM Figure 117...r r--.. Ted Naftzger had this manual valve in his installation but it problem and solved it by making two would be possible to have it diaphragm- changes in the installatioll. particularly if you lose ~ ing in the intake manifl)ld. / 1. f600~ ~1.7 0 \ i? ('/ / 7 t--. I u (5 70K I I}\ II Ig' ~ (/ ---J / / rY . he operated which would allow water to added a water jacket to the bottom of the flow through the heat exchanger only carburetor box and allowed engine jacket when the manifold pressure was above water to WiHlIl the carburetor much the ambient. 3 .

you rsel f bolt·on units.:ol1l:1in heat Cxc h:Hlgers. lie put till' engine in a larger hull and pro· ceeded to te:lf up the Ve e drive. Gale Banks has been m:lking custom inst:lllations on marine engines with excel· I{ lent resulh. 102 . Figure 11 8 is an exploded view of their kit for the Mcrc ruiser 165 Engine. tried Illrbocharging a ski boat for:l friend but the hull WllS ~ b it S111all and became airbume when the throllie was opened. D. The basic engine is a Chevrolet.l ining ~ \ Jet drives strong ellough to absurb the \ power he gets from the engine. They :Ire honest.it. The blocked·off supercharger housing can be seen on the accompanying photograph s. M & W h:ls 3dditiollal kits fur th e small-block Ford and Chevrolet V8's . they entered the marine fie ld with bolt-on kits for fouf.e turbocharger division of Accel form('rly Turbonics offers both partial and complete turbocha rger kits for marine engines utililing the priority-v. I t is obvious fr om this illustrOltion and accompanying phot os thaI Jack Bradford. Because these kits du 1101 ". Skip Cooley has been building up sullie AllisOll VJ710 Engines for unlimited hydroplane racing and gets about 4000 HP a\ 4000 RPM_ This prob· ably does not stress the engine any mo re than the gear-<lriven supercharged models with cOllSiderably less usefu l output.ing in one·off installations at Teterin Engineering.: ing. their ch ief engineer. lie has beell able 10 obtain f:lntastic outputs from the big.block Chevies anu has been spcc ialil. In 1974.000. n. A few years ago.to-goodness do.and six- cy linder Chevrolet engi nes.llve dis- cusseU in Chapter 9 on Controls. It wun't be long befure turbocharged marine engines become common in closed- course and drag racing as well as the off· Figure 1 18.E)lploded view of M & W Mt-S turbochClrger kit for Mercrusier 165 shure type. lk h:l s had \ no problem producing 850 liP from a big. they arc fur a 20% III 25% increase in power and afC 1101 designed for r:H. M & \II Gear Company has been making bol t-oil turbocharger kits for farm tractors sirll'C 1962. block Chevy at 4500 RPM . His big problem is ob t. has done a thorough job on this . T here's no doubt they make good ones because they have sold around 50.tS on thei r high-q ualit y diesel kits.lVid In:lll of Australia .

Race·Aero conversion of 454 CID big·block Chevrolet with an 850 CFM Hol ley carburetor and intercooler produces about 700 HP on gasoline. 103 . This type installation is popular with off-shore boat racers.534 CI 0 T1 Super Seamaster by Tech Nautic developes 400 HP at 3400 RPM using dual Rajay 375E70 turbos.

. TO"1 Scahill installation on a 454 elD CheJrolet includes his own aftercooling equipment which he sells to other marine enthusiasts.. Kits inctude carbure- tor ~ox. Long Island decided his 36 foot Bertram Off-shore Cruiser didn't have enough go. intercooler. John DeMaio of Stonybrook. \ Don Markland installed this M & W kit on CID Ford and had to buy a new for his boat because the old one to 50 MPH. 104 . Raiav turbochargers and AiResearch waste gate. So he turboed the two 350 CIO Chevys with 375F Rajavs and his boat runs 60 MPH at 5500 RPM and 12 psi boost..

Two Rajay 370E10 turbochargers provide 7 psi boost. Air box on intake manifold is a wa ter·cooled fabricated -aluminum unit . Water·cooled exhaust system features 4-inch wet pipes to provide quiet operation and avoid burning ski ropes.Performance First Marine converted 460 CID Ford for jet ski boat use. l8-foot jet ski boat is Performance First Mari ne's test bed . Stock 455 CID Olds- mobile engine and a stock jet pump p!'ovide baseline references for Rick Mack's turbo testing. 105 . 780 CFM Holley with an electric choke is mounted on a heated box supplied wi th water from the water-cooled exhaust elbom .

COMPRESSION STROKE Figure 119 Simple two-stroke-cycle engine w1 d."g the how.ud passenger-car engine. metJlOds must be treated differently In Figure 1198 the engine has completed stroke rngineS can and have been Sllccess. many of the problems a cross-flow crallkcase-scavenged type atmospheric. its power stroke and the exhaust port fully tyrbocharged although the conditions Figure 119 shows the simplest of the which is slightly higher than the inlet port are qu·te different than on a four-stroke two-stroke engines. of porting and scavellging. The crankcase port is open.' why. boats ~nd recently even in airplanes.l snowmobiles. When the inlet port becomes 106 . manufactured witJ} Illany different types inlet and exhaust ports arc covered by CYcles. enginCjmarine engine or even an aircraft it comes to valve location and combustion. all four- because the fresh charge enters one side of the cylinder from the c rankcase while the stard. Except for the Wankel Engine.""". In Figure 119A the engine hasjusl engine but two-stroke engines cannot be chamber shape. Two-stroke engines are started its power stroke and both the ignore because. These various the piston . A. all-terrain vehicles. racing stroke engines are about the same when the exhnust lenves the other. they are used in motor. ". often referred to as llas allowed cylinder pressure to drop to engine Therefore . when it comes to turbocharging. POWER STROKE B. we normally think of have to be attacked in a different way. Two.. of tur~ocharging. EXHAUS T AND INL ET C.

. Figure quite different than those calculated. into the ·ylinder.::ase port is Many variations of this design include closes after it.!/ TURBINE j I - .. preventing the .::ase for some burned exhaust gases to fe-enter pression stroke. The main problem is the exhaust crankca] forces the air-fuel mixture blown out through the exhaust port. The crank. just bee1 uncovered and the partial crankshaft. The crankcase port has port mated to a rotary valve in or on the the cylinder after the inlet port has closed. COMPRESSOR / . This means super.o.. Both of these problems can have a sub- vacuum n the crankcase causes air-fuel None of these variations has much stantial effect on the volumetric efficiency mixture Ito be drawn into the crankcase effect on the problems associated with of the engine and actual results are often through the crankcase port. Another variation is to have·the .. pressure from the turbine and it is possible 119C thl piston is near the end of its com.::harge covered.... port which opens before the inlet port. turbo.. ~ .::heck valves on the pressure will be determimed by the back escaping back to the carburetor. the pressure in the sealed prevents most of the charge from being 120.::rank.. In Figure crankcase instead of the crankcase port. \/J'\ I Figure 120-Simple two·stroke engine with a turbocharger uncover d......::harging this type of engine. The rfle on "" top of the piston 107 . ".::harge from reed or flapper-type .

.Uniffow-scavenged two-stroke-cycle engine Figure 121 . Ji12 . ~ .T wo -cy cl e engine with engine-<iriven scavenge pump • .. 108 .Loop-scavenged two-stroke-cycle engine Figure 23. Figure 122..

stroke engine has a power stroke every injection f and hope the oil vapor is not Right away the question arises. Here the exhaust port is replaced by a poppet valve of the same type used 011 four-stroke engines. is installed. piston en~nes but the three described ! here will fover most cases. A similar type two-stroke engine is tJle loop-scavenged type . Figure 124. several types of mechanically driven bustion chamber. Figu re 121. If oil causes a proble!llnor- mally as~irated.e?" Except in the remembe r is most two-stroke engines have stroke engines it can be accomplished by uniflow engine. the two- mist lub~cation in the crankcase. 123. This method is not practi. bp'lh ports arc on the same side of the cylinder and no barne is required on the top a[ the piston. it is twice as bad turbo. 109 . One of tI~e problems with this design is the air-fL~el mixture must lubricate the connecting-rod and crankshaft bearings. put and the potential should be as high have beeh used at one time or another charge is usually fed directly into the as for a four-stroke engine. the turbocharger compressor dis. There . why can't it be used to ment at the same speed. the better it will be as a scavenge pUlllp. Figur~ 122 is a schematic of a uninow- scavenged engine. This valve is o~ened and dosed by a clHllshaft and can tie timed to open before the intake port and blase before it. When such a setup is than twice their nonnally-aspirated out- compresJors are discussed. If a turbo. reservoir. fuel has also been used for this purpose. Another thing to use crankcase scavenging. Because tasoline is not a very good lubri. This prevents the air-fuel njixture from being blown out through the exhaust port or exhllUst gas from fe'rte ring tile cylinder.:h air as carried into the cylinder with the air have a high~pressure mechanically-driven a four-stroke engine of the same displace- ch arge. The efficiency of the crankcasb as a scavenge pump is an inverse function of the volUllle of the crankcase when the piston is at bottom cenler. charged successfully to produce more 1. and cooler-must be provided when a turbo to self-s~stain. rn this engine. filter until the lengine develops enough energy ~upe rcha rgill g will take place. TIlis means Ih~ smaller the c ranKcase volullle . the re-entry compressor Remember when calcu lating through- One Jay around the problem is to use sometimes referred to as a drag pump. All of these used. for scavenging two-stroke engines. Figure scavenge-pump inlet. A more positive answer is not to scavenge pump . It slUl has the prob- lem of the exhaust port closing after the inlet pori. charged where octane rating is critical.Two·stroke engine with turbocharger added to scavenge pump cant. cal on slryall engines so a scavenge pump sure caused by the turbine will retain mOst Two-stroke engines have been super- must be provided. Going back to Chapter of the high-pressure charge in the com. On large two. charger is added to the system. " If I revolution and uses twice as mlH.lfe many otller types including opposed. Thif is fine except that oil has a detrimental effect on the octane rating of the fufl. Using tlle cran~case for this purpose means that a scparat! crankcase must be provided for each ylillder except where two 0 CYl inderslarc 180 apart and call fire at the same lime. It is not necessary to use the crankcase for a scaJengc pump but on small engines it is convbn ient and inexpensive. flow for compressor malching. supercharge my engil). Figure 124. much of the charge will no oil pump and therefore a separate lubri- driving tile turbocharger mechanically blow right out the exhaust port and no cation system-oil pump. back pres. it i ~ necessary to add oil to the mix- ture. In addition.

/ -~ Piper Seneca is a light twin. partic. rather than going through the routine of Manufacturers must be able to prove that engine system is not overstressed and any getting a supplementary type certificate the correct materials were used. the popular light planes and if one is not tions may look identical to those used on ularly a ringle. ably be less expensive to trade the phllle quality control of raw n1<tlcrial and every errort is made by the Federal Avia. deterrent. A turhoch. For someone who does (reatment was done under cont rolled con· Fail.saf1 in this case means they will not not have previous lest information to fall ditions and the machining operation s 110 . ter cell with high-altitude capabilities and of the l~nique problems involved but al~o Because of these very special require. lion Authority to be sure the turbocharger. go to it. not only because destroy itself or the engine. the cost of building a dynamome- very specialized science. from lhe FAA. Turbocharging aircraft engines is a cause the turbOl:harger to overspeed and back Oil. any heat cOfltrol~ which might be used 3rc fail-safe. I don't recommend airplane owners upwards of $250. Certified kits are available for most of Turbochargers used on aircraft installa- Because such a failure in an airplime. This vcrsion has Rajav aftermarket kits on Lycom ing Engines. machining operations are quite different. Factory-turbocharged Continental '"'gi"" on latc1 vcrsions are also Rajay turbocharged. be annoying btll usually is not c3 13slrophic.lrger ments. will nOT. running the tests will probably run frolll a lafet y viewpoint. .000. farm tractors or automobiles but the mally c~usc U1e airplane to COme down. available for a certain airplane. ill on one which docs have a kit availabl e. it will prob.engine airplane. If this is not a or cngil e f:lilure in a ground vchicle can try to turbocharge their own engines.

the reader might wonder why J indude ~ '> chapter OIl high-:Jltilllde lUrbocharging.Illd the tllrb?(.Hled t~ nlVer .. ~ normali7cd engine usually will have u wi. t urbochargers should only be I done by licensed mech. suffer a ellll - sidcrable loss of h()J'sepow<. 1llaintaining 11Orscpo>.000 feel.!slegule valve 10 puss all urthe exhuust ¥a~ al sea level so 110 lurbodlJrg- illg will I:lke pla(.. A ll:Jljlfal!y-aspiralcd engine will pro- Pil)e r Apache uses single Rajay turbocharge r on e ach Avco-l ycom ing 0-360 engine to duce power in dired proporlion 10 the mai ntain sea-le vel power at al titude.H1 ('ngine already dlrbnch:ll"geu al sea level will'1l il i~ nper~led allligJt .Hluall~ or by an autOlllulic CUIHWI.lltitudc.~ wh ich Figure 125-Schematlc of a ircraft e ngme With Simple waste-gated turbocha rge r system upcr~ll<.1 r"" wastegale is completely dosed ~Ild all the P'" Iltm"~1 lit. Figure 115.checked with regularly calibra ted mC.:lillS Zyglo or Magninux must be -( I performer on all critil.. '---' "---' regal!llng horsepuwe r tor engllle. for inslanct'.r l!l1le~s A IR t NLE T . ""bl". Besides this.!llsilY qf Ihe inlake air. Airplane cngill<.-1 :iltituu<.J1l~ Illarine engines operating un Lake Tahoe. v-. the w:.c.! ~lIly ul high allilude. J Al o \ 10.level I\! high alliluue ~HlU Ihe problcmJ ass\!dated wilh. The reasdn is many engines must be operaterJ bt reiatively high altitudes :JIlllough they never leave the grounu. A I SC:l level. These arc the fe<lSO~S why aircraft turbochargers I are so much more expensive than industrial ) ENGINE units.000 +.jr1. __ 11 1 . <lir bus a densily l)l .!Ilgin<.lnc slarls 10 lme power al :. '-. WASTEGATE VALVE Turboc\larged ellgin~s have done very r- well in Ille past in the Pikc's Peak Hill h Climb . TURBO . As thl.\SUT- " ing instruments.h~rgCr compresses Ihc inlet :liT to se4-level pressure .:reu 100 l iP al sea level will deliver 100 x 00565 '" 73. CAR BU RETOR .lSt~gale is gradually dosed..eu" cngines. .0765 al 10. T his is also why repair .!s cquipped with lur- hodl~Hg"1rs to regain power loss due tn altilude art' referred 10 as "nurmali/.0565 Ib. d<.<) III' [.111iluuc. This allows the engine 19 deliver essentially sca-Ievel horsepower up 10 an JI1illide where lhe oxl". .h~s cilapler is intCI.fer Ull <..!. the densily urops to 0.>.!s which IIp<.:al parts. T. either Ill.Hld uverhaul CY LI N DER of uircrafl.0765 Ib. J This means :1Il engine which deliv.' ell!./ft.!ralc from SC~ . EXHAUST lurbochurged. special opera- tions sw. After \his discollfagiug introduc tiun.1 . .:mil:s using pJrls frolll <lulhori/cd lllJllufacluTcrs..

Typical arrangement of Rajay dual turbochargers on a six-cylinder-opposed aircraft engine. / \ / l./ / / 1 1 112 . / .AVCo-i YCOming TIGO-541_ Geared 541 em aircraft e ngine produces 425 HP with single Ai Research turbocharger.

Rajay Installation on a Piper 113 .

engine output at various altitudes will also ~ose power as altitude is inaeased- but not ~o fast as a naturally aspirated . To accom- plish thi . "'"w tude. '"w" Z reduced rom 14.Ire spedal cases where no mor than sea-level naturally-aspirated ALTITUDE 1000 FT.~ 70 intake-J~:mifold pressure. w . it is desired to super- charge 1 le engine at sea level with as little loss as p ssible at high altitude..7Ib. several different approa..oating turbocharged engine will "0 o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 ALTITUDE 1000 FT.000 ft. gage pressure at sea . "- charged 0 10 Ibs. The output is a fundion of air de sity and decreases diredly with it. 2 to 10.:hes may be aken depending on the impor- tance of main taining full power at al titude. This critical alti- tude w' I vary with the engine and Ihe ""' w ~ turbod arger used.OOO feet while "" _w xv> . alti- 'w> " Z -' 80 "w :0-' tude it iSfnlY 20. The ambient . o- '" aspiral power at 40.000 feet. then a boost con· "0 trol shu Id he used. and sea-level power is to "'-.... Figure 126-Naturally-aspirated engine output at various altitudes In 1lI st cases. gage at I . If the engine i 10 be operated at several different altitude.000 feet and turbo. power i desired. sec Chapter 9.. :0 ~ 90 level. 100 engine./in? At sea le]el. 114 ./in../in.lsed. If an ngine is turbocharged at sea level Will a free·floating turbocharger..... an aneroid-type control should be used to prevent overboosting at lower o 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 altitude. 5 ~ charge engines with correct intercooling have be n able to deliver sea-level naturally :Oz .15Ib. As an example.. At wide-open throttle. :Oz 0 '" air press re.When t le airplane continues to climb above tiS altitude (critical altitude). if the engine is turbo. the absolute intake pressure was 24.. Figur 126 shows how naturally-aspir- ated eng ne output is reduced as the alti· tude is itfcre<.. it Figure 127-Free-floating turbocharged..lin? The naturally- aspirated engine will put out only 73% of sea-lev I power at lO. If he engine must operate over a broad r4nge of speed maintaining 30 inches "" -w xv> . then the turbocharger should e matched to deliver 30 inches "w :0-' Abs.15 Ib. These <...000 ft. igure 127... It is easy to attain a 90 critical Ititude of 15.7 Ib.~ the free. the engine ill start to lose power because 100 .. it ill still be turbocharged at 10 Ibs . altitude.. however. the tur ocharger can no longer deliver Z w air at Sf-leVel pressure. Z w the inta -manifold gage pressure will remain a most wnstant regardless of alti. If a ehicle is to be used only at a cer· z" -"' 80 tain altj ude.. 2 while at 10. Zw w> be mai taioed.. will have been w ..

J turboclwrger speed turboci/arged engine to compell sat e for al Depending on the engine and the of abOlll 125.:ateS. 70 o 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 '0 11 '2 ALT ITUDE 1000 FT. Centrifugal compressors intake·manifold air temperature may free·fl ating turboch<lrger is not acceptable produce pressure r<ltio at a lower speed cause detonation and valve burning. The in the manner shown above. is b:tsed on 60° F. lhe <lctual speed a turbocharged engine with the same sea· ellgine should be able to produce sea· will be only level p6wer as a 1l<lluraIiY-<lspirated engine level power up 10 al le:lsi 16.lllce.-. The high loss OfJoutput can be toler:.15 == 81. 00 ::> ~ r- ::> o w Z '"wZ 80 NATURALLY 7 " ::> ASP I RATED ENGINE vides seil·level cruise 275 HP performance ">< at 19.06 Because of the ability ofa free·floatin g in . I do.000 feet 9.lke manifold pressure overspeeding the tllrboch<lfger.7 4()Q useful until the user h:ts establislled of sea·1 vel power.500 feet altitude. pressor must rut out 3. To mainl<lin this manifold be other problems w111d1 will occur at at sea Ibvel.000 RPM 10 produce Ihis least part of the power loss due to altitude. so the trial·and·crror methud is 24. the turbo speed will which docs not seem possible with a COIll · necessary pressure ratio may calise exces· increase approximately 2% per 1.5% _ )520 l mance. In this case.78 pressure ratio binc housing size required to produce the As a n~e of thumb . altitude where the this altitude to prevent the engine frolll deliver1horsepower at 10. the pressure ratio but at OCF. however. the ratio of sures r11<1y C:lllse a general deterioration the turpine housing lT1<1y be replaced by ~-:--:------. the turbocharged engine will pre ssure <ll 16.06 at sea level. This sive pressure whkh might reduce the out· of altitude. 100 ~ :I: I r.OOO·n. There 1Tl~y both of these engines arc r<lled at 100 I-lP will be 30 pSia.900 RPM.' t Inlet temperature Abs 11 5 . map..000 manifold pressure is available. Tlli s is a nice way of saying St<lndard tempe rature Abs one with a smaller AIR to increase the the engine may come apart :It the seams. the COIll· deliver ing sca·level power. Figmc J 17 mdi.000·fl.floating turbocharged engine.5% ambient pressure is 7.It sea Icvel. amount of supercharge . elluugh "feci" 10 predict the ex ad sile '" 1. Figure 128-Comparison of naturally aspirated and free-floating turbocharged engine output at variou s altitudes be prouudllg know of an exact method of determining whid\ ill this ins\<lllce is the new AIR to rct:tin se:t leycl perfur· 20. Single AiResea rch "" turbo is used. alti· will perform substantially betler at alti· tude even if the boost pressure is J 5 psig 125.---­ of the engine.000 feet pressor S\lO.95 psia.. If the engine as lhe inlet temperature goes down ill higher combustion temperatures and pres· is 10 be used strictly at a given altitude.nd boo" P"'""".lted and th e feel is about O" F. sec Figure 128. If ratio and the inl. <It \ea level. Apf(Jxi1l\~tely tude . wto> lOOd . the perfor11l<lm:e ofa naturalIY·<lspirat ed engine compressor will be producing 2 : J pressure wldch is still possible to <lchieve without and a free.. Figure 128 shows the compar:Jtive 1. and Ihe put of the ellgine even though intake· There may be applications where no average ambient temperature at 16. The sllIall tur· better han the naturally·aspi ra ted engine.000"" 117.'l as shown on Figure 117.Idv.

Pilot adjusts mixture for desired exhaust-gas temperature.Ahitude performance of waste-gated turbocharged engine HlO " Z w u I I < w • I I " i' 90 I "~ "z o . Figure 129. .LTlTUDE z< I WASTEGA. I 0 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 ALTITUDE 1000 fT . I '0 70 .w I •"~ _ < w I X~ <. Altitude-sensitive controller allows turbo boost to keep engine at near sea·level power output. I w" I--CRlT1CAL A. carburetor is pressur- ized by turbo to maintain near sea-level pressure.T [ COMPlET(lY -" ~~ Zw 80 I CLOSED w. As is typical in aircraft installations.Franklin six-cylinder aircraft engine with a single AiResearch TE06 turbo . 116 .

an illlercooler with only ser.:harger. the fold temperature of about 17S" F. If this To ~umll1aril..uperated w:lstegate.~urc ratio will result in:lIl be operated bt'tween sea·level and some power is ca lled the critical alTilllde of the intake-!ll<lnifoJd temperature of 246" F.70 = 23. altitude. It would not benefit grc~tly by the usc of :Ill intercouler be practicallll put a manu. The altitude at wh ich the engine will pressure ratio will inaease frOIll 1.8. The percentage loss of duce maximum sea·level ou tput at high 5. as in the boost ~t sea-level will h:lve an intake-IIl:lni. ei ther manually or automatic- ally operated.ltion.7 psig. Above this Helio Super Courier uses two Rajay turbos on an Aveo-Lycoming G0-480 engine.lIti tude for an engine where the wastegale is fully closed at 15. which is either naturally aspirated or tur- The critical altitude of a turbocharged Airplanes are frequently operated with bocharged at sea·level and is to be engine which is already super-charged at a manually-controlled wastegate or wllh uperated at lll:lny different altitudes sea-level will be lower than one wh ich is a mallually-controlled throttle to limit where maximum horsepowe r must be naturally aspira ted at sea-level and turbo· the intake·manifold pressure because an maintained requires the usc o f a control charged only 10 maintain this outpu\.. An engine integrity of the engine.94 and the higher the altitude the more ti l{' wa steg:l te 011 a vehicle whicll Illust be 25 benefit. Above this altitude.3 '" 16.c.000 feet.000 feet the absolute intake·manifold pressure will be 6. . 117 . A turbuc harged engine with 10 Ibs. boost at sea level/the absolute intake manifold pressure lis 25 psi . fold temperature 10 126" F.000 feet. power at altitude will be less than if the alti tude.3 psi. The problem ca n be solved the same as on 311 airplane by using a turbine housing small enough for high altitudes and opening a w:lsteg:lIe to prevent overboosting at low altitudes. This pres. high :Iltiwde without a wnlrul if sOllie engine.lIe applic. Assuming this engine is supercharged 10 10 Ibs. can be turbocharged without it ca n be opem ted. and the Ihe usc of a control. unless an intercooler is used.lve 10 increase tu 16.45 psia.5" F . case of the free-floating turbu.c\)\\trol1ed 23. When an engine is equipped with a wastegate.I S uSlI:llly an aneroid.llIy. Figure 129 shows engine output in percent of sea-level rating vs. Because the loss il1 hursepower can be IOler:lted at tlte An engine can be turbocharged 10 pro· standard temperature at 15. the engine will 3d the same as the free-floating turbocharged engine. will h. the boost pressure high altitude. driven lip and down hills at various power or 94% Of sea·level power.75 + 16.7 Ibs. To maintain this at 15. the boost pressure will remalll the same since the wastegate is fully closed and :11 20.45 '" .67 tn An engine turbocharged al sea-level can 110 longer produce I oem of sea-level 3. This Iype conirollllay be operated either manually or by a servo motor and is covered in Chapter 9 on Controls. limited only by the mechanical effectiveness will reduce the in take mani· c11gine were n~tura ll y aspirated.00 . airplane engine essent ially is operated <.000 feet where the ambient pressure is 8. Th is will reduce the engine ou tpllt to Turbocharging :It high altitude c~n a steady-st. Some engines m ust be operated at scveral altitudes and still be capable of turning out sea-level power. It is neither convenient nor practical to change the turbine housing each time the engine is moved \0 ~ different altitude. just as at sea·level. it is possible to maintain sea-level outpu t up to some allitudc where the wastcgatc is completely dosed. a naturally-aspirated engine will have other lim its which will SlIme ellglne is to produce about the same engine to be operated only at a specific determine the maximum altitude at which power at 15. '-kre. it will be necessary to increase boost to 25 . S(!lI ings :lnd altitudes.000 feet is higher altitude.

.. MUFFLER ~ -..IOi .t . .l . I t CARBoHEA'7 DOOR I I I ....C'NE \0 -/ I VALVE INLET I I I I I ( U . .. I . ~- C===J I L: TURBINE -/ AIR THROTTLE ......---'i LYCOMING 0-540-E ENGINE I .... HEAT D.. 118 ... I t I I I LS~'NG / AIR 'HROTTLE VALVE INLET CHECK VALVE Schematic of Rajay aircraft installation on L __ +--_____________________________-' Mooney Turbo 21 with single turbocharger.d _COMPRE~ f-' /-) .r . I ......... Y RAM1~ TUABINE __ :. .......I CARB.. S c h e m a t i c of Rajay dual-turbo aircraft installation on Turbo Islander. Ri RAM~ AIR HEAT MUFF~ I HEAT DOOR I I SWING CHECK"I VALve CARB. ~PRESS-.. NATURAL AIR FLOW NORMALIZED AIR FLOW EXHAUST FLOW LYCOMING 0-360 ENGINE :I ~ ....... '. BALANCE TUBe )) . -"'" (t... IL_ ~/~.

Many mure people are Keller and Ted Trevor have been kind extremely helpful to have a book describ- invoJveCl in turhocharging now than a few enough to p<tSS along information which.IS well. Paul Uilti. George When I work on a particular itcm ~uch as makmg it easier for the reader to have :I Spears. The items covered in this chapter ence to pass this infomlation along so thaI from many other experts . Chuck &irsOIl. such In. contradict e:. G<tle Banks.14 DO"'" DOII"T' II Anyone who needs lessons on maki ng sani tary turbo install atio ns shou ld study this Re nault in a l otus Eacll of the chap ters of th is book he fore his first turbocharged automobile If the reader has any specifk problems covers lcrtain points relating to the instal· is completed. Don Hubbard.h other.l\. Ihe lation ()~f turbochargers but il seemed like People who have been successful in proper chapter should be referred 10 :. This is natural 119 . often a ked questions in one chapler. will save many hours the p:lge covering the item on which t am those who have had considerable experi. Bob a carburetor. inter-cooling or lubricatiun. Chuck Mcinerney . I have found it to be ready THerence.lTIicular carburetor opened to years a~o and [ have requested several of if used correctly. above-mentioned have given me written experts and may. tcnd to siasm by muking too many mistakes suggestions for this purpose. ing that p. rcrcad if necessary 10 refresh his memory. and heartbreaks. but the are based on the experiences of these a new c/lthusiast will not lose his enthu. I have included hints working.lI1d a good dea to put answers lu the IllOS! this field such as DOllg Roe. in some cases.

Hood or body clearance 2. Short -JiV1[d ". Keep in mind th:lt . Regardless of where the turbo is ilirol'()()lju versus a liquiJ-<"(hl!cd C'llgllh. slraigh!en the p:llh of the fuel- 80. Now that you have <I new or good used unit. The only critical part of the entire plumb- ing job is how you direL:t the chargl' of fuel :md air fwm the turbo to the !Iwni- fold 011 in-line and V8 engines or to the L:ws~-over pipe un opposed engines such Ak Miller uses jacket water to heat long crossover pipe on 2-liter Pi nto installation. with c.Jrily good fur :lllutilel impeller and turbine with your finger or big tosses of power if need be.' Lase <II :1II 3 pen. T urbos \ are precision m<lde and some caution must be exercised ill working on them. t!lese f('V~ and f. To b~gill With: s{:m~' bask suggc:'li()n~ dently there arc internal problems. This is p IIli. add up the pOSSible air nnd let the ~ylillders !l.u. A.1 crrbon-dis. IllS~' c:lrhufetor cleaner. but they <Ire not complicated.4 requires further exphmation. Figure 130-1. :lUlumoqve-type units turn :lppruxim:J1dy made 10 remove the carbon. A gasket.' tUIll them fr~)lll either end.:: is S!lllll' lall... tum togt'ther..00. and plumbing of oil- pressure and oil-drain lines Item No. Hopefully you cun find one that appe:lrs good.lth :llld in this c~S{' !Udc but lou hig a turbo U:UllpCllS POWl'f thaI lllet. try it in vurioll S positions and you will soon Jl urrow down the pbL:e for it by logic.000 ~PM duril1g hi~h output.Usi to try to tum iL One srJ":Jtch or nick L:a!l the fuel/air st raight in so it is dirccted you Ihe fillife eft. Using C(!stly so at this point. Holding the turbo by h~nd. tur PlUt" ncver scrape carbon otT. If each side turns indepen. Do The same applies when plumbing 10 a from D"-jU g ROt'.:omnHJIl shaft so both should or cross·over p ipe so the charge is cnglll(.rinst either impeller or turbine You must provide a me:ll1S of shooting Ihut $25 to S I UO irlvt'slmcill Illay (. When ~illlCd wrong. you can reudl the tube. willie Ollc 100 ~1l1:illlll:Jy b~ high·mileage turbos nre heavily encrusted uir is lightcr.n III inc clIgillc' vcr. a used 1 rbo. as Corvair 3nd VW types. heavy fuel particles will tend to con- displan!I1K'llt :1m! lise.If(' mOllnted.00.Jnge diredioll raster. evcnly to . Be(. Shop :Jroullu 10 lind a 1mb. it ean ch. Parts arc very In short. ubove. This rule can be broken without engine a 'l' lIot 1l1'Ll'ss. Routing of the exhaust 10 the unit 3.. nUlll be"'::. Wit Ii the ~:lrburctor ~JJU ing and seal-overhaul kit is over $40 . $75.JVC an equal 100 smail a turbo will cause it to exc~cu COSIS. If you are Qut to leu[!J and decide to do the overll:lul yourself. engine II :11 was designed lor OllC ()f simil:Jf slliving solvent til:Jt does not :Jltack :llumi.Jg.Jllst turbine is over dl.ubon and will not turn:ls described so it will make the sharp turn to the left end perf Jrll1:lrk'e.lllse most impellers arc made of tinue ~Iong the e~siest pi.l[lse those cylinders to run !e~n.d '''p. c:Juse fuilure. Special rX haust manifold mounts turbocharger.tI. get a manuu!.00 tile C()lllpreSSor impeller on the A study of any turbu instalblion will Befor~ m:lking a purchase.Jry to buy not put any hard object such:ls u screw l1l~nirold setup on in-line or VB engines. A used turbo relatively free of carbon will turn with mild effort. "If It s llec'cs~. M:my rich ell the right-side cy linders. never ptumb to the manifo ld or a. reveal an exhaust pipe frolll all cylinders unit c:lrcfully. il1~ped tht' boost side is over $20.IUS<! respullse. directed in on an angle. Keep in mind th e following: 1. F or this rcason. Routing of the exhaust from the unit 4 . A Corvair eXh.111 cylin ders.olure Jll~y result.. Use.:ularly trw:" ill IIII.. The exhaust seal affords a little drag so do not expect them to free wheel. bear. plumbed to the turbo. P I~n your exhaust The tHter two items will usually be needed.. This means a dis.:il eraser."""" ". TIH:n. 120 . Hy to B. :1 V or opposed joined by a . follow :1 ft'l'I suggcsti()ll~ 01 driver . Plumbing of the compressor outlet to the carburetor or manifold depending on type chmen. With mild efr'Ht. It is bes t to have th e turbo slightty higher than the manifold or cross-over be~ilusc lthings which arc goou lor ol1e exhaust removed. it is time to plan the instaliution.1I high revs. They .d ''''''c< m.!ssembly must be and C.lllL:C Jt it.'fl.

oil used to lubricate pipe.lntClke-man.keu by gasoline . At this Slate of tune of the engine requires every the engine become filled. fractions of a ~econd mean heat blanket. in your int.WRONG """'" 2 .proof huse Spears suggests the following: " In regard This was thought to be a piece nfbad and damps.one hose works very wcll for found Ylat the bends will distort. which joins to keep the high-speed air stream from th e turbocharger beaTIng during llssembly these tWO sets of exhaust ports may reach cooling the lUbes ex cessively because the will be adequate until the o il passages of a templhature of 1400 or ISOO°F. one Doug Roc suggesl~ thc f<llllJwing: the difference between winning or losing. something Conllec\ion~ between the (.e or the compres- the piping. BeClluse there is temperature. thc four exhaust ports to the turbine turbocharge! b mounted between the car- sidered stand:Hd practice for racing appli· inlel· was wrappcd with a very efficient buretor and the engi ne. I'" TURBO t rnl! SSOV A '" ~9Oo __ i- - '" fC 0 SaVER TURBO ..:ated mtakc staL'k or cross-over cause niorc trouble than it cures. suggests wr. the dis tan ce used around the exhaust system is to keep than those taken on .ross·over pipe." .1f(1 <IS wdl on IlalSC ellgines where the of the e!ngine compartment. to the 9ontroversi31 subject of wrapping tubing until several more Ileaders were use wire-lin ed ilex hose with a relatively Ihe hot lpipe. If a Illodest bend i~ required. wrapping is the engine :lIld they are tempted io insulate quickly 3tta(. The kit smoo th interior.lUst is usually far stronger than the cross-over not be overlooked bccause :l k. the (.OPPOSED ENGINES FR ONT FRONT FRONT I nI 1- TURBO :'. 1 . When locatIOn will n()t only calIse a luss of from l0fing any heat in the exh. George of the corners ncarest the exhaust ports." Jl1(Heriaj beneath the wrapping. "Some pcople s<ly tll<lt the turbo discharge and wh(ltevcr piping m(lY be not be fef! tt ed_ In our opinion. Don H ubb:l.i.md was redesigned <l1ld the header was chrome. the cross-over pipe will give. I)f green sili(. by Flexaust o r Flex-u-si l tu be excellent.lpping the exil.llopcfully. This usually causes overheating of the Paul Uitti has had good resul ts with that George was referring to a V6 engine which exhaust tubing and then premature failure. fuel. of these pipes was returned as being "When connecting the turbo and your On street applications. insulation has been used rotates at enb<ine idle.e is aitk:ll.fold plumbing for turbocharged opposed engmes -- 3 .:h more if made frum 300 series power :md the ba!3n(. similar l() thc (lutkl ~i/.CORRECT Figure 130.lk al this pipe with insulating material to keep pipe. manufactured by Arruwhead. attractive 3ppearance-wise_" In both cases. costly. for most is operated by Ihe Wliste exhaust heat of used . Usually. In engine.tust RajllY first produced their Volkswagcn puwer :lI1d rough idling but o. T herefore ." has 10 give and because the ellgillc bl ock out let and the mtake manifold shuuld DOll!. T he engine and pressure along with the Ile3t th:l1 with a turbocharger. we h<lve muo.JS possible without causing J 13 ino. the instJllatiull may dcfective whcn scvcral pieces flaked out newly fabrio.)th returned with the same problem. light bends. I TOP VIEWS . A few months bter.rd has this to say on the the connection between lhe comprcssor over pi~e warps and when removed. th e pipe size on the V6 Capri and the V6 Mustang. seriously affects the exi1:wst tubes between the engine and found the silicone hose manufactured exhaus~ pipe life.:an be a nre system and also to lower the temperature Turbocharger Ki t.. subjecl. pipe. When this occurs.lkc system has been kept found ~e f Y little or no gain in wr:lpping plated rather than insulatcd_ No appreci. This is con.ACCEPTABLE to be a~ shan . we have experimcnted b. it wil! want to grow about little bit from the turbo for resp o nse and always the possibility of hooking lip the .:h bettcr appearance. Whal we have found is a able performance diffcrence could be sor so as 10 get best connection with leasl tremendous deterioration of the piping measured between the two types and the irregul:lri ty. the pipe whkh joined h:17. Because the turbocharger barely banks fiJI nOI vary much_ TIte cross-over some Indy Cars. Use good sized pipe for your stainkss steel. the insulation take any more lubrication precautions much over 220°F. in somc cases. and generally is not the turbo to get more heat to the turbo.ross. it c an. o? the other hand. use (I good grade. it is not necessary to itself is water-cooled and wi ll not get drivcs the turbo.:)lnprcssur ~ssur:H1fe of free flow..I nalllrally-aspirated between the exhaust po rts on the two radiant heat off the other engine parts. ." cation Jhcre . He has unnece ts<HY. Conventi olla! radiator hose is automotive applications. It rapidly chrome·plated exhaust headers had IT Geurge SpeLlfs has found that the red oxidizc~ 3IHJ . like any V or opposed engine is partkularly The exhaust gases actuall y have a velocity Whell firing up n newly rebuill engine hard 011 the (.

As a prec<lution 10 possible turbo-bear- ing d<l!llage. P. Note engine oil."I'" to David InaU's instal lation on Ford 1600cc in Australia. it is a good idea to disconnect the oiJ -drainline from tIle tur- bocharger and observe oil flowing from the turbocharger drain after the engine has started. Determine how your system functions and devise <I way.:k everything and run the engine for leak checks.. • . Turning the nil pump without running the engine <llso guamn· tees imillediate oil pressure when you fire a newly·built engine. VW engine conversions for racing are thoroughly covered in another H. Book: How to Hotrod VW Engines. turbocharger and SU carburetor. Engine has 1287cc displacement with 8 : 1 compression ratio. RUll your oil system long enougll to observe <l good now of oil 011t . When the oil gels hot and has full engine oil pressure against it. " Hook lip the oil-pressure line frOm the engine block \0 the turbo. the drain will flow a larger amount of oil.. Doug Roe has some advice about the Corv:!ir which might help prevent a turbo- charger failure. Lower photo shows tributor with its drive gear removed. This should be 1/4-inch steel tubing or a good flexible pressure line with equiva- lent oil-flQw capacity and cap<lble at handling hot oil. ai/lines incorrectly." Clive Wave's VW engine in 8 ft.._ __ 122 . This should occur within 30 seconds after the engine has started if the correct oil viscosity and line sizes are used. wheel- base drag bike is shown here in turbo· charged fo rm with 2-inch SU ""... This can be accomplished by turninl! the oil pUIllP with :!n electric drill and light shows defunct Car Corporation's first installation on a 1600cc Pinto. Now you should double cheo.. Photo made in 1968. On tile Corv:!ir I used <I dis- ""iI. the drain hose.. oil should be pumped through the turbo berore firing the engine. This will be ~ small steady stream with low pressure and roum-tem- perature oil. This is a very good prac tice.''''''0'.

1963150 HP Corvair Spyder engine on dynamometer. In lower photo. he displays two turbos he has u5ed in his competition engines. He is now an automotive consult- ant handling special development projects and vehicle testing in Phoenix. Michigan. Until 1972. Installation was automatically programmed to run the engine at full load over varying speeds for component life testing. Impressive "hardware collection" shows part of the trophies won by Doug Roe with his turbocharged Corvair. Doug Roe was a carburetor and emissions engineer with one of the major auto manufac- turers. Arizona. GM Technical Center. Warren. 123 . Bracket on AiResearch turbo supports weight of a four-barrel Holley carbo Engine is shown equipped with a stock Corvair Rajay (TRWI turbo and Carter VH side draft carburetor.

The dr~ins should always more lubricity than guides made from turbo on such an engine-and then slope down and have no loW spOt to trap Detroit Wonder Metal-{. attempting to use full performance oil in the drain tube. valve 124 . " I f stock the valve-spring retainer ~nd the top of so a portion of the wire extends above the valve springs at sto{. The valve springs in used engines may rebuilding by the Winona Method {.:ast iron. If problems occur. Even a new engine.:~n pressures due to bluwby. Turbocharger was specially built by AiResearch. This requires cutting a groove c:lusing it to open but this force is insignif· maintain adequate clearance between the in the gasket surface of the head aro und icant compared to the spring closing spring coils with the valve at full lift.e problcins in the turbo {. some people still seem to Cor:Unued use of high RPM weakens the lubriC:ltion to offset any effects of higher think that oil C:ln be m:lde to now uphill." and RPM potential will often bring Also. the outside of each combustion chamber. especially as boosts get into same engine when il was natur:llly aspir· occur prematurely. This applies add itional clamping are used in a turbocharged engine.leakage at ready be "tired out" and not giving also be helpful as the aluminum bronL. If such oil drain. if it has size approximately 3(4 to onc inch inside 1. The drain tube should remain full uted to the following possible causes: installed. honed for correct fit. ing the valve springs when the turbu is engine. surface. The engine crankcase ~hould RPM is not exceeded. Also. tach watching to insure the critical guide bores can be knurled and then shaft a~ld rods. off the exhaust valves/guides to insure chapler but no m.:k inst~llation heights the valve guide at fuHlirt. The reasons for this are not com. Bronzewall Guide be weq vented to prevent lugh crankcase 2.:an be tra{.:ed to wire which is wound into the guides has specified seating pressure. force and Doug Roe offers a few reasons be sure there is adequate clearance between Soft-copper wire is installed in the groove which ~eem more reason<tbJe. they can be cured by ·O·ringing' the cylin- pressure on the under side of the valve tant to observe the usual precautions to der head. If the dr:lin goes limit capabilities 01 a turbocharged bled. the 13 to 15 psi region. head-gasket p roblems noat al a lower RPM than they did on Ihe spring pressure so valve float does not may occur. It should termlllatc in encountered on a turbocharged engine tends to generate driver enthusiasm a posit ion above the oil level and be pro· and this is not usually a problem ~ the which may not be accompanied by tected from oil throw-ofr from the crank. requiring the use exhaust gas temperature and increased People who have mn turbocharged of St ronger springs or a lesser installation back pressure.lIlcr how often it is that the exhaust valves get slightly more talked about. valve springs in a hurry. He suggests the following: "The engine. Installing a poor oll drains. engines frequently say they get valve height either of which increases valve On some engines. to the oil sump. There is a tendency to use the full rev been allowed to sit with the heads assem- diameter to the engine . consider chang- turbo needs a good direct drain to the pletcly clear. When Fo rd decided to turbocharge a V-6 Capri they built the compressor housing into the intake manifold . the valve-stem seals can be left This item is discussed in the lubrication about valve float. The exhi larating experience If excessive valve guide we<lr is covered with oil. can have tired springs. ated. Some attribute this to Ihe supercharge If the springs arc shimmed. it is impor. Don Hubbard ~s well as the others nOat may occur at lower RPM than was An engine does not have to be very old knows the importance of the turbocharger the case with the naturally asplrJted to have 'tired springs' syndrone. Most uil. but call probably be attrib. an engine is turbocharged. it should never be engine.

" I. publl' u". '0 build. the need ror bet. [n these GISeS. to tubing thickness. inch away from any of the hot metal parts.:cd thermocouples against it is weil l armed up and retorquing after Georgc Spears suggests the f ollowing the front sidc orthe heat sh ield :lrld cooling it highly recolllmcnded. Elec- trical wiring is immediately behind this CYlinder~a scs on the nankcase Iwlves cost even for a pair of turbo(. gaskets . if you are intent 0 11 'buzzing' actually touching it. spigot depths in the hcads. would give ter qualifY exhaust valves increases . when it comes to prutcLting engine com- Such ~l'Oblellls are r.ylinucTs selll Remember that the turbo needs no ating our Mustang II Kit with a turbine direc. thicknesses of pble for the flame-cut say that a 14-gauge steel shield placed une Turbocharged Corvairs. on rough roads. etc. and find 3/8 inch is a happy com.ll shield. wc have found that adequate protection from the heat.cs.I slIIg[c car were ponents from hot exhaust pipes. is might be uscful information to an indi- the turb does not hit anything when the adequatc and cert<linly anythi ng thicker vidual who has absolutely no idea o r what engine mrves on its mounts or the chassis wou ld be even better.u brace under certain pcoples' minds with reg. In regard wiring. kit fo.:h. and eM at resl. frequently asked. even thuugh il . had flanges. usual pra ·tice of running tile engine until tre<lled to a detailed blucprintingjoh.cekr. V and Porsche (.OTre ' Ily machined. Eliminating these items alone c:l n of len offset the from . it should be enced any problem with the wiring. . heat shield and in some cases.He un mr-c()oJC'd Several turbo f:ulurcs Ull .gauge meLal he. p'''ally mad. as III oft road raung.:md/or during the fabrication and welding pro.tly against the aluminum he:lds to expensive aftermarket type in take mani. disch:lrge approximat ely 3/4 inch away 1 provide very effec tive seal if the cyl inder Icngths. before any critical parts slIch as electrkal boost pr+sure is raised. it is arc (. for instance.. we are oper- sures..d '0 you "" ' " how 'h' pi"" j pressure nd a pressure seal wlm:h usually ncxes dunng :J<.1 rullb. R'J'Y'. "mbl.. As valve diameter is increased .083 il1l.1 14. Corred torque Obviously. Belle~ quality exhaust valves are used " We have experimented with various Based on this experience.. with respect \0 fabricating exhaust pieces: gencr<llly can only measure :Jbout 200" F." 125 .lppeMed to thcy call get the hot exhaust piping to design so there is lillie tendency for have plenty of clearance with the engine hcat-sensitive objects is onc of the most failure t occ ur. " I th ink engines hidl spigol1hc cylinders into finally traced 10 the LId thai the turbo a question tha t could come up in some the hC:lu . master cylinders.Jrc t." the hea t problems can be. 1/4-inch has a tendency to warp wi th a t least one inch air space behind it. . We have not cxperi- o n thc h ad bolts/nuts is essential and the the engine to higher RPM. Prcsently." We Ilave pl:l<.. .hargers. This It is v ry important to make sure that . Wh" yJ '" 0". even at high boost pres.Uuld hit. I think we ca n by some Fuilders whcn turbocharging. VW kot .lrd 10 how close retained round their edges by the head drcumslano. whereas 3/8 inch will not. a standard g<lge tubing. cess .' uther good suggestions elllllmiH Cf any tcnuency 10 blow gaskets. : . of P"" h'" '0 be . Rajay technician Dave J author Maclnncs develop the Raiay VW turbo kit. promise. and folds or exhaust headers. :~k"P \h 'Job " mpl. H.Hlull or brakmg or George has somt. Nimonic lexha ust valves as standard parts.

at right is Corvair unit adapted for higher flow with E·flow kit by Crown_ Three-inch-diameter in let of E-flow requires an adapter to mount carburetor. 500 CFM 2·barrel Holley and for 4·barrel Holley carbs. 2-barrel downdraft Bendix/S tromberg WW carb on Dick Griffin Corvair. Left unit is original Corvair B-flow. Kit was designed to lit 1965-66 Corvair F-Ilow with 1"3/8" venturi Carter carb. 1965-66 units have PIN 3856709. Similar adapt- ers are available from Crown. Crown also has adapters for the side·draft Weber. 3830651. 126 . 383 1691 or 3840830.Diameters of these compressor inlets provide an excellent clue to the differences in their flo w capacities. 1962-64 Corvair turbos bear part numbers : 3817254. but also fits B-flow units used 1962-64 with 1-5/16" venturi Carter carbo Kits are available from Crown Manufactu ring. Crown also has an E-flow kit with the three-bolt flange which ~an be used witho ut an adapter. EELCO and IECO. These numbers could be helpful if you arc looking for a used one.

127 . itt I Nick Trist of Hidden Hills. pension ~II aroond. T04'$ on one side. California had this GMC pickup Because of space limitations it was necessary to mount both modified for off-road use. He had Ak Miller add propane and two turbochargers to give it passcnger-car performance. It has six-wheel drive and ilir sus.

a transmissions and final drive.tctors became heavier into wright divisions of 5." i \ $ - :::-- ..OOO-lb. 1975 I Tractor Pullers Association points champion in the 9. so if have rubber ures and only two·wheel \o tal purses of over S400.000 in 1974. it was jus t that.000. and pulling contests. As the These two classes are further divided eXPlar tion is necessary. 11 -"'-• t. weight of the sled and stones plus the tractors with a standard block and Because some reade rs are probably additionul weight of the ten men. 7. (NTPA) h:ad more than a million persons sled was pulled along the course. As the tractor has any combination of engi nes. At 1I10st trador· spite Jr the fact that most people on the 1929 in Bowling Green.. Super-stock tral. They mus t at SJnctioned meets during 1973 with man climbed un it every 10 feet.. Ohio. west {loasl llave never heard of il. Tractor Pulling is becoming a SI>cc IJIOr ~uppJied by the NTPA slates that the first and more puwerful 50 it was neCe5S<lry to spOrt in the United Stales and (:amHla in rel. Ohio. A mouified National Tractor Pullers Assodatioll pulling u sled loaded with stones. Information the years went on.:k.000. This crankcase of the make and model being sayi n ~. Ir.:lOrs are farm increased to over S6oo. there are two classes. "\Vha [ is a tractor-pulling chapter continued until the tractor stalled. Pullet's AssocIation.000. class is this International 1066 driven by Danny Dean of South Charleston. The trac tor started out modified and super·sto<. Photo court8W Nltional Tracto. nlis he pulled the sled 100 feet he had the drive. and entered. 128 .:orded tractor pulls were in the year divide them into classes. doing in a lurbocharger book'!" some in the early days. Missouri.-- • . -. The MO/lSviHe.

9.000, J2lO<h"d J 5.000 pou",s gmss.
Many OllJr rules are pertinem 10 s~fety,
such as S MA·Approved Scatterbbnkets. MOVABLE
Rules ma be obtained frOIll the N:lIiunal LOAD
Tractor Pullers Association. 104 Last FIXED
Wyandot Sneel, Upper Sandusky. LOAD
Ohio 43351.
Tra("toJ~ in the IlHKhtled dass, 3' ("an be
seen from the various phnhlgraphs. arc
low-speed Jragsll'fS. Of the hlp 15 puinl I Y(\.ZJ
fr:\ ""
winners in the 12.000-pound llloJifi ...d
class ill 19[73. ~ix of the tradUTS had
Allison V',I:! L::ngincs, three had 1,l1lk
engines Wlile the rCSllwd an assurtment
of Ford, Chrysler :wd Du:scb frequl'ntly Figure 131 - 0ynamometer sled used in tractor-pulling contests
in multipl s.
SliPer'JOCkS afo.: ~ilIlHl~1 ex..:luslvl'ly
tllfbuch.ar cd djescl~ :illhllUgh pro!)~nc
COmerSI!)1 s arc ,onh!lill1e~ l1sctl . 11m
brlllgs liS t ) the re:ls\l!l for having a
TraClor,pjllill S Chapler in a Turblll"ilargcr
Book. . .
Thc 01 method of pullrng J ~led Wllh
men clillllling. ilh')JHI cvery ten feet i~ nil
longer USl.'U for sevelal reJ\Orh indllding
safely. Thb method nornrilily u~u lothy
is 10 pull a Ir;liler ..... hich has ;1 ~~Hllln
the front Jnd Jnu wheels IlIl the hack clld,
Figure 13 j. The tnliler stJrts nut with a
Ihed IUJu ,on the s~;d end and a I1\llvahk
load on tllb wi reel end dependill!; on the
tra~·~ conJlt;,lIh and the lla(\m weight
division. s th trailer i~ pulled al'l1lg till'
"
eourse,lh mllvJllle wci~1l which slJrh
out rest in over Ihe rC;1I wheeb i\ glauually
muved ror :Ird. tramtcrring the Il1Jjl,r AiResearch T18A on top of T04B with aftercooliny. John Deere engine,
purl of th load fmlll Ihe whet!ls to the
skid. The load evenlllally be,,:oll1es so
great. the ractor b,)g~ d"wn and thc di,-
lance fn)n the starting hne to the lraiil'r
hitch;s 1ll asured illTuriltcJy 10 determine

1
which tTJC or pullcd the JUJd the rartJlcsL
Bec;rusc CI gine sill,' is uniill1lted in any
I
class itS long as the tractor ..:onrOfms
to the othJr ru les. 11 is uncomlllUIl for J
tractor to ~Iall or puwer·out. The usual
"ay to end l run b for Ihe IrJcttll ttl come
10 a .complete stuI' with the whet'is ~tjll
tUrllll1g.
Turbocllargers were first intrOliUl:eu hI
tractor I'll ling 111 the early 60's Inllg
befure the were COllllllon at slLch
places as I diallJpulis or 011 lhe (....mAm
Racing Cir ·uit. Many of these tlrst appli,
cations we e pretty crude but it wasll't
long befor the pullers J(';lrned which tur-
bocharger worked best on whil:h engines

129

AIR INLET

r-r"n"nnl
~... AFTERCOOLER ~

t
'_I *
/~

)
INTERCOOLER
~

,,::1
r!-
)
C ENGINE I II
FIRST STAGE
TURBOCHARGER I
)

~
l 1....1 \...J '-' '--' '-' I /
... (

tt . \"
SECONO STAGE
TURBOCHARGER
EXHAUST

Figur 132-Schematic of tandem turbocharger system

and h w much manifold pr~ssure they cusses the power increase of a diesel Whell two turbochargers are used in
could stand before the engine gave up. engine as a function of the charging-pres- tandem, it is necessary to match the out-
Origi ally, 10 to IS pounds manifold pres- sure ratio. He determined the output of a put of the first-stage compressor with
sure It pretty good because it gave the given turboch<trged engine when properly the input of Ihe second-stage compressor
pulle such a big advantage over the s.:avenged and intercooled continued to <lfter the charge has been intercooled. This
natuT Ily-aspirat-ed engines. However, increase al pressure ratios as high as 4; 1 must be done backwards just as a building
when the majority of pullers were using without any increase in engine-exhaust is designed from the top floor rather than
turb 'hargered engines, it was necessary temperature. Extrapolating these curves, from the b<lsement. As <In example, a 400
to up the boost pressure to win. Forty psig it appears lhe output will continue to CID engine running at 4,000 RPM at BO%
was a out the limit from a single-slage incre<lse probably up to a charging-pres- volumetric efficiency will use 375 CFM,
turb harger and the engines still didn't sure ratio of 10: I. What this points out see Figure 40. ASSllJning 65% compressor
give p. This is about the maximum pres- is a diesel engine properly turbocharged efficiency and 2.7 pressure ratio, the
sure un on championship-type race cars. and intercooled will continue to increase density ratio will be I.B.
T e next step was to mount the turbo- in power al manifold pressures beyond
I.B x 375 = 675 CFM
charg rs in tandem, Figure 132. By using the capabilities of today's engines. He also
this ethod, it is possible to get ridiculous pointed out that these higher outputs are This means a turbocharger with a com-
not necessarily accompanied by higher pressor capable of producing 675 CFM
man! old pressures without overstres~ing
combustion temperatures. Dr. Buchi was at 2.7 pressure ratio must be used for the
the t rbocharger. It was necessary, how-
ever, a intercool between the two com- running intake-manifold pressure of 71 second stage. Either an AiResearch
psig in 1909. He would probably have T04B V-I Trim, Rajay 370E, or a
press r stages or the intake-manifold
run higher pressures even in those days Schwitzer 4LE-354 will handle this.
temp rature would go out of sight.
Beca se each run only takes a couple of if he had the materials to stand the added Choosing the first'stage compressor is
stress. <I little harder because an intercooler
minu es, intercooling can be done rather
As a result of this high-pressure turbo- will be used between the two compressors.
easil with ice water as the coollng
charging with intercooling, tractor pullers Assuming an effectiveness of the inter-
medi m. If each compressor is matched
to pr duce 2.7: I Pressure Ratio, the are starting with 400 elD diesel engines cooler of 75%, the temperature of the air
designed to produce somewhere around coming from the first-stage compressor
inter tage absolute pressure will be 2.7 x
15 = 0.5 psia. Intake-manifold pressure 175 brake horsepower at 2,500 RPM and will be reduced 75% of the difference of
will t en be 109 psia or 94 psig. Some of are obtaining up to 800 horsepower at this temperature and that of the medium
the t actor pullers have actually reported 4,000 RPM. Two horsepower per cubic Which, in the case of ice water, will be 32°F.
intak -manifold pressures as high as 105 inch from a gasoline engine is considered Using Don Hubbard's Chart, Figure 19.
psig. pretty good at about 8,000 RPM. These and again assuming 65% compressor
In Dr. Alfred J. Blichi's Monograph 01/ fellows are doing it at half that speed <lod effiCiency, discharge temperature of the
Turb harging publlshed in 1953, he dis- with a diesel no less. first stage at 2.7 pressure ratio will be

130

0
360°F. 5 btracting 32" from 360 > the the gage pressure when working out pres-
differenc between the compressor dis- sure ratios.
charge te lperature and the cooling Some engine builders use an aftercooler
medium i 328° F. Multiplying this by between the second-stage compressor and
I
.75, the temperature drop across the the engine in addition to the intercooler
intercOOl~er will be 2460 and therefore between stages. When this is done, it is
the temperature of the air entering tIle necessary (0 calculate the increase in now
second stAge compressor witl be 114°F. through the second-stage compressor in
This mearls we will have 675 CFM of air the same 1l13nner as it was done above for
entering t le second stage compressor at the first stage.
114°F. A suming a negligible pressure Dyed-in-the wool drag-race fans Illlly
drop tlno gh the heat exchanger, the laugh at the thought of a tractor pulling
now fro the first-s tage compressor contest but there are many similarities
will be: between them, such as the super-stock
class, the tractor version of the funny car.
I =67Sx360+460
, 114+460
The pulling contest , however. has one big
advantage; you can cheer your hero on

CFI , :,: :,:!~~
for two minutes instead of six seconds.
And, yuu can see the participants from
start to finish!

com~ressor
Moo" '",0 II" ""md A birds-eye view of the installation
st age and CFM r is the now shown in the photo below.
from the lrst-stage compressor into the
inlcn;oul r. The 460 Illust be added to
each of II c tClllper<ltures because all ratio
cakulatio 15 must be done in degrees
Rankine . he 964 CFM will be the output
from the Irst-stage compressor. Because
it is desiflle to keep the pressure ratios of
the two c mpressors about the same. the
density rll io will also be the S:lllle or 1.8.
MUltiPlYi~g 964 x 1.8'" 1735 CFM , the
required pacity of the first-stage com-
pressor. T lis is where things st:1T1 to get International Harvester tractor with AiResearch T18A40 on top of an AiResearch THOa
a little ha\ry because we are now talking with intercooling and aftercooling. 1HC DT-436 engine produces 800·1000 HP@ 4500-
about a f~rly good size turbocharger. The
turbochllTrer used for the first stage must
5000 RPM. Kolb photo.
,
be capabl1 of suppling air to an 800 horse·
power en~ne. T he first·stage compressor
doesn't k~ow it is blowillg the air into
another c?ll1p ressor raising the pressure
to a pointlwhcre il can be forced into a
400 CID ngine. The horsepower obtained
from thes engines is still a function of
the amou t of air which can be pumped
tJlTough i . AiResearch T-18 Turbochargers
have been used successfully but because
there are 0 Tllany versions of this, be slire
to pick th right one. Model TI8A40
wilh a I .SpA/R turbine housing has
worked 0lt pretty well.
A litll luck will be required in picking
the corre I turbine housing sizes the firsi
time. It W['l1 be necessary to have two pres-
sure gages one on the intake manifold
and one b tween the stages to determine
if each lur ocharger is running It the same
l
pressure r tio. Remember in each case it is
o,,,,,,,y )o add atmosphed, P""'"" to

131

Engine used Ai Resea rch turbos. Lufkin works with Ak Mi ller. Chapter 2 described the design lmd opera! ion of a lu rbocharger. Injection is a Bosch timed unit. Assuming this was done correctly. The next few p(lges cover typic(ll turbocharger failures and why they occur. users are not quite as ready to blame engine failures on them as they were a few years ago. In spite of this. the turbocharger will run at least as long as the engine unless it is mistreated . In the vast majority or eases. 132 . Jaek Lufkin used to run this 300 CI D turbo- charged big·block Chevrolet in the gasoline- burning sportsear class at the Bonneville National Speed Trials. it could very well prevent a premature failure which is not only discouraging but expensive. the failures were caused by either lack of !ll<lintcnance or misuse. Car was third-fastest at 1971 meet with a 265 MPH run .I' Now that turbochargers have come to age. intercoolers and waste gates. in most cases. Chapter 4 went through the procedure of sizing and matching the turbocharger to the engine . I f the informa- tion supplied by 11lis chapter is heeded and used during an installation and after- wards when operating an engine with a turbocharger. whether the failure was due to manufacturing problems or some reason outside of the turbo- charger. far {Oo lTlany lurboch<Hger and engine failures occur from lack of maultenance which would have only taken a little time and saved the user many dollars and heartaches. Over the years r have looked at enough failed turbocharger parts 10 be able 10 determine.

Running an engine without a mter is ano ther cause. This type of failure. shown in Figure 134. They are fre- quently caused by lack orluhrication which is easy to spot since the shaft jour. Journal bearings will also fail when dirt gels into the lubricating oil. ~f dirt is . Many fa ilures have also occurred as stated above when the mter became clogged and oil flowed through the bypass. nals will be discolored from the heal gen- erated afhigh speed with no lubrication." Anyone who builds a racing engine is usually very ca reful to put covers over all the inlets to the ca rburetor Of fuel-inj ec- tion system whenever the engine is not running. Not changmg a bypass type oil filter will result in oil nowing tlTound the filter element withou t bemgclcansed .illowed to enter the turbocharger from dirty working condi- tions during installation. It could also be caused by placing:m orifice in the oil·supply line to reduce oil pressure to the turbocharger bearings. As the man used to fay in the TV oil-filter ads. such a failure could occ ur. Both journals have been whether1an oil filter should be installed grooved by particles in the oil. Oark areas are in the radial bearings. will not necessarily h:lVe discolored journals but will usually have several grooves in the journals where dirt has become embedded Figure 133-Journal and bearing failu re caused by lack of lubrication. and then into the turbo- cha rger ~ournals where the failure occurs. There has been much controversy as to Figure 134-Journal and bearing failure caused by dirty oil. This could be caused by . Journal·bearing fa ilu res 3rc about as common as any other type. Figure I ~3. actually straw to dark blue in color. This is ceftainly a good practice because (lin or fore ign objects are very 133 . Many failures have occurred when a filter cle- ment became clogged and prevented oil from flOWing to the turbocharger. One speck of dirt can dog a small orifice and cause a failure similar to that shown in the photu- graph in 13 m:tller of seconds. lack of oil in the engine or too heavy oil viscosity for the ambient temperature conditions. in the turbocharger oil-inlet line.I broken 9i1 supply line. Bearing material has welded to the journal. In either case these failures would not have occurred if the user changed the oil-filter elell1ent~ at regular intervals. "Pay me now or pay me la ter. An ot~er symptom of this type of fail- ure is bebring material welded to the shaft journalstThe cause could be one of several reasons. Th is is Oil e place wllere it certainly is not economical to save ~ couple of dollars.

This type failure quen tly occurs without loss of balance I results in the impeller passing completely through the compressor housing. If a few nuts or bolts h. whatever it might be. To m:lke things worse. See Figure 135. it is like putting something in a meat grinder except that. destructive to any kind of engine . Some users of turbochargers brag about how they get SO psi out of their compressor when the compressor map for this particular unit only goes 10 30 psi . of the rotating group and the lurbocllarger may rUIl for many thousand of hours without further danl:Jge. an air cleaner is always Teeom- mended on:l turbocharged engine and if matched correctly should nOI cause any horsepower loss. tn spite of this. When building up a naturally-aspirated engine. pieces chewed off the impeller will enter the engine along with the original object. in this case. Several yea rs ago. Not so with a turboch::Hged engine.ldes until it looks like a mouse has been chewing Oil them. When the hub bursts it wil! hit against the lips or the turbine it is much more damaging. The same Ihing happens with a nut or boll or a Figure 136-Turbine wheel failure caused Figure 137A. the blades flew off. This type of failure is about as bad as they come.Turbine wheel failure caus· small piece of exltuast valve or piston ring.lppen to be left in there.Ifa nut or bolt enters the compressor housing when the turbocharger is running at high speed. bl. Most of the time. by fo reign object ed by over temperature and/or overspeed. The reason the turboclwrgeT is a good spark arrester is that particles which arc much heavier than air ll it the tips o rthe turbine blades and are knocked back into the turbine housing until they are so sillall they are 110 longer considered a spark. however. they will be blown out and no harm done. one of the blades will finally break orf and the imbalance will cause immediate failure of the journal bearings. They may be lucky for a while but even tually they will end up with a tur- bine or compressor wheel that looks 134 . For this reason. because it Illily mean a new Figure 135-Compressor impelter failure caused by foreign object engine as well:ls a new turbocharger. Figure 136. This fre- Figure 137B-Compressor impeller hub burst caused by overspeed. one of the major causes of turbo· charger failure is a foreign object in the compressor impeller. Whenever one or these gets into the This is a mi ld case because on ly o ne of exhaust system ora turbocharged engine . little concern is shown for dirt in the exhausl manifold. it was est:lblished thut a turbocharger is an excellent spark arrester for engines which must operate in hazardous loca· tions such as dry forests. the meat is tougher than the grinder.

oil will actually be sucked boost conditions discharge or intake around joints replace gaskets into the 'om pressor housing and lots of manifold blue sm ke will come out of the exhaust. the seal should be clean d or replaced immediately or dirt will enter the space between the 1.al [ace and mating ring and cause I 2. . As III ntioned before. leaks will leak into the end hOllsings. This dangero s it will be. ing solid objects. the oil continues runnmg. When.e running. chargers are designed with a simple laby- rinth se at the turbine end and this NOTE: See Appendix for a thorough discussion of analyzing turbocharger failures. it is not recommended to use power 0. If the mechanical-face. Other oil-drainage prob- 135 . Ldck of boost WOfn valves or nngs CompressIon check Repair althougl other things will contribute engme as well. occur on turbocharged engines and the isn't just luck and yours can last that long The ost frequent complaint about probable cause of these problems. particularly at idle conditions Lack of boost Restriction in turbine Check turbine discharge Use larger muffler where t e turbocharger is blowing through dl~charge system (muffler)' pressure the carb retor. engine p oblem although it always gets charger because it probably is not the j bhlmeu n the turbocharger. the more Table IX shows a list of problems which put in service back in the sixties. If engine gasket surfaces of a lab rinth or piston ring seal. This is are present probabl the m<lin cause of oil leakage. H abs will be imposed on the com- pressor ousing. Because he piston-ring type seal on the Poor throttle response Clogged circuit in Try another carburetor Clean carburetor Istumble) carburetor or richen jetls and check jet si"es compres or end is capable of preventing oil leaka e against only a very small Plugs miss at high GaP too large Measure gap Clean and reset to vacuum. J design d es not seem to leak oil any more or less tl an those with a piston-ring seal on the t rbine end. Listen for hissing around Repair leak up with arnish and is not able to float retor and compressor carburetor at engine idle freely. too if it is correctly installed. i is like a hand grenade going off leakage are discussed in detail in Chapter charged cars at Bonneville for many years in the t rbine housing and the higher the 8 on Lubrication. preferably with a high·output coil. Oil leak into turbine Blocked oil dram Remove drain line and Clean or replace type sea as used on Rajay and certain housing check for plugged or drain line models [AiResearch T04 Turbochargers crimped line leaks. - sarnethi g like Figure 137.025"(2) this typ seal when sucking through the Plugs miss often( 1) Bad leads Check lead resistance Replace leads carburet r because vacuums as high as against specifications 29 in. or more. try to find a remedy which with clean oil and protected from swallow- conditio 1 is usually an installation or does not include disassembly of the turbo. When this lems which can frequently cause oil Jack Lufkin has been running turbo- occurs. use the best capacitor·discharge ignition system available. culprit. it as probably become gummed Poor idling Air leak between carbu. it is possib e. len this occurs. Anything which SYMPTOM CAUSE HOW TO CHECK REMEDY rest rids the oil dr<lin line will cause the level of iI in the bearing housing to rise Lack of boost Gasket leak or hole in Block off tailpipe With Repair leaks. After the CARE AND MAINTENANCE oil passe through the bearing it must !low by ravity out of the bearing housing Typical problems causing turbocharged-engine malfunction and bac to the engine. Slarti g at the wmpressor end. Many turbo. Illbricdting oil TABLE IX enters II e turbocharger from the engine system' nd at engine pressure. to have a slight vacuum behind t 1e wmpressor impeller. jf the Lack of boost Carburetor too small or Check pressure drop Use larger carbu· air dean r is allowed to get so dirty it butterfly does not open through carburetor retor or adjust completely linkage has a siz ble pressure drop through it. Smaller gaps may be required if misfiring continues. usually :Jbove tit t of the oil seals and in the case exhaust system ~ng". supplied turboch rgeTS is that they leak oiL This ever possible. At boost of 15 pound. rapid se failure. If the Lack of boost Ditty aIr cleaner Remove air cleaner Service air cleaner turboch' rger has a piston-ring seal on the GaSOline odor during Small leak at compressor Look for fuel stains Tighten joints or compres or end. j carbon. and is still using the same turbocharger he speed at which the burst occurs.

Long Island.T'.p. Today Ihere :He so m<lny on th e markel it is difficult to tell whose kit is on an engine unless a nameplate is hung un it. He had a Dodge with n slant-six engine in it and based his installation On the AiRe- search T-5 Turbocharger used on the OldslllobileJctfire. Companies which offer kits are listed in alphabetical order and complete addresses and phone numbers for each cOlllp<lny arc in the back of this book. In June. Turbo is AiResearch T04. New York. Not quile as m311y boil-on kits arc avail- able for marine cligines but they arc covered ill Chapter I I on Marine Engines.. In 1973. these are discussed sep:mltely ill Chapler 2 J on MOlorcydes. Turbonics made some experimental installations for drag facers and even put out a kit for the small-bluck Must<lng but things really started moving in early 1973. as the Turbonics Division. New York. The Keller approach 10 a turbocharger kit is a little different than others . Because of the large number of molor- cycle kits avail<Jble.. turbocharger kits for passenger >:<Jfs. Bub Keller nnd a show in this photo. couple of other fellows st<lrtcd <I com- p:my C:llled Turhonics ns a sideline while Bob W:lS working:ll Grulllm:ln Aircrnft on Long Island. 1974. the Turbocharger Division was sold to Accel Division of Western Auto- motive Controls.11.) Bob Keller is one of those kind who turbocharged his own C<lr back in the 60's when nobody else W<lS doing it..1 TIBBY A few years ago. They build what they call a Turbo-Module which bolts in place of the standard carbure tor.. ACCEL TURBOSONIC SYSTEMS IlRANFORD . (Echlin Corp.Hficularly those of the bolt-on type. Tur- bonics joined the Flagship Marine Engine Company in Freeport .were such a novelty that automobile magazines were glad to give them space.. CONNECTICUT Uo. The carburetor mounts on top uf this module and the 136 .. This is true nut only of <Jutolllohile kits but also those fo r molorcydes. Priority-valve actuator Several years agO.1 Turbo-Module by Accel for street use on V-8 engines.

ignition·retard ...'" '" \ 400 V·8 enS l1es. va riable-boost-control kits and I . Figure 139.00 waslcgatcS. As anyone who has dabbled 2500 3500 4500 5500 in the world of turbocharging knows.'1"" can pco" to b.. 300 used on ll:lny engine varia tions. No doubt some kits are being produced and sold without my knowledpe but I have induded all of those I knew about when we put this book to Pressure-retard vacuum-advance mechanism press. Adap ters "w / '" . Only when the com ressor is providing supercharged power d 's the fucl/a ir mix P:l$S through the !urbbch:lrgcr. " The Accel Turbo-~od u le Kit features a matched turbocharger coupled with a unique ( "'" i\ aU1onw!c manifold priority valve assem· bly whj h allows all the advantages of 450 turbo-su ercharging witho ut the annoy· ing prot>: ellls of throttle hesitation. '\ poor idl . RPM thoso . By means of this specially designe~ (patcllIed) valve assembly. hul it is far more n~ible and allows the kil 10 be / --. TURBOCHARGED I 50 kits. lag. god.'" "o 200 :r Accc 's development group has spcnt _ _ _ STOCK '" conSiderrblc time :Ind effort to offcr ~ '" desirahl turbo-rela ted accessories. ..ods. Vega and Dudge Cult. such 1 as w:lte~.. Aced offers a number of complete 300 street and competition installat ion kits " ".. A UnivCjrsul Turbo·Module kit. 250 :!i Modulc n a 350 CID Chevrolet arc " • shown i Figu re 139 . the Turbo·MaUule permits the fuel/ai r mix 400 to pass directly through tllC carbu retor and into!the intake manifold during non- turbocharged operations thereby provid- ing a Sh~ lrp.injection kits.e tc. I immedi · ately contact them so I can pass the infor- mation along. V . Chrysler ~nd Ford V·S engiiles. Pinto. 500 To quole their brochure .Test results of Accel Turbo·Module on 350 elO Chevrolet Each ~ime I hear of a new company in the turbOcharger-kit business. This type kit requires a lill ie III rc work and know·how un the / 350 1 pari of he engine builder.. These include small·block Chcvrole t ." .~ for pOP~ll ar engines. ".:rates in a naturally-aspirated mode until the turbocharger is required. Figure 138. petlllits installing:l turbo o n must 250 1(.engine 0r. crisp throttle response and all \ o f the S1 100 tll idle characteristics of the 350 stock-cn inc configu ration .' ~ and nan es are available to simplify Ihe instal1:1tt-111. Results of a Univers:ll Turbo. by Accel retards ignition 1° per pound of boost to a maximum of 8° retard.. 137 .

turbo outlet connects directly to intake manifold through one of Accel's many standard adapters. Accel competition kit for Pinto. Vega competition kit by Accel uses 500 CFM Holley two·barrel on angle adapter. Because inlet and ex haust are on same side of engine. I 138 .Street turbo system by Accel for 1600.230Occ engines.

RobeT! Vandivort ofChcckpoint 139 . incorporates support brace for turbo.l. Fuel consumption is samo as stock. Both turbo.BROAOSPEED SOUnIAM.7 seconds. CHECKPOINT AMERICA ST.. Exhaust reasons. Ilorscpower inaeases 1/4 mile elapsed time is 13.5 psi boo t. At present they orrer two turbocharged engines. is retarded 2°. Ihey should turn their attention to lurbocharging.>sl limiter..l''IIJ~ • 5500 80 157 6000 73 156 This pc formance is obtained with 9..5 compression.5 133 155 .5 psi for the above results A laler ~ersion using 8...9jilcr Opel Man!:! . tributor is used with a CD unit. Standard air filter and exhaust systems are used. has a turbocharger kit for the LotliS ~uropa equipped with a 1600cc twin-ca 1 engine. They h'f/e been responsible fur winning many n. as a b. and u turboc!wrgcd version of the 1.. . Ihe English V·6 in a turbocharg. cll:Jrgc nstalialiulls use the "blow. . is restricted to 11 psi.9·liter Opel RPM Naturally Aspirated Turbocharged 1972 Lotus kit.. ~ ~ .. Lucas dis· 3000 4000 5000 59 77 80 88.' . MISSOURI Chcckpoint America of SI. Fuel consumption is 37 MPG~.. ENGLAND The ability of Ralph BrO:td 's firm to produce results is known Ihe world over.1 seconds. Installation as shown in I he p lOtograph is qui Ie simple but vcry effectiv ..5 psi produces 230 HPJ 1. Dis· valve 10 reduce thwule lag and serve tributor has standard advance curve. LOUIS . Missouri.. WARWICKSH IRE. 0-60 MPH time is 6. It's hardly surprising that with all Iheir anTibutes.... stock 9..hiolllll und inlCrIl<ltiul1aJ saloon· car Ch<ll/lpionships and very oflen :tre respollSible for the preparation of works entered lears. .r""'~ .5 45 Webers. Smgle Stromberg CD 1·3/4 inch replaced dual twin·choke 2000 35. Louis. They usc:t novel recirculatin g manifold is stainless·steel seamless tubing.. on bUlh these models are as shown below : 3·liter V·6 Ford RPM Naturally Aspirated Turbocharged Horsepower Horsel}OWer 2000 64 72 3000 105 150 4000 125 187 5000 135 215 5500 135 220 6000 125 220 Boost was 6. cd form. Boost starts at 2800 RPM. Rajay Horsepower Horsepower turbo pumps up to 21 psi. Boost starts at 1500 RPM and a rev limiter is set at 7000 RPM . Front Strom· Ihrough'lhc-carb" method fur installation berg CD carb is retained .

. This should impress the people who think a turbocharger on ly works at very high engine speed. HALLANOALE. Builder claims fuel consumption 10% less than using special forged J. more tractable and easier to drive and if you desire. America has found it to be very responsive at low RPM. Exhaust He and CO emissions reduced must be lowered from 10.5: I by 50%. CRANE CAMS INC. will out·accelerate a Daytona Ferrari from zero to 120 miles per hour. FLORIDA Crane Carns not only offer Schwitzer Turbocharger Kits for the Volkswagen and the Vega but their Division V.0 seconds using 185/70·13 radial tires. The stock. The [/4·mi[e time is 12.3: I to 8. This model requires a little at 1800 RPM. This particular instulJation not only pro· duces n lot more horsepower but an emissions test ~howed it reduced aU three pollutants. Don Hu bbard has written a manual on turbocharging engines using Schwitzer Turbochargers. NO x slightly lower than stock. is restricted to 14 psi. 0·60 time runs around 5. Anyone wishing to llse Schwitzer Turbochargers for their engines 140 . Pistons. Vandivort uses it for daily transportation wilen weather pennits. It includes information on choosing the right turbocharger for the application and Don has actually picked {he exact turbocharger to be used for many installations. Their kit for the Lotus Super 7 is just as impressive. The manual also con· tains cam information for turbocharged engines and service instructions for the turbochargers.. It will still cruise at better than 70 miles per hour at 33 miles to the galion. more work because the compression ratio Distributor is reworked to limit total advance. the rear· wheel horsepower on a chassis dynamom· eter showed the following before and after the turbocharger was installed: RPM Naturally Aspirated Turbocharged Horsepowe r Horsepower 4000 39 78 4500 46 110 5000 59 123 5500 72 132 6000 78 149 6500 81 It is interesting to note the turbocharged version only goes to GOOO RPM rather than the 6500 of the naturally aspirated engine. SU carburetor uses a special air filter. P.28 seconds. If this isn't impressive enough. E. Checkpoint America also h~s a kit for the MGB shown in the photograph.

A USAC Car with thissctup belonging to Bob '-Ieiman finished second in the 1972 point standings.'.j.... .....$ 1..O".:: 200 ..... Schwitzer turbo- charged •• H)(I / V / ... Start ing witll the standard Schwitl...." / 0 •0 >- 50 40 50 60 '0 80 90 RPM -T 100 141 .149590 Turbine Hou s· --.Horsepower VW 1600 engine. ... ~...... •ow C- •• . in..10 inch 2 .::t"'. The re. Because the Crane Manual is aimed niore at helping the end user tu rbocharge his own engine rather than listing available kits...00. affy Midget are shown ill Figure 142. thc results of somc of these installations should be interesting to the reader and the photos lTIay give !lOme add itional installalion hints.... .. and read it before starling on an installation..er VW Kit for 1500 and 1600cc engines. ing & Divided Exhaust Manifo ld ...... and torque Figure 142A.should ob tai n a copy of this manual. • w .... . Most of the siz.--. ." ~ /""" .... ul ts o f a wastegated 3 LJ-I-209 on a 73 cu..ing and matching informa- tion from the Crane Manual is included in >... 0 " w ~ < 150 / - Figure 141 . 150 .. the compara tive result s are quite impressive.. Chapter 4. ... non· turbocharged liS..Offy Midget-73 CID 250 Turbo-3LH-209 with double fl ow 1. 100 w' ...... See Figures 140 and 141.. Compr~ssor maps of the available Schwi tzeT ITurbocha rgerS arc incl uded in the ap pendix...

..\ " 3 00 10 20 30 . " about 40% but the speed for maximum torque decreased from .0 RPM -=.. The power curve is neat also as shown in Figu re 143. j "m V I o '" / ." larger engine. •w • "oz ~ 100 • ~.:rease bUI the peak torque 00 "w jumped rrom 410 pounds feel 10560 ~ 0 which is:I whopping im:re:lse.z to 3.Power curve of Schwitzer 3MD·560 on Ford Boss 302 engine Figure 144. ~ICp down 100 hard on {he 00 " Ihroltle at around 3000 RPM. Figure 145 shows how comple te SchwEILer's Vega Kit is..560) was used but the turbille noale im:reased from 3.. -- "g 200 w V '// "... even including el1l ission. The Schwitzer 3MD·560 mounted on a Ford 302 Boss Must<lng with a wastcgate ___ NATURAL~Y ASPfRATiD BASELlN~ makes a neat package.0 50 RPM -:. 2 beca u ~e of the . A similar installation including the wastegate was mounted on a Ford 460 Cobra Jet........ NATURAU1y ASPIRATJD BASE LlN i 300 TURBOCHARGED /" .0 50 60 . ---.. .. Ilere the peak power was increased from 3 IOta 360 liP which is a ~ modes! ino. . The peak I..::on t rol·system parts...-. '- 500 • .Power curve of Schwitzer 3M D·560 on Ford 460 Cobra Jet engine --.nound 4500 to 3800 RPM.. " 0 Jusl don'.0 in.· ITURBOCHARGEO horsepower was increased from 262 to 330 while the peak IOrque not only increased .100 Figure 143..00 142 .1\ . Figure 144. 10 20 30 .. The s:lme turbo sile (3M l)...4 io..

- ." . "" ".."..Exploded view of Schwitzer kit for Vega Turbocharged Vega with Schwitzer after- market kit dynoed 150 BHP at 5800 RPM.. .""... \ ~. Kit is available from Crane Cams...a..~. 143 . .. . .<"". ~- """ ". Figu re 145. ~...

I . .. ~...er.:ompares the output of a $Iock 160Oc. "" .. " ... Crown was sold 10 Derek Torley who . induding Olle for the Porsche 914.. pioneers in 11Irbocharging when he offered a smaller AIR turbine housing for the ~ jO standard Corvair Turbocharger back in " the 60's to obtain more boost pressure for racing purposes. l- _00 I II 00 '"' • ] I .:harger kits for the 1600 and 1800cc Datsun Engines. fP " "'" + 144 . .: Datsun. .. WIll: I with and without tu rbocharger.. ".. Figure 146 shows lIle improvement in perfoTl\lance when turbo.oll turbochilrger kit." 1 . '"' to r: ~:"'"""''''"''---+- "'"'"L"-_'''''''''''''-''''''' / TUR60 Figu re 146-Perlormance of POTSche 914 CROWN MANUfACTURING CO. Crown developed turbo. Figure 147 .·.. was onc of the !M ' .~" i . . Ted Trevor.. ''''''.. one modified by BRE and stock engine with Crown turbocharger kit the bolt. III . 1111S kit is another first because the 9 14 has a fuel·injec ted engine and gelling the right air/ fuel ratio at the right time b a different story than with a C:lrburetor. 1 . I . ~ "O the horsepower increase was obtained "00 j ~''''j'''::'''''' without resorting 10 high engine RPM .00 I Crown Datsun 1600 installation with air cleaner removed.. with the help of Rick Mack.:harged. r-t STOCK below shows installation. the Crown Turbocharger Kit for the DalSun 240Z was one of the first of its kind offered and is now available for the 260Z as well.. I -+ . In 1973.. . ...." L l · 1600. Ilefe again .. one modified .~ . .. Back in 1972.. .. .. continued to develop new turbocharger klls. Later the same year.. CA LI fO RN IA to 111 ~'1 ~ ~~~ / P. .. Crown alse offered adap ters for the CorvairCompressor Inlet ~IG'~'Q~ to allow the use oflarge Weber o r SU·Type t:L_PSf:D 11.~ .Jrd to [" I f ••' -I Crown M:l1lll[:lcluring offering l\Iore lur· boclwrgcr kits ill the future.. it is interesting 10 note as in the case of engines turbocharged by Schwil"l. ~ Figure 147-Comparison of stoc::k Datsun by BRE and the stock engine with ..:an look fo(w. N S£COHDS Carburetors. £ .. Photo NEWPORT BEACH. the former ow ner of Crown Manufacturing.1 +- '('. . // : No doubt we .

lSUPPLY LINE FUEL FROM TANK 1--". 145 . Figure 148 is a sche- matic ?.T. sent me information on the IF. ohn Gaspari. Crown 1600 kit. 8:1 compres- FAR EAST TRADlNG COMPANY LTD. Air cleaner is built to withstand full boost pressure because TOKYf.E. EXHAUST PRESSURE F LINE BACK TO TANK OIL LINE Figure 148-Far East Trading's Sigma Turbocharger System with fuel-pump pressure controlled by compressor-discharge pressure Far East Trading installation on 1974 Datsun 6·cylinder 2000cc engine. Th~kit is quile different from those produ ed by Crown in Ihat the carbu- relor i pressurized and the compression ratio i~ reduced to 8/1 willI a special gasket incJudrd in Ihe kit. The export manager of TRW Interna· tional. This erigine has a single carburetor but othemhse appears similar to the 240Z Engine. Sigma Turbocharger Kit for the 2000cc six·cylinder Datsun Engine.' JAPAN carburetor is pressurized. cast manifold adapter. sion and 11 psi boost.. Develops 160 HP at 6000 RPM.f this installation and shows bow the fuel pressure is regulated.

SURREY. hliS produced a useful power curve. This ITlllkcs for II very simple setup aud with a ca reful lTlatching or turbine housillg~. Datsun 240. Lotus Elan. engines usually show between 180 and 185 HI' on their dyno. Capri. ENGLAND Thi. It is siled in t:olljundioll witll \ exhaust restriction to prevent over- boosting. Fraser mllkes custom installations and has kits for Br. On . Ford V8. ]>cak power beillg nearer 6000. Spitfire. moves carburetor to right side. 146 . pluS a very good increase in top eJilI Hr. Ilis kits are quite complete 3T1d include a boost-pressure con troller ( IMPCO). elc. DOUG FRASER RACING ENGINES MARBLEHEAD. Doug Fraser 911 POTsche installatton with an exhaust sniffe r used to aid in the initial jotting of the carbllretor. 260. Man ifolds are handsomely made jig-welded assemblies. Chevrole t V8. ~blhwalls claim :111 increase from lOa 10 175 liP .2 seconds and the liP is lip frOI11 80 to a conservative 160. 280Z. . On the Manta they use a similar system.1 BMW installation.\1W is 17.:arburelor is used.8 seconds whidl COIll- pares very favorably with the 19 seconds for the works-turbo-ed 2002. Vega. A spot check 011 the chassis dyno produces 130 l iP at the rear wheels a\ 5000. Pressure line through rear wi ndow is ~ttached to a recorder MATliWALL ENGINEERING which can plot rapid intake-manifold -pressu re changes which can easily be missed whi le THURSLEY .-IW 2002. Colt and Opel. The 0 100 time fur the 2002 B. a large SU <. MASSACHUSETTS Doug Fraser has been making very neat turbocharger installations for sev- eral years. IMPCO pressure-limiting valve is in turbO-fa -intake- manif old crossover pipe.'> finn !1iIS devdoped kits for the BMW 2002 and the Opel Manta . 0 100 time is 19. POTsche 9 11 . Pinto.

lIUf:.lrger kils kits for the Chevrole t .ldded horse· on power for ils respective :.lIle fuel for Ihe dell nest 534 truck engine . Pinto Kit.l1 Ak does no/ Slup here as he :. detail in Chapter 9.lIld his cohorts. The turbo is neatly tucked int3ke side of the engine.luloillobile. This is discussed at length in convinfd that the in-line engine is the Chapter 18. an engine results ill better overall em is- der Ch velie back in 1964. 170. h<lvC becll in Ihe hot. Controls.. for the street rod business since before tlley were machine. Exhaust Emissions. folds :. have been aspir~ted four or six is usually a little shy using turboo. ~nd fuel-injected Porsche 911 items such <IS carburetor <ldapters.hargers 10 get :.lddition. of cylinders. [ have been sions. There is 147 .c I turbocharged my six-cylin. prevents an engine from being over- lation ii one of the sweetest set-ups you boosted by lim iting the flow on the could ill agille. away b neath Ihe exhaust manifold and lll:JJlUfactured by IMPCO. CALI FORNIA ducting is required and you Ill<lY nol need Ak ~iJler . Figure 149 is an ex- turboo.h more called hot rods. power ~illce the 50's." the emission field showing turbodl:..ble testing in kits.150 For the do-it-yourselfer. ploded installlltioll dr3wing of Ak Miller's Ak has ki ts for the 2.Ak Miller 2000cc Pinto Kit installation AK MILLER ENTERPRISES usually plenty of room.Harger kits in town. along with gr:. He :.llsQ has one for the Ford Ihem wtth prop. V-6 Ai Researdl Turbochargers and other Capri. Dodge and Ford and in ~ollle cases lie h. the results are mu<.~ote Ak.000cc Pinto. This valve. I} There as mud} as 100% gain witll these Ak has done consider. Chrysler Slant Six. It is only n:. E XHAUS T Figure 149... Ak offers and 309 CID Ford 6's.lnd even a flow-control valve wh ich To Q. practically no PI CO ~V ER A .l]so offer~ that Ak should offer turbodl:.ltifying bcc<lusc the average n:. mani- and 914. way to go in turbocharging.IS combined pickups. In :. J<lck Lufkin a crossover pipe from the other bank <lnd 13m Edwm:\s. Chevy 6.200. is described in is not :sible when you lift the hood. " The six-cylinder instal. These fellows.lrging Eve sill (.ltur<llly- Duke ~~llock of Ai Research.240.

W. ARGY LL. Pushrod. AUSTRALIA redw. (nail is one of the pioneers in Nova Engine.. Before AftCf retor which they also manufacture. Slant Six)_ Holden 186 cm kit by Teterin Enginee ring. 148 .MINNOW-FISH The kit for the Ford 250 elD (Maverick CARBURETIORS LTD . Weber made many custom installations as wcll Engine RPM Horsepower Boost as bolt-on kits. Engine RPM Horsepower Boost sions utilizing the Minnow-Fish carbu. Before After Their Toyota CeHca kit for the 2T- 2000 53 56 1 l600cc pushrod engine is quile simplc as 2500 67 83 5 can be seen in the photos bu t the results 3000 70 140 9 are outstanding:ls shown below: 3500 64 164 13 Rear Wheel 4000 38 158 14 Engine RPM Horsepower Boost 4500 28 150 14 Before After 5000 141 14 2000 21 25 0 ENGINE: Six·cylinder GMC 186 em 2500 23 32 2 370F60 Rajay Turbocharger with 40 3000 25 44 6 OCQE Weber Carburetor_ 3500 28 63 10 4000 34 72 11 4500 42 83 12 5000 51 103 12 5500 53 108 12 6000 54 113 12 ENGINE: 2T Toyota.:ed version of the Chevrolel 6-qlinder David. The Austr:lli:lll Holden uses 11 slightly NEWCASTLE. 197 14 4500 84 Fish COIl!. including 14 5000 78 179 such vehicles as BMW's.S.ern is quite wide. Brit ish Leyland Rajay Turbocharger with 45 OCQE Weber series B fngines :H1d a few more besides.. ou t resorting to high engllle speed. Carburetor TETER IN ENGI NE ERI NG PTY_ LTD. Volkswagens. hemi four 370B40 Rajay Turbocharger with 40 QeDE Weber Carburetor. in U. Chrysler Avenge r ENGINE: Six-cylinder 250 CIO 370E80 and 111111. S_ A_) Engine is just as neat looking LOCHG ILPH EA O.. The 2000 68 70 usual method with the Jlenderson 2500 82 102 4 Minnow-Fish system is to blow through 3000 90 168 8 thc carburetor and limit boost with a 3500 183 12 Ford 250 CID kit by Teterin Engineering. N. David example of a large increase in p{)wcr with- is head of the Product Development Sec. Colt 4 cylinder and Chrysler 6 (different from U.. specializes in turbo conver.S. This establishment. tion of Tcterin Engineering where he has Toyota Celica 2T-1600cc kit by Tete rin Rear Wheel Engineering uses Rajay turbo. 92 dump valve upstream of the ca rbo The 4000 191 14 88 range of cars covered by the Minnow. carburetor.1rrrrr. The Tclcrin kit is a good high-performance turbocharging. as the Celica Package and the improve- SCOTLAND ment is even neater.. They plan to produce kits for the Datsun 4 and 6-cylinder engines. run by Bob Rear Wheel Henderson.1600cc.

SANTA MONICA . This also SPEAReD PERFORMANCE eliminates any need to relocate the PROOUOrS . engine . Rajay Volkswagen Kits for single and dual-poft Volkswagens and all Rajay turbodllHgers for the auto- motive. ~nd the Y·6 2600l. INC.1 00 RPM.o.4 turbo gives 10 SANTA MONICA.IS turbocharger ki ts for the 20001. a 350 elD s!Tli. rburelar sizes. Ilorsepower Figure l 50.ling AIR exhaust hous.md '. Rajay 301B. They have several other irons on the fire such ~s the Honda Civic installation. DISTRIBUTiNG COMPANIY_ INC. 149 .Hger manufacturing. ~nd will not bCl:ome a kit until the turb ocharger goes into producti!'l. Spcarw JbilllS the kit improves fuel mile~gc. SHELBY·SPEAReo . Ag<lin. The Capri cngille wi lh thiSjkil produl:cd 175 I·IP. It has cXl:el1cnt low·speed driveability . Spearco bims inl:Tcased fucl mile<lge. conditioning can be retained.(.I The "1. W<ller injection <lnd O·ringing thc he~d is recommerded with Ihi~ vcrsion. The V 6 Mustang Kit in Figurc 150 incrc<lses lhc o utpllt to 185 I-IP. CALI FO RNIA Early t 1974.6 Capri Kit in Figurc 151 is Simil:l~ bu t not identical bel:<llIsc the enginrs 11~VC morc dirfcrclH':cs th~n JUS\ displacement. An option~l exll~ust sys· tem and urbine hOllsing ups ll1~xill1um boost to 4 psi and output 100%.Shelby Spearco V-6 MustclOg kit inncases from 25% to ! 00% arc accom. Addili?llally . A Pinto Kit designed fur the street produl:es 7 psi boost to incre~se horse· power 4 %. Horda Civic l300cc with Rajay B·flow un~t by Spearco Performance Products I is boosted at 8 psi at around 5500 RPM. CA LIFORNIA Speareo Performance Products h..:\<Jne unleaded fuel. It operates un 91. Rajay (Shelby·Spea rcol dual·port VW kit battery.u(. charger on the left side so factory air ings . Spearco 2000ec Pinto kit puts turbo· plished b~ sc[co. Pintu. the Y·6 2800cc Must~ng II. I '. wilh r boost pressure staring :Jt 2 ..c cbpri..!lI-block Chevy turbocharger ki t fits most auto- mobiles ajld light trucks equipped with the small-block . Raja y Industries decid- ed to get ?ut of the automotive·kit busi- ness and fOIlCenlf<ltc on turboch. cyde and marine aftermarket afC now qistributcd by Shelby-Spean. This was t10ne with <I prototype low·now Rajay Tu~bocharger .

Turbo Systems has done quite a bit of work wi th diesel tractors used in tractor p ulling con tests. These are: 1. Less smoke and odor problem 3.60 MPH 27. Pe rformance is AKRON. Lower noise level 4. Inc. Increase in fuel eco nomy T he performance of this kit <IS me<lslIred P"9"01 504 1974 diesel sedan turbo-cd by Turbochargers. Remote oil filte r to by Road and Track (September 19 73) is : supply turbo is at the far Icft side of photo. Many diesel kits h3ve already been offered fo r trucks.3 9.0 6. The kit fits all series 200.3 The 0. 0 . DOWNEY. 3000 Mercedes installation con- nects turbo directly to the air clc(lner and intake TURBO SYSTEMS .0 13.5 17. Bill has Cllst nell-' exhaust manifolds for the engine so the turbochargers can be mounted high on the fronl end. Inc. Turbocharger. 0 -50 MPH 18. It is common knowledge the Mercedes diesel-powered cars are not very exci ti ng when it comes to acceleration. CALIFORNIA This kit is unique in that it is for a diesel. Sec. Intake and e xhaust manifolds a re stock. of Livoni. mile age ave raged out <It 24 MPG ! Windshie ld washer reservoir and pump 0 .40 M PH 12. Stock air cleaner is re tain.30 MPH 7.4 liters or 144 C [O. Fae. This is a real performance kit usi ng two turbochargers <HId will fit all of the s.2 ed. manifold.t ory air condi tio nin g installs with minor modifications. Turbo(.70 MPH 44.4 A J -pipe makes the exhaust-manifold -to-turbo connection. Stock 220D Turbo 220D all the way. Th is kil is for the man looking for power rat her than comfort because air condil ioni ng can- not be used.mall-block Chevy's from 265 lip to 400 C ID. TURBOCHARGER .l ocated to give exhau st-pipe clearance. Michigan. 0 . '50 .j. The largest four has a d ispla(.9 0.220 and 240 diesels with either manual or automatic transmissions. Alaska wi th a 3000-pound trail'!r being pulled Speed. This lack of performance is not due to the fae ! it is ~ diesel but rlJlher because it is a slIIall diesel. and has since added a slllall·bl(x:k Chevy kit of h is own. Lower exhaust temperature 2. INC.emen! of only 2. The turbochClrged car was driven round Time to trip from Los Angeles to Fairbanks.\1arging a diesel such as this has all of the ad vantages of tu rboc hargillg a g<lsoline engine plus II few more. INC. farm tract ors and CO Il- st ruction but this one is fo r a passenger car. OI-HO Bill Laughli n of Turbo Systems decided ~l few years 3go that turbochargers were tile only way to go So he purchase d the Pi nlo :JIld Vega turbocharger ki t li nes fro m Car Corp.2 24.nol bad by any standards.60 MPH time W<lS red uced by almost 10 seconds. 5 were re.

-" _. ~ U ~ ~ U ~ • • Roto-Mas.f - ~ '" (. one of the la rgest au tomoti ve aftermarke t suppliers.. __. L__~ 'T'" • - ..240 diesel f its even with a ir conditioning..220. r •. •.. 1 1 '- 151 . " ~n . kit for 200. Turbocharger.. Roto-Master is a division of Echlin Manufacturing Co. Inc.er kit for the naturally aspirated Cummins 220 HP diesel is produced by the firm which author Hugh Maci nnes serves as Vice President and Chief Engineer.

fuel consumption as well as exhaust or at least do not increase them . when equipped wil11 nil Ihe devi. II EBBIIBBT One of the most frequently asked ques- tions abo ut turbochargers is "What will a turboc!11Hger do for the exhaust emissions from my engine?" There is no simple answer to this question because a turbu- charger is 11 0 1 a device designed to dlOp up exhaust emissions in little bilS and spit them ou t as dean air. tests have shown that a turbodwrger applied either 10 a diesel or a gasolille ellgille in good funning condition will not significantly increase any of the measured exlwusl emis- sions and in almost every case will decrease them. it is a slightly different story. Even so. A turboch:Hger applied directly to such an engine will i1l1ow it to produce Ille IlOrsepowcr il had before <III [he em ission devices were applied . the output of a s!and:lrd U. engine was illegal in the state of California when this book went to press. few people looked at the diesel engin e seriously because the extra fuel for college studen ts was a turbocharged Toyota using propane fuel. The nice pari about tllis is it c:l1l be done while increasing the output of the engine by as much as 100%. six-cylinder ill-line diesel of 198 CID will 152 . Looking al Ihis from :mother view· poin\. S.' is tile fuel consllmption will nllt be as good as tile original high·<':0Il1pressioll naturally-aspirated engine. gasoline engine. that expensive. Ilowever.:cepled <IS a wa y o f life.. The 1974 fuel shortage :md subsequent price increase has altered o ur thinking considerably and it has sud- denly become patriotic 10 try to reduce NOTE: Tests have shown in nearly every case that turbochargers reduce emissions. The largest single disadvantage hen. hlS losl so much power Ihe vehicle will no longer perforlll in a IZWllIter most of liS have a<. Diesel and An engine slich as the Nissan CN6-33 propane use with an add-on turbocharger apparently was allowable.to-weight ratio <lml high initial cose Even with the addition uf all the emission-control devices. With the diesel engine. The diesel engines up lInt il recently were not considered seriollsly for usc in U. One-third o f the burned in the gasoline engine wasll·t all cars entered in 1974 had turbocharged engines. passenger cars for sever<ll reasons induding a pour power.es t()llleel the 1975 and later exhaust-emission s requi rements. to add one t o a non-t urbocharged gasoline emissions. S.

run at 4,0 RPM-fast enough for any TABLE X
passenger ar or pickup truck. This engine
is almost c mpetitive weight and power- Fuel-Consumption & Exhaust·Emissions Comparison of a 1973 3/4-Ton Truck
wise with' small V-S gasoline engine with Gasoline & Diesel Engines, both Air-Conditioned
equipped ith all the exhaust-emission COLD START CVS TEST
devices in luding a cat<llytic converter. I
say almost competitive because the simple
GRAMS/MILE i
TRUCK ENGINE HC CO NO, MILES/GALLON
addition 0 a free-floating turbocharger
makes it n ore than competitive. The state CHC 2747 Baseline Gasoline 3.72 53.82 4.93 11
CHC 2748 Baseline Gasoline 2.91 37.84 4.52 11
of Califor ia has been conducting tests
CHC 2747 Baseline D,esel 1.17 4.14 2.52 20
with this e gine since January 1974 where CHC 2748 Turbocharged Diesel 0.47 2.54 2.13 20
fuel consu plion is a consideration just
as import nt as low exhaust emissions. ADDITIONAL HOT CVS - 1 TEST
The origi al test was run on two Dodge
HC CO NO x
3/4-lon pi 'kups normally equipped with
360 CID asoline engines. One of the CHC 2748 Emi%ions 0.26 2.10 1.85
trucks has a naturally-aspirated CN6-33
Nissan en ine while the other has the SPEED (MPH)
same basi engine with a Rajay Turbo- 30 40 50 60
charger. T le naturally-aspirated engine Dvnamometer Fuel Consumption 26.2
29.4 23.8 20.3
has a Illax mum output of 92 HP at
4,000 RP while the turboch1lrged ver-
sion of th s engine produces approximately
TABLE Xl ;
130 HP. olh vehicles were tested for
exhaust e issions and fuel consumption
Comparison of Exhaust Emissions of Naturally Aspirated and
before th gasoline engines were removed.
AK Miller Turbocharged Engines
The emis ons and fuel consumption tesls
were rem after the diesel engines were EMISSIONS RESULTS
installed nd the comp<lrative results are
shown in able X. The turbocharged die- TURBOCHARGED VEHICLES
sel, when 'olllpared to the proposed Cali- DATE VEHICLE CID TRANS FUEL LAB TEST HC CO NO,
fornia Re uirements for 1976, was twice
as good 0 HC, seven times as good on CO 9/4/73 Pinto Pangra IT) 120 4.spd GO' Scott CVS 1·2 1.84 20 3.01
and only % too high on NO x . The nicest
thing abo It this is the engine contains no 9/72 Pinto 2000 (T) 120 Auto GO' AESI CVS 1-2 1.51 27.04 1.72

special de ices which contribute to fuel 4/8171 PintO 2000 IT) 120 4·spd Propane Auto 7·mode 07 10.9 1.3
consump ion without produdng power. Club
Patricia S ears recently made a comment
when 100 ing at iJ 1974 car with tlle hood 2/73 Maverick INA) 250 Auto Gas-EGR AESI CVS 1·2 1.70 24.07 1.92
raised. Sh said, "The only people who
9/72 Maverick IT) 250 Auto GO' AESI CVS 1·2 1.23 19.73 3.2
make out from all these emission controls No EGR
are the h se manufacturers."
Tony ampana of Wilcap who made 317172 Maverick IT) 250 Auto Propane Auto 7·mode 0.55 1.83 1.007
the instal ation for the state of California Club
has been unning several diesel-powered
10/20/71 Dodge 440 INA) 440 Auto GO' Auto 7·mode 1.15 19.05 5.13
passenger cars induding iJ Dodge Dart
Club
with a tu bocharged diesel like one of
the state ickups. Because of the ligh t 4/5/72 Dodge 440 INA) 440 Auto Propane Auto 7·mode 0.25 2.07 0.58
weight 0 this vehicle, he gets 40 miles Club
to the gal on. He doesn't have to worry
5/73 Dodge 440 IT) '40 Auto Propane Auto 7·mode 0.23 2.38 0.63
about pa sing through a town which may
Club
not have diesel fuel pump. He might
drive thr ugh an entire state without 7/73 Aston Martin INA) 327 4·spd Ge; Auto 7·mode 0.32 8.17 1.30
refueling. Club
Becau e most of us are concerned
8173 Aston Martin (T) 327 4-spd G,. AESI CVS 1-2 1.72 34.3 2.70
with gas ine rather than diesel engine
vehides, he effect of a turbocharger on T· Turbocharged

oxh'",1 1,"'"'0"'' of m",' 'mp"'''"''
NA . Naturallv Aspirated

153
- - - - - - . - - ........ -.~--

10 us. Two companies, in particular Ak
Mille r Enterprises and Crown Manufac-
turing, have gone out of their way to show
the results obtained by applying a turbo-
charger to <I standard gasoline engine with-
out disturbing the emission equipment.
Ak Miller, in addition. has made many
install<l tions where the fuel system was
converted to use propane and here. even
better results were obtained . Table XI
compiles these results and shows dates
for the ru ns. Crown Manufat:turing has
concentrated on kits for the Da tsun 240Z
and 260Z. Emission tests were run before
Jnd after the turbocharger was installed.
Th e results of these tests ;Ire shown on
Tab le XII. I-lere again we see where an
engine equipped with devkes to meel the
1973 Ca lifornia Stand~rds :Jt:tualiy
1972 Monte Carlo 350 CID Che vrolet turbocharged by Schwitzer
improved somewh:J1 un exhaust cmission
low emissions. This system IHessurizes the carburetor.
whell equ ipped with il turhoch:Jrger and
:Jl IIII' same time nearly doubled its Ollt pU/.
Now that it is establishcd that:J turbo-
dwrger on cith cr a dicscl or gasolinc engine
TABLE XII will not hurt cxhaust emissiuns ,lIld usu;llly
will improve them it is only f:lir to ask
Exhaust Emissions of Naturally-Aspirated
why'! In thc case of the diesel engi ne. thc
".
Turbocharged Datsun 240Z ,lllswer is rel:Jtivc!y simple. Air now
through a naturaIlY-:Jspir:Jted diesel is
1973 CalIfornia Ten 1 Test 2
strit:tlya fundion of eugine speed lind
Standards Stock 2402 Turbocharged 240 2
nut power because the engine dues nut
HC 3.2 2085 1.476 normally contain a bUlIerlly ill lhe air
CO 39 .2 22306 16.270 i11lake. OUlput is governed by the ;ll1h)Unt

~;~ I,,",",
30 2.073 1.409 of fuel injcctcd with cach pllwcr stroke.
18.83 19.398
Maximum output of:J natlll':Jlly-aspir:Jtcd
31.74 31.99
diesel is limited by thc exahust smoke.
""'1'0 MeHI Whcn a lurbocharger is applied to a diescl
enginc. n tllllnifoid pressure of 10 psig
HC 32 2.9" 2.9 which is easy to obtain - will incre<lsc
CO 390 29 .0' 38.9 the air Ilow through the engine by about

j
NO 30 18 ' 11
67%. If the fuel set ting is left the same
as when naturally aspirated. the exira
-Base ll "e Data From N lssan Mo to r Car Co :lir wililowcr the combustion te m perature
and therefore the amount of NO x in the
exlwusl. The extra air will also do a
TAB LE XIII bCller job of reducillg hydrocarbons and
';;lrboll monoxide merely by h<lving excess
COMPRESSION PRESSURE OF VAR IOUS
ENGINES CALCULATED FROM FIGURE 152 oxygen present to produce a more com-
plete combustion. Even when the engin e
Natu rall v
OU 1put is increased by bu rning more fuel
Aspirat ed Turboeharyed
per strokc. exhaust emissions will be
COmpri',ion Ra t io 10.5/1 7 .011 7.0/1 reduced <IS long ns the fuel/air ratio is
Intake rran lfo ld Pre~~ure PSIA 0 14.7 eb 29.4 25 kept considerably leaner than when
Indueter Charge Temperature R 600 Tb 750 700 naturally aspirated.
Inducted Charge Denmy Ft31Lb. 1505 Vb 9 .41 10.5
Entro pJ
The gasoline engine is a different story.
.085 S .095 .09
Charge Densitv at end of Compression Here. rega rdless of output or operating
SrrOke - Ft 3 1Lb . 1.43 V, 1.345 1.53 wndition, the fuel/air ratio mllst be kept
ComprjSlon Pressure PSIA "0 e, 360 320 close to a stoichiometric mixture or it will

154

1500

300
1400
~
~
a> 1300
" ,'

:>- 1200

•'"c
~

IIOO~
"t. '" •
0
1000 t-~
1 0
"E 150 c 900
'" ~
~

•c
600

)00
c &00

o 0.05 0.10 015 o.ze 0.'25 0.30 0.35 040
Enhopy, S
Figu re 152-Compression chart for a chemically-correct octane-air mixture plus an average amount of clearance gases.
Unc iA is naturally aspirated, 10.5 : 1 compression ratio.
line B is supercharged at 2: 1 pressure ratio, 7 : 1 compression ratio.
lincle is supercharged at 1.7: 1 pressure ratio, 7:1 compression ratio .
lb fue l/lb air : 0.0665; E of combustion .. 1280 (l . t); H of combustion = 1278 (l·f).
(From Hershey , Eberhardt and Hottel , Transactions of the S.A .E., October 1936).

,wi b"m.1 Thl, "'''''' Ihe f,,'I/,I'"iI" uf which "CO ,h,;"ly I"", will 'wd lu ch;Jrged engin e l)f7:1 C.r. tl) find Ollt how
the lurb1hargcd engine will have 10 b(' increase the ou tput of NO x while those high tile compression pressure will be
,1 Pp rOXinj;J\C\Y the s~ll1e as the natufJlly- which ~re slightly rich will tend to wllkh will h~vc a direct effec l on the
aspiratcd Icngine. Be..:ause of this. any innc<lsc the ou tput of HC' <Ind CO~. If the cOlllbllstinn temper~tLlrc. III T~ble XIII
imprOVenjcnt in the exhaust emissions turboch<lrger ..:omp ressnr is installed cor· we sec th~t with 10 Ibs. in take-manifold
after the urbodmrgcr is applicd must redly so th:lI 11 0 stratilicati(1lI t:lkes pl<lce pressure (25 psia) the compression pres-
come fro 1 some otherc:lllse th3r1 air/fuel in the int:lke manifold. sceCh~pter 14 sure of (he turbocharged engine will
rlllio. WhJIl the carburetor is placed Instalbtion 1iints. there will be a rel:ltively aclu:llly be 20 Ibs. less than the n:ltur~l\y
upstream of the compressor, it is necess~ry even fuel/air mixture to ~11 cylinders, ~spiratcd engine . The turbocharged
for all of he fue! to pass through the C0111- pTLImoting consistent combustion in each. cn!,inc with ;JpproxiJ11~tely 50% m ore
pressor impeller 011 its w~y to the combus- This is not too h~rd to sell on the air and fuel <Ivailahle will put out over
lion (h;mlber. A centrifugal compressor part-load basis on wldch the emission 50% more power th~n the naturally-
is inhere~tly a high-speed device :lnd even tests ~re run, but the next questi on is aspirated enginc. However , because of
al part load, the compressor Can e<lsily be wh~t ~bout when the cngine is rc~l1y pull- tIle :ldded IUrbulencc due to Ihe com-
rot;,uing a,t somewhere between 20,000 ing power. Won't the emissions be a lot pressor impelle r, ~nd bec~lIse Ihe C~lI1l'
and 30,OQO RPM. This high speed HOI worse th~n (hey were on ~ high-compre;;- bust ion tcmperalure will not be any
only makbs it impossible fo r sm:J11 droplets sioH ll:Jturally-~spir~ted ellgine? B~ck ill higher. exhaust emissions wiJ1usuaJ1y
of gasolil\~ to be carried into the int:Jkc 1936, some gen tlemen named Hershey. be about the same or:l Iiltle le~s with
system btt also does ~ thorough mixing Eberhardt and HOll el puhlished the the turbocharged engine. When running
job on th gasoline which has already been curve shown in Figurc 152 , in the SA£ ~t wide·opcn throttle, intake-manifold
v~porizedr TrOIlS(lcfiOiIS. This curve when used pro- pressure will USUJlly bc higher than the
A natl~r<lHy-aSPiratcd g~suline engine perly is a me:lIlS of determining compres- exh aust-manifold pressure. This will
does not ~ve ~ perfect intake manifold SiOl1 pressure ~t the eml of the compression ren1\we the c\e:lrance gases and reduce
and the f el/air ratio will vary somewhat stroke when using a chemical1y-correc t the combustion temperature o f the
from cylirder to cylinder. As a result, mixture of gasoline and air. Using it as a turbo(,;harged engine even further.
some of tpe cy linders will be slightly lean basis. a n:JIumlly-aspira ted engine with Gary Knudsen of McLaren Engines
while others will be slightly rich. Those 10.5: I C.r. can be compared to a turbo- ran tests on a big-block Chevy engine

155

where he observed the compression pres-
TABLE XIV sure in the combustion chamber by
means of a pressure transducer and an
TURBOCHARGED TCCS ENGINE-POWERED M-151 VEHICLE oscilloscope. He was surprised 10 learn
that the IUrbocharger did nOI app reciably
Emissions and Fuel Economy With Gasoline Fuel & Without Emission Controls increase the compression-pressure peak
FUEL ECONOMY but fallened up the curve considerably.
EMISSIONS, GPM MPG lLiters/ l00km l The faller curve increased the BMEP and
He eo NO. WEIGHT the refore the horsepower.
For many years, Texaco has been
Full emission con troll 0.35 1.41 035 16 .2 114.51 experimenting with a different type of
No emission controls 3.13 7.00 1.46 24.3 1 9.71
combustion chamber known as the
Cerbureled L·141 engine 4.50 73.18 3.22 15.3115.41

ProP9scd Federel Limlll19761 .40 3.' ., stratified-charge engine or the Texaco
Controlled Combustion System. Tecs.
Man y S.A.E. papers have been published
011 this subject. r do not intend to go into
detail on the design of this combustion
system but would like tn point out the
addi tion of a tu rbocharger greatly increased
Chevy 350 CID Z-28 engine on test at AiResearch for low emissions development. the maximum outpui of the engine, im·
proved fuel economy and reduced exhaust
emissions. Table XIV shows whe re the
turbocharged version of this engine equipped
with full emission controls not only met
the then-proposed 1976 Federal Limita-
tions but did it at better fuel economy
than the original engine with practically
no ernission-contro[ devices. This engine
which might be considered halfway
between a diesel and a spark.ignition
engine has cylinder injection whicll
actually sprays the fuel un Ihe sPJrk plug.
The woru Jllel is useu because it will run
on almost anything which will burn .
Turbucharging definitely has a place in
the engine of the fulutre, not just because
it can improve the power-Io-weight ratio
but a!so because it can help reduce exhaust
emissions without hurting the fuel
consumption.

Australian Holden 186 CID in-line six·
cylinder engine turbocharged by David
Inall , Inc. using a Rajay unit. Carb is an
SU.

156

I'
I
Most poll-on kits for street use wil!
produce lamaximum intake-manifold
boost pTfssure of somewhere between 5
and JO Pisig. This amount of boost nOT-
mally w~l not require any modification
of the e~gine and it will not detonate 011
premium fuel when the fuel/air mixture
and the ignition are set corredly. Ifmodi-
fications arc mnde to the engine to allow
the booJt pressure to go above 10 psig, it
is lIot alJ.,ays possible \0 prevclH detona-
tion, ev+ with a retJrded spark.
In Chapter 5 un CarbuTclion, [dis-
cussed e~riching the fuel /air ratio as a PROPANE C>AS
method pfprcvcllting de tonation when
the cngirlc is in the supercharged conui·
tioll . This method wil! work up to a cer-
tain limif and beyond that the engine will
detona t9 regurdlcss of how rich the mix·
ture is. ~eyond this point either water or
wJter'Jlqohol in~ection Jre required to
prevent detonJ tlOn.
We all have a tendency when we dis·
cover su·h phenomenon <lnd the solution
to it, to hink we have "invented the
wheel." This problem, for one, has been
around a long time and Rkardo not only
faced it ?ut ran a series of tests in the
early 1 9~O's, plotted in Figure 153.
Referende: The !lfgll·Speed II/temal CVII/-
bustiOIl ?"gi"e by 1-1 . Ricardo. To quote
Mr. Ricardo, " In this case, running through-
ou t at a !peed of2,500 RPM Dnd with a
compres ion ratio of 7: I, the engine was
run on an ecol1omicalmixture, i.e. about
10'% weak. and supercharge applied to the
firs t inciJence of detonation, whlch
occu r rc~ when the m.1 EP had reached
••
168 pourds per square inch. The mixture
st rength Iwas then increased, step by step,
and morf supercha rge applied unlilthe
I
same intrnsity of detonation was recorded;
this pro'iess was continued until a point
was reached at which no further enrich- the record for the class at Bonneville in August 1974. He ran over 170 MPH that year.
ment was effective . [n fact, after about He used t wo Rajay turbochargers and two propane carburetors. Wate r for injection
60% excfss fuel, not only did further comes from a valve on the firewall to each compressor inlet.
enrichment have no effect but the re was
even sonIc indication that it increased the

w>t" 'T
te n denc~ to detollDte . A finely pulverized
Y ""' Ih" d,];""d 'oto Ihe

157

-,-. ---_._--,- -- ._-- -,-,- ~ ~~

-- --- ----- ..
- -.-~----

, WATER INJECTION TC therefore its cooling effect-to add part
NO ETONiTION
, , TOP DETONATION fuel instead of all water for further horse-
, power increase, and to eliminate the pos-
-~-

, MIXTURE ENRICHED TO 1100
, STOP DETONATION I , sibility of the water freezing on a cold day.
,, I MAXIMUM • ~ Harry Ricardo, again quoting from his
-- -, ---- ~ CYLINDER PRESSURE
1000 , book, Tile Higller Speed Internal Combus-

L-Y V
w
,
,
~
~ " tion Engille, says "Higher percentages of
methanol are not desirable because
900 w
,,
,
V ,
, "• methanol, itself, is prone to pre-ignition."
Tests made in 1971 by Ted Trevor of
/' ,
,
, 800 0"
w
Crown Manufacturing showed that mix-
z
, FUEL ONlY---r- V ; C ; l 8< WATER ~ tures containing mOre than 50% methanol
, >

1-- rFUEl CONSUMPTION
,
V
,

,
,t----
AMOUNT OF FUn ~_
700 U
>
~
>
x
provided no additional HP gains over a
SO/SO mixture. Dick Griffin confirmed
that 50/50 is practical in his tests which
were made several years earlier.
,
,
, USED WHEN WATER
, WAS ADDED ~ Opinions vary as to the amount of
, , boost pressure which makes water or
,, , water/alcohol injection mandatory. Some
, , say any boost over 5 psi should be accom-
,
o 300
panied by injection. Others claim that 8
10 120 140 160 160 200 220 240 260 2SO
BRAKE MEAN EFFECTIVE PRESSURE-PSI psi is where the "borderline" begins. And,
we've talked with some racers who felt
Figure 153~Variation in maximum BMEP without detonation by enriching mixture and
15 psi boost was a good pl::.ce to start
with wa er injection. Fuel was 87-octane gasoline.
using water injection. As the saying goes,
"Circumstances alter cases." Obviously, a
higher compression ratio or advanced
spark will require such injection at a
lower boost pressure than would a lower
inducti1,n pipe which served to suppress fuel plus water, is not so very much c.r. and lesser spark advance. If detonation
detonat on, in part by the inter-cooling it greater than when running on 11 very rich is occllring at a particular boost pressure
provide ,and in part by the influence of mixture of fuel alone." and RPM, then water injection should
steam a an anti-detonant, and so allow of "The slope of the curve of maximum be started prior to the onset of detona·
further upen::harging. This was continued cylinder pressure is interesting in that after tion. Should detonation occur, ins essen-
progress'ively, admitting just sufficient the injection of water, it no {oliger rose tial to back off on the throttle instantly
water ajeaCh stage to ward off detonation but evell tended very slightly to fall, and because sustained detonation will destroy
until a MEP of 290 pounds per square the same applied to the gross heat flow the engine very quiCkly. In any case, water
inch wa reached, which was found to be to the cooling water which reached a should not be injected at a manifold pres-
the limi of the dynamometer. At the maximum at a BMEP of about 230 sure much below where it is needed. If
same ti e, it was noted that, with the pounds per square inch, and thereafter injection does not take place below Sibs.
addition of water, the influence of steam fell off, until at a BMEP of 290 pounds boost, there will usually not be any loss
as an anti-knock allowed the fuel/air pe~ square inch it had fallen to the same
of power due to the cooling effect. It
ratio being much reduced. From this level as that of 170 pounds without should be noted that engines which are
curve, F gure 153, it will be seen that water injection," equipped with water-injection will be
under t ese operating conditions a limit- The result of this kind of test will vary unusually free from carbon when torn
ing BM P that could be reached with 87 with engine speed, engine size, compres- down for inspection or repair. Pistons,
octane etrol alone at an economical sion ratio, fuel octane etc. These variations combustion chambers and valves all stay
mixturelstrength was 168 psi. By enriching are not important as far as the principle remarkably dean with water injection.
the mix ure to the limit of usefulness, is concerned. The main thing the curve As a side benefit, spark plugs last longer
the BM P could be stepped up to 237 shows is detonation may be prevented up too_
psi. By he introduction of water, it could to a certain point by fuel enrichment, but At least three types of water-injection
be furth r stepped up 290 psi and probably after that point, water or water-alcohol systems can be considered-and probably
more; a' the same time the fuel/air ratio injection must be used. a lot more types that I did not think of as
could be reduced once again; in fact with Water is usually combined with meth- this chapter was put together. Two types
water inf"ection, no appreciable advantage anol (methyl-alcohol) in proportions up apply manifold boost pressure to the anti-
was fou d from the use of an overrich to 50-50 water-methanol to increase the detonant liquid to push the water through
fuel/air nixture. It will be noted that the volatility of the injected mixture-and a tube to the carburetor inlet, Crown
total sp ific consumption of liquid, i.e., Figure 154, or through a fitting in the

158

Roe's system uses boost pres. 3/16-inch V-type "shooter" or spray tubes with O. . All that is needed is a pres ure switch and a tube to the car- buretor.gination. CARBURETOR Tom eosababian ha~ clearly shown what can be done if water injeo:tion is used to i s limit. Water was injected into PUMP each co pressor inlet from a valve mounted on the top of the firewalL Carburet on was two Impco CA425 Propane ixers.n inlet and are supplied with water w en boost pressure reaches 5 psi or more. Figure 156.038·INCH JET your im. alongside the injector out- CARB let jet. The boost pressure at which injectio begins is tailored by the size of WATER the restr ctor jet in the vent line.040-inch orifices @ are local d at the fronl and rear of the cooling. A thi d type turns on a constant-pres- sure win shield-wiper pump when a pres· VENT sure swi ch on the intake manifold sees RESTRICTOR 5 psi bo st--Ak Miller. A modification of this type could Figure 154-Crown water·injection system use wate stored under pressure and a ~ solenoid valve aduated at 5 psi by a pres- sure swi ch on the intake manifold. pocketbook and inclina- tion low rd time and experimentation. carburet r base-Griffin Figure 155- _BOOST when b os! occurs. Doug Roe uses a slightly different approac to the problem by sprllying C·3 FRAM water in 0 the cooling-air stream of a FILTER COTvair ngine. but a windshield- Figure 155-0ick Griffin water-injection system wiper pu p actuated by a manifold- pressure witch could be used instead.125 MPH at Bonneville in 1974. This s tup with a few other goodies such as a Mallory distributor and transistor ignition roduced 450 HP@6. WATER He used wo stock Corvair Rajay F turbocha gers. Also. thi type of system could be Figure 156-Ak Miller water-injection system augment d by using water-injection into the mani old with the air/fuel mixture. H showed it is possible to break a record w thout spending a fortune. REAR VIEW· CORVAIR INSTALLATION sure to ave the water. -:J~~~~~ From these variations you can develop TURBO many ot leT combinations depending un O.pe windshield washer with the pump in the reservoir. Crow 's system uses a vent at the car- AIR CLEANER buretor ir inlet.7ooRPM o MANIFOLD PReSSURE SWITCH WATER and ran 176. His 1965 Corvair is a • street m chine with stock suspension. is vent bleeds off pressure applied 0 the tank so injection does not start unn after boost pressure has reached CHECK VALVe several p i. This ORIFICE system i probably the most economical TANK because t can be made by modifying an electric.j I 159 .

air/fuel mixture will be blown into it fits in so neatly. breaker points. However. For this reason it is intake manifold on a two. RajilY :lIld Schwitzer are the combustion chamber und ignited by able as it drives by is the luck of exhaust really t!)U large even for the ]-Inley D:lvid· the plug. the inl3ke stroke It is possible 10 turbocharge a two· capacity to the engine oil pump_ This is 0 would lUI less th31l 180 and air in the stroke-cycle mOlOrcycle but the lack of not so on a motorcycle engine where the pipe between the compressor discharge an oil pump makes it more difficult. drop off at high engine speed even though mental tur bo on a Petter 16 CID diesel T his cal) also be a serious problem beCause the flow is far below the l. I can assure charged engine there is the possibility. necessarily have an intake stroke every quarter mile in 10. trim which is scary to say the least. Ameri- on a PCfler Diesel Engine. advisab e to have a good oil-pressure gage The volume of :III the pipes from the cum- on the bike and if there are signs of oil pressor di!iCharge to the cy linder heads st:J rvation. a larger oil pump should be should be at least twice the volume of installed _ a Single cylinder and preferably three In Chapter 8 on Lubrication. Schwitlcr w.2. A two·cylinder wh o Wanlto go all the way . For this rcasoll. on a turbo· gadget l.open throttle and high Turbo Pak has been able 10 get perfor· 160 . Under these conditions 15 8.Juld produce the prototype 0 stroke every 180 will cause an al most If the performance on the stock Honda turbocharger shown in Figure 157 mounted uninterrupted flow from the compressor with a turbocharger is nol enough. on the other h:tnd. you this is the case . intake-manifold pressure will Figore 157-Schwitze r's smallest experi· turbocharger bearings was discussed. Engines. the limes as great. it is necessary to in s tull an auto. motive-Iype distributor in place of the same bul the intake manifold must be panies are now in the business of produc. can give much does nOI give any problems on a naturally. it is desirable We are so used to seeing one exhausl to put:1I1 oil cooler on the system. The 750 kit in Figure 160 is almost the give ou tstanding results and several com. If possible. will cause severe pipes. we co uld disdwrgc :md therefore not much volume can Turbo Pak offers other goodies stich almost ~urbocharge a brge-si?e lawn mower.6 seconds at 139 MPII . where all breaker device which fires al the top of the cylinders are con nected into a single the exhaust stroke as well as al the top pipe and :I simple intake system where of the compression stroke. and the intake ports would be stagnant is covered in Chapter 12 on Two-Stroke charger may be enough to lower the oil half the lime. even a small one. The nice thing about the Honda lay- associated wi l h it arc quite unique. as heat-treated connecting rods for those The mllollnt of lubrio. stack for each cylinder and one carburetor Some lllotorcycles are equipped with for e~ch cylinder of:l naturally-aspirated distributors simila r to those used on pas. T hi~. Turbocharging a motorcycle engine engine speed. of course. I f A rour-cylinder engine with an intake than bolting directly. Bi1l l lalm of American particulurly at wide. This apparen tl y a single carburetor is used.:Ipaci ty of Ule capacit y of the oil sump in the motor. Figure 159 shows how the various son Elec tra Glide but in spite of this b3ck firing and loss of powe r. needs i1 the most. con nee led to the engine by hoses rather ing bolt.:aling oil used by ing and the intake ports. This half gallon a minute used by a turbo. for the intake-manifold pres. it may be hard for the uninitiated to senger ca rs while others have a very simple believe a simple exhaust system . docs not up with 8 11 cc displacement which r~nlhe car engine. when both the exhaust valve and intake out is that the original designer must Starting wIth turbocharger size. is required between the compressor hollS. malice out of his 500cc Hondas in s treet may involve all the same basic principles sure to be greater than the exhaust-mani. When thi~ parts of the Honda 500 kit are mounted.allcd a turbocharger.oll kih for turbochargers. the compressor. even valve are open al the lOp of the exhaust have had turbocharging in mind because the smallest models manufactured by stroke. cycle is limited. cant that it is rarely necessary to add ally 0 360 and even if it did. many installaliollS have been made which happens. it is advis. better performance just because of a little aspirated engine.cyli nder engine. is so insignifi. bike. The only thing notice· AiRese~rch. If the volume is not great increase in oil temperature due to the enough. Bill built one a turbocharger compllred to a passenger· engine. Figure as any olher engine but the problems fold pressure. and poses many more problems pressure to the rest of the engine when it able to have a plenum chamber on the than a four·stroke engine.

Exploded view of American Turbo -Pak Honda 500 kit 500 161 . BOOST RPM TURBOCHARGED STOCK 4870 18.7 5350 21.2 6850 24.8 Figure 158. 500 CC HONDA TURBOCHARGED BY AMERICAN TURBO·PAK TURBOCHARGED 500 DYNO HORSEPOWER AT LBS.Turbocharged performance of 500cc Honda with American Turbo-Pak kit Figure 159.5 6350 27 6820 29.5/3 36 8170 52/ 4 5 35.8 9250 58/6 35 .5 7300 33{1 33 7800 3812 34 8280 44 . 9750 68/8 34 10080 76/10 32.

Bill Blake says it starts to get boost at about 5000 RPM and reaches approximately 18 psig at 8. Figure 162. illg on the motorcycle. T ?~. Because the cngine layout is sim ib r to Ihe Hon d. shows wlWI this ki t looks like before bolt- ~Q. pressure· retarded spark and a sepa rate pump and oil filter.Jrticularly if you run alongside one for any length of time.ltuTllll y-aspirated with a Illuftle r on e. The combililltio n of Figure l60. It can easily pull 10.000 RPM in firth gea r and de pending on gearing. the turbocll<lrger is not obvious once it is installed . Figure 162 . have a kit fo r the slock l-l Kawasaki .Jch exh<tll~t pipe. J Figure 161 . injection is also used .900 Kawasaki Turbocharger kit by Blake Engineering uses a Model 377B.500 RPM. Okla· homa. This llliglll not appell] to the purist but is pleasing to the guy who drives behind or alongside of one. Anyb udy fo r IT Sunday drive in the country? The present kit has an electric oil pump but Bill is worki ng on a c rankshllft- driven pump Wl1ich will be offered when devclopulcn l is completcu.:harged motorcycle w ithout a Illuftler runs quieter thllll the n:. Qne of the lIlost1l111wying things to non-cydists is the noise the bikes make 750 p.Exploded view of American Turbo·Pak Honda 750 kit joining Ihe exhaust pipe together and funnin g them through the lurbodHl fger does an excellent job of quieting down the exhaust and the IUrbOl. Figure 161 .25 Rajay Turbocharge r.J 750.Blake Enterprises kit for Ka· wasaki Z-1 . Blake Enterprises of Muskogee. I . tires and fai r· ins will run 150 to 190 miles per hour in street Irilll. Installation is capable of ove r 30 pounds boost. This kit goes alt the way with water-alcohol injection.

'. lap speeds. 3 several ways power in excess ENGINE SPEED Air Flow'" Displ (in. For an 160 x RPM x 1. significant." 1975 II. 10 psi above exhaust-manifold pressures. try to determine the optimum operating the 120'% figure so the calculations will rather 33% or more without the conditions ."g.2 only the acceleration engine of this type. Let us look at these variables and charger overall efficiency. assume a volumetric 1728x2 obtainable but also the efficiency (T/vol) of 120%. peak horsepower a function of speed. TIlis volumetric Air F low'" ."'b~'h4. Powerplant was a Turbo-D rake (Offy) modif ied by John M il ler of A ll-Ame ri can Racers. Accc!cra. be consistent. The method used will a direct function of engine speed. valve timing and the turbo- with car speeds varying tlncc. Engine power is result of high valve overlap and intake- race cars. inlet-manifold pres. manifold pressures which run as much as has the most important item to sure and inlet-manifold temperature. on engine stress and life. Exhaust back pressure wi!] have some It will vary from engine to engine depend- tion or below peak RPM is still effect but it is not as direct as the other ing on porting.0556 CFM x RPM and have a definite effect efficiency is extremely high and is the See Figure 163 163 . advent of the wing on cham.. ) x RPM X l1vol be obtained with the aid Air Dow through the engine in CFM is 1728x2 of .'di'~'P"'IIi ' winner was t his Gu rney Eagle. but we will use straightaway to turns.

/min. But because this point falls in the SOo/o-eft1ciency region of ENGINE SPEED . conditions are plotted . An increase in intake·manifold pressure intake-manifold pressure and tempera· cubic feet of air to pounds.0765 It is apparent the Figure 169 Compres- versio factor because air density wi!! 29. 165.).000 7. HgAbs x 520 x .000 RPM with intake manifold To make use of the air-flow charts.0765 fold pressures and temperatures./hr. Press in.000 2..92 (350 + 460) in Figure 171. Abs and the intake·manifold Figur 163-Flow versus RPM of 160 CID engine with 120% volumetric efficiency temperature will be about 500°F. . Here we must take user has the choice of setting up the into a I:OUllt both the intake-manifold MANIFOLD PRESSURE engine to run at 8.64 . Because different engines run best at different speeds. result in the maximum output with the vary from engine to engine. 8. / for 800 HP.000 RPM: pressure.000 5. This flow may be obtained by several combinations of intake-mani- / fold pressure and engine speed./ in. of air is needed 50. of air at a given engine ture or to run it a little faster at 9. == 67. The turbo 'harged engine.Jhr. . Figure 167. In addition a exhaust temperature will vary directly 29. we will assume a given amount of air is lower exhaust temperature can mean ./hr.000 10. engine speeds with different intake-mani- ! to lbs JhL before we can determine how "A45 CFM (From Fig. "0 / COMPRESSOR SIZES Figures 168./hr.waler intercooling. with considerably less pressure and CFM a lbs. and 60 P. This o press re of 92 in. 0 engine speeds from 5. 2 x Manifold Temp. Because temperature. the effect of com· In either case. -~--~""~<.2 x 60 '" 4.RPM the map.92 in. Hg Abs and 3S0 P. 29. (F. If the engine were driven 9. The 4000 lbs. '" 67. +460) plot was made of the 65% compressor as the intake·manifold temperature. least stress.032 both with and without intercooling.000 air to produce 800 HP.000 RPM with high press re and temperature to convert from . If the compressor in Figure 169 is used the power may be obtained at several i Th is CFM air flow must be converted Lbs. (at 29./min. exhaust temperature by 150°F. and 166. Let us say that 4. This is not the case with a Lbs.0765 Figures 164.. OR. min.----~ 600 needed to produce a certain horsepower ~6 but with varying stress on the engine. CF xMan. At Fore ample. All units must be absol te (Rankine Temp.n the conditions afe other than stan· fold pressure and temperature which will The best operating point will no doubt dard. The choice will be governed CFM ./hr.) combination of engine speed. aspir· ed engine we can use a direct can· ~445 x 92 x 520 x .? ~300 / pressor maps with different flow capacities. V that this compressor is too small to handle V the flow. In a naturally.000 '. for a given output. -~-------""--. the effect of compressor efficiency ~ •<J 400 / and an intercooler are plotted .000 '. In addition. N " / on each to show which engine speed falls .000 to 10. Hg bar. Starting with Figure 168 it is apparent .000 4.92 x 810 sor may be used to obtain the desired remai relatively constant over the oper· horsepower at different engine speeds ating ange. take a 160 CID engine run.. is' temperature will decrease lb. 169 and 170 are three com- . intake-mani· to run at high pressure or high speed. intercooling makes a vast difference by redUCing both the pressor efficiency was plotted for all intake-manifold temperature and Lbs. of 0 1/1./min.000 RPM. The formula will increase lb . the intake-manifold pressure FLOW vs RPM OF T60CIO ENGiNE WiTH 120% 17 VOL will be 96 in.500 RPM intercooling can cool the ning t 8. In addi- tion.000 11. . Wh. The intercooled condition is not plotted because it would fall off to the right of this compressor map in the choked condition. with jacket. it is advantageous to achieve a by the comparative ability of the engine o = lbs. orrections must be made for pres.l58)x 92 x 520 x .000 3. sure rdtemperature.0765 of this.Jhr.000 6.000 Ibs. / in the optimum location and which size / I "00 0 compressor is best suited for the •" V application .000 to co vert air at standard conditions from speed while an increase in intake-manifold RPM. tabulated much power can be obtained. it would still need 4000 Ibs.2 Lbs.

~700 0 ~700 0 . Figure 166. -. Com- 0 pressor efficiency 50%.. 60 ~ 3000 " :r 3000 "~2000 . temperature gOOF (550 R) with 50%- o o pressor efficienc y 60%.120 w 2 600 0 w G~ ' OS ~600 0 \11'1 '" ~ ----- o 120 S E..\f O\'" g4000 -- ~::::::--:::=----- o 60 60 \\'I. 'OS ~5000 E.p. ~700 0 . Com· metric efficiency at various intake-manifold pressures.\'I.Air flow through 160 CID engine with 120% vol- umetric efficiency at various intake-manifold pressures.I'1\f O \"'O o ."'G~ o _90 ~SOOO of'f'...l\\'I. 60 o I\'I. umetric efficiency at various intake-manifold pressures.. l\1'1 ". temperature gO° F (550 R) Figure 167-Air flow through 160 CID engine with 120% vol- Figure 165-Ai r flow through 160 CID engine with 120% vol. 0:: 800 0 0::800 0 I I .O~S~t::=---: 90 75 I f't>-E.. l\\'I.~ "'\" p. 10S - I g 4000 I tJl.SSUfI..' w w 2600 0 ~600 0 ~ 120 o ~G o ' 20 ~ 5000 t>-E. "~2000 "~ 1000 •"0:: 1000 o I 5 6 7 B 9 ENGINE SPEED (1000) RPM " " 0 5 6 7 B 9 ENGINE SPEED (1000) RPM " Figure 164-Air flow through 160 CID engine with 120% vol.\<.c.\'I...~ I I o 75 75 g400 0 tJl.. temperature gOOF (550 R) effective intercooler using 200° F (660 R) jacket water 0:: 800 0 0::800 0 I I §7000 .E.' ..E..S~---= "" 90 ~500 1'1\e:-::~ t--\I'1"'\"p.p...E.p..~ o ~ 3000 "o~ 2000 •"0:: 1000 ~3000 "o~2000 f- •"0:: 1000 - " o 5 I 6 7 B 9 ENGINE SPEED (1000) RPM " " 0 5 6 7 B ENG INE SPEED (1000) RPM 9 " " 165 ________L-_______________________________________________________________________. tempe rature gOOF (550 o R) pressor efficienc y 55%.S -- of't>-E. 90 75- g400 0 t/lp. Com- o pressor efficiency 65%.. Com- umetric ~ffiCienCy at various intake-manifold p ressures."'\" p.\f Ol.\<.\<.\<.

... I • 9000 RPM 0 000 APM 8 " "I •• . '/ ~ ~ ".~ " .•• •• 7. ~ ~ ••• " ! " 7Z " / . >3. '--- . l Iy. "- '" / ". Chief Mechanic George Bignotti chose a Schwitzer turbo and waste gate wit h Bendix fuel injection. '" ". '----.r- "/ "."_' . II 1/ Ji><'V. II 1/ ~ u '" .= ! !100 106 r "\ BSOO RPM j/ ~ •• •" 8u r ~ • ~.•" . ./ It 'I " L "I' fj . ". 8000 RPM ".70 ~ .-? E:::: V.000 RPM! ~ .f1ow<apaclty t u rbo- .~ AIR flOW LBSiHR "" Figu re 168 Compressor map of low." IK" II •..55 ." If ~j " 'I .50COMP ... .awing courtesy Schwitzer. / ' / ')' k~ /." t 9000 RPM a \ / 8500 RPM! .•• " ~ w ~ II I ~ . Photo and d.. E Ff .-- 0. . ~ I/' :-~COMPo EFF. I/ 2000 " 3000 AIR FLOW L8S/HR 4000 Figure 169-Compressor map of medium -fl ow-capacity tur bo- charger charger Photo shows AI Unse r's winning turbocharged Ford setup. IL . i L..'" " 0 000 RPM o . .50 •. Schematic drawing shows exhaust and intake routing. f '".---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . . ~/. .'!a ' ( '- --- 166 . 0 500 RPM a: 8 0 • " ~ . ". t I / ...

the require. they is not n cessarily good if the conditions sible that intercooling will drop the exhaust could run just as fast but with a lot less are cha ged. and turbocharger. thing was wrong. 7 o 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 AIR FLOW LBS/HR Figure 70-Compressor map of high-flow-capacity turbo- charger the dif rence between finishing or not and speed on the dynamometer. best perfonnance.-----.---~r-TT--. the eng lie and the turbocharger. 167 . On the other hand. to this.10 r----. Hg at 8. This compressor but it is obvious the turbine Today's cars already have a wing or wings would (ccur before the driver was aware and nozzle should also be matched for which could be finned and cored without that an. RPM Pressure in Hg Abs Temperature QF. Now the owners are complain- The urpose of making these ilJustfa. fuel and considerably less stress on the charger re set up for a certain horsepower bine will not produce enough power to engines. it If th compressor is too large for the track. Operating in the center All intercooling calculations were done ment 0 110 in.5 gallons of fuel for the engine eeds. Engine Speed Intake Manifold Intake Manifold .~~---+---}--~--++~~~ 8000 109 510 No 8500 93 425 No 9000 85 389 No 8000 83 291 y" 8500 77 275 y" 9000 72 265 y" Figure 171-lntake-manifold temperature and pressure using compressor on Figure 169 with and without intercooling. they used air-to- system reat enough to destroy both This survey is concerned only with the air coolers sticking out into the slip stream. shown n Figure 170. manifold temperature and pressures for medium but the car builder is not limited This co ld cause pulses in the intake a given horsepower output.------. Here. however. a limit of 37. instead of as a cooling agent as well. using engine-cooling water as the cooling put the compressor in the surge area. Moving into either the surge or is necessary to reduce the nozzle size or air req irement.---. As I have mentioned earlier. it could spin the compressor fast enough to open finishin a raee.lntercooling I . because most race cars any substantial increase in drag. . be disastrous to make changes on the the wastega1e. The arne compressor would be all use wastegates. If this condition exists. tions is 0 show a compressor which is which will spoil everything gained by If they used the fuel for power alone good fa one set of operating conditions intercooling. it is pos. a poorly matched turbine or nozzle will whole race. If the engine and turbo. a situation will occur as choke regions can overstress both engine perhaps even the turbine size. Back in the 20's. temperature to the point where the tur.------. they used right at igher engine speeds and with [t is no problem to set it to provide the to run the Indy 500 back in 1936 with intereo ling it would work at even lower proper intake-manifold pressure. cause unnecessarily high back pressure ing about being cut to below 300 gallons.000 RPM will of the map will allow the lowest intake.

Pressure. complish this with a scroll-shaped turbine Turbine wheel . Stroke . Vortex . pressor map representing minimum flow compre sor map between the surge line Nozzle . housing or duct with a probe which senses either i take or exhaust manifold to pre.the housing which bine wheeL Most small turbochargers ac.A scroll or snail shaped housing. Valve overlap . intake and exhaust valves are open.pressure measured in a Blower term often applied to all types Efficiency . parallel to the direction of flow. Abbreviated N . Compre sian ratio . the combustion chamber.the stationary portion of the compressor which increases the static tween two places.distance travelled by pislon be- umes 0 a cylinder top and bottom dead I micron = 0. Enthalpy .volume formed of the compressed ch.ratio of clearance vol. above a complete vacuum. Pressure. 168 .that area of the power lost because of lower air density. Pressure.00004 inch. pressure. Volute . sure up ream of the orifice or restriction.compressor the intake manifold to reduce air pollution. gage . the turbine. by compressing it before it enters the com- charger hieh increases the pressure of Normalize . Exducer -the gas-exit portion of a radial the velocity pressure as well as the static vent ov r boosting.the number of crankshaft outlet a solute pressure divided by com.that portion of the turbocharger pressor~OnlY)' exhaust gases and directs them to the tur.the gas-entry portion of a cen. Usually stated in BTU/Lb. but usually to low-pres.maximum flow through Pressure. static . the air~r air/fuel mixture. to indicate quality of air or oil filter. pressure.A. Boost difference in pressure between Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) .flowing inward spiral such bic foot of volume.that portion of the turbo.an engine supercharger tion of he compressor. Critical as flow . but only to regain Surge line .supercharge an engine run. def bet een the top of the piston and the Intercooler (aftercooler) .an engine without a Supercharge . center. usually between ambi- ent and manifold. turbine which increases the velocity of the Turbine .intake manifold gage Vane . Compre sor pressure ratio .the volume of a cyhn· trifugal compressor rotor. Combu ion chamber . I psi boost"" 2 in. Charge air/fuel mixture to be burned in the exhaust.the rotating portion of a turbo- combus ion chamber.actual performance of a piece housing or duct through a hole in a wall of supe chargers. in the p ocess.~~~.a spring·loaded valve in fluid. pressure of the air or air/fuel mixture. exhaust gases to shaft power.correct chemical by cavit in cylinder head and top of pis. Positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) .pressure measured be. bustion chamber.pressure measured in a Blow-of valve .removing combustion pro- cylinde head. changer which reduces the temperature ducts from the combustion chamber.pressure measured degrees expressing the time when both the pressor~'nlet absolute pressure.a heat ex· Scavenging . absolute . as seen at the drain of a bathtub.increase density of charge Compre sor . ning at high altitude. compre~sor impeller . and 60 efficiency (for centrifugal com. charger. shaft and Clearan e volume . Sometimes ref. Rotor . turbine wheel. enclose the compressor. engine crankcase fumes ducted back to driven by an exhaust-gas turbine. manifold to reduce oxides of nitrogen in stroke.the rotating por. including the impeller.~~~?"i:I' comp""ion of a ::s1 implies that there is no heat loss Diffuser . Inducer . of equipment compared to the ideal.a line on a centrifugal-com· Com pre sor flow range .uge before it enters Stoiciometric mixture . Micron . tween lop and bottom dead center.the rotating portion of erred to as a scroll.the stationary portion of the at each pressure ratio.free. supercharger.dueling Residual gases . which converts the energy of the engine Com pre sor housing . turbine wheel. Hg boost nozzle. Naturally aspirated .exhaust gases left in the barome er and inlake manifold on a super. sure-rat 0 units. Turbocharger . DensitY . mixture of fuel and air for complete com- ton whe piston is at top of stroke. (approximately).particle-size measurement useu bustion of both.internal energy of a working Pressure. housing. some engine exhaust back into the intake clearance volume at the end of the exhaust charged engine.stationary guide of diffuser or an orifi e or restriction for a given pres. total .weight of air or charge per cu. boost .

2 or ft.non position/valve liming T Torque Lb II TC Tu. f:. piston POSItiOn Degrees (0. "CFM Volu me lIow Cub IC teet per mmute CID CubIC Inch Displacement EngIne size Cu In. sec. p'ston posItIon Deg.essure InChes Moment olmertla Lb ./in.2 h.mal Unit Un It of cnu'\lY 778 Ft. ft.] d. Elal>SeO tIme TImIng Eft lClency '"" F Fahrenhell Temperatu.te. Naturallyaspj. W We.ged Engme designatIon Volume Cu. " V Veloc'ty FI/Sec. D.ate 01 flow Ft 3 /M.A.n}sec.~ Und For Units Symbols A AcceleratIon .lsec.lsec.2 K RadIUS of gyratIon Moment of Inertia 10 L L. 2 HP Horsepower EngIne outpu t 550 ft. CubIC CentImete rs Eng ine size Cu. ABS Absolute Pressure or te mperat ure above absol ut e zero AIR Alea Ratio Turbine ho usmg sIze 111. ATDC Aftl!< TOC Valve tlmlOg n. Hg (mercurvl PSIA Absolute Pfe-ssure Lb./In 2 gage 0 Volume .s M Slug Mass Lb. 2 M EP Mean Effective Pressure C. 2 A Area Sqm ABDC After BOC Valve timIng vs.ty 384 m. sec.c. Lbs. lb. V Calcu lating comp. In.ated Engine deslgnJ tlon P Plessure Lb/in 2 or In. em. C~lculatm\l hor.ees (0) BTU BlIlISh Th~. piston posItIon BDC Boltom Dead Centl!< Piston posItion/valve tlmrng BBDC Sefo.-- 10 Hg Inche-s mercury P.e F Fo.ha.Symbol N.wlacement Llle.e SOC Valve tIming vs.n Pressure ra[. Delta Dlffelences none "~ .:.. or cu.ght Lb>. piston POSItIOn Degrees (0) BSFC Brake SpecIfic fuel Lb BHP H •.hec.llculatrng torque P" " MPH Speed Moles per hour N ROtdt lon al spMtJ RPM N.boo.essor temperature rise 169 . T THETA Temperature Ten1pe!d lU.epower FPS Speed Feet per second G Accelelatlon of glav.2 Absolute PSIG Gage pre-ssure Lb. Consumption BTDC Before TOC Valve limIng vs. 32.ees (01 ..us I" R Rankrne Temperature (absolute) Deg.o R Rad.n Se<.e rallo OF 0' OR T' R 520 TOC Top Dead Center P.

. SLL '''' '" '" 1'9£ 961t .~ ~. 9tC OlS ItOr Lit I ".n l6" 1 161 "" '" '" "" "" "'" ~. OLl 90l 981 . '" '""" '" ." . ." 9Ll B69 ." CC"I H:l> £<:iZ B t l> 6r:l .._-_.-~-'''-=-.69 '"'" '" '" '" '" ItI>9 " 619 MS 699 "'" . "'" . '"".." 66£ IU let '" POl C9f: 981 SM: <191 eooJ066 '"'" Ole ££1 l6l SII '" . .. '".~ Wi lSl ~<:il LSS 6ll 09(.11\ salqe~A . f:~ 10£ 61S III ~.Og O(." '" g8L "'" '" L~L '" '" Cl6 91>9 <:iGS 819 898 06<:i £0"1 lO"1 009 SOl> 8S<:i l8£ . . 81~ '" '"' . "" S91 Sl>( ClI 101 6LO '" 91!<. IZO '" l6"1 '" <:i6"1 '"'" '""'" '" 00' "" '" . £O~ . III ." . '" '" 1>0£ !>l v 189 1St "" "" ." '"ro. '" '" 'W '" '00 ~" 00' ""'" '" 98l B9L '" "." '" . T<ilr WI 9£0 0<:i0 ItlO l<:if: Br:[ 61t 66l 08l 191 lltl ZZZ COl '" (t6 U[ ~P6 6 16 l6S 0 ~8 CI8 ... l>ltl Lit 069 cst I>Or '" . 019 £6<:i '" lSi. W "O BOI "" '" ".co ". • • .. sos lS~ 69l a9 S9~ f:LL tl9 6~~ LSi S6S ct~ I~! 6£9 91~ ~Zl C9S 80l 9~ ~sr ~69 OC5 '"'" '" Bll £L "z [00 [ C86 008 OSl '" '" 69l &l ll6 81L l06 869 1138 a9 198 l<:i9 Lt8 9r:9 OlS 919 "'.. .1D 31WOll. "....lf: II"l 01 "Z "" '" .>6 [86 9ll ".~ SC<:i Sll: LIS lOC 96t 9&l <:iLIt I>"9l Kit f:t-l CI'9 CCl> U9 ll~ 1& Olf: 1:9"1 IS"I llZ IOZ OSI 65 L l l "O 05"1 J 686 Ll>£ liB ICC l>91 PI t l ~1 L6I: OCI ISl PI I \I9l l60 Lltl 000 lel \r9O ~Il Ll>O l61 OCO f:lO 'm .. '" '" "" CIS 68£ 00·' Cl"1 a "1 6 ltl> I£l> lIlt L>6£ 9Lt ".1 t:l11.. 619 £1<".'" . . '" ~6 LC6 8<:il SL<:i '" OPt 09S '" . l>l"1 91S ££9 86t <:i19 OBL 96S lSL flt<:i "" ".:IO S3nll. '" 661 I II ~l>1 10 0 1 ~.~ a "( llO ll66 oor: ". '" "" '" '" ~ 1tM: ZItS ll£ IlS DOC 66~ SLl !It gg. "" "..z SSP M:l f:n nl 01"0 l l>"1 WI seo J 000 on -". "" "" . . . BI "I 90£ 61S B89 005 699 LBl> ()<.. "" '" '" 66<:i OB" 09" OK ItS (OS ISIt 191' lltlt el l' 99"( 00·.: 61C lOC 98Z oa f:Sl 001t L£l III Il9r: POl "" '" SI"Z SSS 06£ SiS OlC ~5 6M: M:<:i 8lf: r:t<:i 8Of: C6 1t l8l Ul> 99Z l<:ilt 9tl '" lil ~ Z66 <:i<:il &1 SlS Cll 6% 901 1:1'6 060 91:6 ItlO 606 LSO (GS 11>0 US 1t1O 09B ~l 0 l>1 "Z n"l C68 lL8 "'. (. d "' .. <:iO"l L9/: 6r:l 81l B61 <:ill 11"0 Lt9 099 go.." lilt 6l "( POL 9B9 B99 '" .. '" '" '" '" '" '" '" "" "" '" "" 99r: 580 Bf:t L<:iO 0 I~ SlO . "" £<:it ~. ."" "" '" J '"'''' f:$"l 110 '" OZl '" HR6 '" '" . CSZ" . ~ "...9 191t (£9 CI> l> £19 Slit 1t6<:i 901> 9L<:i 9SS SI:<i £L"I OLL Stl Oll <." "" '" '''' <:il6 9tl <..._-. 1t81 l>91 5$"1 g(. • . • "". '" ..op '" lO II I SI "1 Iltl 156 lU If:6 £01 f:l6 1>"00 1'68 <:i90 S£8 91>0 958 LlO LeB 800 81B j 686 66L 016 08£ vL" 1 ". OOL lt6 Sl9 ~ "" ISS . 69S It£S LIS '" .l 919 L09 8I:!<:i '"'" £6 1t IItIt "" <:illt '" Cl9 " W<:i l[C ItS II~ 51><:i Sill L91t '" '"" "" (9[ 695 O<><:i I C<:i lIS l6~ £H ~t M:1t 51 l> 96f: CCl LOl lSI 551 ~. (S "I I>I>B llS lIS P6t Sll 19L <:iPl Bll lIt ~69 III Hi 9ll 90l S89 l>"99 "" ".11I. .." lSl '" £80 f:llt Oltl 168 961.'" '" l£G ".~ '" . iBr: Il9r: 6M: SIS C6l> L91' lH IItC ~I( OH 11£ l6Z Ittl <:i<:il." '" "" "'" '" "" ~I O J '" a . no 101J 1f:1t '" . 600 I l<:il 8"." '" ". %6 goS SOO SSl 896 89l SltL Sl6 SlL 806 SOL 88S 889 898 899 13M! 81>9 U8 U9 f:9"1 19"1 '" 00' . ." "'" Ol9 9S1t 199 891t £81 lS"1 C<:il ~ 500 Sll I>Ol 096 OBI 9r:6 <:i<:il 116 '" "." . '" ".60 $"tO <:98 £<:iIl 01>"8 lEO 6 LS 010 86L 9LL '" S5! '" M:l 61>"1 SIt"1 ~ £66 Str9 a9 9lt8 6lS 086 lIB £96 96L 9\16 SLL DC6 19i Ct6 S it! 968 8U 6L8 tIL (98 1'69 '" 90"Z '" ". 9r:l LIZ 86L 611 091 '" l>9l &l £II: 981 .:l "A" . • 899 [9f: S~ LM: Sl<:i a£ SO<:i LOt 981' lSl 89l> 19l 8Plt 9~l Sll> 9ll: 19"1 091 '" ." '" ost: Lin lIZ 6S1 <:i91 091: J 9t:l £00 '" l~ ~Z <:i '" Iltl ~ 9O<:i 98l> OLIt lSIt 86r: LII . 6S" 1 W·' "" \>89 6H "" 189 Slit lC9 lOIt 1t19 SLC 06<:i !>Sf '" ".. LSl> 691> '" [61 '" '" ". <:it9 f:U '" LS<:i O~ llS ~.-- <:i1>O 1t1t"1 GeC llC <:iOC 98l I Ll ~l lCl Oll COl 9Ill CooL '" as ClO SOS CSL L9t S96 O~L 9£6 8(l PI6 969 l6a l>l9 ILS Z<:i9 f:l>"1 691 l<:il <:ir:t S II 101 POO 990 61>0 lCO SIO U "O lOl "" 10"l '"". 169 9Lt 699 <:i51t (£I> II P <. l/6~ ." '" lLP SItIt ~. l<". '" '" '" '" "" '" '''' . 199 L6~ 91>9 09~ 6Z9 £9\1 £19 LItIt 96<:i OCt 6 t<:i vllt £95 l!it 9t:r<:i Oat OC<:i v." '" '"' ". . • • . f:sr Itl>"i: Itlt \>& <:i9l SPl Sll S91 ~. '" '" ~L>6 '" '" . .ro "" "" 191 '" .. 19r: Itt"!: 9lC 68l III SCl LLl 661 9S "1 ItL6 (<:i6 a6 C06 6LS £Sl 6<:iL 9l"1 '" 181 666 £91 186 1t~1 1:96 Sll l>1'6 801 91:6 [ltl "" 060 '" BOO Sll uo '" ". 90l 981 9!H 9PI 91:1 LOI L80 £90 £1>0 aD 5 L0 \19 I '00 "".91 S\l1 <:iZ I 90 I S80 t>9O ItI>O PlO ~I " O 6<:i"1 tZS "" ... 1 901 L80 £90 SI>O 810 600 91"0 69 I <:iG~ 066 OL6 (SS IC6 ll6 Z6S £L8 C51l M:8 1t18 89 I '" '" '" "" 61><:i a<:i <:i6l <:il"£ 99l 9Cl Lll l69 8L9 899 8£9 619 £9 L lltlt '" "" '" '" . ~ A S3Sl. '" 119 9et 091 889 f:9£ ttt 016 '" ". "" '"'" '" ~.~ ItL8 19C 981 6£S l>ltC OL I 966 (l8 ~. .'" '" '" '" . '" '" " lSL 09l . lO£ [8l 18"1 '9L OPl Sll 169 999 .O lID 559 st:9 '" Ol9 £09 '" '" '" 1>"£8 lIS '" '" '" lS~ "" '" <:in 196 sw sa <:i91t SII ".11a lJ3. S£O £S8 LIO S£8 61 "0 sIn StL SSV (Il on l89 91t1t e99 U V &9 86£ .1Wt:lON t:lO.'" '"'" '" ws L9S £l>S '" S9Z 9 ltl 8ll 60l lfiL r-ggs '" SOD l£L 896 <:iCI 6M 91 I O£6 B60 ll6 '" ru" SI<:i f:61t 691t III Itltlt 611t Ole S61 '"'" 6to <:i68 190 1t£8 ll>O 998 £lO L£8 818 008 18l 19L l>ltt Sll '" SLI Oll IlO SvZ r !l66 '" (L6 '" 961 9M 9ltl 96S Ii':I IL8 960 9ltS Ito IZ 8 . "" '" . l<:i"1 SO..f: '" '" 69f: lM: II'<.. 161t ItI>"9 ~llt a9 B<:ilt 0(9 lltlt £6<:i Itllt 9L<:i lOt 6S<:i oor: ZI>"<:i etf: Sl<:i 9S£ ~O "Z '" ~ 6L6 CSI 1£\ 0 11 SIlO <:i1t"1 ." <:i<:iS IilS POS 09£ Il>! llt £OL l>S<J S99 9v.:11Hd aNI. S6£ " l ~ )I lld llJ. It" I 6LO 106 lli HIO f:8S ~PO 998 92:0 It>!3 GlS 0<>9 118 l[9 .

".- .- •

, , , , , , , , , , , • 5 , , , ,
'"
338 354 870 886 902 918 9~
9" 950 966 2.88
0.35
899
031
912
044
925
058
939
071
952
084
965
097
973
110
991
124 m
2.20
2.21
999
159
015
175
031 047 063 079 09' 111
271
127
287 '" 2.89
163 176 190 203 215 229 242 255 '"
2.22 319 335
191
351
207
367
223
383
239
399 '"
m
,,, 431 447 '"
2.91 295 308 321 334 347 361 374 387 .00 '"
'" on
2.23 479 4% 590 606 426 439 452 456 479 492 505 518
538 6G4
511 526 542
701
558
717 w
2.92
'" 50'

'" '"
2.24 669 685 749 765 557 570 534 597 610 623 636 649
2.93
688 701 714 727 740 753 767 780 "" '"
2.25 796
954
812
970
823
986
844
001
859
017
375
033 '" 907 923
'" 819 832 345 858 $71 884 897 910 on
2.26
112 127 143 159 '" 064
222
080
237 ",
2.95
949 962 1'175 988 1001 014 027 040 '"06'
'"
2.28 269 284 300 316
175
331
190
347 378 394
2.96
079 092 105 118 131 144 157 169 '"
'" m'"
2.29 425 441 456 472 488 503 534 550 '"566 2.97
2.9B
0.36
208 221 234 247 260 273 286 299 m
337 350 353 376 428 440 453
no
no
581
737
597
752
612
768
623
783
643
799
659
814
676
830
690
845
706
861
721
876
2.99
30 647 659 672 685 '"
no 736 749 761
774 786 799 811 eo, 861 874 886
2.32 892 907 923 938 954
9" '"
000 015 031
" 893 911 923 935 ,n roos
,""..
046 062 123 139 154 169 185 984 996
'" " 077 092 108
020 032 044 056 103 115 127
OJ< 200 216 231 246 262 277 2'92 308 323 338
" 139 150 162 174 '"'" 220 232 244
'"
'"
354
507
369
522
384
533
400
553
415
563
430
583
446
599
461
514
476
529
492
644
,.5 255 267 278 290
". 335 347 358

",,
369 380 392 403 443 459 470
'" 660 675 690 705 721 736 751 766 731 797
481 492 503 514 '" 558 569 580
2.38 812 827 842 357 373 888 903 918 933 948
591 602 612 623 '" 666 677 688

.."", '"'"
2.39 964 979 994 009 024 039 054 070 035 100
698 709 720 730 773 783 794
2.40 115 130 145 160 176 190 205 220 236 251
804 815 825 335 377 887 398
'" 266 281 296 311 326 341 356 371 386 401
" 908 918 928 939 '",m 980 990 fOOo
..
2.42
"..,
416 431 446 461 476 491 506 521 536 551
010 020 030 040 080 090 100

,
2.43 566
716
681
730
596
745
611
760
626
775
641
790
556
805
671
820
686
835
701
850 ., 110 120 130 140 '"'" 179 189 199
209 219 223 233 277 287 296
2,45 865 879 894 909 924 939 954 969 984 998 .; '"
2.46 013
162
028
176
043
191
058
206
073
221
087 102 117 132 147
..,
H
306 316
401 411
325 335
420 430 '"
.;e
373
467
382
477
392
486

'" 309 324
235 250 265
412
280
427
295
442
495 505 514 523
'"'0; 560 570 579

'"
2A9 457 471
339
486
353
501
368
515
383
530
398
545 559 574 589 "" 588 597
679 683
606 616
697 106
652
742
661
751
670
760
2.50 604 618 633 647 662 577 691 706 721 735 ;0 769 778 787 795 '" 831 840 849
2.51 750 765 779 794 808 823 838 852 867 831 858 867 375 884 '"
,w 919 928 936

""
2.52 896 911 925 940 954 969 984 998 I 013 027 945 954 962 971 006 014 023

'" 0.30 042 056 071 035 100 114 129 144 153 173 031 040 043 057 '" 091 099 108
2.54 187 202 216 231 245 260
404
274
419
289 303 318 "5.;
50 116 125
200 209
133 142
217 225
""
'" 175
258
184
267
192
275
2.55 332 346 361 375 390 433 443 462 '50
'50 476 491 505 520 534 233 291 300 308 340 349 357
2.57 620 635 649 663 678
548
692
563
707
577
721
592
735
606
750 " 365 373 381 389 '"
m 421 430 433

'"
2.59
764
907
778
921
793
936
307
950
321
964
336
979
350
993
864
007
879
021
893
036 ""59 446 454
525 533
604 612
462 470
541 549
620 623
."
m
502
581
659
509
588
666
517
596
674
2.60
2.61
050
193
064
207
079
221
093
235
107
249
121
254
136
278
150
292
164
306
173
320
"" 632 690 697 705 '"
no 736 744 752
759 767 774 782 812 820 827
2.62 335 349 363 377 391 405 420 434 443 462
" 835 843 860 858 '" 888 895 903
2.63 475
618
490
632
505 519 533 547 561 575 539 603
"" 910 918 925 933 '"
'55 963 970 978
'"
,eo 759 773
645 660 674 688 702 716 730 744

" 985 992 I 000 007 0" 036 043 050
'" 0.' 058 065
131 138
073 080
145 153
'95 110
181
117
189
124
196
039
179
053
193 203 210 217 224 '"
DO 253 260 267
'"
2.69 318 332
207
346
221
360
235
374
249
388
262
402
276
416
290
429 443
274 281
345 352
288 295
359 366
"9 323
393
330
400
338
407
2.70 457 471 485 499 513 527 540 554 568 582 414 421 428 435 '" 463 470 477
2.71 596 610 624 637 651 665 679 693 707 720
483 490 497 504 '" 531 538 545
2.72
2.73
734
872
748
886
762
900
776
913
789
927
803
941
817
955
831
968
845
982
858
996
552 559 555 572 '"50' 599 606 613
620 626 633 640 666 673 680
2.74
2.75
010
147
023
161
037
174
051
188
065
202
078
215
01'12
229
106
243
119
256
133
270
687 693 700 706 '"no 733 740 746
753 760 766 773
'" 284 297 311 325 338 352 366 379 393 407 819 325 832 838 '"
eo,
7!'19
864
806
871
812
877
2.77 420 434 448 461 475 488 502 516 529 543 884 890 897 903 929 936 942
2.78 556 570 584 597 611 624 638 651 665 679 949 965 961 968 '"
'" 05' 993 I 000 006

'" 692 706 719 733 746 760 773 787 801 814 013 019 025 032

,"",
057 063 070

'"
2.81
828
963
841
976
855 868 882 895 1'109 922 936 949 076 082 089 095 '"
'" '" 120 126 133
990 003 017 630 044 057 070 084 139 145 151 158 183 189 195
2.82 097 111 124 138 151 165 178 191 205 218
'50
n, '"
2.83
2.84
232 245 259 272 285 299 312 326 339 352 "
"'5
201 207
263 269
214 220
275 281
'" '"00' 245
308
251
312
257
313
366 379 393 406 419 433 446 459 473 486 324 330 336 343
2.85 500 513 526 540 553 566 580 593 606 620
"" 385 391 397 403 '"
'" '"
."
367
427
373
433
379
439 I
2.86 633 646 660 673 686 700 713 726 739 753 445 451 457 463
." '"50' 487 493 499
11
2.87 766 779 793 306 819 832 846 859 872 886
" 505 511 517 523
'" 547 552 558

171

, , , , , 9 EX AMPLE'
89 564 570 576 582 588 594 600 605 ,,,
'" As~ume: P
n /PTI 1' = 1.82
90
91
623
681
629
687
635
693
641
699
646
705
652
110
658
716
664
722 '"
". '"
'" Air flow " 290 CFM
9.2
93
139
191
747
SOl
151
808
757
814
162
819
168
825
714
831
779
837 ,.,
'" '"
••• Tl lIOlet tempeo-ature " 9~F " 192 + 4GOloR " 552 0 R
9 4 854 85[1 865 871 816 S82 888 893 SO,
9.5 9 10 916 92 1 921 9 33 938 944 949 955 ""
", ~ c { f ro m f'gure 51 = 68%
96 966 972 977 983 989 994 000 005
9 1 09 on 028 033 039 044 050 0!)5 061 '" '",n y (from !8blel .. 0.18468

9.8 017 083 088 094 099 105 110 116 ""
'" ,,,'" T , (ideal temperatUfe rise) T , xY=552x 18468= 102°
99
100
132
187
138
191
143
198
149
XlJ
154
208
159
214
165
119
170
115
", .o. T, ",ill .. l SOo

"Erl,,,,. . . ronq Conwu t3(Oon.IOf A" and Gaw," by Mo" ~"d Sm ith.
'" '" t::. T A tactual tempera lUre rlsel
n. c .68

1930.1'~1>t, APM-52.g
r,om T 2 {compres$Or oullel lempernlUrel = Tit A TA 92 + 150 '" 242° F
Tfan"",,,I, A S M E .. Vol. 52.

Richard TwiUey of Albuquerque, New Mex ico, turbo-ed th is 292
cm Chevy and "eld his own against V-8 's on the regional sprint-
car circuit. AiResearch T12 turbo once pressured a Cate rpiUer
buUdozer.

Altitude chart
AI",ude A.. P,...

" In .Hg "
,,,, "00 5 1869 '00
","" "'"
n82
~"
5181
51512 ."

""'"
""'" ,..'
2584
4830
51156
50799
."

....
'89
"""
""'" 24.90
~"
41.11
S04 42
SOO.86 ."
00"" 13.98 37.6 1 49730 ,,,
""" 2309
"" 400 73 .975

""'"
0000
'0000
2223
21.39
",sa
30.46
2692
23.36
... "
490 17

483.04 .,
on
00'

,»"""
1980 19.79 47948
""'" 19 OJ 16.23 47592 '"
95.
,,""" 1830 1267
",
4 72.36 ".
g,; ,
'"'''' 1758 468.80

'''''''' 16.89
'"
,., 465 23
'"
''''''''
n"""
16.n
15.58
,"
46167
'"
,,""" 1495 5.14 .,'"
458 II
'"
.'26
' 0000 14.35 '.M 450.(19
'0000 11.76 12.25 44743 '"
92'
2>""" 1581 44387

'''''''' "'"
1265 1937 440.32
.925
.921

'''''''' 12.12 - 22_93
"." '"
""'"
25"""
11.61
11.1 2
_ 26.49
- 3005 '" '"
'29" '"
'"
20""" 10.64 ,,'" 42608 900
,.,
.
10111
"'''''
28""" 9741
37 16
_ 43.72
422.53
418.97 ""
""""
30000
9314
• oro "
- 4 783
415 41
411.86 '".0>
,,""" •. soo _ 51.38 408.30
'"
'''''''' 8 124
",.
- 5<1. 94
_ 58. 50
4 04 75
'"
,so
"'''''
,,"'" 7 401 -62.05
401.1 9
397.64 .ore
_ 656 1
"""" "" 00
'" '" .872

""'"
,,"""
6.131
6.411
_ 6916
- 69.70
_ 69.70
390.53
"'.98 '"
.86'
"""'"
29"'"
6 . 1 17
5.83 1 - 69 . 70
' " 98
389.9B
.~67

'0000 "sa - 6970 389.98 '"
.867

172

Tur~ocharger failure analysis
by RObe~t Elmendorf, There are several facets to proper turbo- and carl only be corrected by complet e unit
Service Engineer, Schw itzer charger lubricatlo", and as a consequence, " teardown and replacement of the tu rbine
def,CIency of anyone aspect usually produces wheeJ·and-shaft assembly; this is a very expen·
DesPit1 the outward appearanCIl of uuer a speCIf IC symptom. sive propmition, at beSt.
simp lic ity, the moder n Diesel lUrbocharge~ ,S, Abrasive Contamination - The presence of suffi - FAILURES RELATED TO FOREIGN
in fact, the end product of a highly speCialized cient ~brasive material il) the lUbricating oil MA TERIAL INTAK E
technOI~1' and though nOt readily apparent WIll result In wear of the various bearing sur· The vulnerabIli t y of a turbocharger wil l
on first OIfenJ8tion, the methods used in turbo- face5, and IS usually most prevalent on the become instantly apparent the tirst time a
charger mnnulaclure have been brought to a thrust bearing and outside diametllrs of the pan,cle of significa"t SIze 1$ inducted into
high lellel lol sophistica t ion, particularly during sh"ft bearings. Occasionally, the abras,ve either the compressor or turbIne section wi t h
the past tJo decades. partic les are so smal l that they escape the the unit at spC<.ld.
The g~ea1l!Sl demands on this technology centrifuge effect of the rapid ly SoPinning bear- The sources and t ypes of air·and exhaust -
are made ~n the DreaS of metallur gy. dimenSion- mgs; in such a case, considerable scouring of stream contamination are many and vaned,
al to leran e control, and dynamic unbalantt the Journa l sectIons of the rotor shaft mIght 00 but can range from atmospheric sand and
correction, The reasons lor e~treme emphasIs noted. dust (through the compressor) to engine
in these areas are easy to appreciate, once the The depth of scratching and amount of wear valve fragments (through t he t urb,ne).
typica l sltesws acting on a turbocharger are call vary widely. and depend primarily on the The point of foreign material entry usually
known. In norma l operation, then, gas intro- degree and n"ture of the contaminant, the
. , operatlllg time accumul3led with the contami -
becomes apparent as soon 115 the core hilS been
ductlon t1mperatures can ells!ly exceed 1.000 separated from the compressor cover and tur-
F, rotat iv! speeds ca n run above 70.000 RPM. nant present. and the silverity of enginu bine housi " g; t hough the damllging particle is
and the 'lternal power of the turbocharger can operation. seldom present or inlact, some clue liS to its
apwoach values equivalnnl to Ihn lIywhnel In sufficient Pressu re or Flow-It is essential size and type can usually be gamed by close
horsepow,r of the engine. that a sufficient quantity of oil flow through inSp.lct ion of the involved wheel.
It is known even to most nnophytes that the turbocharger at all limes to ensure suspen- The secondary effects of high speed particle

I
turbocharrr failures are inherently e~pe"sive,
and have devastat ' ''g effect on e"gine per for.
mance. 11 IS a WIdespread misconception even
sion and stabilization of the full floating!
rotati"g bearing syHem , and to continually
wash heat from the unit, thereby keeping
impact on e ither whllel are usually visible
throughout the unit, but tend to focus on the
bearings, which suffer from both the initial
amo"g the seasoned "experts", however, that internal temperatures wlthlll workable limits. gyration and the runnin9 unbalance condition
all turboc~arger lailures occur insIJ"taneously The most frequently seen d"ma!JC that can which follows.
of primar,ly internal causes. and are therefore be related to insufficient oil flow is the result
FA ILUR ES RELATED TO HI G H EXHAUST
u"prevenll1ble; on the co"trary. the vast major· of what might be termed the "oil lag syn ·
TEMPERATURES OR UNfT OVERSPEED
ity of fai~ures are the direct result of faulty drome." This invo lves a faulty operati"9 habit,
The procedure emlJloyed in the matching of
engine maintenance or operation. and mallY are in which a cold turbocharged engine is started
. , . a tu rbocharger 10 a particular engine is part of
progresslvf on "ature. and immediate ly taken to a condition of high
the specia li zed technology mentioned in the
It is t1e purpose of this bulletin to acquaint speed Of heavy load. In such a caw, the rotative
Ifltroduction to this bu lletin, and always
the owner or operator of a "turbO"-equipped speed of the turbocharger approaches the pcak
includes a live proofing session in t he lab, using
engine wi t h the several categories of common allowable va lue before an effectIve 001 cush,oll
an actual engine under closely con t rollable
failure. tq help him recognize the symptoms is ~stablist) ed to sustain the bearings. The result
conditions_
associate~ with each, arId hopefully. 10 enable is rotor gyra l ion (often called "shaft motion"
The reasons for this final preca utiona ry
him to aI' oid the expense and aggravlltion of or "whirl") with attendant distress of the
repetitive failures. However, 10 develop a measure are simple: As a free-wheeling device
bea rings.
complote and well -rounded turbocharger service with intense and tremendous i"ternal power,
Marginal oil flow-that in which sufficient
program, it is suggested that the information a mismatched turbocharger COuld ellsily "run
oil IS circulating to prevent a sudelen faljure-
away", damaging the engine and crea t ing a
contained! herein be supplemented with the call also produce detrimental effects, the most
wellith of routine arId preventive mamtenance threllt 10 the well · being o f the by.tanders and
notable of which IS Ihe gradual accumulation
informati n available for both the complete attendants.
of varnish on internal surfaces. which makes
As seen Ifl the field, mismatched engine!
engine aid the turbocharger assembly alone. unit d isassemb ly qui te difficult.
turbocharger combinations are most often the
Improper Oil Type or Lack of Change at
FAILURES RELATED TO FAULTY result of an anempt to boost power output by
Recom m ended I ntervals_ The principal condi·
LUBo~;'~l:~OaN
means of various "adjustments", such as fuel
vital role in the life of a turbo· tion noted when either of these conditions exist
rate tampering, indiscriminate compressor or
is genera lized sludge or varnish formation on
charger, lfcause it serves the triple function of lurbine nozzle changes, or even the applica tion
the Internal surfaces of the turbocharger; these
IUbricatin~, cooling and cleansin g many of the of complete turbochargers to engines arbitrar·
are usually found to be heaviest at the turbine
most critical and highly stressed parts in the ily. Any of these al1empts can cau se overspeed
end of the unit. because the higher prevailing
assembly. damage to the bearing system of 11 turboch arg-
temperature in that area resu lt s in accelerated
Even fomentary interruptions in the supply er , dinortion, warpage or erosion of the turbine
loss of th~ volatile oil components.
of high 9u a lity lubrication can produce disas- wheel casting, and heat damage to such other
In certain applications, this var nish forma·
trous results, but particularly under condItions engine components as piSIOn crowns, valves
t ion clluses eventual sea l ring fouling and wear,
of high sred or heavy load , and eXhaus t manifolds,

173

Avenger/Cricket head. manifold to turbo (arrow). The sive.r. able venturis provide a good way to limit cooperative. performance outlets of these manufac. modern nume rous pictures and a lot of data. cover bhoto engine with Publisher Bill Fisher and Art Director Josh Young. Bo th sent Advantages of using a sophisticated high- Hubbard of Crane Cams authored a man· much information and photos. systems do not help a turbo setup but a Master and Schwitzer alt cont ributed charging is strictly a United States exclu . Bill Howell and John the boost. author Banks has been diligent in making superb. and David Vizard of England tried hard turers have also graciously helped. Large valves are work done by Buchi in the early 1900's fac ture r in marine lurbocharging. Last and certainly not least my wife. Gale as the novice . He has faithfu lly sent pict ures because. Vince Piggins. and interchange- Edwards and Jon Meyer were more tha n installations. p . 174 . Chrysler dynamic principles do not change. Although a few technical he owned the company. Doug Roe's hints about installatio ns through syste m. this is the only place to Bob Keller of Accel Performance Systems will be helpful to the old timer as well connect vacuum-powered accessories. in exhaust restriction . books on wrbocharging Me almost non. Rota· In case you get the idea that turbo.5 c. Turbocharger development has ers all over the world for TRW Interna· progrissed over the last 35 years mainly tional. the M & W Gear is an important manu. of better materials. For this and other information from many reas01 and the fact that the thermo· countries. Jack only needed for maximum power for a and Ricardo in the 1920-1930'5 is stilt Bradford. I rurbocharging when he helped Howard easy with available jets. Don to convince me otherwise. Bi l! lished Quite a reputation doing custom pump jet in that barrel. John Gaspari sells Rajay Turbocharg· e xistar t. a good por· t he pioneers in turbocha rg ing engi nes and t ion of the information could have been producing kits. Install ation and photo by David Vizard. has been given amount of boost. Crown Manufacturing has been one of ing engines o r gas tu rbines. Since then Tom has estab· w ater injection can be applied through the Miller and h is cohorts Jack Lufkin. Underside of turbo on a 7. of How to Modify Your Mini tanother H. Large exhaust valid. ta king professi o nal photographs of them . On a suck - pict ures of his customers' installations. turbocharging diesel and gasoline engines valves are most effecti ve with a waste gate I was fo rt unate in receiving a lot of since about 1960 and really knows how or a large AIR ratio housing with no built- usefu llin formation from the turbocharger to ma ke complete bolt·on kits. AiResearch.is a very fine idea. their Chief Engineer. by blocking oft bo rr o~ed quite a few installation tips Arneson install them on his off·shore accelerator-pump ac tion in one barrel. Note vacuum Spearcb Pe rformance provided many ex · several excellent pictu res of expe rimental take off for t he brake servo on the carb cellent pictures and helped me get installations. Ak racing boat. book at least twice and put up with He als6 spent several days wor king on the me in the process. Tuned exhaust ma nufactuers. performance carburetor like the Oellorto ual d~tai li ng how to turbocha rge an Tom Scah il l became interested in are three·fol d : Accurate calibration is engine with Schwitzer Turbochargers. and illust rations from this manual. 25mm venturis gave 202 HP tram George Spears of Shelby-Spearco and Pierce of Chevrolet Engineering sent us 90 CIO in this instance. ly engineered marine installations and in Betty Jane typed every word of this Book I. David Inal! of Tetetrin in Australia cially for off-road use. added much useful information. President Dere k Torley gleaned from ex isting literature because has the same enthusiasm toward turbo· o f the many books and papers on these chargers as did founder Ted Trevor when subjects. strong manifold for turbO support. Raj ay.espe· pictures and technical information. If this book were about reciprocat. Derek gave me papers have been published.

"..¥ . horsepower increases for turbocharged 80 / passenger-car engines at various levels of boost.~. -_. "- "" '-.. i ~ . ".. w GO / V MIN...I'-- '-. t'-.. '" "- --.. 9 1\ S 8 \ \ 1\ 7 \ 1\ \ \ 6 \ 1\ \ h. ({) ~ w 40 / / a: / ~ 2C / 1 a: w 00 / / ~ 8e / / >-- Z 1// w 6 u a: w 4( 1// Q. r--.[/ ( V4 o 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 BOOST (PSI) 2 Doug Fraser Racing Engines uses this chart \ \ for quickly calculating which turbocharger " 0 \ compressor size to use with various engine sizes and RPM levels. .. 175 -. 1 2 I '-. 3 ~ ~ "- "---. 2( .. 5 4 B K I~ \ ~ "-.... \}" Rajay provided this chart showing typical 200 V MAX.. •• ... . --- --- "" r-...'" E I~ \ \ \ E ~ '-.. I'---. . j I 100 200 300 400 500 I CUBIC INCH DISPlACEMENT .

.'..'3] IfL ' .'1")0 DIA 71IR[/_3HOLES~~ [~/6::~J I [.#0"".500 .C4] 1N5TAlLATION PE.:.\ D" co".lT DIFFUSER WITH' MAX INCLUOED ANGLE OF 14' [38.'IUNC-2 8 THRU (el( INt'T"I) (AS 5.h"S12.18NPT ~'O40' .L r ~ [. _ _ _-..-.20J 3aJ IS €EACfrCIl ..'.. _ ..25 176 ..10] r 11·50R ({r'R) OIL rUTLE! I [IS.50!? (Ti"'"P) #-/$ bNC 29 '(.9S] _______ -1 4..4T£ CENTLROF 1 CiR4VITr' + r I [7':-. 55J 3. t TYR) . l _ LJIVIOEO OR UNDIVIDED O..N] . I 8ASIC ~[5."" . OIL INU7 liZ: W .PTIO.34R ~ r7.1PPRQXIM.=ce _ /tVt...OJ 3.2. PERA:)RNfANCE (LENGTh' AS BASIC [10'.70J .pe~. --[ CONIC 4L STRAIGJ.4TT I [1 ...9.O~FP -'.IOJ \ RECOMMENOED FOR BEST 1.05 ] [ e. 5/16 /. " "'! ! I.38PM OIL INLET \ .QMIT5 OR 014 ~..oV/..250~ [/"'.> .01) OIL INLET iIT /'[.J../2 CI01.<.

-:mfUr .ANY R£QO INi £ TJ/NANY RE(jJ'O INCREMENT AiResearch T04 Turbocharger Outline 177 .B.3ZJ 2.M ..:'. ~M .6B . ~Ol(.-. o..96 "' --- T~RBIN€ "'56 COMPRESSOR !-ISO AS VI£WEO FACING ""S VIEWEO FAC'ING' TURBINE OJIT~ET COMPRESSOR INlET T RalIVE I-{SG POSITION ('()MPRESSOR . ollrar oC 0/"'.06 STANDARD TURBINE HOUSING SIZES (~ AIR . .Bjo {-RELATIVE TO OIL <>C : 0(RELATIVE TO 0/1.4SG POSITI ON MAYBEROTAT£O I"RO/l1 MAY 8£ ROTATED FROM . ~g.J~ . 23 --~ "---...----- -I [ S'?.

62 g .... .44C------.L. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 4.65~ '--------5-" --.. I• i -~~ . .." .ITt. 2l i I -fF--1 il.$/::: I f--2. --2. . -\'-~i llJ'..---<."')! .63 so ""-----t-..1 8 (TYPo) 1. &. _ 20° /iPPk'OJ'IM.kTt-- CE//TE/? li/: Gk.// ..:.qVJTY. 2.E':' t • .--6JR . TUREJNE --t::ll'ot.3.0() -1---..1 IL OUTLET J:LIlNGE 178 .l.441? 1.. I ~~ _ " ----r.. j 78~/' UNC-Z8 ~..... .74 >-t~-. . i . ~­ CY.+--'--.38 J iTY.

"""". HOUSING SIZES & Oil Sf. ecommended minimum 1..I 1 "--"! ' TU"I)]" Il.58 408700-3 AiResearch TE0670 Turbocharge.'" .. ratil1{l.. JL' M ... of oil-drain tube is 0. vibrat"on. ' . '-.87 I. joe. "".t". con turbine t ions 10 compressor inlet.". OIL I#LET \-JIB-/6UNC-Z8 OIL INLET FLANGE VIEW A ·A 1.."0" wrL£ri J'~"'.94 inch is reached).750 inch. -5 j 1.00 inch is rea. Posit on 01 turbine lind compressor housings as shown: under all operating conditions.68 408700-4 16.. Turt4x:harger to be mounted from turbine--inlet flange.11 K SQ. .' Outline