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# Important Equations in A2 Physics

## P2: Planning, analysis and evaluation

Intercept on y-
axis
y = mx+c y against x m c
Choice of axes for ln y against
1 ln x ln a ln y = n ln
straight-line graphs y = axn n
lg y against lg a x + ln a
lg x
lg y = kx +
y = aekx ln y against x k ln a
ln a
Always add uncertainties, never subtract. Where quantities are:
Combining
uncertainties
• Multiplied or divided, then add percentage uncertainties.
Uncertainties and
3 logarithm largest likely value - logarithm smallest likely value
logarithms
4 Error in gradient error = (gradient of the best fit line) – (gradient of worst acceptable line)

## Circular Motion (Unit 7 syllabus)

𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑟𝑐 𝑠
5 Angle in radians 𝜃= =
𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑠 𝑟
34 4
6 To convert from degrees to radians, multiply by or
567 897
567 897
7 To convert from radians to degrees, multiply by or
34 4
;<=>?;@ ABCD?;EFGF<H ∆K 34
8 Angular velocity 𝜔= = = =2𝜋𝑓
HBGF H;IF< ∆H L
Relating velocity and angular 34@
9 speed = angular velocity × radius ⟹ 𝑣 = 𝜔𝑟 =
velocity L
3
𝑣
10 Centripetal acceleration 𝑎= = 𝜔3 𝑟
𝑟
𝑚𝑣 3
11 Centripetal force 𝐹= = 𝑚𝑟𝜔3
𝑟

## Gravitational Fields (Unit 8 syllabus)

12 Gravitational constant G 𝐺 = 6.67 × 10Z88 𝑁𝑚3 𝐾𝑔Z3
𝐺𝑀𝑚
13 Newton’s law of gravitation 𝐹=
𝑟3
𝐹 𝐺𝑀
14 Gravitational field strength g 𝑔= = 3
𝑚 𝑟
The gravitational potential at a point is the work done per unit
mass in bringing a mass from the infinity to the point
15 Gravitational potential
𝐺𝑀
𝜙=−
𝑟
Gravitational potential 𝐺𝑀𝑚
16 𝑔. 𝑝. 𝑒. = −
energy 𝑟

## Prepared by Renato Martins – renato.martins@civ.pt – v 1.0/2017 – 1

ab 34@
17 Orbital speed v 𝑣3 = or 𝑣 =
@ L
3
4𝜋
18 Orbital period 𝑇3 = 𝑟5
𝐺𝑀

## Oscillations (Unit 13 syllabus)

8
19 Period Time (T) for a complete oscillation 𝑇 =
e
8
20 Frequency Frequency (f) is the number of oscillations per unit time 𝑓 =
L

## 23 Velocity of an oscillator or 𝑣 = 𝑣7 cos 𝜔𝑡 or 𝑣 = ±𝜔 𝑥73 − 𝑥 3

Maximum velocity of an
24 𝑣 = 𝜔𝑥7
oscillator

## Communication (Unit 16 syllabus)

op
25 Attenuation 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝐵 = 10𝑙𝑜𝑔
oq
rHHF<>;HBs< At 8 op
26 Attenuation per unit length = 10𝑙𝑜𝑔
uF<=Hv se w;x?F (zG) u oq

𝑆𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟
27 Signal to noise ratio 10𝑙𝑜𝑔
𝑁𝑜𝑖𝑠𝑒 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟

## Thermal Physics (Unit 12 syllabus)

The internal energy of a system is the sum of the random
28 Internal Energy distribution of kinetic and potential energies of its atoms or
molecules
29 First law of Thermodynamics Δ𝑈 = 𝑞 + 𝑤

## Ideal Gases (Unit 10 syllabus)

32 Boyle´s Law pV=constant or 𝑝8 𝑉8 = 𝑝3 𝑉3

## 33 Ideal gas equation 𝑝𝑉 = 𝑛𝑅𝑇

3
1 𝑁𝑚 𝑐 1
34 Pressure 𝑝= = 𝜌 𝑐 3
3 𝑉 3
Mean translational kinetic energy E 1 3
3𝑘𝑇
35 𝐸= 𝑚𝑐 =
of a particle of an ideal gas 2 2

## Prepared by Renato Martins – renato.martins@civ.pt – v 1.0/2017 – 2

Coulomb’s Law (Unit 17 syllabus)
Šp Šq
36 Coulomb´s Law 𝐹=
‹4Œ• @ q

## Work done in moving a charge from the 𝑊

37 𝑉=
negative to the positive plate 𝑄
Š
38 Electric Field Strength 𝐸=
‹4Œ• @ q
𝑄
39 Electric Potential 𝑉=
4𝜋𝜀7 𝑟

40 Field Strength (uniform field) 𝐸=
A

## Capacitance (Unit 18 syllabus)

𝑄
41 Capacitance 𝐶=
𝑉
1 1 1 𝑄3
42 Work done in charging a capacitor 𝑊 = 𝑄𝑉 = 𝐶𝑉 3 =
2 2 2 𝐶
Capacitors in parallel 𝑄HsH;? = 𝑄8 + 𝑄3 + 𝑄5 + ⋯
43
(all have same voltage) 𝐶HsH;? = 𝐶8 + 𝐶3 + 𝐶5 + ⋯

Capacitors in series 1 1 1 1
44 = + + +⋯
(all have same charge) 𝐶HsH;? 𝐶8 𝐶3 𝐶5

## 45 Capacitance of isolated bodies 𝐶 = 4𝜋𝜀7 𝑟

Electronics (Unit 21 syllabus)
𝑉s>H 𝑅e
46 Inverting Amplifier 𝐺= =−
𝑉B< 𝑅B<
𝑉s>H 𝑅8
47 Non-inverting Amplifier 𝐺= =1+
𝑉B< 𝑅3
If V is slightly greater in magnitude than V-, then Vout
+

## will have a magnitude equal to the positive power

supply voltage.
48 The op-amp as a comparator
If V+is slightly smaller in magnitude than V-, then Vout
will have a magnitude equal to the negative power
supply voltage.

## Magnetic Fields (Unit 22 syllabus)

Magnetic Flux Density for a uniform 𝐹
49 𝐵=
magnetic field 𝐼𝐿
Magnetic Force on a current-carrying
50 𝐹 = 𝐵𝐼𝐿 sin 𝜃
conductor

## Prepared by Renato Martins – renato.martins@civ.pt – v 1.0/2017 – 3

Charged particles (Unit 22 syllabus)
Magnetic force on a moving particle at right angles to a
51 𝐹 = 𝐵𝑄𝑣
magnetic field
𝑚F 𝑣 3
52 Electron traveling in a uniform magnetic field = 𝐵𝑒𝑣
𝑟
Velocity of an undeflected charged particle in a region 𝐸
53 𝑣=
where electric and magnetic fields are at right angles 𝐵
𝐵𝐼
54 Hall Voltage 𝑉• =
𝑛𝑡𝑞
𝑒 2𝑉E;
55 Charge-to-mass ratio =
𝑚F 𝑟 3 𝐵 3
Kinetic energy of electrons leaving the anode in a 1
56
deflection tube 𝑚𝑣 3 = 𝑒𝑉E;
2

Electromagnetic induction (Unit 23 syllabus)
57 Magnetic flux F through area A 𝛷 = 𝐵𝐴

∆(𝑁𝛷)
∆𝑡
59 Magnetic flux linkage 𝑁𝛷 = 𝑁𝐵𝐴 cos 𝜃

## 60 Motional e.m.f 𝜀 = 𝐵𝑙𝑣

Electromagnetic induction (Unit 24 syllabus)
61 Sinusoidal alternating current 𝐼 = 𝐼7 sin 𝜔𝑡

## 63 Root-mean-square of an alternating current 𝐼@GC = 𝐼7 / 2

𝑉C 𝑁™
=
𝑉D 𝑁D
64 Transformers
𝐼D 𝑉D = 𝐼C 𝑉C

Quantum Physics (Unit 25 syllabus)
vE
65 Energy of a photon 𝐸 = ℎ𝑓 or 𝐸 =
š

## Kinetic energy of a particle of charge e accelerated 1

66
through a voltage V 𝑒𝑉 = 𝑚𝑣 3
2

## Prepared by Renato Martins – renato.martins@civ.pt – v 1.0/2017 – 4

67 Einstein’s photoelectric equation ℎ𝑓 = 𝛷 + 𝑘. 𝑒.G;›

68 De Broigle wavelength 𝜆=
𝑚𝑣
Difference in energy between two levels when a photon is ℎ𝑐
69 ∆𝐸 = 𝐸8 − 𝐸3 = ℎ𝑓 =
either emitted or absolved 𝜆

## Nuclear Physics (Unit 26 syllabus)

70 Einstein energy-mass equation 𝐸 = 𝑚𝑐 3

∆𝑁
71 Activity of a radioactive sample 𝐴= = −𝜆𝑁
∆𝑡
72 Exponential decrease of a quantity (A/R/N) 𝑥 = 𝑥7 𝑒 (ZšH)
ln 2 0.693
73 Half-life 𝑡8 = =
3 𝜆 𝜆

## Medical Imaging (Unit 22 and 25 syllabus)

𝑒𝑉
74 Maximum X-ray frequency 𝑓G;› =

Attenuation of X-rays as they pass a uniform
75 𝐼 = 𝐼7 𝑒 ZŸ›
material
ln 2
76 Half thickness 𝑥8 =
3 𝜇
77 Acoustic impedance of a material 𝑍 = 𝜌𝑐
3 3
Fraction of the intensity of an ultrasound wave 𝐼H 𝑍3 − 𝑍8 𝑍3 − 𝑍8
78 = =
reflected at a boundary 𝐼7 𝑍3 + 𝑍8 3 𝑍3 + 𝑍8

## 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑑 𝑏𝑦 𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑠𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 𝑐Δ𝑡

79 Thickness of bone 𝑇ℎ𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑏𝑜𝑛𝑒 = =
2 2

## 80 Lamour frequency 𝜔7 = 𝛾𝐵7

𝜆𝐵7
81 Frequency f0 of the processing nuclei 𝑓7 =
2𝜋