You are on page 1of 16

“Factors that contribute to the tardiness of Grade 11 Senior High school Students in

Lourdes College”

School year: 2017-2018

A research presented to

Ma’am Cleah Jane Engracia

of Lourdes College

As a fulfilment

For the requirements of the course

English 11, English for Academic & Professional Purposes

Submitted by:

Raafat M. Macadatar

Lara Patricia Abendano

Cherie Gonzales

Harlan Uy

March, 2018
Chapter 1

The problem

I. Introduction

Education is one of the important aspects for good life. Through education,

people are able to gain diverse knowledge. It is necessary for the society and the ever

changing world.

There are a lot of people who are getting educated however there are also others

who take this for granted and failed to recognize that not all persons can get proper

education. One of the most common problems that are evident in schools is the

tardiness of the students (Sprick and Daniels, 2017).

Every morning, during the first period subject of the Grade 11 senior high school

students in Lourdes College, many of them come to school late. There are also a few

students who are not granted the permission to enter the campus due to the 8:00 a.m.

time limit. The stated allotted time limit is imposed by the institution as an attendance

policy. Unfortunately, it is still not enough and due to this, the students’ academic

performance is greatly affected.

Factors such as the distance of the school from their houses, traffic, sleeping

late, lack of transportation, lack of motivation to go to school, financial constraints, time

constrains, etc., are some of the reasons that contribute to the tardiness of the students.

In this research, the researchers will assess all the information that will be

gathered and determine the primary reason of the problem and formulate possible and

cost-effective solutions for the matter.

II. Statement of the problem

 What is the primary reason of the tardiness of the students?

 Have the students tried to solve the problem?

 Does their motivation to go to school considered a factor of their


 What will be the recommended solution for this matter?

 Should the school consider the factors that will be assessed in this study

to help in formulating a new attendance policy to help the students?

III. Statement of the problems

The students. In this study, the students will be given a hope, guidance and a

solution for their problem regarding tardiness. Through this research, the

academic performance of the students will not be affected due to the reason of

unintentional tardiness.

The parents. Parents, whose children are enrolled in Lourdes College, will

benefit to this study because their hard earned income that is used to support the

education of their children will not go to waste due to the reasons unintentional


The future researchers. This study can benefit the future researchers regarding

to the topic by using this study as a basis and guidance for their research. Also,

through this, it will help the future researchers to create a new idea that is
connected to the topic of this study, add more information about this study and/or

develop new ideas that will help the efficiency of this study.

The School. This study will benefit the school by being the guide in creating a

new attendance policy of the school. This can also be the basis for solving the

problems related to this research.

IV. Scope and delimitations of the study

The objective of this study about “Factors that contribute to the tardiness of

Grade 11 Senior High School Students in Lourdes College” is to distinguish the real

reason of the tardiness of the students and to formulate solutions for the matter

Due to financial constraints, the range of the study will be limited to the

Grade 11 students of Lourdes College, located in Capistrano St., Cagayan de Oro

City. The students will be from the 4 strands of senior high school, namely: STEM,

ABM, HUMMS, and TECH-VOC; as the respondents. This study is largely dependent

on the honesty, sincerity and integrity of the respondents.

This research will only take 1 week to gather information from the students,

assess the garnered information, and formulate conclusions and solutions.

V. Definition off terms

 Academic performance – the all-around performance of a student regarding

school activities.

 Evident – clear to the vision or understanding

 Tardiness – arriving or doing something late

 Constrain – to limit or restrict (something or someone)

 Assess – to officially say what the amount, value, or rate of (something) is

- To make a judgement about (something)

 Garner – to collect or gather something

 Aspect – a part of something

 Factors – one of the things that cause something to happen

 Efficiency – the quality or degree of being efficient (effective)

 Repercussion – something usually bad or unpleasant that happens as a result

of an action, statement, etc., and that usually affects people for a long time.
Chapter 2
Foreign Literature

Tardiness among students has its own negative repercussions. It is emphasized

that lateness or tardiness is not just the problem of the late student but it affects the

surrounding people. A student coming late in class distracts the rest of the students and

disrupts the flow of the teacher’s discussion. It is even a burden to the students whom

the late students ask for what to catch up with (Nakpodia and Dafiaghor, 2011).

Students are tardy for a variety of reasons, but being late to class can become a

habit that can have a negative effect on their success in school. Schools often establish

an attendance policy that includes punishments for consecutive tardiness. A firm policy

can help schools promote student punctuality and accountability -- traits that students

can carry with them even after they finish school. Also, Students who are late to classes

may fall behind in their classroom work. If a student misses the first part of a lecture, for

example, he may miss the notes that he will need to study for an upcoming exam. Some

teachers do not accept late home work, so they will not permit a student to turn in a

homework assignment if he is tardy. This can result in an incomplete or failing grade for

the work (Fuller, 2013).

The literatures are similar to the study in connection to the effects of tardiness on

the students and their environment. In the literature of Fuller(2013), attendance policy

was also mentioned which is to be tackled in the study.

Local Literature

Although coming to school late is better than not coming at all, tardiness is still a

severe problem for students. Students may miss entire classes, often getting an

extremely low grade compared to other classes. First grade students with chronic

tardiness were shown to have lower math and reading scores compared to their peers

in a 2014 study published in the Journal of School Effectiveness and School

Improvement. Not only did the tardiness affect them, but it also affected their peers.

Teachers have to take time away from instruction to address late students, preventing

the class from continuing and often shortening education time.

Time is like a sword. If you did not cut it, it will cut you. Basically, human beings

are the most difficult to manage. However, some students are late to class on a regular

basis, and students are probably displaying a sort of defiance or impedance. Thus,

students are proper to rationalize excuse, such as, traffic jam, parents care or job

responsibilities that prevent them being punctual attending the class. However, when

students come to class late, it can confuse the flowing of a lecture or discussion, distract

other students, and disturb learning teaching process. Moreover, lateness can become

frequent and infect other students. However, (Schneider, 1998) reported that the reality

of classroom life may be very different. All faculties are confronted with students who

engage in behaviours that are disruptive to the educational process. Students may be

late for class, leave early, talk inappropriately, or sleep during class.
In connection to the present study, the literatures have directly stated the some

factors that contributes to the tardiness of the students which will be covered by the

present study.

Foreign Study

A study by Hammill Institute on Disabilities (Caldarella, Christensen, Young &

Densley, 2011), looked at decreasing tardiness in primary school-aged students using

teacher-written praise notes. The researchers found that students who are frequently

late to school often miss out on important opening announcements and academic

activities. Teachers can become frustrated as late students disrupt instruction, often

requiring re-teaching of what they have missed. Tardy behaviour can also negatively

affect the overall classroom environment,’ the study says. Arriving late to school can

also mean that students miss out on activities designed to build connections with their

peers, potentially impacting their social interactions and creating a greater sense of

alienation from their classmates.

Sprick and Daniels (2007) stated that the range of the teachers’ response was

“from ignoring them to sending them to office” (p. 21). This variation could lead the

students to confusion as to how important it is to be on time in going to class. Another

reason is the lack of motivation. Students who come to school on time are not given

incentives or rewards. Also, responses to tardiness are lenient, that is nothing is done

until the tenth strike or more. Another reason is “giving the student the impression that

they won’t be missing anything if they are late” since in some classes, no important

activities or instructions and no lessons are being done for first few minutes. Lastly,
crowded hallways could create traffic, thus blocking the way of other students and

making it hard for them to pass through.

The studies cited are similar to the present study regarding tardiness, its factors

and its effect on the students. The connection of the students’ motivation on going to

school, which will be touched in the present study, was also directly stated on the cited


Local Study

According to Alfie Vera Mella, during our recent vacation in the Philippines (from

mid-January to mid-February 2012), I finally realized that the main reason many

Filipinos in the Philippines fail to keep up with punctuality is not simply laziness nor

irresponsibility but the boulders of obstacles caused by the heavy traffic and difficulty in

transportation, whether one is a commuter or a motorist—which makes a few-kilometer-

distance equivalent to more than an hour of travel. Because of this, ordinary trips of

going to work or coming home from work becomes a daily marathon, which could really

exhaust a person and drain her energy and enthusiasm. I’m not justifying the tardiness

of Filipinos in the Philippines, particularly of those who live in Metro Manila and in other

highly urbanized regions and cities for the challenges that I have cited; what I was trying

to emphasize is that, in the Philippines, therefore, to be punctual is to be really strong-

willed and extremely disciplined. And this is really a challenge, yet it is something

doable and achievable only if one will put his mind onto it.

However, the student attendance policy has been developed as a role of the

university’s commitment to provide a supportive learning environment which authorize

all students who have selected to study with the university to fulfill their absolute

potential. ETC’s (2009) reported that the attendance and punctuality policy clearly

states that “regular and punctual attendance is of paramount importance in ensuring

that all students have full access to the curriculum. Valuable learning time is lost when

students are absent or late”. Therefore, University’s expects students to attend all

learning and teaching sessions. Thus, students should come on time for classes. Late

arrival students are disruptive and inequitable to other class members. Basically, there

are a number of hidden reasons that students arrive to class late, which causes the

source of the problem. Nontheless, instructors are responeable to establish appropriate

dealing strategies to uproot such behavior. Santillano (2010) reported that psychological

theorists considered some “personality traits, including low self-esteem and anxiety” as

triggering factors of lateness. However, some theorists considered lateness as an

“inborn quality” since our being early or late is “partially biologically determined”, which

she also agreed, other experts also believed that some people are “chronically tardy” for

the reason that they consciously and unconsciously get good things from it.

Study by Pimentel and Quijada (2011) Cited in Bilocura (2012) focused on the

frequency of use by the UP Cebu freshmen students of Facebook and a part of the

study tackled about the effect of the famous social networking site to UP Cebu students’

punctuality and academic performance. They asked the (60) respondent about their use

of Facebook and its effects. A certain question asked the respondents if late-night use

of Facebook has an effect on their punctuality. However, results of the study revealed

that, three out of 60 respondents are always late, eight said they are sometimes late, 12
said they are seldom late and 37 said that they never get late due to late-night use of


The related local studies stated the some of the factors that contributes to the

tardiness of students. The conclusions of the researchers of the related studies are the

expected conclusions for the present study.

Chapter 3


VI. Methodology

The researchers will use the descriptive method to describe and shed light to the

reasons of the tardiness of the Grade 11 Senior High School students in Lourdes

College. By using this as a methodology, the readers will understand the objectives of

this study. Through this, the researchers will clearly elaborate the assessment of the

data garnered and present descriptive illustrations of the information.

VII. Respondents

The respondents of this study are centered to the Grade 11 Senior High School

students of Lourdes Collage. The total number of students that will be taken as

respondents is 480; and is composed of students from the 4 strands of Senior High

School, namely: STEM, ABM, HUMMS, and TECH-VOC.

VIII. Instruments and tools used

 Questionnaire

The researchers will utilize questionnaires in order to garner all necessary

information needed for this study. The questionnaire consists of 20 questions in which

the objective is to satisfy the queries of the researchers regarding the problem.
Reference List

Bataineh, M. (2014, February). A review of Factors Associated with Student's Lateness

Behavior and Dealing Strategies. Retrieved March 5, 2018, from


Bilocura, J. A. (2012, October 12). Factors affecting Punctuality. Retrieved March 1,

2018, from


Factors Affecting Students Tardiness in College of Business Administration and

Accountancy. (2013, October). Retrieved March 1, 2018, from

Fuller, K. (2007). The Effects of Tardiness on Students. Retrieved March 5, 2018, from

Mella, A. V. (n.d.). Tardiness Is Not Always Caused by Laziness. Retrieved March 5,

2018, from


STUDENTS IN GRADE X PHOENIX SECTION. Retrieved March 5, 2018, from


Robb, A. (n.d.). Absenteeism & Tardiness in Schools: Statistics & Effects. Retrieved

March 1, 2018, from


The Advantages of Being on Time vs. Being Late to School. (n.d.). Retrieved March 1,

2018, from

Vukovic, R. (2017, February 1). The effect of student tardiness on learning. Retrieved

March 1, 2018, from


Gottfried, M. A. (n.d.). The achievement effects of tardy classmates: evidence in urban

elementary schools. Retrieved March 1, 2018, from