share

© All Rights Reserved

4 views

share

© All Rights Reserved

- Seismic Behavior of Hybrid Concrete Beam-Column Connections with Composite Beams and Cast-in-Place Columns
- Compressive Strength and Ductility of Bamboo Reinforced Concrete
- 10.1016@j.engstruct.2016.10.011
- Finite-Element Design of Concrete Structures - Practical Problems and Their Solutions 2nd - G. A. Rombach.pdf
- Shear forces in slabs
- DS_EN 1992-1-1 DK NA_2011 E
- Tower foundation design
- Corbel Design to ACI 381-05
- ASTM C 78 Flexural Strength
- Design of Rcc Drain With Additional Reinforcement at Support
- Three-dimensional-nonlinear-finite-element-analysis-of-concrete_2017_HBRC-Jo.pdf
- Crack
- Doubly Reinforced Beam Design _ Ilmusipil
- Shah Reinforced Concrete Properties
- 9936 c 614512
- MS,TMT,CTD
- Bier Wagen Performance
- Chapter9a.pdf
- 99-s80
- Concrete Design Flowcharts 3-14-17 (5) (1)

You are on page 1of 12

discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263062398

Code: Applicability and Comparisons

CITATION READS

1 5,150

2 authors:

Hashemite University Researcher

26 PUBLICATIONS 434 CITATIONS 176 PUBLICATIONS 1,745 CITATIONS

Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects:

All content following this page was uploaded by Peter I. Kattan on 14 April 2016.

,/

J.J. Appl. Sci. 1999 : 2 (1) , 25 - 36.

.t.wIJJ W4.J , LsiJ':-~ iG..J~ <t.:U r....u..P ~L:J.£ ~ ~I ~ ~J '11 ..uJ~ .LaGJI u ~I .t.wIJJ uAi

~j:$~/~.~JJ'jIL)Jp.1/u~y-!~~La., 4' Hi=> Q ~J u/J.,s ~~ r~~u'jJU-4 ;;.J.£~J.ij.,

.'G.1.=/.1 ~r....u,p..J1 j"Ct.:u.J1 ~ ~~~ (SJ.4., ~I ~JJ'j1 L)J.PJI u~ u~

~ 4.;.WJJ 'f 1L)J.PJJ., ('\ /..s; JS..J.':J ~y.6.1.1 ~u..::JJ ~J'jI..uJ~.LaG. u~.Jj., u~t..::U....:iw1 ~J.ij ~ {Pi.,

.u.aG.

Abstract:

The requirements regarding the min imum reinforcement rati o in various reinforced con

crete elements is considered. Variou s f ormulas, bas ed on six different major codes, are pre

sented, discussed and compared with the recommendations of the Jordanian Code. Emph a

sis is pla ced on the applicability of the requirements of the local Jordanian Code and their

suitability in reinforced concrete elements. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are

made regarding the minimum reinforcement ratio requirement in gen eral and the Jordanian

Code in particular.

crete.

Introduction:

When a flexural member is subjec ted to a small ultimate moment, it may not beh ave as expect

ed by the ultimate strength theory. The method used for computing flexural strength is bas ed on

the assumption that concrete in the tension zone is cracked and cannot resist loads. Thus if the

nominal strength for a section having a small amount of steel reinforcement is less than the crack

ing moment of the section, the beam will fail immediately and without or insufficient warning

distress on formation of the first crack [1]. This type of failure , of course, is brittle failure which

is not usually allowed in reinforced concrete sections. Since a ductile failure mode is always de

sired, the lowest amount of stee l permitted should be the amount that would equal the strength of

the unreinforced beam section [2].

Applying the previous principle, the minimum amount of steel reinforcement in a rectangular

section can be estimated using the relationship:

bh 2

M cr =f

.r rt - 6 -< M II (1 )

where

M R = the moment that can be resisted by the section using the ultimate strength theory.

Using the strength theory and equation (l), it can be shown that:

where

p = reinforcement ration = As/(bd) .

As = amount (cross-sectional area) of steel reinforcement.

d = depth of tension steel in the section.

cp = factor depending on the code of practice used.

fy = yield strength of steel reinforcement.

Assuming d ::::: 0.9h and a =:: 0.111, the relationship in equation (2) can be reduced to:

p~- ---

q!y

The tensile strength of concrete can be related to its compressive strength. A number of empiri

;

cal formulae connecting fel and fe have been suggested, Many of these formula s are of the type

represented in equation 4 [3-8].

(4)

where

k = constant.

fc = concrete compressive strength.

n = constant representing the power of the formula.

According to the available literature, the values of n range from 1/2 to 3/4 [3-8].

J.]' Appl. Sci. 1999: 2 (1) , 25 - 36.

In addition to the previously mentioned problem of failure, concrete always experiences strains

due to shrinkage and temperature effects. Therefore, codes tend to specify another lower limit of

reinforcement in order to control the cracking produced by the hydration shrinkage and the tem

perature effects. This amount is based on the gross area .

The steel reinforcement ratio required to control cracking of concrete due to thermal and

shrinkage effects is usually called the critical reinforcement ratio, Per This value can be obtained

by equating the tension and compression forces adjacent to the crack after concrete cracking

[9,10). When both concrete and steel reach tbeir limiting values, the following equation can be ob

tained [9]:

As In

P rr = - = --::---=--- (5)

A( f y + I;

where:

As = steel area.

A: = concrete area.

The value of fsc is generally very small and can be taken as zero without introducing undue

accuracy. Hence, the critical value of steel ratio is approximately [8-10]:

I('/ (6)

P('r = Iy

The control of cracking is critical during the early life of the concrete, and tberefore a value of

concrete strengtb at 3 days should be used. Anchor [10] tabulated some of the values of Per for dif

ferent types of concrete and steel.

The Jordanian Code of Practice [12] specifies the following:

1 . The amount of tension reinforcement in beams should not be less than (70/f y )% (article 4/8/

1). In the case of T or L sections, the amount of steel reinforcement should be increased by

one third when bJb f < 0.4, where b., is the width of the web and b, is the width of the flange

(article 4/811) .

2 . The transverse reinforcement in the compression zone in T - or L-sbaped beams should not

be less tban 0.2% based on the gross area of the section (article 4/811) .

1 Thp ;1l1l()lInt of tension reinforcement in both directions in solid slabs should not be less than

iisham Qasrawi and Peter Kattan .

4 . The amount of tension reinforcement in ribbed slabs mu st not be less than (70/f y )% in addi

tion to article 4/8/1 mentioned in (1) and (2) above.

5 . Minimum reinforcement in flat slabs should not be less than (70/f y )% in both directions (arti

cle 718/1) .

6 . Minimum reinforcement ratio in columns should not be less than 0.40% (article 8/811) .

7 . Minimum reinforcement ratio in walls is 0.40 % for vertical reinforcement and 0.25 % for

horizontal reinforcement.

8 . Minimum reinforcement ratio in footings is (70/f y)% (article 10/8/1) .

Article 3.12 .5 of BS 8110 [13,14] gives a table showing the minimum reinforcement ratio re

quired for concrete elements. The values can be summarized as follows:

1. Members subjected to direct tension: 0.80% for grade 250 steel and 0.45% for grade 460

steel.

2 . Minimum reinforcement ratio for beams ranges from 0.24% to 0.48% for grade 250 steel

and ranges from 0.13% to 0.26% for grade 460 steel. The variations depend on the shape of

the beam (rectangular, L- or T-section), the web width to tlange width ratio, and the position

of tension reinforcement (top or bottom).

If control of shrinkage and temperature cracking is critical, the amount of steel in each direc

tion should be at least 0.25% of gross area for grade 460 steel and 0.3% of gross area for I

I

4. Minimum reinforcement ratio for slabs is 0.13% for 460 steel and 0.26 % for 250 steel.

However, based on the BS 8110-1985, the Institution of Structural Engineers (lStructE) gives

the minimum percentages of reinforcement shown in Table (l) [15].

Requirements ofthe ACI-318 Code:

For rectangular sections, ACI 318-95 [16] gives the following range for the minimum reinforce

ment ratio: 3« 4« 1

I

p = l Sf, to p = 15fy

New in 1995, ACI-1O .5.l gives as Formula (10-3) for the minimum reinforcement ratio:

p =-

4fy

«

hut not less than l.4/L which was the sole recommendation in the 1989 Code [17]. This latter

].]. Appl. Sci. 1999 : 2 (1) , 25 - 36 .

limit was a last minute addition to these Code changes to satisfy negative voters.

For T-sections having slab in tension, the following range is given:

37fT

to P = --'--

60!\.

New in 1995, ACI- to .S.2 gives as Formula (10-4) for the minimum reinforcement ratio:

but not more than ACI Formula (10-3) . This modifier of the above equation was an addition to

addres s concerns of Code Committee members that the equation would require too much mini

mum reinforcement.

for situations where the reinforcement required for strength is far below the minimum required

by ACI Formulas (10-3) or (10-4), ACI-10.S.3 permits the use of a lesser minimum, as long as the

amount is "at least one-third greater than that required by analysis".

For structural slabs and footings of uniform thickness , the following range is given for the min

imum reinforcement ratio:

fO

ACI-10.S.4 requires that A/(b)l) to be not less than O. 20% for Grades 40 and SO deformed

bars, and not less than 0.18% for Grade 60. These amounts agree with the lower end of the ranges

indicated above for rectangular section s.

For the sake of comparing the Jordanian Code with other Arab codes, the requirements of the

ECP [18], the common Arab Code in the Arab World , is introduced. The ECP specifies the fol

lowing:

1. Minimum reinforcem ent ratio for members subjected to bending moments and reinforced by

tension reinforcement is given in article 4-2-1. The minimum reinforcement ratio must be as

follows:

Pmin ~ (1 lO/f) %

sham Qasrawi and Peter Kattan .

Also, P min can be 30% more than that steel required for flexural reinforcement but in no way

should be less than 0.25 % for grade 60 steel or 0.15 % for grade 40 steel.

2. In members with moment and small loads, P 2:: 0.4% (Article 4-2-1-3).

3. In normally tied columns, P > 0.8% of the effective concrete section and p > 0.6% of the

gross concrete area (Article 7-4-6) .

4 . In spirally tied columns, p > 1.2% of the effective concrete area and p > 1% of the gross

concrete area (Article 7-4-6).

For the sake of comparison of the previous requirements, the minimum amount of steel rein

forcement (p) has been estimated. using the previous codes. The results obtained are shown in Ta

ble 2. Two types of steel were used in the calculations; ASTM Grade GO (l~ == 415 Nzrnm-) and

Grade 40 Cfy = 275 Nzmm-). The values obtained from the table in article 3.12 .5 of the BS 8110

and those of the IStructE were multiplied by the appropriate factor ( 1.108 for grade 60 instead of

the BS 460 steel and 0.91 for grade 40 instead of the BS 250 steel). This factor represents the ratio

between the ASTM steel strength and the corresponding BS steel strength.

Comparison of Results:

Comparing the results obtained and shown 111 Table 2, the following conclusions can be

reached:

1 . The results of the ACI 318-95 are the highest among all results, and are now more than the

I

previously recommended values of ACI 318-89 . Only the yalues for solid slabs Grade 40 are l

, I

not higher than other values recommended by the other codes.

2 . The Jordanian Code of Practice uses the value 70/fy in most cases. This value is not suitable;

for all cases when compared with results of the other codes. For example, this value is ap- ~

proximately one-half that of the ACI and about two-thirds that of the ECP. 'I

3 . The values recommended by the Jordanian Code for the T,-Section are much lower than the

values recommended by all other codes. : I

4. The minimum reinforcement ratio for columns recommended by the Jordanian Code is equal :

to that recommended by the DS 8110 and both me onl y about 40% of those recommended by ;

the ACI -318 and are also less than those of the ECP.

5. The values of the ACI 3 18-95 vary according to concrete strength as expected from the basic

principles given in the Introduction. This variation is not observed in the other codes because

other codes do not take into consideration the effect of concrete strength in their equations .

The previous Soviets Code also gives a minimum reinforcement ratio which depends on con

crete strength [8] .

].]. Appl. Sci. 1999 : 2 (1) , 25 - 36.

Using equation (3), the reinforcement ratio ( can be calculated as follows:

1. Assuming t~1 = 0 .62 (f)'/2 (ACI 318-95) and <p = 0.90, equation (3) can be reduced to:

This value ranges from (67/fy )% for concrete of strength f'c of 20 MPa (25 MPa cube strength)

and (95/f y )% for concrete of f'c = 40 MPa.

2. Assuming fCI = 0. 39(f'c)2I3, (the EC2 requirement, [19]), equation (3) can be reduced to:

0.085(/ ) 2-3

P -> fy

c

This value ranges from (63/fy )% for concrete of strength f 'c of 20 MPa (25 MPa cube strength)

and (l OO/fy )% for con crete of f'c = 40 MPa.

3. Using the limits of Table 5.4 of the BS 8110 : 1997 , and assuming that concrete cub e

streng th is 1.25 times that of the cylinder streng th, and rp = 0.87, which is the requirement of both

the Jordanian and the BS 8110 1985 Codes, equation (3) can be reduced to:

p > 80/f y for f", = 20 MPa and 125/f y for f'c = 40 MPa.

Using <p = 0.95 (US 8110 : 1997 , [12]) and the previous assumptions, p will range from 73/f y

I

[or r, = 20 and 114/f y for f'c = 40 . I

The ECP [17] specifies l10/f y for all types of concrete.

The previous Sovietfs standards [8] gives a formula for calculating the tensile strength of con

crete in the form fCI = 0.5(R)2/3 , where R is the strength of 200 nun Cubes in kgf/cm". Assuming the

. .

str ength of 150 mID cube = 1.1R [8] and that f", = 1.25 times the cube strength, the relationship be-

I

comes :

fCI = 0.25(R/

13

,in SI unit s.

According to the same reference, ela stop1asti c analysis of concrete in tension of simply sup

ported beams using 2 point loading showed that the section modulus is 1.7 times the elastic modu

lus that appears in equation (3). Using the pre vious equation and elastoplastic analysis it can be

shown that minimum reinforcement ratio will range from (68/f y )% for con crete of strength f, of

Esham Qasrawi and Peter Kattan .

20 MPa (25 MPa cube strength) and (l08/f)% for concrete of f' c = 40 MPa.

Furthermore, using concrete strength (f'c) = 20 MPa (fcu = 25 MPa), fCI can be taken as 1.15

[9], then equation (6) becomes Per = 115/fy ' This value (of course) is much higher than the values

obtained using equation (3). However, this critical reinforcement ratio is recommended only when

control of cracking is essential such as in the design of liquid retaining structures . Unfortunately,

the Jordanian Code of Practice does not provide any recommendation for such a case. Moreover ,

this value is close to the ECP limit of 110/fy and approximately to the upper limits of equation 3.

From the previously obtained results, it is clear that the Jordanian limit of 70/f y is close to the

lower limit of equation (3); i.e. for f", = 20 MPa (fell = 25 MPa), which is relatively a low strength .

This value becomes unsafe and cannot be accepted for higher concrete strengths.

Further Comments:

Elastoplastic analysis of concrete in tension of simply supported beams using 2 point loading

!

showed that the section modulus is 1.7 times the elastic modulus that appears in equation (3) [8].

Since values in the previous paragraph were obtained using elastic analysis, elastoplastic analysis

would result in an increase of about 70% in the minimum reinforcement ratios obtained before.

Conclusion and Recommendation:

One can easily draw conclusions from the numerical comparison made in Table 2.

1. It is clear that the Jordanian Code requirements are consistently lower for the minimum re

inforcement ratio than in the other codes. Moreover, in many cases (e.g. rectangular beams,

Tvbeams) the Jordanian Code recommends only half the requirement of the ACI Code and

also two thirds of the requirement of the ECP. This clearly demonstrates the inadequacy of

the requirements of the Jordanian Code in this regard. It is recommended that the minimum

reinforcement ratio in the Jordanian Code be increased in order to meet the requirements of

the other codes, preferably the well know and well tested American Code ACI 318-95.

2. It is also recommended that the Jordanian Code should include the following in its recom

mendation for minimum reinforcement:

a. concrete strength, and

b. control of cracking due to shrinkage and temperature.

3. It is recommended that the minmum reinforcement ratio.!required for columns in the Jorda

nian Code should be adjusted (increased). A thorugh investigation and study of the actual

conditions in Jordan should be performed before any decision is taken. The requirement of

the ACI or the ECP might suit Jordan more that that represented in the recent code.

4. The Jordanian requirement of 70/f y is quite suitable for solid slabs in Jordan. This value is

consistent with the requirements of other codes.

J.]. Appl. Sci. 1999: 2 (1), 25 - 36.

=-~

fy = 250 fy = 460

Rectangular Beams 0.24 % 0.20 %

Area)

Walls faces of the wall and also to control cracking by providing horizon-

0.30%* 0.25%*

~-~~~~

Hisham Qasrawi and Peter Kattan .

ment

(a) Gra de 60 0.17 0.14** 0.22** 0.34 -0.38 0.3 4 0.27

in Ten sion

** 0 .28% is used if control of crac king is critica l.

J.J. Appl. Sci. 1999 : 2 (1) , 25 - 36 .

References:

I. Arthur Nilson ( 1997) Design of Co ncrete Stru ctu res, 12 th edi tion, McGraw-Hill.

2. Chu-Kia Wa ng and Charles G. Salmon (1998) Reinf orced COl/crete Desi gn , 6lh edition, Addi

son-Wesley.

3. N. 1. Gardner and S. M. Poon (1976) . T ime and Temperatur e Effects on Te nsile, Bond, and

Co mpressive Strenghts, Journ al of the Ame rica n Conc rete Institute , 73( 7), pp. 405-409.

4. 1. M. Rapael (1984). Tensile Strength of Concrete, ACI Materials Jo urna l, 81(2), pp.158

165.

5. F. A. Oluokun (1991 ). Predi ction of Concrete Tensile Strength from Co mpressive Strength

Eva luation of Existing Relations for Normal Weight Concrete, A CI Ma teri al s Jo urnal, 88(3)

pp.302-309.

6. N. J. Ca rino and H. S. Lew (1982) . Re-examination of the Relati on Between Splitting Tensile

and Compress ive Strength of Normal Weight Concre te, ACI Journal, 79 ( 3) , pp. 2 14-219 .

7. A. M. Neville (1995) Prop ert ies of Concrete , 4 d1 edition, Longman.

8. V. Murashev, E. Sigalov and V. Baikov (1976) Design of Reinf orced Concrete Structures, 3rd

edition, Mir Publishers .

9. W. Mosley and 1. Bungey (1990) Reinforced Conc rete Design , 4th edition, Macmillan.

10. Robert D. Anchor (1992) D esign of Li qu id Re taining Concrete Structures, 2"d edition, Ed

ward Arnold.

11. BS 8007 (J 987) Code of Practi ce f or De sig n of Conc rete Structures fo r R eta ining Aque ous

Liqu ids, BSI.

12. J BC-5/93 ( 1993) Jordanian Building Code fo r Plain and R einf orced Conc rete , First Edi

tion , Mi nistry of Publ ic Works and Housing, Jordan.

13. BS 8 110 ( 1997) Stru ctural Use of Concrete. Pa rt J: Code of Pra ctice fo r D esign and Con

st ructio n, BSI.

14. BS 8 110 (1985) British Standard, Use of COilc rete Part J: Code of Pra ctice for Design and

Cons truct ion (BS 8110:Part 1:1985), BSr. ,

i

IS. IStructE.(1985) Manual fo r the Design of Reinf orced Concrete Bu ilding St ructu res, Pub

lished by the Institution of Stru ctural Engineers , U.K.

16. ACI-31 8 (1995). Building Code Requ irem ent s f or Structural Con cr et e and Conunenta ry ;

American Concrete Institut e.

17. ACI-3 18 (1989) Building Code Requiretneius fo r Reinforced Con crete and Conune ntary ,

Amer ican Concrete Institute.

18. ECP ( 1998) Th e Egyptian Code f or the Desi gn and Co ns truc tion of Reinf orced Co nc rete

St ructures, 4th edition, Ministry of Housing, Egyp t.

19. E. 0 ' Brien and A. Dixon ( 1995) Reinforced and Prestressed Co ncrete : The Complete Pro

cess, 1st edition, Longman.

(-- ---------

View publication stats ----)

- Seismic Behavior of Hybrid Concrete Beam-Column Connections with Composite Beams and Cast-in-Place ColumnsUploaded byEnrique Bass
- Compressive Strength and Ductility of Bamboo Reinforced ConcreteUploaded byLyndon Joseph Barba
- 10.1016@j.engstruct.2016.10.011Uploaded byDennys Virhuez
- Finite-Element Design of Concrete Structures - Practical Problems and Their Solutions 2nd - G. A. Rombach.pdfUploaded byWasin Waiyasusri
- Shear forces in slabsUploaded bySpaniardbest Spaniard
- DS_EN 1992-1-1 DK NA_2011 EUploaded byp_meulendijks108
- Tower foundation designUploaded byunikmyquestar
- Corbel Design to ACI 381-05Uploaded byKira Yamato
- ASTM C 78 Flexural StrengthUploaded byPurdiansyah
- Design of Rcc Drain With Additional Reinforcement at SupportUploaded byvishnumani3011
- Three-dimensional-nonlinear-finite-element-analysis-of-concrete_2017_HBRC-Jo.pdfUploaded bymrinmoy
- CrackUploaded bysunil reddy
- Doubly Reinforced Beam Design _ IlmusipilUploaded byHaris Charlie
- Shah Reinforced Concrete PropertiesUploaded byMaria Fernanda Lima
- 9936 c 614512Uploaded byovunctezer
- MS,TMT,CTDUploaded byAbdul Basit
- Bier Wagen PerformanceUploaded bysahri
- Chapter9a.pdfUploaded bykumaravajira
- 99-s80Uploaded bypaulkohan
- Concrete Design Flowcharts 3-14-17 (5) (1)Uploaded byMY Name
- Final Edited ResearchUploaded byEdhelyn Lim
- rc structure design.xlsxUploaded bynamrath k
- 2015_Experimental Study and Prediction Model for -Exural BehaviorUploaded bymaan
- 11Jun201609064635 Ghanishth Agrawal 3 93-96Uploaded byK Raghu
- SymbolsUploaded byChinnu Bujji
- Damage_index_analysis_of_prefabricated_segmentalUploaded byFouad Kehila
- Is CODE MINIMUM STEEL --What is the Maximum Percentage of Reinforcement That Can Be Provided for a RCC StructureUploaded byKENNY
- 08.pdfUploaded byjeseifer
- cccccccccUploaded byBIBIN
- leadax-datasheetUploaded byJ

- White_Ed 6_P4.26Uploaded byAnonymous RJtBkn
- art10Uploaded bylylya_bejenaru
- Notes 1 Seimology Civl7119Uploaded bySergio Rojas Valenzuela
- 11304-13-33210-1-10-20180123Uploaded byIng Struc-ture
- V-n DiagramUploaded byaeroacademic
- xf-naca4421-il-1000000Uploaded bySiddhartha Agarwal
- propulsion lab-impingement jet.pdfUploaded bySrinivasan Siddhamoorthy
- Compression TestUploaded byjazille22
- Ch3.pptUploaded byOlbira Dufera
- Technical CharacteristicsUploaded by76027074
- Review of Residual Stresses and Failures in Boiler Tubes.http://iaetsdjaras.org/Uploaded byiaetsdiaetsd
- Quiz Rce 309Uploaded byabhi
- AP Thermo Practest5Uploaded byKummu Siri
- Connection DesignUploaded byBazlur Rahman Sohel
- 2DNavierStokesCavityFlowUploaded byTushar Kant Swain
- Tutorial 12 ASPEN PLUS Sensitivity Analysis and Transport PropertiesUploaded byramsrivatsan
- APVI ConferenceUploaded byUzair Chaudhary
- Lecture.4.Vorticity.allUploaded byPrince Israel Eboigbe
- Lab, Solubility and ThermodynamicsUploaded byAna Paula
- 1Engineering Units _ International Site for Spirax SarcoEngineering Units _ International site for Spirax Sarco.Uploaded byatiq124
- ANSYS_Explicit_Dynamics_Analysis_Guide.pdfUploaded bysar
- Solid Mechanics ME 212 - Week 12Uploaded byMihir Kumar Mech
- 04BitumenRID-ENSTP_2016Uploaded byJimmy Rostant
- -Advanced-Flow-Assurance.pdfUploaded byMarco
- Exam 7 PracticeUploaded bysarahh
- Beam EquationsUploaded byAhmed Abotoor
- Advantix FinalUploaded byEric Webb
- Chapter_6._Fabric_filters (1).pdfUploaded byKaffel
- How Wind Affects the Pressure in Chimneys and HousesUploaded byThe Seeker Of All
- Composite Steel Girder DesignUploaded byNithesh Sham