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Review of Terms

The Crucible

• Definition - a narrative that serves as an
extended metaphor. The main purpose of an
allegory is to tell a story that has characters, a
setting, as well as other types of symbols, that
have both literal and figurative meanings.
• In every allegorical story, there is a conflict
between the surface story and the deeper
• The best ones are entertaining enough on the
surface to be enjoyed even if the reader never
perceives the allegory.

. Irony • Definition – a contradiction between what is expected and reality – Verbal Irony – contradiction between what is said and what is expected to be said – Situational Irony – contradiction between what happens and what is expected to happen – Dramatic Irony – when the audience knows something that the character(s) do not know.

• Situation Irony – Abigail started all of this to get John Proctor and he wound up dead. usually thought of as innocent. – Children. were accusing people of witchcraft. . Examples of Irony • Verbal Irony -Abigail claimed to be so "pure" and "holy" when she was accusing innocent people of witchcraft and sending them to their deaths. he started defending people. she also had an affair with a married man. – Hale was brought in to find witches but in the end.

In Scene II. More Examples of Irony • Situational Irony ." when.In Scene II. few innocent and truly Christian people were happy for the courts in Salem. Parris says Parris says. Proctor is unable to remember the Commandment about adultery when questioned by Reverend Hale when the reader can reasonable expect that to be the one Commandment that he should be able to remember. "All innocent and Christian people are happy for the courts in Salem. in fact. • . .Verbal Irony .

Understanding the Allegory The Salem Witch Trials and The Red Scare .

Salem Witch Trials .

a barren slope near Salem Village. were carted to Gallows Hill. all having been convicted of witchcraft. nineteen men and women. Another man of over eighty years was pressed to death under heavy stones for refusing to submit to a trial on witchcraft charges. . Salem Witch Trials From June through September of 1692. for hanging. Hundreds of others faced accusations of witchcraft. dozens languished in jail for months without trials until the hysteria that swept through Puritan Massachusetts subsided.

fourteen women and five men. . Nineteen of the accused. The Targets Over 150 people were arrested and imprisoned. The two courts convicted twenty-nine people of the capital felony of witchcraft. One man (Giles Corey) who refused to enter a plea was crushed to death under heavy stones in an attempt to force him to do so. All twenty-six who went to trial before the court were convicted. At least five more of the accused died in prison. with even more accused but not formally pursued by the authorities. were hanged.

. but not all. The Evidence Much. or pots of ointments in the possession or home of the accused. of the evidence used against the accused was "spectral evidence"." books of palmistry and horoscopes. or the testimony of the afflicted who claimed to see the apparition or the shape of the person who was allegedly afflicting them. the testimony of another confessed "witch" identifying others as witches. Other evidence included the confessions of the accused. and the existence of so-called "witch's teats" on the body of the accused. the discovery of "poppits. A witch's teat was supposedly a mole or blemish somewhere on the body that was insensitive to touch.

McCarthyism .

The term specifically describes activities associated with the period in the United States known as the Second Red Scare. McCarthyism McCarthyism is the politically motivated practice of making accusations of disloyalty. . subversion. lasting roughly from the late 1940s to the late 1950s and characterized by heightened fears of communist influence on American institutions and espionage by Soviet agents. or treason without proper regard for evidence.

. Targets During the post–World War II era of McCarthyism. many thousands of Americans were accused of being Communists or communist sympathizers and became the subject of aggressive investigations and questioning before government or private-industry panels. The primary targets of such suspicions were government employees. those in the entertainment industry. educators and union activists. committees and agencies.

destruction of their careers. Many people suffered loss of employment. and the level of threat posed by a person's real or supposed leftist associations or beliefs was often greatly exaggerated. Punished w/o Evidence Suspicions were often given credence despite inconclusive or questionable evidence. . and even imprisonment.

. But for the vast majority. Many of those who were imprisoned. The number imprisoned is in the hundreds. both the potential for them to do harm to the nation and the nature of their communist affiliation were tenuous. and some ten or twelve thousand lost their jobs. How Many? It is difficult to estimate the number of victims of McCarthyism. lost their jobs or were questioned by committees did in fact have a past or present connection of some kind with the Communist Party.

Similarities .

MA. a few young girls from Salem. Communist infiltration into the United States was the largest national issue of the 1950's. in February 1692. feared they would be punished for dancing since their community believed dancing was directly linked to witchcraft. there was this "conspiracy of witches whose aim was . in Salem. Origins McCarthy and the Salem girls began these hunts out of fear. Likewise. They believed that their deeds would make them heroes and give them the power and popularity needed to eliminate their fears. Similarly. To resolve their problems. In May 1950. McCarthy and the Salem girls began accusing people whom they thought were linked to the issues of their respective times. Senator McCarthy feared he would be defeated in the upcoming election for US Senate. so McCarthy claimed he knew the names of 57 people in the US Department of State who were Communists.

The suspects were encouraged to name anyone else associated with Communists / witches. • McCarthy and the magistrates pressured suspects to confess the crimes they were accused of committing.Methods of Interrogation • McCarthy examined the accused Communists. . • Although all suspects in either hunt were bound to receive some sort of punishment. the ones who named other people received less punishment. The local magistrates of Salem examined the accused witches.

. Since anyone had the ability to call someone else a Communist or a witch. and calling someone a "Communist" or a "witch" became the new method to tarnish one's reputation . As a result. neighbors became bitter enemies. people living during either hunt were frightened that even their closest friends could accuse them! Thus. very few people trusted each other. many people feigned respect for McCarthy and the Salem girls because the few people who publicly doubted the hunt of their time were immediately ostracized by society. Societal Effects These hunts brought fear into the people of the US and seek revenge.

McCarthy's harsh treatment of Military General Ralph Zwicker during televised military investigations caused many of McCarthy's supporters to see McCarthy as "bullying. doubts in Salem were rapidly developing as to how so many respected people were found guilty. reckless.” Similarly. influenced by the writings of Salem's educated elite. The official end of McCarthy's Communist hunt came in December 1954. Conclusions McCarthy's Communist hunt and the Salem witch hunt ended when the majority of the US and Salem residents disapproved of these hunts. by the autumn of 1692. In October 1953. and dishonest. rejected the use of . when the Senate voted to censure McCarthy by a vote of 67 to 22. The end of the Salem witch hunt came when Governor Phips of Salem.

Both hunts had similar beginnings. effects on society. After 1692. Lesson Learned? McCarthy's Communist hunt of the 1950's was almost an exact duplicate of the Salem witch hunt of 1692. history repeated itself in the 1950's. and endings. procedures for questioning suspects. Will the world experience another hunt or have we already? .