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Industry Guide

Automobile and Transportation Equipment
The automobile industry is America’s largest manufacturing industry. According to a 2001 report, the industry directly employs
1.4 million Americans and another 2.1 million U.S. workers are employed indirectly by suppliers and other industry-related businesses.
The hazards employees face vary with the types of facilities and the production processes in place where they work. Those hazards may
include:

Chemical agents
such as silica-containing dusts, acid mists, carbon monoxide, metal fumes, metal working fluid aerosols, isocyanates, and
organic vapors

Biological agents
such as bioaerosols

Physical agents
such as noise

This publication is designed to assist health and safety professionals in choosing the appropriate equipment and
methodology to assess the major chemical agents found in the automotive industry. Contact SKC Inc. at 724-941-9701
or www.skcinc.com for equipment to evaluate biological and physical agents.

Silica-Containing Dusts
In the automotive industry, the main NIOSH recommends that crystalline For details on sampling crystalline
exposure to silica-containing dusts occurs silica levels not exceed 0.05 mg/m3 as an silica, reference the following SKC
in foundry processes including finishing, eight-hour Time-Weighted Average (TWA). publications:
shakeout-knockout, molding, core making, OSHA’s standard is determined by
and melt department maintenance performing a calculation which takes into SKC Chemical Fact Files®
activities.1 If crystalline silica enters the consideration the percentage of silicon Silica, Crystalline, Quartz, Respirable Dust
lung, fibrotic nodules and scarring can dioxide (SiO2) in the sample. by OSHA Method ID 142
occur around the trapped silica particles. SKC Publication 1003
This fibrotic condition of the lung is called For respirable dust containing quartz, this
silicosis. If the nodules grow too large, calculation is as follows: Silica, Crystalline by XRD
breathing becomes difficult and death may by NIOSH Method 7500
result. Silicosis victims are also at high 10 mg/m3 SKC Publication 1370
risk for developing active tuberculosis. % SiO2 + 2

Publication 1725 Issue 0702
SKC Inc. 724-941-9701 SKC South 434-352-7149 SKC Gulf Coast 281-859-8050 SKC West 714-992-2780
www.skcinc.com

Publication 1725 Issue 0702 SKC Inc. The new OSHA standard for Chromic Acid and Chromates insertion and removal of components hexavalent chromium is 5. welding in the fabrication area. exposures sampling requirements for chrome plating Chemical Fact Files to acid mists can occur from the manual operations. Metal fumes SKC Full Disclosure Lead Wipes Metal and Metalloid Particulates in may produce inhalation fever or cause 550-001/002. 724-941-9701 SKC South 434-352-7149 SKC Gulf Coast 281-859-8050 SKC West 714-992-2780 www.com . capacity of blood. Version 2 from open-surface tanks. hardware. on skin or surfaces. by OSHA Method ID 209 Exposures can occur due to leaks from For details on sampling carbon furnaces or gas pipelines.0 µg/m3 as an by OSHA Method ID 215.com for information on the alloys in the assembly areas. OSHA SKC Publication 1371 has set PELs for individual metals. process ventilation in the melt department. and they have been associated with an Sulfuric Acid increase in cancer. Acid mists are 8-hour TWA. and soldering and grinding of lead and tin Chemical Fact Files skcinc. OSHA has established an SKC Publication 1439 corrosive to the skin and respiratory system 8-hr TWA of 1 mg/m3 for sulfuric acid. reference the following SKC i n s t r u m e n t . carbon monoxide as an 8-hr TWA. Specifically. s e e w w w. when performing For details on sampling carbon monoxide using a direct-reading furnace maintenance. see www. and during upsets in monoxide. and bumpers on automotive hexavalent chromium and issued a revised the following SKC publications: products can produce chromic acid and sampling and analytical method with special sulfuric acid mists. reference the following SKC by NIOSH 9105 melting and pouring operations in the publications: For details on sampling lead foundry. Workplace Atmospheres damage to specific target organs depending by OSHA Method ID 125G on the specific metal constituents. publications: com for information on the Pac III Carbon monoxide can cause asphyxiation Datalogging Instrument 805-30010 by interfering with the oxygen-carrying Chemical Fact Files and a carbon monoxide sensor. by OSHA Method ID 113 SKC Publication 1465 Inorganic Acids by NIOSH Method 7903 SKC Publication 1016 Carbon Monoxide Carbon monoxide gas is an atmospheric OSHA established a PEL of 50 ppm for Carbon Monoxide contaminant in foundry processes. OSHA lowered the PEL for For details on sampling acid mists.Acid Mists Electroplating processes used to produce In 2006. Carbon Monoxide by OSHA Method ID 210 SKC Publication 1021 Metal Fumes Metal fumes can be generated during For details on sampling metal Lead in Dust Wipes by Chemical Spot Test various automotive operations including fumes.skcinc. reference trim. s k c i n c .

and spray painting operations. References 1 Jeanne Mager Stellman. Thoracic processes to cool and lubricate tools. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Geneva. pp. mineral spirits.com for information by OSHA Method 42 low-density foams for seats and interior on the ISO-CHEK Coated Filter Sampling SKC Publication 1458 padding. Chemical Fact Files in the auto industry including coremaking reference the following SKC publications Hydrocarbons. 1998. Chemical Fact Files include high-density polyurethane systems reference the following SKC publications Diisocyanates in body parts such as nose cones and or see www. 91. MDI. or see www. Total Possible health effects include respiratory Particle Impactor (PPI) 225-381 Particulate disorders such as asthma and dermatitis by NIOSH Method 5524 from direct skin contact with the fluids. by NIOSH Method 1003 naphtha.com for information on by NIOSH Method 1501 degreasing. with some acting as irritants or causing narcosis and others having more serious. SKC Publication 1459 and severe sensitization of the respiratory Isocyanates system. Chemical vapors or mists of these by NIOSH Method 5521 compounds can cause irritation.com and pose an exposure risk to workers. and Isocyanates HDI. styrene.2-91. 4th Ed.skcinc.skcinc. and provide corrosion publications: by NIOSH Method 5524 protection. Vol III. by NIOSH Method 5522 SKC Publication 1460 Organic Vapors There are several sources of organic vapors For details on sampling organic vapors.skcinc.skcinc.5 mg/m3 as total particulate and 0. International Labor Organization. aerosols from the For details on sampling thoracic metal working fluids can become airborne Chemical Fact Files particulate. discomfort. butyl and amyl acetate. Isocyanates Sources of isocyanates in the auto industry For details on sampling isocyanates. see www. toluene.Metal Working Fluid Aerosols Metal working fluids are used in machining For details on sampling metal working Metalworking Fluids (MWF). Publication 1725 Issue 0702 SKC Inc.4 mg/m3 as thoracic particulate. Halogenated chloride. Aromatic and core burn-off products.8. fluid aerosols. active or passive sampling specific organic SKC Publication 1453 Typical organic vapors in the auto industry vapors of concern: include formaldehyde. and SKC Publication 1454 methyl alcohol. Toxic effects of these compounds vary. gunflushing. SKC Publication 1726 NIOSH has a recommended exposure limit for metal working fluids of 0. methylene Hydrocarbons. During use. long-term effects.com . reference the following SKC Particulate remove metal chips. xylene. 724-941-9701 SKC South 434-352-7149 SKC Gulf Coast 281-859-8050 SKC West 714-992-2780 www. Typical isocyanates found in System 225-9023: the auto industry include TDI. for information on the SKC Parallel Metalworking Fluids (MWF).