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Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English


A narrative that serves as an extended metaphor. The main
purpose of a n allegory is to tell a story that has characters,
a setting, as well as other types of symbols, that have both
literal and figurative meanings.

• The Crucible – The Salem Witch Trials vs. McCarthyism.
• The Lord of the Rings was an allegory to the World Wars.

Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English


Repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning or in the
middle of two or more adjacent words

• Example:
◦ Instrumural hockey is a strenuous, stimulating,
satisfying sport.
• Example:
◦ Puny puma pit their skills against zebras.

Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English


A direct or indirect reference to something the is presumably
commonly Known, such as an event, book, myth, place, or
work of art. Allusions can be historical, literary, religious, or
mythical. A work may simulatneously use multiple layers of
allusion to create poignancy or humor.

• The Great Gatsby--”He's one the one who fixed the
world series in 1919.”
• The Great Gatsby--”secrets that only Midas and Morgan
and Maecenus Knew.”

Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English


Repetition of th last word of one clause at the beginning of
the following clause.

• Example—Mental preparation leads to training; training
builds muscle tone and coordination; muscle tone and
coordination, combined with focused thinking, produce
athletic excellence.
• Example--In the beginning God made the heavens and
the earth The earth was without form and void, and
darkness was upon the fence of the deep.

Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English


A moment of clairvoyant insight or understanding in the mind
of the tragic hero as he suddenly comprehends the web fate
in which he is entangled.

• The Crucible—John Proctor
• Dead man in the movie The Sixth Sense.

often used to help explain something or make it easier to understanding. • Example—Citizens are to president as solar system is to galaxy. .Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Analogy A comparison between two things that are similar in some way. • Example—Glove is to hand as paint is to wall.

sentences.Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Anaphora The use of the same word or phrase at the beginning of several successive clauses. exercise builds stamina in older adults and senior citizens. lines. • Example—Excercise builds stamina in young children. • · Example ◦ Mine-by the Right of the White Election! ◦ Mine-by the Royal Seal! ◦ Mine-by the Sign in the Scarlet prison Bars-Cannot conceal (Emily Dickens) . usually for emphasis or rhetoical effect. excercise builds stamina in teenagers and young adults. or verses.

unfold the couch. . unroll the sleeping ba—uh. killed in battle during the U.S.Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Aposiopesis A sudden break in speaking." (Last words of General John Sedgwick. Civil War) . » (Homer Simpson) • "They couldn't hit an elephant at this dist. • « I won't sleep in the same bed with a woman who thingk's I'm lazy! I'm going right downstairs. . giving the impression that the speaker does not want to or cannot continue. goodnight. .

my old friend Ive come to talk with you again.Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Apostrophe A rhetorical passage in which an absent or imaginary person or an abstract or inanimate entity is addressed directly. Romeo! wherefore art thou Romeo?" (Shakespeare) .»Hello darkness. » • "O Romeo. • Example-.

• Cinderella stories. .Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Archetype A pattern from which copies can be made. Santiago in The Old Man and the Sea. • Ex.

right- minded helper. • A workout partner is finally a Kind. • « It beats as it sweeps as it cleans. Reliable. » .Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Assonance • Repetition of vowel sounds in the stressed syllables of two or more adjacent words.

• The climax of the Crucible—John Proctor's death. • Romeo and Juliet .Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Catharsis To arouse the feeling of pity and fear in such a way as to effect that special purging off and relief of these two emotions.

" . nice! » • "I am stuck on Band-Aid. to see you. • « Nice to see you. and Band-Aid's stuck on me.Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Chiasmus A rhetorical construction in which the order of the words in the second of the two paired phrases is the reverse of the order in the first.

or clauses in ordewr of increasing number or importance. and their communities. • Example—Excellent Schools need tob e respectful of themselves. their schools. their schools.Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Climax Repetition of words. their teammates. phrases. the truth. • « I am the way. and the life. » .

• Santiago in the Old Man and the Sea. • Aslan in the Chronicles of Narnia.Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Christ Figure A literary technique that authors use to draw allusions between their characters and the biblical Jesus Christ. .

3. The convergence of the immediate situation calling forth the text.. • The context of a speech or written composition strongly shapes how rhetors argue their positions or explore their ideas.. 2... . Any pertinent historical backgrouind information about the topic.Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Context Every speech or written composition arises from a context .. 1. The persona and identity of the rhetor. And the knowledge and beliefs of the audience.. 4..

»Never look down on anybody unless you're helping him up. • Example-. advice against something. » (Jessee Jackson) • « Never answer an anonymous letter.Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Dehortatio Dissuasion. » (Yogi Berra) .

Wit has truth in it. Under the tension.S. » (T. Crack and sometimes break. will not stay in place. 1956) . Decay with imprecision. slide. concreteness / abstraction. • « Words Strain. and denotative value / connotative value. under the burden. Will not stay still. Elliot) • "There's a hell of a distance between wise-cracking and wit. wise-cracking is simply calisthenics with words. slip. perish." (Dorothy Parker.Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Diction The writers or speakers word choice viewed on scales of formality / informality. Latinate derivation / Anglo-Saxon derivation.

• Oedipus – Killed his mother and married his mother. .Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Dramatic Irony When the audience nows something that the character(s) don't. the audience knows the girls are not really crazy. • The Crucible.

It might even be fair to call him the inventor of the American short story." (Stephen L." Time magazine. And he surely deserves an additional encomium: the man who popularized the sophisticated literary attack on racism." (Stephen Colbert. Bush] is he's steady.Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Encomium A formal expression of praise. this man's beliefs never will. "The Colbert Report") . Events can change. 2008) • "The greatest thing about this man [President George W. no matter what happened Tuesday. You know where he stands. • "Mark Twain has been called the inventor of the American novel. "Getting Past Black and White. Carter. July 3. He believes the same thing Wednesday that he believed on Monday.

• To become a top-notch player. There is no Southern problem.Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Epistrophe Repetition of the same group of words at the end of successive vlauses. There is only an American problem. I thought like an athlete. There is no Northern Problem. • « There is no Negro problem. I trained like an athlete. » . I ate like an athlete.

more... women are ravenous blood-sucking monsters always wanting more. so cautiously— caustiously.. » . usually with no words in between.Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Epizeuxis Repetition of a word or phrase for emphasis. MORE! » • « I undid the lantern cautiously—oh.. • « When it comes to compliments.

But would you walk under a burning building? » . Is there anything they can't do? » • « You may think that you are not superstitious. • « Donuts.Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Erotesis A figure of speech whereby a question is asked in confident expectation of a negative answer.

Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Ethos People's belief in you based upon your credibility. but I play one on TV." (1960s TV commercial for Excedrin) • Actually being a doctor. • "I'm not a doctor. .

freshness of expression. Often provide emphasis. • « It's rainging cats and dogs » means it is raining intensely. or clarity. • « Break a leg. » Good Luck. .Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Figures of Speech A use of a word that diverges from its normal meaning or a phrase with a specialized meaning not based on the literal meaning of the words in it.

• The Crucible—John Proctor's affair with Abigail • Oedipus .Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Hamartia A fatal error or simple mistake on the part of the protagonist that eventually leads to the final catastrphe.

• The Crucible—John Proctor challenges authority. Other known as « false pride ». • Friar Lawrence in Romeo & Juliet.Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Hubris Insolent daring that gets a person in deep trouble. .

• « These books weigh a ton. » • « I'm so hungry. » . I could eat a watermelon.Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Hyperbole A figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement.

» . 'What's the best tuna?' Chicken of the Sea.Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Hypophora A figure of speech where the speaker poses a qustion and then answers the question. » • « Ask any mermaid you happen to see. • « What's a wedding? Webster's dictionary describes it as the act of removing weeds from one's garden.

• The Great Gatsby and partying hard. or what he or she wants the audience to believe or do after hearing or reading the text. • The Crucible—Arthur Miller's intention in writing the Crucible was to tell the acts of McCarthyism by writing a story bused on The Salem Witch Trials to explain McCarthyism.Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Intention What the rhetor wants to happen as a result of the text. .

Paris says « All innocent and Christian people are happy for the courts in Salem. in fact. • The crucible—In Scene II. . » When. • The Crucible—Abigail claimed to be « pure » and « holy » when she was accusing innocent people of witchcraft.Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Irony A contradiction between what is expected and what actually happened. few innocent and truly christian people were happy for the courts of Salem.

Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Litotes The ironic minimizing of fact. understatement presents something at less than it is. » meaning « You're right. • « Not bad. » meaning « Good. » . » • « You're not wrong.

Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Logos When the rhetor appeals to the audience with their good sence of logic. • Water will put out fire. . • Obama's speech was very logical.

" (Mrs. • "He is the very pineapple of politeness. in which the resulting phrasemakes no sence but often creates a comic effect. Malaprop in Richard Sheridan's The Rivals) • « A witness shall not bear falsies against thy neighbor.Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Malapropism Is the substitution of a word with a similar sound." .

the inevitable payback or cosmic punishment for acts of hubris.Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Nemesis Retribution. • Marlin vs Santiago • Capulet vs Montague .

• Jumbo shrimp • Icy-hot stare .Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Oxymoron A figure of speech that combines normally contadictory terms.

. • Sympathetic conflict. • Donate to the Animal hospitals.Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Pathos Represents an appeal to the audience's emotions.

Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Peripeteia A pivotal or crucial action on the part of the protagonist that changes the situation from seemingly secure to vulnerable. • A crack apears on Chickamauga Dam. • Fire on a hot-air balloon. .

» in which an anonymous Character recounts the events of the meeting and adventures with Robin Hood. • Nick telling the story of Gatsby through his own perspective.Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Persona The character or voice an author or actor portrays to be. . • « Robin Hood and Allin a Dale.

• The chair moaned as Craig began to sit on it.Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Personification A figure of speech where in an inanimate objject is given human qualities. • The wind whistled as the storm grew explosively. .

isn't it? » .Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Polyptoton The stylistic scheme in which words clerived from the same root are repeated. what's wrong? Are you hungry? Sleepy? Gassy? Gassy? Is it gas? It's gas. • « Marge. isn't it? » • « Craig. what's wrong? Are you hungry? Sleepy? Gassy? Gassy? Is it gas? It's gas.

• « I want to shake off dust of htis one horse town. I want to explore the world.Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Repetition Just the repetition of a word or phrase within the same root that is repeated. » • What is that over there? What is that pile of tomato pie for? .

something that arises from his or her position as an honest. ethical person. inquiring. But what was even more like a drug were the drugs. • « Fame was like a drug. » • Rhetoric is the art of ruling the minds of men as said by Plato. .Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Rhetoric Explains how communications works and presumes that the speaker or writer is searching for methods to persuade hearers or readers beause he or she has something valuable to say.

Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Rhetorical Question Is a figure of speech in the form of question posed for its persuasive effect without the expectation of a reply. • « Do I know what 'rhetorical' means? » • « Do you really think that cow is floating in mid-air Craig? » .

Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Sarcasm A mocking. . • « Oh. often ironic or satinical remark intended to wound. a sarcasm detector. » • The cow jumped over the moon. That's a really useful invention.

Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Satire A piece of work that tries to expose. wrongdoings. attack. • Example—South Park • Example—Family Guy . or strange behavior of society. and/or ridicule the foolishness.

• « One binge does not a bulemic make. » .Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Scheme Any artful variation from the typical arrangement of words ina sentence. » • « I got. away. so far as the immediate moment was concerned.

.Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Situationaly Irony Contradiction between whathappens and what is expected to happen. he ended up getting tried for witchcraft and getting killed. • Expecting to play a violin concerto and your bridge collapses. • The Crucible—Abigail started the witchcraft crap to get John Proctor to leave his wive and be with her.

• The Crucible—Judge Danworth's tone towards the little girls was sympathetic. • Nick's tone was being disgusted by all the people who did not attend the funeral for Gatsby. .Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Tone The writer's or speacker's attitude toward the subject matter.

• The Crucible was a tragedy. • Romeo and Juliet . complete in itself. not narrated. it is to arouse the emotions of pity and fear. The imitation is produced in language embellished in more than one way and is itsekf an action directly presented.Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Tragedy An artistic imitation of an action that is serious. and of adequate magnitude. And as for the proper function. and to arouse this puty and fear in such a way as to effect that special purging off and relief of hese two emotions.

» • « I think we've all arrived at a very special place. grammatically. secret lover. usually independent clauses and of increasing power.Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Tricolon A sentence with three clearly defined parts of equal length. • « Television! Teacher. Spritually. mother. » . ecumenically.

or simple 'figures' (Genette). 'figures de style' (Suhamy. 'figures of speech' (Quinn). 1993).Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Trope Any artful variation from the typical or expected way a word or idea is expressed. tropes were metaphors and metonyms. • "For the Roman rhetorician Quintilian. digression. repetition. It gave way to the overall terms 'figures du discours' (Fontanier). antithesis." .. etc. and figures were such forms of discourse as rhetorical questions. 'rhetorical figures' (Mayoral)." • "What was abandoned in the course of the 19th century was the traditionally strict distinction between tropes and figures/schemes (Sharon-Zisser. He noted that the two kinds of usage were often confused (a state of affairs that has continued to this day). Bacry). and periphrasis (also referred to as schemes).

Paris says « All innocent and Christian people are happy for the courts in Salem. • The Crucible—In Scene II. few innocent and truly christian people were happy for the courts of Salem. in fact. • The Crucible—Abigail claimed to be so « pure » and « holy » when she was accusing innocent people of witchcraft and sending them to their deaths. .Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Verbal Irony Contradiction between what is said and what is expected to be said. she also had an affair with a married man. » When.

Nick Hoy 12/14/09 AP English Wit Powers of thinking and reasoning. intellectual and perceptive powers. touch it and the bloom is gone. » (Pride and Prejudice) • « I do not approve of anything that tampers with natural ignorance. » (The Importance of Being Earnest. Ignorance is a delicate exotic fruit.) . • « It is a truth universaly acknowledged that a young man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife.

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