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Important Equations in A2 Physics

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Intercept on y-

Relationship Graph Gradient Because...

axis

y = mx+c y against x m c

Choice of axes for ln y against

1 ln x ln a ln y = n ln

straight-line graphs y = axn n

lg y against lg a x + ln a

lg x

lg y = kx +

y = aekx ln y against x k ln a

ln a

Always add uncertainties, never subtract. Where quantities are:

Combining

2 • Added or subtracted, then add absolute uncertainties;

uncertainties

• Multiplied or divided, then add percentage uncertainties.

Uncertainties and

3 logarithm largest likely value - logarithm smallest likely value

logarithms

4 Error in gradient error = (gradient of the best fit line) – (gradient of worst acceptable line)

𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑟𝑐 𝑠

5 Angle in radians 𝜃= =

𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑠 𝑟

34 4

6 To convert from degrees to radians, multiply by or

567 897

567 897

7 To convert from radians to degrees, multiply by or

34 4

;<=>?;@ ABCD?;EFGF<H ∆K 34

8 Angular velocity 𝜔= = = =2𝜋𝑓

HBGF H;IF< ∆H L

Relating velocity and angular 34@

9 speed = angular velocity × radius ⟹ 𝑣 = 𝜔𝑟 =

velocity L

3

𝑣

10 Centripetal acceleration 𝑎= = 𝜔3 𝑟

𝑟

𝑚𝑣 3

11 Centripetal force 𝐹= = 𝑚𝑟𝜔3

𝑟

12 Gravitational constant G 𝐺 = 6.67 × 10Z88 𝑁𝑚3 𝐾𝑔Z3

𝐺𝑀𝑚

13 Newton’s law of gravitation 𝐹=

𝑟3

𝐹 𝐺𝑀

14 Gravitational field strength g 𝑔= = 3

𝑚 𝑟

The gravitational potential at a point is the work done per unit

mass in bringing a mass from the infinity to the point

15 Gravitational potential

𝐺𝑀

𝜙=−

𝑟

Gravitational potential 𝐺𝑀𝑚

16 𝑔. 𝑝. 𝑒. = −

energy 𝑟

ab 34@

17 Orbital speed v 𝑣3 = or 𝑣 =

@ L

3

4𝜋

18 Orbital period 𝑇3 = 𝑟5

𝐺𝑀

8

19 Period Time (T) for a complete oscillation 𝑇 =

e

8

20 Frequency Frequency (f) is the number of oscillations per unit time 𝑓 =

L

Maximum velocity of an

24 𝑣 = 𝜔𝑥7

oscillator

op

25 Attenuation 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝐵 = 10𝑙𝑜𝑔

oq

rHHF<>;HBs< At 8 op

26 Attenuation per unit length = 10𝑙𝑜𝑔

uF<=Hv se w;x?F (zG) u oq

𝑆𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟

27 Signal to noise ratio 10𝑙𝑜𝑔

𝑁𝑜𝑖𝑠𝑒 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟

The internal energy of a system is the sum of the random

28 Internal Energy distribution of kinetic and potential energies of its atoms or

molecules

29 First law of Thermodynamics Δ𝑈 = 𝑞 + 𝑤

32 Boyle´s Law pV=constant or 𝑝8 𝑉8 = 𝑝3 𝑉3

3

1 𝑁𝑚 𝑐 1

34 Pressure 𝑝= = 𝜌 𝑐 3

3 𝑉 3

Mean translational kinetic energy E 1 3

3𝑘𝑇

35 𝐸= 𝑚𝑐 =

of a particle of an ideal gas 2 2

Coulomb’s Law (Unit 17 syllabus)

Šp Šq

36 Coulomb´s Law 𝐹=

‹4Œ• @ q

37 𝑉=

negative to the positive plate 𝑄

Š

38 Electric Field Strength 𝐸=

‹4Œ• @ q

𝑄

39 Electric Potential 𝑉=

4𝜋𝜀7 𝑟

‘

40 Field Strength (uniform field) 𝐸=

A

𝑄

41 Capacitance 𝐶=

𝑉

1 1 1 𝑄3

42 Work done in charging a capacitor 𝑊 = 𝑄𝑉 = 𝐶𝑉 3 =

2 2 2 𝐶

Capacitors in parallel 𝑄HsH;? = 𝑄8 + 𝑄3 + 𝑄5 + ⋯

43

(all have same voltage) 𝐶HsH;? = 𝐶8 + 𝐶3 + 𝐶5 + ⋯

Capacitors in series 1 1 1 1

44 = + + +⋯

(all have same charge) 𝐶HsH;? 𝐶8 𝐶3 𝐶5

Electronics (Unit 21 syllabus)

𝑉s>H 𝑅e

46 Inverting Amplifier 𝐺= =−

𝑉B< 𝑅B<

𝑉s>H 𝑅8

47 Non-inverting Amplifier 𝐺= =1+

𝑉B< 𝑅3

If V is slightly greater in magnitude than V-, then Vout

+

supply voltage.

48 The op-amp as a comparator

If V+is slightly smaller in magnitude than V-, then Vout

will have a magnitude equal to the negative power

supply voltage.

Magnetic Flux Density for a uniform 𝐹

49 𝐵=

magnetic field 𝐼𝐿

Magnetic Force on a current-carrying

50 𝐹 = 𝐵𝐼𝐿 sin 𝜃

conductor

Charged particles (Unit 22 syllabus)

Magnetic force on a moving particle at right angles to a

51 𝐹 = 𝐵𝑄𝑣

magnetic field

𝑚F 𝑣 3

52 Electron traveling in a uniform magnetic field = 𝐵𝑒𝑣

𝑟

Velocity of an undeflected charged particle in a region 𝐸

53 𝑣=

where electric and magnetic fields are at right angles 𝐵

𝐵𝐼

54 Hall Voltage 𝑉• =

𝑛𝑡𝑞

𝑒 2𝑉E;

55 Charge-to-mass ratio =

𝑚F 𝑟 3 𝐵 3

Kinetic energy of electrons leaving the anode in a 1

56

deflection tube 𝑚𝑣 3 = 𝑒𝑉E;

2

Electromagnetic induction (Unit 23 syllabus)

57 Magnetic flux F through area A 𝛷 = 𝐵𝐴

∆(𝑁𝛷)

58 Faraday’s law 𝐸=

∆𝑡

59 Magnetic flux linkage 𝑁𝛷 = 𝑁𝐵𝐴 cos 𝜃

Electromagnetic induction (Unit 24 syllabus)

61 Sinusoidal alternating current 𝐼 = 𝐼7 sin 𝜔𝑡

𝑉C 𝑁™

=

𝑉D 𝑁D

64 Transformers

𝐼D 𝑉D = 𝐼C 𝑉C

Quantum Physics (Unit 25 syllabus)

vE

65 Energy of a photon 𝐸 = ℎ𝑓 or 𝐸 =

š

66

through a voltage V 𝑒𝑉 = 𝑚𝑣 3

2

67 Einstein’s photoelectric equation ℎ𝑓 = 𝛷 + 𝑘. 𝑒.G;›

ℎ

68 De Broigle wavelength 𝜆=

𝑚𝑣

Difference in energy between two levels when a photon is ℎ𝑐

69 ∆𝐸 = 𝐸8 − 𝐸3 = ℎ𝑓 =

either emitted or absolved 𝜆

70 Einstein energy-mass equation 𝐸 = 𝑚𝑐 3

∆𝑁

71 Activity of a radioactive sample 𝐴= = −𝜆𝑁

∆𝑡

72 Exponential decrease of a quantity (A/R/N) 𝑥 = 𝑥7 𝑒 (ZšH)

ln 2 0.693

73 Half-life 𝑡8 = =

3 𝜆 𝜆

𝑒𝑉

74 Maximum X-ray frequency 𝑓G;› =

ℎ

Attenuation of X-rays as they pass a uniform

75 𝐼 = 𝐼7 𝑒 ZŸ›

material

ln 2

76 Half thickness 𝑥8 =

3 𝜇

77 Acoustic impedance of a material 𝑍 = 𝜌𝑐

3 3

Fraction of the intensity of an ultrasound wave 𝐼H 𝑍3 − 𝑍8 𝑍3 − 𝑍8

78 = =

reflected at a boundary 𝐼7 𝑍3 + 𝑍8 3 𝑍3 + 𝑍8

79 Thickness of bone 𝑇ℎ𝑖𝑐𝑘𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑏𝑜𝑛𝑒 = =

2 2

𝜆𝐵7

81 Frequency f0 of the processing nuclei 𝑓7 =

2𝜋

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