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Oceans of Opportunity

Harnessing Europe’s largest domestic energy resource

A report by the European Wind Energy Association

these projects would produce 10% of the EU’s electricity whilst avoiding 200 million tonnes of CO2 emissions each year. Realising the potential Strong political support and action from Europe’s policy-makers will allow a new. ewea@ewea. research institutes.ewea. actively promoting the utilisation of offshore wind power technology. If realised. plus component suppliers. electricity providers. reduce import dependence. wind power in Europe and worldwide. multi-billion euro industry to be built. Huge developer interest Over 100 GW of offshore wind projects are already in various stages of Tel: +32 2 546 1940 – Fax: +32 2 546 1944 . Oceans of Opportunity Repeating the onshore success EWEA has a target of 40 GW of offshore wind in the EU by 2020. wind and renewables associations. national will bring affordable electricity to consumers. Harnessing Europe’s largest domestic energy resource energy source. A report by the European Wind Energy Association www. Building the offshore grid EWEA’s proposed offshore grid builds on the 11 offshore grids currently operating and 21 offshore grids currently being considered by the grid operators in the Baltic and North Seas to give Europe a truly pan-European electricity super highway. implying an average annual market growth of 28% over the coming 12 years. It now has over 600 members from almost 60 countries including manufacturers with a 90% share of the world A single European electricity market with large amounts of wind power wind power market. Oceans of opportunity Europe’s offshore wind potential is enormous and able to power Europe seven times over. finance cut CO2 emissions and allow Europe to access its largest domestic and insurance companies and consultants. EWEA Results that speak for themselves This new industry will deliver thousands of green collar jobs and a new About EWEA renewable energy economy and establish Europe as world leader in Oceans of Opportunity EWEA is the voice of the wind industry. The EU market for onshore wind grew by an average 32% per year in the 12-year period from 1992-2004 – what the wind energy industry has achieved on land can be repeated at sea.

Christian Kjaer (EWEA). Laurie Jodziewicz (AWEA). Paul Wilczek (EWEA).Oceans of Opportunity Harnessing Europe’s largest domestic energy resource By the European Wind Energy Association September 2009 Coordinating and main authors: Dr. Glória Rodrigues (EWEA) and 22 industry interviewees Editors: Sarah Azau (EWEA) and Chris Rose (EWEA) Design: Jesus Quesada (EWEA) Maps: La Tene Maps and EWEA Cover photo: Risø Institute OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 3 . Elke Zander (EWEA). Nicolas Fichaux (EWEA) and Justin Wilkes (EWEA) Main contributing authors: Frans Van Hulle (Technical Advisor to EWEA) and Aidan Cronin (Merchant Green) Contributors: Jacopo Moccia (EWEA). Liming Qiao (GWEC).

. . . . . . . . . . . 12 Wind energy production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Offshore grid topology . . . . . . . . 13 Offshore wind power investments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Over 100 GW already proposed . . . . 26 Planning approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Spotlight on specific EU-funded projects . . . . . . . . . . 13 Avoiding climate change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Wind energy production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Europe’s first mover advantage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Annual installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2008 and 2009: steady as she goes . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Policy processes supporting the planning . . . . . . . . 24 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Annual installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Offshore wind synergies with other maritime activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2010: annual market passes 1 GW . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Avoiding climate change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 No lack of ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 4 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 EWEA target . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spatial Planning: Supporting Offshore Wind and Grid Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Unlimited potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Offshore Wind Power Market of the Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2021-2030 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Offshore grid topology and construction . . . . . . . 27 Offshore grid technology . . . . . . . . . . . 17 China: the first farm is developed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1. 17 The United States: hot on Europe’s heels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Mapping and planning the offshore grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Technology . . . . . . . . 14 Offshore wind power investments . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2011-2020 . . . . 25 Drivers for planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Building the European Offshore Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Maritime spatial planning . 25 Planning in the different maritime areas . 8 2010 will be a key year for grid development planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Spatial planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Grids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Offshore development – deeper and further . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Supply chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Financing the European electricity grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . substructure installation and other vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Future trends in manufacturing for the offshore wind industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 How an offshore grid will evolve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Building a second European offshore industry . 60 Harbours of the future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Value of an offshore grid in the context of a stronger European transmission network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Network operation: close cooperation within ENTSO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 The operational and regulatory aspects of offshore grids . . 41 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Vessels – turbine installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Harbour requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supply Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Vessels status for European offshore wind installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Ports and harbours . . . . . 64 Annex: Offshore Wind Energy Installations 2000-2030 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Investment cost estimates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Supply of turbines . . . . . . . . . 59 Showcase: Bremerhaven’s success story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 The future for wind turbine designs . . EWEA’s 20 Year Offshore Network Development Master Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Economic value of an offshore grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Onshore grid upgrade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Future innovative installation vessels . . . 58 Existing facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 A brief introduction to some vessels used in turbine installation . . . . . . . 53 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Kriegers Flak . . . . . 36 Regulatory framework enabling improved market rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Offshore grid construction timeline – staged approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Investments and financing . . 47 Supply of substructures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Combining transmission of offshore wind power and power trading . . . . Main Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Intrinsic value of an offshore grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Executive Summary 6 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT Photo: Dong Energy .

749 Europe is faced with the global challenges of climate MW. modern power system for the large-scale exploitation of its largest indig- capable of meeting the energy and climate challenges enous energy resource. There is nothing to suggest that this historic change.europa. rising to 3. OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 7 . the wind energy sector has a proven track energy and climate dilemma – exploiting an abundant record onshore with which to boost its confidence. the wind resource over Europe’s seas is enormous tiveness and energy independence. energy resource which does not emit greenhouse and will be significantly longer lived than the oil and gases. Technical report No 6/2009. however. Reaching 40 GW of offshore wind power capacity of offshore wind in 2020 at 25. onshore wind development cannot be repeated at increasing fuel costs and the threat of supply disrup. Offshore wind power provides the answer to Europe’s However.from 366 MW in 2008 to 6. rising to 30. 2020 and beyond’(1). Europe use the opportunity created by the large turnover in must. use the coming decade to prepare capacity to construct a new. between in the EU by 2020 is a challenging but manageable six and seven times greater than projected electricity task.900 needed to deliver on the Energy Policy Objectives for MW in 2020. including 40 GW offshore demand. the market for onshore wind capacity in the EU grew by an average 32% annually: from 215 MW to 5. depleting indigenous energy resources. tions. The EEA estimates the technical potential wind. The EEA (1) European Commission. most of the EU’s renewable electricity meet the expected increase in demand. An entire new offshore wind power industry and In the 12 year period from 1992-2004. To reach 40 GW of offshore wind capacity in the EU This is recognised by the European Commission in its by 2020 would require an average growth in annual 2008 Communication ‘Offshore Wind Energy: Action installations of 28% . sea. The study states that offshore wind power’s economically competitive potential in In (2) EEA (European Environment Agency). 2008. reduces dependence on increasingly costly gas sector. offshore wind power. ‘Europe’s onshore and offshore wind energy potential’. Available at: http://eur-lex. ‘Offshore Wind Energy: Action needed to deliver on the Energy Policy Objectives for 2020 and beyond’.000 TWh in 2030. equal to between 60% and 70% 2009 (EWEC 2009). 360 GW of new electricity Unlimited potential capacity – 50% of current EU capacity – needs to be built to replace ageing European power plants and By 2020. at the European Wind Energy Conference 2020 is 2.000 TWh. Over the next 12 years. That of the 21st century while enhancing Europe’s competi. Europe must will be produced by onshore wind farms. 2009. creates thousands of jobs and provides large quantities of indigenous affordable electricity.Offshore wind power is vital for Europe’s future. fuel imports. was confirmed in June by the European Environment Agency’s (EEA) ‘Europe’s onshore and offshore wind EWEA target energy potential’(2). seven times a new supply chain must be developed on a scale that greater than projected electricity demand.600 TWh. according to the European Commission. the European Wind Energy of projected electricity demand. will match that of the North Sea oil and gas endeavour. equal to 80% of the projected EU electricity GW wind power capacity.400 TWh Association (EWEA) increased its 2020 target to 230 in 2030.

and reach 150 GW of operating offshore wind power by 2030. Preliminary assessments of the 8 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT . has clearly recognised that offshore wind power will We must stop thinking of electrical grids as national be key to Europe’s energy future. In order to ensure that the 100 GW of projects can move forward. thereby contributing dramatically to Europe’s energy security.7% and 11% of the EU’s electricity demand. The faster they are developed. the transmission system operators (TSOs) and the wind industry. regulators.onshore and offshore -. putting in place maritime spatial planning. It also shows that EWEA’s to building a well-functioning single European elec- targets of 40 GW by 2020 and 150 GW by 2030 are tricity market that will benefit all consumers. It will provide grid access to offshore wind farms. as well Sea leading the way. And we must start developing them now. The 100 or more the North Sea. Grids The future transnational offshore grid will have many functions. infrastructure and start developing them -. the initial stages of an offshore pan-Euro- pean grid should be constructed and operating with an agreed plan developed for its expansion to accom- modate the 2030 and 2050 ambitions. By 2020. building an offshore electricity grid based on EWEA’s 20 Year Offshore Network Development Master Plan. smooth the variability of their output on the markets and Photo: Elsam improve the ability to trade electricity within Europe. The future European offshore grid will contribute developers and investors. coordinated action is required from the European Commission. the faster we will have It is little wonder therefore that over 100 GW of offshore a domestic substitute if future fuel import supplies wind energy projects have already been proposed or are disrupted or the cost of fuel becomes prohibitively are already being developed by Europe’s pioneering expensive. whilst avoiding 202 million tonnes of CO2 in a single year. Working in partnership on devel- oping the offshore industry’s supply chain. offshore wind developers. This shows the enormous interest among Europe’s industrial entrepreneurs. each benefitting Europe in different ways. are key issues. The rewards for Europe exploiting its huge offshore wind potential are enormous – this 100 GW will produce 373 TWh of elec- tricity each year. with eminently realistic and achievable. the Baltic Sea and the Mediterranean GW is spread across 15 EU Member States. meeting between 8. Executive Summary as three other European become European corridors for elec- Over 100 GW already proposed tricity trade. and ensuring continued technological development for the offshore industry. as the world experienced during 2008. EU governments.

It is for this reason that EWEA has proposed its match that of the North Sea oil and gas endeavour. European Union as a key power generation technology connectors which should be rapidly introduced based for the renewable energy future. people) while potentially lowering risks and the same path as onshore wind energy in the past. It should be a volun- must play a key role in putting in place the necessary tary action by the relevant Member States (coordinated financing for a pan-European onshore and offshore by the European Commission) according to Article 11 grid. capital costs. which should. turbines. This would enable the whole value chain to seek investment in key elements Through dramatically increased R&D and economies of the supply chain (e. tant that such a mechanism does not interfere with the national frameworks that are being developed in Supply chain accordance with that same directive. Consolidated developers to take forward their 100 GW of offshore at European level. of the 2009 Renewable Energy Directive. It is therefore vitally important that The decision by countries to perform maritime spatial these bottlenecks are identified and addressed so as planning (MSP) and dedicate areas for offshore wind not to constrain the industrial development. infrastructure. (Chapter 3). An entire new offshore wind power industry and a new and the expected 150 GW of offshore wind power by supply chain must be developed on a scale that will 2030. But it will only grow as fast as the tightest supply chain bottleneck. a European offshore wind energy payment Energy Security and Infrastructure Instrument which mechanism could be introduced. (3) The Council Conclusions to the 2nd Strategic Energy Review referred to the Blueprint as a North West Offshore Grid. towers.g. greater than when the North Sea oil and gas industry took existing onshore extraction technology and Europe’s offshore grid should be built to integrate adapted it to the more hostile environment at sea. if suitably visionary. and enables financed and available in sufficient quantities for the synergies with other maritime sectors. OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 9 . of scale. integrate the first half of EWEA’s To accelerate development of the technology and 20 Year Offshore Network Development Master Plan. Provided the right cable laying vessels. investments to be planned out. and where Europe on a regulated rate of return for new investments. The offshore wind sector is an emerging industrial Spatial planning giant. Turbine developments and electricity interconnectors sends installation vessels. if neces. ports and harbours must be industry long-term visibility of its market. such approaches would enable wind projects in a timely manner. developing the next generation of offshore wind turbines. and The European Commission will publish a ‘Blueprint for investing in people to ensure they can fill the thou- a North Sea Grid’(3) making offshore wind power the key sands of new jobs being created every year by the energy source of the future. together with a new business Offshore wind energy has been identified by the model for investing in offshore power grids and inter. MSP gives the wind turbine components. first 10 Year Network Development Plan. substructures. in order to attract investors to this grand European The European Commission will also publish its EU project. The support of the EU is necessary to maintain Europe’s technolog- 2010 will be a key year for grid development ical lead in offshore wind energy by improving turbine planning design.economic value of the offshore grid indicate that it will The technical challenges are greater offshore but no bring significant economic benefits to all society. the expected 40 GW of offshore wind power by 2020. ENTSO-E will publish its offshore wind sector. policies and incentives are in place. It is impor- sary. and enable the European Commission. 20 Year Offshore Network Development Master Plan but one that will have a much longer life. turbine components. cables. the cost of offshore wind energy will follow vessels. substructures. clear positive signals to the industry. substructure installation vessels. should lead the world technologically. to take the lead in planning such a grid. This European vision must now be taken forward and implemented by the European Commission Technology and the European Network of Transmission System Operators (ENTSO-E).

Chapter 1 The Offshore Wind Power Market of the Future 10 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT Photo: Dong Energy .

it looks as if Europe’s 2010 turbine was the first to take the offshore wind industry offshore market could make up approximately 10% into the Mediterranean Sea. The UK MW.100 MW • Avoiding 7 Mt of CO2 annually • Electricity production of 11 TWh • Annual investments in wind turbines of €2. overtaking Denmark. Subsequently decommissioned. offshore wind industry off course. under construction.000 MW in Europe. one in Finland and one in Germany.3% of total EU electricity demand • Annual installations of 1.5 billion OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 11 . taking the total installed pates an annual market in 2009 of approximately 420 capacity to 1. North Sea and Irish offshore industry a significant mainstream energy Sea. Depending on the amount of wind power of 108m in Italy. 2010 will be a shore projects. making the developments in the Baltic Sea. In defining year for the offshore wind power market in addition. wind farms in the UK and by Princess Amalia in the Netherlands. highlights the pan-European nature of today’s player in its own right. EWEA antici- separate offshore wind farms. including the first large-scale floating prototype installed more than any other country during 2008 and off the coast of Norway. Activity in 2008 was By the end of 2009 EWEA expects a total installed dominated by ongoing work at Lynn and Inner Dowsing offshore capacity of just under 2.111 MW onshore) in seven completed during the course of the year. offshore wind industry. together with of Europe’s total annual wind market. expected to be completed.000 MW (1 GW) is expected to be was piloted on a floating platform in a water depth installed. or in the EU (compared to 8. an 80 kW turbine (not connected to the grid) Europe.471 MW in eight Member States. Over 1. 2010: annual market passes 1 GW In addition to these large projects. became the nation with the largest installed offshore capacity. which. Summary of the offshore wind energy market in the EU in 2010: • Total installed capacity of 3. this installed onshore.2008 and 2009: steady as she goes 2009 has seen strong market development with a much larger number of projects beginning construc- 2008 saw 366 MW of offshore wind capacity installed tion.000 MW • Meeting 0. Phase 1 of Thornton Assuming the financial crisis does not blow the Bank in Belgium was developed together with two near.

the Commission’s expectations for 2020 Figure 2: Offshore wind energy annual and cumula- should now be increased. (5) European Commission.000 8.000 Onshore (1992-2004) 6.5 GW in 2011 to reach 6. and the 27 mandatory national renewable energy targets.5 GW today. EWEA’s offshore scenario (See annex for detailed statistics) can be compared to the growth of the European onshore wind market at a similar time in the industry’s In December 2008 the European Union agreed on development. consented.000 2. up from just under 1.000 4.ewea. in the consenting www. or announced by companies or proposed development/concession zones (available at www. EWEA has identified proposals for over 100 GW of offshore wind projects in European waters .000 pared to EWEA’s offshore projection 2008-2020 (MW) Annual (right-hand axis) 30. the Annual installations European Commission expects 34%(5) of electricity to come from renewable energy sources by 2020 and Between 2011 and 2020.000 3. 12 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT .000 7. a binding target of 20% renewable energy by 2020.000 5.000 (MW) 0 0 (MW) 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 1.000 Offshore (2008-2020) 20.000 5. In all. The project pipelines supplied interest and provides a good indication that EWEA’s by offshore wind developers are presented in the expectation that 150 GW of offshore wind power will Offshore Wind Map and outlined in this report. offshore wind projects shows tremendous developer opment for 2030. EWEA therefore predicts tive installations 2011-2020 (MW) that the total installed offshore wind capacity in 2020 will be 40 GW.000 1.000 Figure 1: Historical onshore growth 1992-2004 New Energy Finance has indentified 105 GW of offshore wind projects in Europe (NEF Research Note: Offshore Wind 28 July 2009).000 15. EWEA expects the annual believes that “wind could contribute 12% of EU elec.000 25.ewea.000 5. offshore market for wind turbines to grow steadily from tricity by 2020”. the market for onshore wind turbines will Not least due to the 2009 Renewable Energy Directive exceed the offshore market in the EU. phase or proposed by project developers or govern- bers active in developing and supplying the offshore ment proposed development zones. This 100 GW of wind industry. 2011 – 2020 As can be seen in Figure 1.000 3.The Offshore Wind Power Market of the Future 100 GW and counting… In summer 2009 EWEA surveyed those of its mem. To meet the 20% target for renewable energy. in order to underpin its scenario devel.000 2. 2006.000 Cumulative (left-hand axis) 6.000 7.000 10.000 (MW) 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 (4) Independently of EWEA’s survey of offshore developers which identified 120 GW of offshore wind farms under construction. Throughout this period. COM(2006)848 final.000 4. 35. 40.9 GW in 2020. 1.either To see the updated Offshore Wind Map: under construction. ‘Renewable Energy Roadmap’.Chapter 1 . be operating by 2030 is both accurate and credible(4).

0 Figure 3: Electricity production 2011-2020 (TWh) 10 1.5 between 14. equal to between 3. enough to meet 30 4.5 the development in electricity demand.5 160 (€bn) 0 0 (€bn) 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 140 Avoiding Climate Change 120 TWh offshore In 2011.3% of EU electricity consumption. depending on Annual investment (right-hand axis) 50 7. Approximately Cumulative investment (left-hand axis) a quarter of Europe’s wind energy would be 40 6.3% and 16.Wind Energy Production Figure 4: Annual and cumulative investments in offshore wind power 2011-2020 (€billion 2005) The 40 GW of installed capacity in 2020 would produce 148 TWh of electricity in 2020.9% of total EU electricity demand by 2020. (6) OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 13 . 80 60 40 20 (TWh) 0 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Offshore wind power investments Annual investments in offshore wind power are expected to increase from €3. wind energy would produce 582 TWh. with the 40 GW offshore contributing 148 TWh.6% 60 9. offshore wind power will avoid the emission 100 of 10 Mt of C02.3 billion in 2011 to €8. Including onshore.0 and 4.0 produced offshore in 2020(6). 20 3. The 230 GW of wind power operating in 2020 would produce 582 TWh of electricity. a figure that will rise to 85 Mt in the year 2020.81 billion in 2020.

000 2. the annual offshore market for wind turbines will grow steadily from 7.000 60.8 billion 2021 .000 (TWh) 0 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 100.900 MW • Avoiding 85Mt of CO2 annually • Electricity production of 148 TWh • Annual investments in wind turbines of €8. Approximately half of Europe’s wind electricity would be produced offshore in 2030(7).000 14.The Offshore Wind Power Market of the Future Summary of the offshore wind energy market in the EU in 2020: • Total installed capacity of 40.5 billion in 2030.7% of EU electricity consump- tion.2030 energy’s total share to between 26.000 MW • Meeting between 3.000 6.3% of total EU electricity demand • Annual installations of 6. 400 Figure 6: Offshore wind energy annual and cumula- tive installations 2021-2030 (MW) 300 160.Chapter 1 . 14 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT .000 200 Annual (right-hand axis) 140.8% and 16.000 Annual investments in offshore wind power are expected to increase from €9.000 10. An additional 592 TWh would be produced onshore. with the 150 GW offshore (7) contributing 563 TWh.000 12. equal to between 12.000 100 Cumulative (left-hand axis) 120. 2027 will be the first year in which the market for offshore wind turbines 500 Annual exceeds the onshore market in the EU. depending on the development in demand for power.6 GW in 2030.8 billion in 2021 to 40.3% of EU electricity demand.000 8. bringing wind The 400 GW of wind power operating in 2030 would produce 1. 20.000 €16.000 4.155 TWh of electricity.6% and 4.000 16.7 GW in 600 2021 to reach 13. Annual installations Figure 7: Electricity production 2021-2030 (TWh) Between 2021 and 2030.000 (MW) 0 0 (MW) 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 Wind Energy Production The 150 GW of installed capacity in 2030 would produce 563 TWh of electricity in 2030.2% and 34.000 Offshore wind power investments 80.

5 1.000 MW • Meeting between 12.5 billion OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 15 . a figure that will rise to 292 Mt in the year 2030.750 280 Cumulative (left-hand axis) 100 12.5 500 80 (€bn) 0 (€bn)0 250 40 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 (mt) 0 0 (mt) 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 Avoiding Climate Change In 2021.0 1.5 1.0 750 120 20 2. Figure 8: Annual and cumulative investments in Figure 9: Annual and cumulative avoided CO2 emis- offshore wind power 2021-2030 (€billion) sions 2021-2030 (million tonnes) 140 17.5 2.8% and 16.000 160 40 5.690 MW • Avoiding 292 Mt of CO2 annually •Electricity production of 563 TWh • Annual investments in wind turbines of €16.7% of total EU electricity demand •Annual installations of 13.0 1.250 200 60 7.000 320 Annual (right-hand axis) Annual (right-hand axis) 120 Cumulative (left-hand axis) 15. offshore wind power will avoid the emission of 100 Mt of C02. Summary of the offshore wind energy market in the EU in 2030: •Total installed capacity of 150.500 240 80 10.

far from shore (more than 60 km) connecting in ideal situations to offshore supernodes. The scatter graph contains only those farms where both water depth and distance to shore was provided to EWEA. platform technologies during the course of the next decade. not further than 60 km from shore. the wind industry will As technology develops and experience is gained. result from development in Germany – and will include opment trends of the offshore industry in the 2025 in the future the UK’s Round 3. the gradually move beyond the so-called 20:20 envelope offshore wind industry will move into deeper water (20m water depth. and should therefore be treated with a suitable level of caution. under construc- tion. 16 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT . Chapter 1 . 20 km from shore). <60 km:<60m The current 20:20 envelope will be extended by the >60 km:>60m majority of offshore farms to not more than 60 km Deep far offshore – this scatter graph highlights the from shore in water depths of not more than 60m. with a water depth Identified trends: generally between 20m and 60m. consented. characterised by farms timeframe (approximately)(8) .ewea. Figure 10: Development of the offshore wind industry in terms of water depth (m) and distance to shore (km) 160 Distance to shore (km) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 Water depth (m) <20 km :<20 m <60 km:<60 m >60 km:<60 m <60 km:>60 m >60 km:>60 m This scatter graph shows the probable future devel. which includes current of this report. in the consenting process or proposed by project developers supplied to EWEA and available (updated) at www. development zones – those illustrated here mainly (8) The data is based on an EWEA spreadsheet containing information on all offshore wind farms that are <20 km:<20m <60 km:>60m At the moment operating wind farms tend to be built Deep offshore – based on project proposals high- not further than 20km from the shore in water depths lighted to EWEA from project developers using floating of not more than 20m.The Offshore Wind Power Market of the Future Offshore development – deeper and further and further from the shore. Looking at the wind farms proposed by project developers. future long term potential of combining an offshore grid (far offshore) with floating concepts (deep >60 km:<60m offshore) which is beyond the scope and timeframe Far offshore development.

Michigan and Wisconsin both completed major studies regarding the potential for offshore wind. water. American Wind Energy Association. Two states completed not released until April 2009. the U. states surrounding the a major utility.S.20percentwind. 2008. The wind industry welcomed the release of a new The United States: hot on Europe’s heels(9) regulatory framework from the Minerals Management Service (MMS) of the Department of the Interior after The prospects for wind energy projects off the coasts much delay.for Photo: Siemens Contribution from Laurie Jodziewicz. all fully operational offshore wind farms are projects off their shores. Electricity Supply’ http://www. equipment. Electricity Supply”. committing that state to a project in planners. project with a developer.doi. (11) http://www.Europe’s first mover offshore advantage Rhode Island and New Jersey each conducted compet- itive processes to choose developers to work on To date. and the New York Power Authority asked Contribution to U.S. one company signed a Power Purchase Agreement with And not to be left behind. The report found that more than 300 GW of wind energy capacity would need to be installed. (9) (10) U. Department of Energy. infrastructure experts.S.html. for expressions of interest for projects in Lake Ontario gated the feasibility of wind energy providing 20% of and Lake Erie in the first half of 2009. May 2008. U. President Barack Obama said “… including 54 GW offshore. ‘20% Wind Energy by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy’s Contribution to U. demonstrating that state in Europe.S. On 22 April 2009. wind potential. A Delaware utility signed a Power Purchase Agreement nology exports. two countries outside Europe in leadership is driving much of the interest in offshore particular are determined to exploit their offshore wind projects in the U. A Act of 2005 setting MMS as the lead regulatory agency government report(10) recognised significant potential for projects in federal waters. However. Department of Energy released is conducting a feasibility study for a small project in “20% Wind Energy by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy’s Lake Erie.S. President Bush signed the Energy Policy of the United States brightened in 2008 and 2009. and a final regulatory framework was Great Lakes have also showed interest over the past released by the Obama Administration in its first 100 two years in pursuing projects in America’s fresh days(11). competitive processes for proposed Ohio In May which investi. experienced developers. we are establishing a programme to authorise -. and installation the near future. OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 17 . providing European companies with significant opportunities for manufacturing and tech.aspx?page=Report. but the final rules were for offshore wind’s contribution.S. electricity.

000 projects to generate electricity from wind as well as km2. offshore clean energy. Assuming 10% to 20% of the total amount of sea from ocean currents and other renewable sources. these projects to move forward. For example. China experience on offshore wind development and to is exceptionally rich in wind resources. the area from the country’s a target of setting up one to two offshore wind farms (12) Contribution from Liming Qiao.The Offshore Wind Power Market of the Future Photo: Siemens the very first time -. and today’s announcement will enable of offshore wind turbines. the nation’s Eleventh Five Year Plan encouraged the industry to learn from international With its large land mass and long coastline. Chapter 1 . GWEC. the And this will open the door to major investments in total offshore wind capacity could reach 100-200 GW. in the coastal zone to the south of China. 18 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT . China: the first farm is developed(12) In 2005.” Fujian and Zhejiang Provinces. to the China Coastal Zone and Tideland Resource Zhejiang and Guangdong Province. The plan also sets Investigation Report. there is enormous However. surface were to be used for offshore development. According explore the offshore opportunities in Shanghai. especially in the Guangdong. interest in wind projects off the coasts of New Jersey typhoons may be a limiting factor for the deployment and Delaware.the leasing of federal waters for coastline to 20m out to sea covers about 157.

wind installation The development of offshore wind in China is still at an should reach 10 GW. Among them. offshore wind planning also started expected to be built by the end of 2009 and to provide to take place in Jiangsu. close to Shanghai Dongdaqiao. All current and 18 GW offshore capacity. all onshore. Meanwhile.000 MW offshore.4 million). In the same year. with a and went online in 2007.5 MW. Meanwhile. plan also foresees that in the long term. and by 2020. Shanghai. located in Liaodong Bay lack of clarity over the different government depart- in the northeast Bohai Sea. The test turbine has a ments’ responsibility for approving offshore wind capacity of 1. with 7. wind installation in the province should reach 1.of 100 MW by 2010. electricity to the 2010 Shanghai Expo. started in 2009. put offshore wind development as one of the major R&D priorities in the “Renewable Energy Industry Construction of the first offshore wind farm in China Development Guideline”. the National country’s largest offshore oil producer. Grid planning and construction is another the China National Offshore Oil Corp (CNOOC). It is At provincial level. with an invest- Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) also ment of 40 million yuan ($5. will consist of 34 turbines of 3 MW. Guangdong. with grid constraint hindering development. 2010. policies are for onshore wind.500 MW. The early stage. the most advanced is Jiangsu province. The first three machines were installed in April 2009. the government has put offshore wind over 50 km. The wind turbine was built by projects. The wind farm Zhejiang. OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 19 . In its Wind Development R&D programme. with a theoret- ical offshore potential of 18 GW and a littoral belt of In terms of R&D. there is still no specific policy or will reach 30 GW of onshore wind installation capacity regulation for offshore wind development. domestic turbine manu- Plan (2006-2010). Many key issues need to be addressed. Hainan. the province At national level. Jiangsu province stipulated that by facturers are also running their own offshore R&D. Hebei and Shangdong. the approval of offshore wind projects involves more government The first offshore wind turbine in China was installed departments than for onshore wind projects. the key issue. which is an excellent technical advantage energy technology into the government supported for developing offshore wind.

Chapter 2 Spatial Planning: Supporting Offshore Wind and Grid Development 20 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT Photo: Elsam .

Denmark. Member States. There are potential synergies between offshore projects and cross-border Only a few European countries currently have defined inter-connectors that are currently not being exploited dedicated offshore wind areas. which can delay projects considerably as to the allocation and use of maritime space. has led offshore wind is a newly developing and unique energy to fragmented policy making and very limited EU coor. port research and policy aspects. mental concerns. Member States and regions. of delays in. and environ. of an integrated and coordinated approach to mari- sea “Enhancement Schemes” have been used in time spatial planning (MSP) between the different some areas as the main instrument. Without OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 21 . Germany and Denmark. A few coun- Increased activity within Europe’s marine waters has tries. With no integrated approach. For example. and they are seen as the development. and rules are inadequate. increases the risk to the use of the sea. the military. interest groups and rules from different sectors and jurisdictions (both at inter-state and intra-state level). countries generally have limited experience of inte- grated spatial planning in the marine environment. whereas in France. the oil into a global approach that encompasses industrial. Most other countries use existing marine plan- cies. including the UK. each of which has its own approach. and taken into consideration in MSP regimes. In addition to the wide range of sectoral approaches This creates project uncertainty. each with its own specific legislative approach ning laws. EU increase the costs of offshore projects significantly. The fact that the different activities are regulated on a sectoral basis by different agen. offshore wind energy and sometimes the relevant governance structures deployment is caught between conflicting uses. resource. Drawn out and imprecise planning can dination. Belgium and the Netherlands.Maritime spatial planning Germany. and gas sector. have led to growing competition between sectors such as integrated the deployment of offshore wind energy shipping and maritime transport. or failure of offshore wind projects. in Germany there are regional plans for the territorial seas and national EEZ These barriers are further aggravated by the absence (Exclusive Economic Zones) plans. fisheries and aquaculture. such as the UK. In contrast to spatial planning on land. and ning regimes and instruments in the different impairs the sector’s potential for growth. there are very different plan. most promising markets. offshore wind and ocean energies.

‘Global Offshore Wind Energy Markets and Strategies 2008 – 2020’. BSH: BSH: Länder (state government): Cable Germany to construct communicated to and stakeholder ronmental study. cross-border coordination. This harms both the deployment of offshore wind on the Energy Policy Objectives for 2020 and energy projects and the development of a beyond’(13). 22 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT . and The lack of integrated strategic planning and cross. power generation by the recent European Commission ular risk being sub-optimal because they will be made Communications: from an individual project and national Energy. • ‘Offshore Wind Energy: action needed to deliver tive. fishing. and Natural stakeholder consultation CENR: Foreshore regulation: Construction. Authorization Spain ronmental/tourism/fishing/shipping impact/ Site application review Lease Project planning. shipping Project Cable approval approval 12 nm zone for the BSH (federal marine authority) consultation risk analysis approval EEZ Transmission System Operator Developer: Intention to apply Developer: Informal Developer: Formal Energy Regulator: Oil and Energy Norway for permits communicated public and stakeholder application presented Formal public and stake. Ministry of Administration): Concession for of seabed Environmental permit Industry if in EEZ cabling and grid access Maritime Authority: Site Ministry of Transport (MoT): Consultation MoT: Authorization to Italy being defined/finalized Application Guidelines consent dependent on MoT with Economic and Environment Ministries build and operate wind Authorization and stakeholders plant Competent Authority Competent Authority TBD: Prefect Maritime: Competent Authority France TBD: Declaration of Zone Environmental Impact Concession for use TBD: Construction Development Eolien (ZDE) Statement (EIS) of public land permit Poland No current protocol Different ministry involved Developer National authority Local authority To be defined Source: Emerging Energy Research. rather than from a system and transnational perspec. opens concession exploitation authorization Ministry of Marine Environment (MME) stakeholders process to competitors (plant/cabling) Developer: Notice of intention Developer: Public Developer: Two years envi. defense.) application Developer: Presents concessions appli.Chapter 2 . http://eur-lex. Ireland Resources (CENR): Foreshore license to explore site lease preparation of EIS generation.europa. • ‘Roadmap for Maritime Spatial Planning: achieving border coordination has been identified as one of common principles in the EU’(15). Municipality Network Authority (part of Energy Sweden Permit for explotation Development: if in 12 nm zone. http://eur-lex. and supply permit Ministry of Industry: Ministry of Sustainable Building permit.Energy Regulator: Ministry: Final project Energy Regulator consultation to Energy Regulator holder consultation Application approval approval if appeal Developer: Public and Commission for energy Multiple-window Department of Communications. MME: MME: Publishes initial concession MME: Building and Belgium cation. grid investments in partic. http://eur-lex. EIA to Ministry of Transport stakeholders (EIA. etc. and construction of interest tender with 2008. • ‘An Integrated Maritime Policy for the European Union’(14). detailed site plan/EIA to Consultation with application. incl. agencies agreement feasibility studies in site grid conection permit Developer: Application for location MTW: Consultation with MTW: Invitation MTW: Draft MTW: Final Netherlands incl.Spatial planning: Supporting offshore wind and grid development TABLE 1: Overview of the different planning methods crown Estate (CE): Department of Trade and Industry’s (DTI) Offshore ORCU: Permit for Secretary of State for Trade and UK Tenders right to Renewables Consents Unit (ORCU): Food and construction/operation ORCU: Coast Industry: Permit for construction of develop site Environment Protection License for works at sea of a generating station protection permit onshore substation/overhead line Developer: Danish Energy Authority DEA: Site tender/permit to survey DEA: Building permit DEA: Permit to exploit site Denmark (DEA): Site pre-screening for Environmental Impact Assessment Construction of and generate electricity wind plant (EIA) Single-window Application Process Developer: General Directorate for Energy Policy and Mines DGPEM: to submit building building permit building permit and Water Resources (MTW) shipping.europa. DGPEM: DGPEM: Coordinate DGPEM: Developer: Expression (DGPEM): Site pre-screening. (15) COM (2008) 791. (14) COM (2007) 575.europa. the main challenges to the deployment of offshore (13) COM (2008) tioning Europe-wide market for electricity. evaluation of envi.

and the would enable the entire value chain to seek invest. promoted by the European Commission through the gies with other activities. Cross-border cooperation on MSP would aid Consolidated at European level. This such as large-scale offshore wind projects. turbine components. a project has recent 2009 FP7 call. Since the size must be sufficient to ensure the financial foundation structure in an offshore wind turbine is viability of the project. Recommendation: If Member States decided to perform maritime spatial Maritime spatial planning approaches should be planning (MSP). interconnectors of the future pan-European grid. it would In this regard. Offshore wind parks could also be combined with large desalination plants. Provided key for building a common and streamlined planning the right policies and incentives are in place. space. with ocean energies to give additional power produc- mise the wake effects. Photo: Eneco OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 23 .g. or be used Offshore wind parks cover large areas as the project as artificial reefs to improve fish stocks. MSP approach and making optimal use of the maritime gives the industry long term visibility of its market. This last point was also optimise the use of the space by developing syner. It is therefore possible to tion at a given offshore site. ment in key elements of the supply chain (e. and as a minimal distance large and stable it may in the future be combined between the turbines is needed to avoid or mini. people) while poten- tially lowering the risks and capital costs. Offshore wind synergies with other maritime started in Denmark to combine offshore wind parks activities with aquaculture. and dedicate areas for offshore wind based on a common vision shared at sea basin level. developments and electricity interconnectors. cross border cooperation on MSP is send clear positive signals to the industry. such approaches projects crossing several Economic Exclusive Zones would enable investments to be planned out. cables. For example. vessels.

Chapter 3 Building the European Offshore Grid 24 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT Photo: Siemens .

Building an offshore grid is different from building an • it will offer connection opportunities to other onshore grid in many ways – not least technically and marine renewable energy sources. OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 25 . for the European network in general. technology • wind farm operators will be able to sell wind farm aspects. economic aspects of an offshore grid. ability of the energy output and diminishing the need for additional balancing capacity(16). each bene. Mapping and planning the offshore grid which can be difficult due to land-use conflicts. and other marine energy sources. The transnational offshore Because of the prominent concentration of planned grid of the future will have many functions.” (16) Available at: http://www. possible topologies. increasing the predict. “Integrating Wind . a transnational offshore grid should be built first in those areas. national electricity markets. Such a system will provide grid access for the more remote offshore The future European offshore grid will therefore wind farms. 2009. • connecting offshore oil and gas platforms to Drivers for planning the grid will enable a reduction of their GHG emissions. France and Spain. far as Ireland. Perhaps the greatest challenge is the • shared use of offshore transmission lines leads international aspect. This section will address planning issues. of a transnational offshore grid are its role in interna- • European energy security will be improved. The two basic drivers throughout to an improved and more economical utilisation of the planning (and later in the implementation stage) grid capacity and its economical an offshore grid has branches reaching as and therefore smoothed. dedicated offshore electricity system. and the consequences output to more than one country. due to tional trade and the access it provides to wind power a more interconnected European grid.Introduction • increased interconnection capacity will provide additional firm power (capacity credit) from the The deployment of offshore wind energy requires a offshore wind resource. regulatory and increase. In many of • the geographically distributed output of the the offshore grid designs that have already been connected offshore wind farms will be aggregated proposed.Developing Europe’s power market for the large-scale integration of wind power. Furthermore it • power trading possibilities between countries will will briefly discuss the operational. • it will minimise the strengthening of onshore (mainland) interconnectors’ high-voltage networks. and additional interconnection capacity to contribute to building a well-functioning single European improve the trading of electricity between the differing electricity market that will benefit all consumers. the Baltic Sea fitting Europe in different ways: and the Mediterranean Sea. economically. offshore wind farms in the North Sea.

In the No lack of ideas longer term. including a dedicated offshore transmission grid. • coordinate the implementation of the offshore The future projections for offshore wind power capacity network with the upgrade of the onshore network. possibilities. • IMERA • ensure the network is conceived and built in a • Mainstream Renewable Power (Figure 12) 26 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT .Building the European Offshore Grid The basis for planning the offshore grid is therefore a modular way. nisms. the Netherlands and Germany. technical suppliers. consultants and financing bodies. especially for the North years to an approval process that is already complex Sea and the Baltic Sea. a transnational Planning approach offshore grid will be constructed in those areas first. offshore wind farms enough. national studies (the Netherlands. future offshore wind power capacities and a common • take into account time-dependent aspects such as stakeholder vision on the future necessary expansion realistic implementation scenarios for wind power of the European transmission network. grid is described in different publications (TDP UCTE 2008. for example the different • Greenpeace planned connections between the Nordic area and • Statnett UK. and so the grid aspects of developments along Offshore grid topology and construction the Atlantic Coast and in the Mediterranean area also have to be considered in pan-European planning. issues related to the joint planning Policy processes supporting the planning of offshore wind power development and grid rein- forcement arise in markets with significant offshore Because of the complexity of transnational planning wind development (Germany. are discussed in Chapter 1. grid waters. Nordic Grid Master Plan 2008) and various Partners in the planning and work process are the TSOs. Denmark). Finding practical processes. regulators. governments.Chapter 3 . • present a coordinated approach to implementing the common vision shared by the relevant stake- The future development of the European transmission holders throughout the process. the concentration of planned offshore wind farms in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea.but realistic .vision of that can feasibly be exploited. the UK). offshore grid ideas are being developed line passes. This report development. that it is made up of modules combination of an ambitious . the UK. At present. Because of the northern part of the North Sea. the implications of offshore wind for grid require- ments. i. supply chain issues and financing seeks to develop and implement such a vision. However. wind farm Some international studies (TradeWind) have explored developers. including the following: • closely follow existing plans and ideas from • TradeWind national transmission system operators (TSOs) to • Airtricity (see Figure 11) enable a smooth start. and depending on further technological developments enabling the industry to reach deeper There is no shortage of ideas from academics. the planning of an offshore grid requires solutions for these issues will be very helpful for the strong policy drivers and supra-national control mecha- process of international joint planning. transmission lines through different marine zones are forced to Planning in the different maritime areas seek regulatory and planning approval with the rele- vant bodies of each Member State through which the At present. the offshore network should be expanded to companies and various industries on how to construct areas that have not yet been investigated. Multiple country reviews impose delays of above all for northern Europe. In the present political framework. A realistic schedule for a transnational offshore grid Proposals have been put forward by several different should: bodies. are expected to be developed in most European waters.e.

60 GW had been SuperNode installed by the end of 2004(17). (19) Meshed topology offshore grids are able to cope with the failure of a line by diverting power automatically via other lines. ABB uses the brand name HVDC able to provide flexible and dynamic voltage support to AC and therefore can be connected to both strong and weak onshore grids. ‘Transforming EU’s Electricity Supply – An infrastructure strategy for (17) & (17b) a reliable. and stranded investments can more countries in the combination. HVDC offers the possi- bility of terminating inside onshore AC grids. operating over 6 GW per line. and thus avoiding onshore reinforcements close to the coast. and support the system recovery in case of failure. • the technology is suitable for the long distances It would allow the three-way trading of power involved (up to 600 km). developed by VSC as the best option(17b) for the following reasons: Mainstream Renewable Power. Moreover. Norway and Germany. and • the compactness (half the size of HVDC LCC) include two 1 GW offshore wind farms. • the technology – because of its active controllability figure 12: Mainstream Renewable Power . easily be avoided. whereas Siemens has branded its technology HVDC European Academies Science Advisory Council. 2009. renewable and secure power system’. between the UK. Offshore grid technology The utilisation of HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) technology for the offshore grid is very attractive because it offers the controllability needed to allow the network both to transmit wind power and to provide the highway for electricity trade. one in the minimises environmental impact and construction UK and one in Germany. • multi-terminal application is possible. for example of the HVDC platforms. UK Germany There are two major manufacturers of HVDC VSC technology. which makes it suitable for meshed(19) grids. Moreover. OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 27 . In this way the HVDC VSC technology seems to offer 1GW the solution for most of the offshore grid’s technical 1GW challenges. the capacity for • the system is modular. farm output at any given time. There are two basic types of HVDC transmission links: HVDC-LCC (conventional HVDC) and the recent HVDC-VSC (Voltage Source Convertor). with minimal losses. Depending on the wind costs. even between different synchronous zones. (18) Black start is the procedure for recovering from a total or partial shutdown of the transmission system. HVDC-LCC has been extensively used worldwide. is a first step for the development of the European Supergrid.figure 11: Airtricity Supergrid concept This report seeks to build on these approaches and propose an optimal long-term development plan for the future pan-European offshore electricity grid. A staged development is trade would go up to 1 GW between each pair of possible. (Mainstream Renewable Power) Today. it Norway can be used to provide black start(18). the drivers for the offshore grid favour HVDC The SuperNode configuration. at voltages of up to 800 kV.

In addition. These are: Although all technologies for the offshore grid already exist in principle. ence has to be collected to optimise the interface with For that purpose. The technologies are not identical.such as the availability of ultra fast nodes consist of offshore platforms containing 28 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT . operational experi- able. to be taken – namely. very fast protection schemes.Chapter 3 . there are several aspects of HVDC • lines/branches: these consist of submerged VSC technology which require technical development cables characterised by transmission capacity. Also. two major conceptual decisions have wind power generation in the HVDC environment. in the short term in order to achieve the necessary • offshore nodes (hubs or plugs): these offshore technical maturity .Building the European Offshore Grid Photo: Elsam Plus. to agree to standardise the DC working voltage levels and to agree on the largest Offshore grid topology possible plug and play boundary. when used together in the future offshore grid. other players such as Areva are also developing HVDC VSC There are three basic elements which will form the technology. and efforts HVDC circuit breakers. load flow control concepts and are needed to make them compatible and jointly oper. backbone of the future offshore transmission network.

proposed. and will serve as: losses at converter station level. to increase electricity trading oppor- state of play). the TradeWind study and existing TSO plans.common connection points for a number of grid should be located near spatially clustered wind other marine generators. the a decision support system for the evaluation of the English Channel and the Irish Sea.offshoregrid. and is • B. European Commission in its Blueprint for a North Sea Grid and ENTSO-E’s System Development Committee. The capital costs of the HVDC converter stations are to incorporate EWEA’s 20 Year Offshore Network higher than corresponding substations in AC. OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 29 . policy and regulatory aspects The roadmap includes the definition of an offshore into account. Spotlight on specific EU-funded projects OffshoreGrid will develop a scientifically-based view The main objective of the WINDSPEED project is to on an offshore grid in northern Europe along with identify a roadmap to the deployment of offshore a suitable regulatory framework that takes all the wind power in the central and southern North Sea. Therefore.windspeed. and offshore facilities (current farms to the grid.common connection points for a number of per km than AC. but offshore wind clusters not too far allowing the electricity to be dispatched to the from the coast should be directly connected to shore different electricity markets. the results of European-funded projects such as WindSpeed (www. the physical potential for offshore industry. under construction • and OffshoreGrid (www. marine tech. • C.intersections (junctions) of network branches determined. the nodes of the . particularly the nologies and the promotion of cross border trade. There is thus a trade off in the offshore wind farms. use of DC versus AC. transmission system opera. alloca- Mediterranean region. The project is targeted at European wind energy target and a set of coordinated policy policy makers. switchgear and other Regarding electricity loss. tion rules and calculation rules for the assessment of impacts on offshore wind economics. as in this way a few nodes per country can be . taking into account cost of cables is lower for DC than for AC. interconnectors developed by TSOs (in principle and operating offshore wind farms to transport all the through bilateral cooperation) for the purpose of electricity produced to European electricity consumers cross border exchange between electricity markets in an economically sound way. Master Plan The offshore grid topology basically builds upon the EWEA’s 20 Year Offshore Network Development Master following types of transmission highways: Plan is based on the necessary grid upgrades that would allow all planned. and farms. and tunities and improve Europe’s energy security. having inputs results will be transferred by qualitative terms to the such as policy targets for all users of the sea. economic. recommendations for the deployment of offshore tors and regulators. with an AC line. lines specifically developed for connection of designed. Secondly. • Onshore nodes: connection points between the offshore transmission grid to the onshore trans. while the Development Master Plan. EWEA urges other stakeholders. WINDSPEED delivers the regions around the Baltic and North Sea. It is underpinned by (current state of play). in addition to connecting offshore wind offshore wind farms. HVDC has significant electrical equipments. HVDC conversion equipment. but lower losses . The geographical scope is firstly wind in this specific sea basin. EWEA’s 20 Year Offshore Network Development mission grid. technical. lines developed in a coordinated effort for the purpose of connecting offshore wind.


and is likely to consist of a combi- • Nord Link: planned as a link between Norway and nation of three wind farms connected to Sweden. and the UK but EWEA proposes also linking it Energinet. Improving Norway’s connection to nucleus for an international offshore grid once it is the European grid will allow offshore wind farms in the successfully connected to three markets (Germany. Denmark. the UK and the Netherlands. Northern Ireland and and Svenska Kraftnätt. and Denmark. and the nodes off the coast of Channel and the Baltic Sea. the Kriegers Flak 1. the Baltic Sea. the following: • on the western side. Belgium and the Netherlands are interconnected with German and UK nodes. Three different TSOs are involved: Vattenfall. will at the same time improve the connection of Nordic • further main grid elements are the NordBalt hydro to northern Europe. which would also allow UK Round 3 farms to connect in UK waters and provide an additional node for Norwegian offshore wind farms (and oil and gas platforms).600 The future North Sea offshore grid will evolve out of MW wind farms will be considered to be the first existing TSO plans. • NorGer: planned as a link between Norway and Kriegers Flak Germany but EWEA proposes also linking it to Denmark and having a trajectory and node in the Kriegers Flak is seen as a flagship project at European German EEZ(21) to enable offshore wind farms to level. EWEA proposes a three-legged solution • further strengthening between Germany/Sweden. Svenska Kraftnät.6 the UK and having a trajectory and node in the GW.NorGer. to take the best practice example of Kriegers Flak in preferably built with HVDC-VSC technology. • a cable off Northern Norway linking to an offshore node. and Denmark/ an offshore grid will evolve In the 2030 timeframe the UK link to Ireland will be improved. together the Baltic Sea and apply this principle to the intercon. the North Sea including the connected with France. Norway. German EEZ to enable offshore wind farms to be Energinet. as will its link to the node off the coast of In northern Europe the offshore grid spans around Norway via the Shetland Islands. • a link between EWEA therefore proposes Interconnection between Sweden and Lithuania. • Norway/UK: planned as a link between Norway figure 17: Vattenfall Europe Transmission. with a second line between Finland and Estonia nectors already being studied . EWEA also proposes additional three-legged solutions and other lines for the 2020 timeframe: • a link between Ireland. Sweden). North Sea and Irish Sea Baltic area The topology in this area links the countries bordering the North Sea: the UK. Ireland will be directly Great Britain and Ireland. In the Baltic Sea the main offshore grid elements are the Netherlands. connected. • an u  pgrade between Denmark and Sweden SOURCE:“Kriegers Flak progress report”. Belgium and the north of France. It is located on a sandbank (Kriegers Flak) in be connected. 2008 to Germany via a node. Nord Link and (Estlink II) and a reinforcement of the Swed-Pol line. Germany. EEZ: Exclusive Economic Zone (21) OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 31 . for each of the planned lines: Germany/Denmark. for a total capacity of 1. Norway/UK. Germany but EWEA proposes also linking it to Germany and Denmark. North Sea to connect to these interconnectors.

Building the European Offshore Grid Table 2: EWEA’s 20 Year Offshore Network Development Master Plan (North and Baltic Seas) Capacity Name. possibly as HVDC-VSC (formerly 700 to Planned by 2016 SwedLit) 1. Ireland and Scotland Operating 500 In the 2020 timeframe Planned/under construction .2016 32 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT .000 Upgrade linking UK and France (EFA) Under study 2.000 East-West Interconnector linking Ireland and north Wales Planned by 2012 500 Estlink II linking Finland and Estonia Planned by 2013 700 Upgrade linking Norway and Denmark (Skagerrak) Planned 350 NordBalt linking Sweden and Lithuania.000 Under study .000 Under study by Skagerrak 4 linking Norway and Denmark 600 2014 Under study by Cobra Cable linking the Netherlands and Denmark 700 2016 Under study NorNed 2 linking Norway and the Netherlands 700 2015 .14 offshore grids Internal HVDC between Scotland and England Under study 1. description and timeframe Status (MW) Existing .000 Kontek linking Germany and Denmark Operating 600 HVDC linking Germany and Sweden Operating 600 Konti-Skan linking Denmark and Sweden Operating 300 SwePol linking Sweden and Poland Operating 600 HVDC Linking Swedish mainland and Gotland Operating 260 Estlink linking Finland and Estonia Operating 350 Fenno Skan linking Sweden and Finland Operating 500 Moyle Interconnector linking N. internal Denmark Planned by 2010 600 Fenno Skan II linking Sweden and Finland Planned by 2011 800 BritNed linking the UK and the Netherlands Planned by 2011 1.800 Internal HVDC between Scotland and Shetland Islands Under study 600 Internal HVDC between Scotland and Isle of Lewis Under study 600 Internal HVDC in Scotland Under study 600 Nemo HVDC linking Belgium and UK Under study 1.11 offshore grids NorNed linking Norway and the Netherlands Operating 700 Skagerrak linking Norway and Denmark Operating 940 HVDC linking France and the UK Operating 2.800 Internal HVDC between Scotland and Wales Under study 1.Chapter 3 .seven offshore grids Great Belt.

Capacity Name. Svenska Kraftnät. with a higher capacity 1. Vattenfall Europe Transmission.000 Statnett as low+ The node in the Norwegian EEZ could allow offshore wind farms to plug maturity) in. ‘An analysis of Offshore Grid Connection at Kriegers Flak in the Baltic Sea’. EWEA recommendation: NorGer should be developed as a three-legged HVDC-VSC line linking Norway. 5.000 recommendation EWEA 2.000 recommendation EWEA Three-legged HVDC-VSC line linking Belgium.400 from the Commission it should be able to plug in offshore wind farms in Norwegian EEZ waters bordering the Danish EEZ and offshore wind farms in the norther-western part of the German EEZ Norway/UK linking Norway and the description and timeframe (North and Baltic Seas) Status (MW) (Under study with EWEA recommendation – four offshore grids) Kriegers Flak linking Denmark.2018 support from the Commission it should be able to plug in offshore wind farms in Norwegian EEZ waters bordering the Danish EEZ. together with the Ekofisk and Valhall platforms. With appropriate financial 1.000 to HVDC Netherlands linking to offshore node recommendation 5.000 EWEA HVDC North Norway linking to offshore node 2. EWEA recommendation: Nord Link should be developed as a three-legged HVDC-VSC line linking Norway. as a modular Under study connection with a higher capacity potential. and could link to the north-western node in German EEZ EWEA recommendation .400 2017 . Germany and the UK).2018 1. as a modular connec- Under study 700 to tion with a higher capacity potential.eight offshore grids EWEA Three-legged HVDC-VSC line linking Ireland. 2009. With appropriate financial support 2016 . Norway and Germany with 2017 – 2020 possibly three nodes as a modular connection. UK and the Netherlands 1. Sweden and Germany. EWEA recommendation: The EU and countries involved should push Under study 600 each forward with the project for a three-legged solution as outlined by the recent TSO pre-feasibility study(22) NorGer linking Norway and Germany.000 to (characterised by potential and with appropriate financial support from the Commission. OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 33 .000 recommendation EWEA Upgrade linking Denmark and Sweden (Konti-Skan II) 360 recommendation EWEA Upgrade linking Germany and Sweden 600 recommendation EWEA Upgrade linking Poland and Sweden 600 recommendation EWEA Upgrade linking Germany and Denmark 550 recommendation (22) Energinet. and offshore wind farms in the northern part of the German EEZ Nord Link linking Norway and Germany. EWEA recommendation: This line should be developed to become Under study a three-legged HVDC-VSC linking the UK. Germany and Denmark. Northern Ireland and Wales 1.

000 recommendation EWEA HVDC linking the UK (Shetland Islands) and north Norway node 2.000 to HVDC linking the Netherlands node with Nord Link node recommendation 5.000 recommendation Offshore grid construction timeline . reinforcements are identified. Even the implementa. The planned lines are built. connecting local transmission. Work on the stand- years). Dedicated Most of the electricity grids in the world have been regulatory regimes are established for offshore put together from the bottom up. super-node).000 to HVDC linking the Netherlands with NorGer node recommendation 5. The Stage III: Transnational grid timeline falls naturally into three main stages: Step by step implementation of the transnational Stage I: Local (national) grids offshore grid. EWEA 2. ardisation and technical development of HVDC VSC technology speeds up. based on operational experience. involving several stages (Figure 18). description and timeframe (North and Baltic Seas) Status (MW) In the 2030 timeframe EWEA recommendation – six offshore grids EWEA Upgrade linking the UK and Ireland 1.Building the European Offshore Grid Capacity Name. figure 18: Stages in a typical timeline for building an offshore interconnector total process duration is Stage II: Transition to transnational grid around 10 years A process of multilateral grid planning is in place.000 EWEA 1. Dedicated approach (HVDC) offshore lines are built by TSOs to inter- connect clustered wind power capacity. The construction starts towards the internationalisation of regula- of an offshore grid is a process that will take many tory regimes. and this will not via the national electricity market.000 EWEA 1.Chapter 3 . The process be different with the offshore grid. A possible timeline for the construction of a trans- national offshore grid is sketched in Figure 18. HVDC VSC technologies are optimised. the medium term (2020) connection for offshore wind power at national level. 34 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT . enabling TSOs to recover investments producers with nearby off-take points. The necessary onshore transmission years to be fully accomplished. Implementation of pilot projects for connecting offshore wind power to different markets (Kriegers Flak.000 EWEA New HVDC linking Ireland and France 1.000 to possibly also linking Belgian node) recommendation 5. Adaptation of trajectories of planned offshore inter- SOURCE: Statnett. 2009 connectors to connect offshore wind power. Long- distance lines dedicated to offshore wind are planned and implemented.staged Onshore connection points are identified. and the long term (2030 and beyond). The multilateral grid tion process of a single line is very lengthy (around 10 planning process is prepared. The maps illustrate a proposed grid scenario for the short term Countries establish and implement coordinated (present situation to 2010).000 recommendation HVDC linking the UK and the Netherlands (as a modular connection.

On the basis of wind power scenarios. The operational and regulatory aspects of offshore grids Network operation: close cooperation within ENTSO Photo: Siemens The principal operational tasks concerning the offshore grid are: Such as the German study: DENA. the study identified upgrades that would significantly alleviate the congestions in the European grid for wind power scenarios up to 2030. ‘Integration into the national grid of onshore and offshore wind energy generated in (23) Germany by the year 2020’. The consequence in the short to medium term is that proceed invest onshore reinforcements have to be implemented on specific transmission corridors and lines. Available at: http://www. be an integral part of the operation of the interconnected European grid and therefore very close coordination is required between the various connected power systems. The actual rate of development of equitable way. 2005. It is therefore vital that ENTSO-E establishes a structure that is suited to such coop- eration. EWEA Onshore grid upgrade The offshore grid cannot be isolated from the rest of the network. One of the first studies that looked into this issue was the TradeWind project. for example through the North Sea Regional Group. however. and by step development • scheduling the HVDC lines for the predicted amounts of wind power and the nominated amounts of power for trade. • operating and maintaining the grid in a secure and tional offshore grid. The operation of the offshore grid will. which is a challenging task for the newly formed ENTSO-E.figure 19: Stages in the development of a transna. The exact locations of corridors and lines to be upgraded need to be identified by detailed studies(23). as well as within the System Operations and Market Committees. The rational development of such a grid for the purposes of promoting trade and connecting offshore renewable power has to be part of an overall planning process for the European networks.dena. SOURCE: whilst granting fair access to the offshore wind power capacity might follow a more step connected parties. OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 35 .

Furthermore. with markets relying to ensure an efficient allocation of the interconnec- on import and at the same time providing access tors for cross-border trade. as: combination of trade and offshore wind power trans- mission via a transnational offshore grid: • in a properly functioning electricity market. environmental and system benefits(24). would need to be granted to wind power. On average (annual basis or longer). as stip- ulated in the EU Renewable Energy Directive These issues should be taken up in the ongoing 2009/28/EC. grid requirements to the grid operator on a day-ahead a common regulatory regime should be put in place basis. ‘Integrating Wind . and that Norway has large amounts of control- order to enable a smoothly and efficiently constructed lable and storable hydro power. such The capacity of the offshore grid should be suffi.Building the European Offshore Grid Beside these organisational developments. there are significant barriers in the elec- have first call on the rights to use the grid this periods with low wind speeds. east Denmark and Germany in the connected offshore wind farms. together with functioning intra-day markets. the first tasks for the TSOs and industries involved is As an example. in imports. more specifically to agree on a Netherlands and Belgium will benefit from increased common system of voltage levels. wind power’s very low marginal cost will ensure it is • the differences in regulatory regimes and market the cheapest (and environmentally most benign) mechanisms of the countries involved. building blocks.Developing Europe’s power market for the large-scale integration of wind power. maximum is only produced for a certain amount of hours each year. Furthermore. north-west Germany is identified as an to set up a system of standards and grid connection energy surplus area with high internal congestions on requirements. market parties) to together with functionioning intra-day markets. 36 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT . a link would make it possible to trade power effec- cient to transport the maximum expected output of tively between Sweden. Regulatory framework enabling improved the capacity factor of the offshore wind farms. Regional Initiative for the integration of European power markets as pursued by ERGEG. In the Baltic Sea. tricity market in Europe. The offshore wind farms should At present. In order and with a significant surplus. linking the wind farm clusters in Combining transmission of offshore wind the Kriegers Flak together would enable flexibility for power and power trading transporting higher amounts of offshore wind power to areas with higher electricity prices. for planning interconnection (TSOs. TradeWind. It is necessary to establish a legal and regulatory The offshore grid enables the different electricity framework that enables an efficient use of the different markets to be interconnected in a much better way lines of the offshore grid in all its stages. and market rules so the capacity usage of the line by the wind farm.’ (24) Available at: http://www. which hamper an efficient tion. The benefits of the operation of such a grid for the market have been outlined by the TradeWind project. it will be essential that parties agree on a system linked these countries together would bring consider- of plug and play and standard – interchangeable able economic. wind farm operators would specify their ensure that sufficient grid capacity is built in time. one of variability introduced by the offshore wind resource. 2009. plan and construct the most economically efficient grid system. Taking into account the fact that the in the field of However. is approximately 40%. they should be allocated to cheap balancing power to deal with the added directly to the market via implicit auction. to incentivise the organisations responsible for wind The remaining capacity would then be available for farm connection (TSOs) and organisations responsible interconnection users at day-ahead nomination. electricity at any time on the market place. In order to Either way. New standardisation efforts are needed the mainland grid. an offshore grid which grid. or • a lack of proper rules with respect to priority • in the absence of a properly functioning electricity feed-in for wind power versus nomination of day- market (as is currently the case) priority access ahead and intra-day trade.Chapter 3 .

Economic value of an offshore grid lenging in situations of low load. TradeWind used There are several ways of evaluating the economic market models to help estimate the economic benefits value of an offshore grid. ‘Integrating Wind . which decreases as the size of cient transmission capacity): allowing the intraday the geographical area increases due to spatial rescheduling of cross border exchange would lead de-correlation. even at times which can be chal. • fl exibility of cross-border exchange (assuming suffi- • its variability.Developing Europe’s power market for the large-scale integration of wind power. OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 37 .trade-wind. to annual savings in system operation costs of • its low marginal costs and low CO2 emissions €1-2 billion per year. which favour the use of wind power whenever wind is available. 2009. leading to the following results: importance for market efficiency in Europe when inte- grating large amounts of offshore wind power. Intrinsic value of offshore grid Taking these properties into’ Available at: (25) http://www. which the forecast is organised increases. near minimum generation level. the market will respond more adequately to the generation mix: accepting intraday wind power characteristic properties of wind energy(25): forecasts by shortening gate-closure times would result in a reduction in the total operational costs • its predictability. In this • flexibility of rescheduling dispatch decisions in the way. A basic distinction can be TradeWind. which improves with a shorter of power generation of at least €260 million per forecasting horizon and as the size of the area for year. Photo: Siemens Further market integration and the establishment of at EU level of market mechanisms favouring wind intra-day markets for cross border trade are of key power integration.

bottlenecks in the AC grid can be avoided when trans- porting offshore wind power to consumers in areas with an energy deficit or high local generating costs. there is On a European level. 38 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT . A preliminary evaluation has been made pass through the wind farm area. the operational benefits of a meshed offshore grid could very well be significantly Photo: GE higher than estimated by the model.Chapter 3 . S. within the TradeWind project. Byrne. which looks at the benefits to society.are even more route. the benefits of the transmission always some economic benefit gained from integrating network upgrades – such as building subsea intercon- those wind farms that lie among the interconnector’s nectors linking offshore wind farms . depending on the distance from of a stronger European transmission network the offshore wind farm cluster to shore. Kelly. or where this route can easily be diverted to significant. This can be concluded from the TradeWind analysis. Berlin. a €326 million reduc- tion in annual total power generating costs can be interpreted as a very conservative estimate of the break-even cost for the extra investments needed to realise a meshed transnational offshore network. offshore connections with interconnectors for trade. which calculated the C. Veal. Germany.Building the European Offshore Grid made between the purely market orientated approach which looks at economic benefits for specific interested parties (for example investors) and the ‘regulated’ approach. as brought about by a meshed offshore grid. 2007. European Offshore Wind Conference and Exhibition. Denmark and Germany in the Baltic Sea). ‘The cost-benefit of integrating offshore wind farm connections and subsea interconnectors in the (26) North Sea’. Proc. the Netherlands. Germany. with an estimated reduction in operational cost of power generation at the European level of €326 million per year. Denmark. which looked into the economics of combining opment and employment. Apart from the economic benefits highlighted above. Certainly for distances of more than 90km from shore. such as the start-up cost of thermal generators. A preliminary assessment of the costs/benefits of a transnational offshore grid in the regulated approach indicates that it brings high economic value to society. Taking into account factors that are not covered in the TradeWind cost model. the actual implementation will create high social This conclusion is in line with findings of the study by benefits in terms of economic growth. industrial devel- Veal(26). The benefits are to a great extent due to the added flexibility introduced when including an HVDC network that links many countries (Norway. C. internal grid constraints and the balancing of wind power. The combination appears to be cost-effective in The value of an offshore grid in the context many scenarios. Because HVDC connections are controllable. compared to a more nationally orientated approach. As demonstrated by TradeWind. It is also impor- tant to note that the offshore grid structure was by no means optimised in the TradeWind study. Belgium and the UK in the North Sea and Sweden.

2009. including period 2007-2030(30).org/belgium. The additional investment costs for the topology were estimated to be around €9 billion. OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 39 .5 connection. • for comparison purposes: the UK’s East Coast Transmission study(29) looked at an offshore network along the east coast of GB linking in the Shetland and Orkney Islands in 2020. • Greenpeace(27): this study proposed a grid in the North Sea for 68 GW of offshore wind power. the countries around the North Sea than the one which also comprises the required onshore upgrades.’ Available at: http://www. interconnectors and the dedicated lines for wind power the savings in operational costs amount to €1. This number would include both the ‘trade’ For TradeWind’s 2020 grid and wind power scenario. according to the 2030 high scenario. ‘World Energy Outlook’. electricity transmission grids of €187 billion in the sion upgrade projects that were proposed. 2008. (30) International Energy Agency. • TradeWind(28): the additional investment costs were estimated for a meshed offshore grid connecting the “far” offshore wind farm clusters with a total installed capacity of 80 GW in the North Sea to those in the Baltic Sea. Furthermore in (27) Greenpeace. Investments and financing Investment cost estimates Until now. The economic projections and several offshore HVDC lines. (28) TradeWind.Developing Europe’s power market for the large-scale integration of wind power. transmission up to 2030 is in the range of €20-30 2008. taking into account specific cable lengths and transmission capacities (not including the costs of the interconnectors envisaged already now for trading purposes). Taking into account the fact that the offshore network discussed in this chapter is more extensive than the topologies used in the studies mentioned above. (29) Seanergy: East Coast Transmission (January 2008). ‘Integrating Wind . Available at: http://www. Two recent reports made some preliminary calculations which allow ballpark figures to be estimated for the total investment cost of a transnational offshore grid. allowing for an average investment Agency (IEA) estimates total investments in European cost of €490 million for each of the 42 transmis.200 km. Because this estimate budgeting should be made within the framework of a assumed a less strong interconnection between total upgrade of the European transmission network. For comparison. a safe reduction in the operational costs of power generation bottom line assumption for investments in offshore caused by dedicated grid the International Energy billion per year. Assuming 1 GW capacity per line. ‘A North Sea Electricity Grid [R]evolution’. to be in place by around 2025. proposed in this report.5 billion. The topology consid- ered for the study has a total single line length of 6. it should be considered as It is evident that a detailed assessment has to be conservative. the proposed grid would cost €15-20 billion.greenpeace. few studies have published estimates on investment costs for a Europe-wide offshore grid. It estimated a total investment cost of €5. based on detailed network designs.

Therefore a good of the interconnector. would incentivise their construction. If allowed by regulators. Private compa- In this respect. trical losses and operation and maintenance costs Upfront guarantees are needed. as the European understanding of the transiting electricity volumes. tion with regulated returns. The final cost for the consumers. sary to ensure a sustainable return on investment.Building the European Offshore Grid Photo: Vestas the assessment of the economics. Such guarantees should be based on the cumulative number of consumers Financing the European electricity grid on the interconnected markets. the regulators should allow these nies investing in these face higher risks. investments with higher risks and longer return rates. would be lowered by the fees The financing of the future pan-European offshore grid collected by the network operators through the use will involve significant investments. possibly in combina- should be taken into account. trading which will come from the production of the offshore develops. performed could represent additional profits for TSOs. electricity market becomes fully operational. in particular 40 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT . the cost of elec. and the grids are used at full capacity. is neces. cost for the final consumer would be minimal.Chapter 3 . merchant interconnectors Investments in regulated interconnectors. the wind parks and the development of trading. Therefore. which and operated by TSOs should prioritise meshed grids. however.

should be directed towards offshore wind power. as dedicated streamlined legislation. managed by (RSFF). In also be directed towards the development of electricity order to speed up the process. key components of the As described previously. involve onshore reinforcements where necessary. a specific instrument. and electricity infrastructure for offshore pan-European electricity grid seems ensured. parties) to plan and construct the most economically nation between the stakeholders (European TSOs). efficient grid system. the bankability of the future value chain. and funded OffshoreGrid project are expected to provide would conceive a grid in a modular and methodical way. Investment Bank Risk Sharing Finance Facility or the forthcoming ‘Marguerite fund’. and in addition to infrastructures. Recommendations: It is recommended that a transnational offshore grid issues. In European Economic Recovery Plan is a welcome small these cases. the planning and implementation process sible for planning interconnection (TSOs. by 2020.for the connection of large offshore wind arrays. the European Investment Bank. the offshore grid indicate that it will bring significant economic benefits to all society. including trade between electricity markets. structural funds should investments should happen in a timely manner. should a sufficiently ambitious vision emerge Preliminary assessments of the economic value of in ENTSO’s 10 Year Network Development Plan. more detailed analyses in the short term. A realistic planning possible time frames (short. support should the profitability of the interconnector would then be provided to the investments. the investment could be guaranteed by step in the right direction. But existing EU instruments. market should involve close cooperation and efficient coordi. medium and long term). In this respect. for example by the European such as the funds for Trans-European Networks. 85 GW by 2025 and 150 GW of offshore wind power by 2030. but wind power. At regional level. together with the promotion of Preliminary topologies will be presented. ENTSO-E should provide the appropriate forum for coop- eration. A common regulatory regime should be put in place An ambitious European vision must be established to incentivise the organisations responsible for wind using EWEA’s 20 Year Offshore Network Development farm connection (TSOs) and the organisations respon- Master Plan. These The transnational offshore grid must be planned as an proposals should be taken up as soon as possible integral part of the European transmission system and in the planning process of ENTSO. schedule for the offshore grid should closely follow Ongoing studies like the European Commission existing initiatives for offshore interconnectors. Appropriate standardisation work should be infrastructure be built to connect the predicted 40 GW carried out in the short term. HVDC VSC is a promising technology and R&D should be accelerated to address the remaining technical OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 41 . the depend on the development speed in the area.

Chapter 4 Supply Chain 42 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT Photo: Vestas .

distinct from approaching maturity. and rity of Europe’s energy supply.000 large numbers of wind turbines and ensuring cost wind turbines. Reaching 40 GW and reliable mass-produced products. just new heavy industry in which Europe is a technology as it was for onshore wind 15 years ago. offshore wind turbine technology is still technology leadership. whilst reducing energy onshore turbine technology. Research is focused on further improving the power industry installs 20 onshore wind turbines in products’ reliability and efficiency. but the development The offshore wind energy sector is at a much earlier of onshore technology and markets serves as a strong stage of development. creating new jobs and ensuring European optimum. the onshore market is should be seen as a specific industry.Building a new European offshore industry parallel. The place. leader. such as Cost reductions for the offshore wind energy sector market evolution and economies of scale. but technological breakthroughs are sought in project scale will increase. tions. In the shipbuilding industry and the steel sector. installing and operating approximately 10. incremental technology innovations are taking and longer production series from the industry. and be a coming years. With 1. the to enter a phase of strong industrial growth. In terms of annual installa. Currently. the main focus will be on standardising driver for their future development. the door is still wide open for innovative concepts and designs. tech. such as the oil and gas sector. In the last few years. Therefore. This industry will also develop in partnership with the sector will shortly leave the demonstration phase related industries. and the trend will continue OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 43 . of offshore wind energy by 2020 will mean manufac- nological improvements are focused on delivering turing. In this will arise in particular from higher market volumes field.5 GW installed today. the European offshore wind industry In terms of technology. with well established processes onshore wind industry development. the wind ment. uniting existing heavy industries in a common effort to tackle climate change and improve the secu- Whereas the size of onshore wind turbines. seem to be reaching an imports. the EU per working day. working day over the next 12 years. Onshore. Developing a new European offshore industry is a challenge. indicator and benchmark for what can be achieved. In the development of offshore. the offshore wind energy sector has emerged as a distinct sector of the wind industry. which corresponds to an average of competitiveness through the optimisation of the three to four offshore turbines being installed per manufacturing process and supply chain manage. Offshore wind the installation processes and developing dedicated energy provides an historic opportunity to create a offshore turbines from a dedicated supply chain. offshore wind energy is where onshore wind was in the early 1990s. to reflect the require- ments of conditions specific to offshore. progressing and evolving fast.

2008. Estimate assumes Vestas delivers as much as Siemens. REpower. . Regarding access.000 Vestas 5. (34) Based on Reuters Article Repower Plans Capacity Expansion April 2. ‘The wind forecast.7 GW in 2011 to 6. six turbine manufacturers are already supplying demand from 1. which may drive the costs is less risky than the offshore market for turbine down in the medium term. dedicated needed to fulfill European demand. This will enable streamlined.750 MW by 2013 (Table 3). Source: BTM Consult.600 by 2010(34) 850(35) BARD Engineering . partly due also to an increase in the onshore designs. (33) No data available. MAKE consulting(31) (Figure 20) indicates that there is tives to build the necessary installation vessels and currently more production capacity in Europe than is access technologies. A minimum offshore turbine Supply of turbines capacity of 5. offshore demand is forecast to reach 10 GW in 2010. design. That would leave room for production In the following sections. supply side’.000 by 2010 2.075 150 4. will be suffi- cient to supply the increase in the offshore market Today. The market will now see signs wind turbines is therefore dependent on the growth in of relaxation. the available substructures. if castings are considered as the limiting elements. (35) Assume 1/3 of capacity. corrosion This trend is reflected by the new generation of offshore and reliability issues creates new challenges in the wind turbines which are coming on the market. tion of a large number of offshore wind turbines and compared to a production capacity of approximately foundations. 10. However. this causes bottle- MW range and beyond. drivers are addressed: turbine supply. Multibrid and Nordex. vessels and harbours. 2008. Table 3: Turbine supply estimates four years ahead Offshore Turbine supply Projected production Offshore capacity Manufacturer capacity 2008 (MW) (MW) and timeline (MW) 2008 (MW) Siemens 1. the offshore market: Siemens. (32) Siemens reserved one third of its capacity for offshore wind. ised offshore turbines.450 by 2011 n. such as aesthetics and sound emission level. Vestas. 2. The production capacity for offshore price of raw materials. to the relaxation of a number of constraints on turbine the development of specific offshore turbine designs. including offshore turbine availability.000 2. some of the major cost capacity to be available for offshore manufacturing.8 GW in 2020. 2008 was characterised first by component and then turbine supply shortages which led to growth in wind Most current offshore turbines are adaptations of turbine prices. offshore wind turbine manufacturers are increasing their capacity. “World market update 2008” for the supplied capacity in 2008.947 649(32) 6. In addition. 44 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT . 2009.581 . The offshore environment may allow offshore sector. BARD. These offshore sector. necks in periods of high onshore demand. repeatable installation processes.000(33) REpower 943 .Chapter 4 . and provide incen. The economics of offshore wind tends to favour significant modification of onshore machines by the larger machines. In the near term this will lead to a larger designs (in the 5 MW range) are dedicated to the (31) MAKE Consulting. Given that the onshore market and increased competition. and in the medium and long term. 12 GW. 400 by 2010 400 Multibrid 50 50 505 505 Nordex 1. the onshore market.a. addressing marine conditions. Total onshore and harbours will be necessary to support the implementa. using dedicated and standard. and EWEA.Supply Chain towards larger offshore wind farms in the 200-300 manufacturers and developers.

Supply side. ‘The wind forecast. and preventive maintenance offshore environment. as the accessibility of offshore wind farms for repair and maintenance is lower than for offshore.’ menting redundancy. a compared to demand (MW) global approach to the value chain is needed. major challenges. rather than generator size. this raises the issue of the availability of the installation vessels and cranes able to install and operate these machines. However. imple- Source: MAKE Consulting. robust wind turbines ability and maintainability. For future applications. and are aimed at addressing its algorithms. The main driver for offshore wind technology continues to be economic efficiency. corrosion. 2009. 2. developing simple. In this regard. improving wind turbine intelligence. FIGURE 20: Domestic production capacity in Europe focus is reliability and cost efficiency. reli. such as marinisation. the key element will be to further improve turbine reliability. variable speed with new generator optimal size of an offshore wind turbine as the main concepts). advanced control algorithms. including as few moving parts as possible to limit the risk of failure (two-bladed. direct- There is no consensus within the sector regarding the drive turbines. downwind. Photo: Dong Energy OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 45 . while large wind turbine designs (up to 10 MW) are often cited. condition monitoring. In the past. upscaling was a major cost driver for the wind industry. Two philosophies are currently emerging in this regard: 1.

Supply Chain Table 4: Offshore wind turbine manufacturers Manufacturer Power output Record Siemens Wind Power has stated that it is prepared to reserve up to one third of its production capacity for offshore wind turbines.6 MW direct drive concept. In the first phase BARD has planned three wind farms each BARD Engineering 5 MW with 80 turbines of 5 MW. Siemens has taken a lead position. No reservation of capacity has been announced for offshore. In offshore development.6 MW) wind turbines to the 1 GW London Array offshore windfarm owned by DONG Energy. The 5M serial production begun in autumn 2008 in a new construction hall in Bremerhaven. In the beginning of 2009. REpower is participating in the “Beatrice Demonstrator Project” to test the perform- ance of the 5 MW turbine on the open sea 25 km off the east coast of Scotland and at a water depth of over 40m. BARD has developed a specific offshore design. own elaboration.pioneered the offshore installation of wind turbines with the world’s first offshore wind farm at Vindeby. Vestas will increase its total production capacity (onshore and Vestas 3 MW offshore) to 10 GW in 2010.6- 107 (3. currently being tested Multibrid 5 MW at Alpha Ventus. This position was further strength- ened in 2008. the 5M (5 MW) and the 6M (6 MW). The offshore turbine supply will rely on the developments of the onshore market. where they are to be tested for offshore operation and REpower 5 and 6 MW where they will be subjected to a type certification. E. Delivery is scheduled to start in 2010. Bonus – now Siemens Wind Power . with the aim to improve reliability and reduce costs. and testing 3. Siemens Energy will supply 175 of its SWT-3. installed in Siemens 3. the first three 6M turbines were erected close to the Danish-German border. when the company signed an agreement with Denmark’s DONG Energy for the supply of up to 500 offshore turbines. REpower manufactures some of the largest wind turbines in the world suitable for offshore use.5 MW for offshore use. Multibrid developed a specific offshore design based on a 5 MW permanent magnet generator and a single stage planetary transmission. Their development focuses on the Deutsche Bucht. suitable for offshore applications. Multibrid will supply 80 M5000 turbines for the offshore Global Tech 1 wind farm (400 MW). its track record includes Nysted Havmøllepark.6 107. with the SWT3. Vestas is one of the few players that has experience in the offshore sector.ON and Masdar. Delivery is scheduled for 2011-2012. Since then. 46 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT . Global Tech 1 is located 90 kilometres from the coast in the German North Sea. REpower recently signed an agreement with Vattenfall to supply 150 MW to the Ormonde wind farm. REPower will install six 5M in 2009 at the test project Alpha Ventus. The permit for the project “Bard Offshore 1” has already been obtained. In late 2008 the company won a large order of 300 MW for Warwick Energy’s Thanet project in the UK.Chapter 4 . This turbine is designed Nordex 2. Burbo Offshore Wind Farm and Greater Gabbard.6 MW 1991. Source: MAKE Consulting. The N90 offshore is an adaptation of the onshore design. Denmark. Siemens is currently developing its next generation of offshore turbines.

(36) OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 47 . for instance. the operation and mainte- nance (O&M) function will have to be certified and unified to create a unified O&M industry. This dual approach is illustrated Figure 21. ‘Taking our turbines offshore will be a breeze says Acciona’. such as Acciona. This dual approach applies for offshore wind energy. and Gamesa. with the objective to make FIGURE 21: Illustration of problem-solving and inno.5 MW offshore turbine before 2015. which may produce a 3. the On the one hand. vation orientated research Offshore operation and maintenance of wind turbines is still very much in its infancy with each project having its own approach. human presence. A typical learning process demon- strates an increase of maintenance and repair cost immediately after putting a new concept into operation. Besides this strategy of incremental improvement. This second approach is also an opportunity to make signif- icant reductions in the cost of energy by developing innovative concepts. tenance strategies. On the other hand. 12 June.In addition to the current market players. As the amount of operational offshore units increases. In addition. incremental improvements in the current basic concepts of wind turbine systems. offshore project designers and operators. Some ideas that may be introduced into the O&M market are as follows: • swing off systems enabling a spare nacelle to replace a nacelle in need of service. which is participating in the UK’s Round 3 with a marinised 3 MW turbine(36). ECN. it is likely that a new learning trajectory component lifetime and developing preventive main- with the same characteristics will be followed. brush and filter changes independently of Courtesy: Jos Beurskens. are requesting the development of completely new concepts. For an innova. This can be realised through a strategy focused on producing continuous. Recharge. manufacturers focus on incremental maintenance and repair costs decrease. The future for wind turbine designs In order to establish large production volumes. offshore turbines as simple and robust as possible. the upcoming large market volumes may also attract non- European newcomers. innovation by improving product reliability. breakthrough concepts are discussed. several pressing demands have to be met. through the evolution of maintenance costs as a function of concept lifetime. depending on market dynamism. These two strategies should be Photo: Dong Energy developed in parallel. newcomers are taking an interest in the market. increasing tive concept. Through incremental technological improvements. • preventive and automatic systems that can carry out oil.

the larger the economic loss for non. and optimised by weight and efficiency. direct- working lives. More tional power industry with proper life time analysis efficient and newer drive train concepts are needed of the different components. operation and associated maintenance. The need for extremely the future. They need a with the aim of limiting the number of moving parts 48 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT . The larger the machine and further away reliable machines offshore can also be an extra driver from the coast.Supply Chain Photo: Stiftung Offshore Windenergie • multi–coated blades keeping blade maintenance to number of major overhauls during their lifetimes to a minimum. Wind turbines are currently heavy part replacement easier. such as variable speed. ensure efficient operation. components or sub assemblies is difficult. cheaper and more paramount to the success of offshore wind energy in efficient turbine maintenance. A more modular build up of drive trains with more built Improving the reliability of offshore wind turbines is in redundancy could help faster. as does any conventional • modular drive trains should be introduced making power generation plant. Vintage wind turbines often have the same gearbox for their entire Innovative concepts. to bring turbine reliability up to the required level. Modern wind turbines are much larger drive offshore wind turbines are currently emerging. Service schedules designed in such a way that the exchange of main should be modelled on those from the conven. for the reliability of onshore machines.Chapter 4 .

Eide. in partnership with Ecofys’. but not offshore. For example. Züblin. (37) OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 49 . So far. Hochtief. form. The offshore manu- machine also operates at lower drive train speeds and facturing industry cannot deliver this in its current thus creates less stress on components. taking into account Larger machines (5 to 10 MW). as gearboxes are The offshore wind industry will need to deploy upwards expensive to replace offshore. Lighter the supply of substructures should not been seen as gearless technology is now being tested onshore. A two-bladed machine would be easier to install as nacelles can be stacked with the full rotor mounted. KTH School of Energy and Environment. take urgent steps to rectify this situation. independent from their transport and installation as an integrated approach is taken. A multi-pole gearless of 10. the foundation represents 25% 30 years. economies of scale offshore development costs.and lowering maintenance costs. Excalibur. required. 2008. A main chal. No large two-bladed offshore turbine is currently in operation. Photo: Elsam The same goes for the vessels used: Buzzard. machines are louder in operation making them less appropriate onshore. The industry currently has insufficient capacity. Dredging International. Per Aarsleff. lenge for these concepts is to reduce the weight on top and the processes adapted from oil and gas manu- of the tower. Van Oord and Ballast Nedam.000 structures by 2020. Thus. Today the main actors in the offshore wind industry are civil marine engineering firms such as MT Højgaard. Rambiz and Svanen are mainly used for marine works. in order to optimise the use of material facturing are not capable of delivering the volumes and limit the transport and installation costs. Jumping Jack. specifically designed unique site conditions and the location of the wind for offshore could bring benefits in terms of econo. Papalexandrou. Bilfinger and Berger. or increasing the wind farm’s Substructures represent a significant proportion of power output. costs in 25m water depth. It established a number of facilities around Europe to manufacture these struc- tures. as oil and gas technology has moved towards subsea developments. sive to produce than their geared equivalent. offshore manufacturing capacity has been significantly reduced. Two-bladed economics of offshore developments. Therefore the offshore wind industry must gearless machines have been heavier and more expen. However. In the case described could also be realised by increasing the lifetime to by Papalexandrou(37). In addition. ‘Economic analysis of offshore wind farms. Supply of substructures The offshore manufacturing industry was originally developed by the oil and gas industry to supply a limited quantity of bespoke structures. and over the last 40 years it has built several hundred of them. whereas the single blade lifts of the third blade for the bunny eared configuration are highly dependent on calm weather. novel sub-structure designs and/or improved manufacturing processes Concepts such as two-bladed downwind turbines that reduce costs will be critical to improving the could emerge in the medium term. mies of scale by placing fewer larger machines on fewer foundations. farm. Vagant. provided it does not negatively affect the (5 MW turbine) to 34% (2 MW turbine) of investment design.

Chapter 4 .Supply Chain Table 5: Overview of the different types of substructures Brief Type of Suitable physical Advantages Limitations substructure water depths description One Easy to manufacture. experi. inexpensive requires a preparation of the and more Thornton seabed. Piling noise. Weight and cost. Adequate for Jacket > 40m lation period (first piles. less steel Expensive at this stage tested attached to seabed Floating Blue H steel Semi Prototype cylinder Deep water. and competitive- Monopile steel supporting 10 – 30m ence gained on previous ness depending on seabed pillar projects conditions and turbine weight Combination of proven Monopile One methods. less steel Expensive at this stage submersible being tested attached to in 113m seabed Source: Carbon Trust. Industrialisation drilling possible Concrete Transportation can be prob- structure. Adequate for Complex to manufacture. relatively easy to Very sensitive to seabed Suction bucket n. Companies 50 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT . Need heavy equip- bank ment to remove it Steel cylinder with sealed top No piling.700m Very deep water.a. Large offshore instal- Lattice Less noise. pressed into install. stability. later structure heavy large-scale turbines on placing of structure and grouting) therefor sensitive for weather impact Not in Suitable for deep waters. concrete. supporting 10 – 40m less environmental (noise) Heavy to transport installed by pillar impact. lematic for heavy turbines. low Floating contact with > 50m allowing large energy poten- track record for offshore wind seabed tials to be harnessed Floating Spar buoy steel Hywind being cylinder 120 . Cost effective. quadropod structure and more heavy large-scale turbines heavy to transport Expensive so far. It Up to 40m Gravity base used at´ No piling noise. Subject to wave loading and fatigue failure. easy to remove conditions the ocean floor Tripod / 3/4-legged Up to 30m High strength. EWEA.

5 MW floating wind turbine ideal for the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea. In order to harness the offshore wind potential of deeper waters such as those off the Norwegian coast. In addition. such as fixed structures with three or four legs (tripods/quad- ropods) (Figures 22. Most offshore structures developed to date use 2–3 MW turbines FIGURE 23: Tripod foundation for the Multibrid in water depths of up to 20m. These will be largely based on monopile technology and gravity-based structures (Figure 22). Source: Carbon Trust as published in Recharge 26/06/09. additional sub-structure designs will be required. and at depths of over 25m the foundation 5 MW and water depth from 80 to 300m. The total weight is 1. the system Today.FIGURE 22: Shallow water and medium depth first prototype has been built and has been opera- foundations tional since June 2009. there is no standard offshore substructure remains stable. The centre of gravity being far below the centre of buoyancy. OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 51 . • the Blue H concept (Figure 25). This floating element extends 100 metres beneath the surface and is fastened to the seabed by three anchor piles. Three demonstrators are available in Europe today: • the Hywind concept from Statoil Hydro (Figure 26). the Atlantic Ocean. recently tested in Italy. as turbine size increases and the industry migrates into deeper waters. depending on the project economics. The turbine itself is built by Siemens. The Source: www.500 tonnes. with ballast at the bottom part. It is designed for turbines of up to design.alpha-ventus. costs start to increase dramatically. and site conditions and would be therefore well adapted to countries with medium depth waters. and most of those to turbines at the RAVE test site be developed in the near future will do the same. 23 and 24). has been selected by the UK’s Energy Technology Institute (ETI) as one of the first projects to receive funds as part of its £1. consists of a steel jacket filled with ballast. floating designs are required (Figure 23). • the Sway concept is developed in partnership with Statkraft and Shell in particular.1 billion initiative. gravity structures or jackets. Such technologies are suitable for water depths of up to 50-60m. Different concepts will compete. It is based on a floating elongated pole far below the water surface. This UK based project aims to develop an integrated solution for a 5 MW floating turbine deployed offshore in waters between 30 and 300 meters deep. or the Mediterranean Sea. Blue H was recently selected under the Italian framework “Industria 2015” to develop a hybrid concrete/steel 3.

In the short term. new and improved materials and manu- facturing technologies are required for welding. the major deployment issue is the development of the production facilities and equip- ment for manufacturing the sub-structures in the 52 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT . These must be coupled with more efficient manufacturing processes and proce- dures. However. easy to manufacture sub- structure design is essential for large-scale offshore wind deployment. It will also mean the deployment of new and improved manufacturing processes. In the near term. on schedule and to the required Source: Carbon Trust as published in Recharge 26/06/09. standards. Unique concrete/steel hybrids may also be developed in the future. making use of automation and robotics. at an acceptable price. procedures and equipment to increase production efficiency and reduce costs. for example. standard.Chapter 4 .Supply Chain FIGURE 24: Medium and high depth foundations FIGURE 25: Blue H technology necessary quantities. FIGURE 26: The Hywind concept Source: Recharge Simon Bogle and Offshore Stiftung / Jan Oelker. This will require significant investment in new manufacturing yards and in the associated supply chain. casting and pouring concrete. to reduce the unit cost of substructures.

Source: New Energy Finance. Heavy lift vessels from the oil and gas often not up-to-date(38) as most up-to-date vessels are industry are not suited to serial installation of foun- booked by the oil and gas industry.bnoffshore. of installation capacity after 2011. with an installation marine installation). nacelle and blades of one turbine on Horns vessels is the need to be able to operate in different Rev was close to eight hours. of offshore wind installation ships was pioneered by the MPI Resolution. turbine and vessel supply forecasts foundations and lay cables. Their equipment is installation(39). dations. A key conclusion of the Beatrice project is that Dynamic positioning systems are of vital importance for the precise positioning of wind turbines and safe installation offshore.000 offshore wind turbines. as larger turbines imply larger ships. (38) http://www. The second generation jurisdictions. Currently there are three compared to annual government targets (MW) factors which are driving the current development of Turbine Installation Vessels (TIV): • wind turbine size. window. However many of the from the oil and gas sector and civil marine sector.Vessels . which were again to operate these boats at the required security used for the major repairs. In addition to the turbine and tower installation vessels. with the necessary substructures and cables by 2020. Many installation vessels only a few vessels are available for heavy foundation are not ideal for such conditions. The Gaoh Offshore The current market for offshore wind turbine installa. the offshore wind industry are extremely demanding. Turbine installation vessels have the advan. substructure multi-turbine vessels that can fully exploit the available installation and other vessels weather windows. This vessel is also able to install FIGURE 27: Project. the creation of specialised jack up vessels to ensure the turbines can be quickly and efficiently installed. • distance from shore. fast-moving. The record for putting up level. A number of ambitious plans exist to build new large capacity ships. due to a higher number of operation days. The current technology trend will favour large-scale vessels able to carry multiple pre-assembled wind The type of vessel to be developed depends greatly turbines. on the strategy to be chosen for deploying the future tage of being custom built.6 MW wind turbines different projects. An additional barrier to offshore wind deployment Initially the firm A2SEA converted two feeder vessels will be having sufficient offshore personnel trained to install the Horns Rev I wind farm. tive installation processes. as the deeper the water. largely because of their cost. The industry will therefore rely on scarce equipment to achieve its The installation of offshore wind turbines has fostered objectives. and also draws on some vessels including towers and rotors. New Energy Finance (Figure 27) forecasts a shortage Compared to existing offshore sectors (oil and gas. the installation processes for capacity of 2 GW per year. the more expensive and larger a turbine installation ship needs to be. parks. as it tion makes use of a number of different vessels for has a planned capacity of 18 x 3. • water depth. as the further a site is from the supply harbour (and the larger the capacity of the turbines) the higher the transport costs to site. Another factor that can complicate the use of the tower. vessel (Figure 32 on p. (39) OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 53 . self-propelled. and repeti. • optimisation of installation in a given weather Note: Turbine demand derived from developers’ estimates after 2011. planned vessels lack sufficient finance to build due to A critical element of the offshore supply chain will be the increased reluctance of banks to take risks due to the availability of installation vessels to facilitate the the financial crisis and the lack of support work in the installation of 10.turbine installation.58) is an ideal together oil and gas industry.

and operation close to the site. the distance to the coast. for example. WF M 54 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT . However. At this support harbour final fitting of this method is that the installation vessel does WF M and assembly takes place. The advantage support harbour(40).Supply Chain 2 WF M C 1 most of the offshore assembly should be done on FIGURE 29: High speed jack-up vessel shuttles from land. Suppliers based in demonstrated that such a strategy could be economi- Bremerhaven. it requires a second ship. Previous experience has led to the bunny ear manufacturing site configuration whereby nacelles have the hub and two blades mounted on shore and the third blade stacked onboard a ship for installation. A2SEA turbine manufacturer to the site. When the pre-assembly not need to be used for transport. feeder vessels supply an offshore Turbines. in order C 1 to optimise operation and lower costs (see harbours section). A second approach is means the wind turbines have to be handled a second shipping the pre-assembled turbines directly from the time from the feeder to the installation vessel. are able to deliver this type cally viable compared to the first and second options of service. This vessels or barges. However. This means that the offshore wind 2 WF M industry should be located near harbours.Chapter 4 . a trend should emerge towards the ‘one lift concept’ of fully erected turbines. substructures and towers are shipped to a jack-up vessel to the installation site. as installing the third blade at sea is a sensitive and time WF M consuming element of the lifting operation. ‘UK Ports for the Offshore Wind Industry: Time to Act’. Source: BVG Associates Three installation strategies are illustrated below: Assembly Offshore WF M Pre-assembly at harbour Using this method. 2009. for UK Round 3. involving longer distances to the coast. jack-up vessel shuttles from there WF M 2 WF M C 1 Source: BVG Associates Source: BVG Associates (40b) The choice of a given installation strategy depends on the economic balance between the number and type of ships used. and the trans- Manufacture and pre-assembly WF at harbour M portation / operation risks involved. For instance. an extra work is finished the turbines are transported and loading operation has to be used to load the feeder installed at site by a turbine installation vessel. FIGURE 30: Feeder barge shuttles from manufac- turing site to jack-up at wind farm site FIGURE 28: Ship turbines to local construction port. (40 & 40b) BVG Associates for UK Department of Energy and Climate Change. the third strategy limits the transition times of the instal- This approach entails the setting up of an assembly lation vessel. for example. was the installation configuration used for Horns Rev 1. However.

should be eligible for such instruments. these vessels should be able Bank in particular should take the necessary meas- to carry assembled subsystems. To speed up the (30-40m and beyond). Through the European Investment operations performed at sea. Accessing capital to build such wind energy sector. or even a set of ures to support the risk related to these significant assembled turbines in order to limit the number of investments. and operate in harsh condi. specific financial operation from an estimated 180 days a year to measures are required.4 billion. process and enable the timely delivery of the neces- tions. the necessary financing instruments exist for renewable energies. with a total invest- cated offshore installation vessels for the offshore ment of €2. A variety of access solutions will be needed. Windcat systems will be essential for the operation of the Workboat (top) and Ampelmann (below) offshore facilities and the safety of personnel involved in the installation. Such vessels should be able to vessels requires strong and stable market conditions install offshore wind farms in medium water depths to guarantee return on investments. hook-up. 12 instal. The European Investment 260-290 days. These systems must be capable of transferring people and equipment safely to the turbine. in order to increase the number of days of sary number of installation vessels. . These will range from helicopters through to an array of different-sized boats and jack-ups capable of lifting the heaviest components into and out of the nacelle. ment of offshore wind power. expanded lation vessels will be required. Ideally. Figure 31 shows two of the access systems devel- oped: the access catamaran developed by Windcat Workboats and the Ampelmann system by TU Delft. Recommendations: The installation of 40 GW by 2020 will require dedi. commissioning and opera- tions and maintenance (O&M) of the turbines. effective access FIGURE 31: Two new access systems. cost in the region of €200 million. As key elements for the deploy- On the basis of a minimum capacity of 10 turbines. OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 55 .In addition to installation vessels. They must provide a suitable means of escape and casualty rescue and be robust in northern European weather conditions. Bank. This will require the development of specialist vessels that can replace and repair major equipment. Each vessel could accordingly. installation vessels 10 sets of blades and 10 tower sections. such as gearboxes and blades.

Chapter 4 - Supply Chain

A brief introduction to some vessels used in heavy-lift vessels when suited can be used for foun-
turbine installation dation, turbine, and cable installation, such as Eide
(installation at Nysted I, II and Lillegrunden), Rambiz
The tables below present a non-exhaustive list (Beatrice, Thornton Bank), or HLV Svanen (Egmond
of vessels that can be used for foundation and aan Zee, Gunfleets Sand and Rhyl Flats).
turbine installation. In addition to those presented,

Table 6: A selection of vessels and jack-up barges currently active in wind installation with an operating depth of

JB-114 and
JB-109 SEA Jack Resolution LISA Kraken Titan 2
Jack-up barge Seajacks
NV int
Max 35 with leg
Operation depth 50m 35m 50m 50m 40m 50m
Crane max. 280t 600t 300t 600t 280t 700t 180t

Self Self
Jack-up propelled Jack-up crane Jack-up ropelled
Configuration Jack-up barge propelled
barge jack-up ship barge jack-up
barge barge

160 38 60
Accommodation 50 incl. crew Max 60 160 optional na
optional standard optional

The MPI Resolution and the Kraken are the only dedi- currently working in the oil and gas sector. The Kraken
cated turbine installation vessels currently capable of is to return to wind installation shortly and is to be
working at more than 30m water depth. The Kraken is joined by a new sister ship.

Table 7: Selection of vessels currently active in wind turbine installation with an operating depth of <30m

Attribute Sea Energy Sea Power Excalibur
Owner A2SEA A2SEA Seacore
Operation depth 27m 14.3m 30m
Crane max 120t 120t 220t
Configuration Jack-up crane ship Jack-up crane ship Jack-up barge
Accommodation 36 incl. Crew 36 incl. crew 20 plus crew

Sea Energy and Sea Power are the original turbine in- though optimised for wind, is not self propelling.
stallation vessels used at Horns Rev 1. The Excalibur,

The Bard Wind Lift vessel is not included as this will be used by BARD Engineering themselves.


Table 8: Some vessels due to enter service in the near term

Attribute Adventure Discover Shamal Scirocco Inwind Gaoh Blue Ocean
Seajacks Seajacks Wind
Owner MPI MPI Inwind Gaoh
Int Int carrier
Operation depth 40m 40m 40m 40m na na 40m 60m
Crane max. 1,000t 1,000t 700t 200t na na 1,600t 1,200t

Self Self Self Self Self
propelled propelled propelled propelled propelled
Configuration na na propelled
jack-up jack-up jack-up jack-up jack-up
jack-up ship
crane ship ship ship ship ship

52 incl.
120 incl. 60 incl. 121 incl.
Accommodation Max 120 crew na na na
crew crew crew

In service Q1 2011 Q3 2011 na na na na Q3 2011

Table 9: Vessel availability (for European offshore wind installation) by type of application

Vessel type Vessel supply
Survey vessels
Used to survey the sea floor in preparation for the
installation of an offshore wind farm.
Currently sufficient for market.
Smaller survey vessels are used to perform
Environmental Impact Assessment studies and
Turbine Installation Vessels Three out of four in operation, three being built, 12
Custom built self propelled installation vessels that needed in total.
can carry multiple turbines at a time. Extremely difficult to finance in the current climate.
Construction support vessels
Used to assist in the construction of offshore wind Sufficient but supply dependent on demand from oil
parks. Includes motorised and non-motorised jack and gas sector.
up barges, barges, pontoons and platforms.
Work boats
Support the work of other vessels by providing Sufficient vessels.
supplies of tools and consumables to other boats.
Sufficient for scheduled maintenance work.
Service vessels Construction and installation vessels are often used for
major service work.
Crew transfer vessels Sufficient vessels and quick to build.

Source: own elaboration, EWEA members’ expertise.


Chapter 4 - Supply Chain

Future innovative installation vessels Figure 33: Blue Ocean Ships multiple carrier concept

As previously described, the installation of 40 GW
by 2020 will require dedicated offshore installation
vessels for the offshore wind energy sector. On the
basis of a minimum capacity of 10 turbines, 10 sets of
blades and 10 tower sections, 12 installation vessels
will be required.

These vessels should be able to install offshore wind
farms in medium depths (30-40m and beyond), and
operate in harsh conditions, in order to increase the
number of days of operation to 260-290 days. In the
best configuration, these vessels should be able to
carry assembled sub-systems, or even a set of assem-
bled turbines, in order to limit the number of operations
performed at sea. Ports and harbours

Such vessels are currently under development, such A number of specially adapted ports is critical for
as the concepts illustrated in Figures 32 and 33. A supplying the offshore market. These facilities should
market visibility over five years is required to secure possess deep water and reinforced quaysides to take
the financing. In the current financial situation, the the large weight of turbines, and large storage areas
financing of these major supply chain components is with low premium fees and suitable space to move
problematic. foundations and cranes.

Figure 32: Example of the Gaoh concept. This boat Within the next 10 years, manufacturers will have
is designed to lift 18 3.6 MW turbines in 45m depth, moved close to or located outlets at port facili-
including seabed penetration ties, as is the case in Bremerhaven (see Showcase:
Bremerhaven’s success story on p.60). In the near
future, the Bremerhaven facilities will produce 1 GW
of offshore wind turbines every year. The success
of Bremerhaven is built on a strong political push
for economic diversification, such as an integrated
approach towards offshore wind energy: this approach
is based on a strong manufacturing capacity, testing
facilities, demonstration sites, research and training
facilities, and a dedicated harbour. Such an integrated
approach enables offshore wind turbines to be tested
and demonstrated in near-offshore conditions, manu-
factured on site, and shipped directly to the offshore
site. If this development continues then large trans-
port and installation vessels could collect foundations
and turbines directly from a manufacturing facility
quayside and install them directly.
Source: Ole Steen Knudsen AS.
Harbour requirements

One of the main conclusions of the DOWNVInD(42) project
is a strong recommendation to perform pre-assembly

The objective of DOWNVInD (Distant Offshore Windfarms with No Visual Impact in Deepwater) is to make the step change in tech-

niques, technologies and processes needed to enable the development of large capacity windfarms offshore in deep water


supporting wind turbine manufacturers and developers •a private dedicated road between storage and quay that wish to launch activities in these areas. Milford Haven Bremerhaven on p. for instance. Great Yamouth 14. in particular. the harbour infrastructures and services to support • warehouse facilities of 1.500m2. ‘UK Offshore Wind Ports Prospectus’. Cromarty Firth (Nigg Bay Germany and the UK. pier. Humber 15. Presentation by Chris Ehlers. • quay bearing capacity. Germany.60). Swansea/Port Talbot developments in port activities on strong local part- 9. including: potential candidates for the large-scale deployment • an area of storage of 6 to 25 ha (60. however. Methil (Fife Energy Park) 18. Peterhead Bay 2. Southampton suppliers. thereby side. which is one of the • a seabed with sufficient bearing capacity near the main UK facilities for the offshore oil and gas industry. offshore wind developments • being available for the project installation. and • loading/unloading facilities. promoting an integrated industrial approach. MD Renewables Division. specific actions are being taken to adapt and extend • draft of minimum 6m. which is considered as a way to diversify Isle of Grain) 13.activities onshore (see section on vessels). A total of 27 harbours are identified. Hartlepool and Tees 16. • access for heavy/oversize trucks. Siemens plc . • quay length: approximately 150m to 250m. In Greater Yarmouth.000m2). component 10. Portland nerships with wind turbine manufacturers. barge etc). the specific requirements include: • full time access for service vessels and service helicopters. where initiatives are underway to improve the “offshore readiness” of (43) UK Ports and offshore wind Siemens´Perspective. Belfast (Harland & Wolff) employment. Dundee 19. • water. The same trend is emerging in the UK. FIGURE 34: Identified harbours suitable for future •potentially license/approvals for helicopter transfer. Barrow-in-Furness an integrated industrial approach was implemented. Tyneside 17. OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 59 . Such an approach bases the 8. electricity and fuelling facilities. Only a few. In order to UK ports.30 March 2009. Medway (Sheemess and and Highland Deephaven) development. 1. 6. offshore wind development. MBA. would be suitable for the installation of substructures. • access for smaller vessels (pontoon bridge. are very active in port 3.000 to 1. Ramsgate 12. In the case of Bremerhaven. Concerning operation and maintenance. Montrose 20. (44) UK Department of Energy and Climate Change. 3 to 6 tons/m2. Existing facilities Ports able to service offshore wind power develop- ments in the North Sea are illustrated in Figure 24. which could be adapted to the specific needs of the offshore wind sector. Hunterston harbour activities. Newhaven 11. • safe access for technicians. 5. This brochure also proposes 250. Mostyn leading to promising successes (see showcase on 7. attract companies and create local 4. research institutes and developers.000 to of offshore wind energy. The UK Department of Energy and Climate do this suitable ports and harbours need to be able to Change’s recent report(44) identifies UK harbours as fulfil the following requirements(43).

this is expected to rise to 1. ting processes (6 weeks for the Multibrid M5000 prototype). these established and newer for Multibrid turbines. Today five 5 MW turbines (four Multibrid So far. In order to It has designed the tripod support structures continue this growth. the local authorities operates a new rotor blade test facility for blades up evaluated possible means of economic diversification. the jacket-foundations for companies require new workers in both blue and REpower. ownership of land. Its economy. and significant clustering of compe- • WeserWind Offshore Construction weorgsmarien. The success of Bremerhaven is said(46) to be due • powerBlades. and a with special acoustical optimisation for rotor blades. heavy machinery Specific support was provided for wind turbine design and manufacture.5 metres and up. heavy and bulky ties of Oldenburg. PowerWind and Innovative wind. In the early 2000s. shipbuilding.Started in 2003 production hall for 5M . ates one of the largest wind tunnels in the world. Offshore wind energy was demonstration. and tripods for BARD Engineering. with specific foun- and Multibrid.power-cluster. FIGURE 35: Bremerhaven site description Fraunhofer CWMT rotor blade test facility (2008) Rotor blade joint venture Produktion facility WeserWind Railroad River Weser Repower Systems AG 32 m Locks GmbH Offshore Construction Abelong & Rasmussen Georgsmarienhuttle (option) (Start 2008) Multibrid Production hall for M5000 B71 3 km (Existing) to Motorway Tower production (reservation) Heavy load quay Wind energy heavy load terminal Luneort Offshore construction (decided. with fast and streamlined permit- chosen as an alternative development. of heavy steel offshore foundation structures. involved in components. 13 March (47) http://www. commercial fishery faced a strong economic downturn Another example is the Fraunhofer Institute. dations designed for offshore implantations.000–1. Dedicated training schemes were put in place internally in the companies them- Regarding the harbour’s facilities. building in 2008) Center (Existing) Luneort: Fisherie harbour development for offshore wind Repower Systems AG . or the Bremerhaven Economic Development nacelles weighing over 250 tonnes and large rotor Company through the POWER Cluster project(47). terminal is planned for 2011. Bremen and Hannover. through the Fachhochschule Bremerhaven. • two onshore wind turbine manufacturers.Space now completely sold/booked Source: Windenergie Argentur (45) Based on Renewable Energy World. 60 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT . which is manufacturing blades up to a clear and integrated industrial strategy. tencies. specialised in the design and manufacturing created some 700 new jobs in the past three years.200. DECC port seminar. This terminal will be or the co-operation between the technical universi- capable of directly handling large. white collar positions.Sand depositing finished. (46) The role of the RDAs and the Devolved Administrations. based on shipping. March 2009. heavy load capable (construction started) . and/or complete assemblies – like ForWind. to 70m long. In future this blade testing capability The historical strengths of this area included compre. will be expanded to include 100m long blades. public to 61. hensive maritime technology know-how and a skilled workforce specialised in shipbuilding. an additional selves. Bremerhaven has attracted (see Figure 35): M5000s and one REpower 5M) are demonstrated • two offshore wind turbine manufacturers REpower within the Bremerhaven city limits.Supply Chain Showcase: Bremerhaven’s success story(45) Bremerhaven has attracted half of the €500 million The industrial development is supported by research invested in offshore wind power development along the facilities such as Deutsche Windguard. which oper- German North Sea coastal region during the past years. which in the 1990s.Chapter 4 . blades with lengths of 61.5m long for REpower 5 and 6 MW turbines. Bremerhaven’s companies have already hütte.

offshore wind farms. New concepts are emerging for servicing the future • logistics centre for the fishing sector. • workplaces. in particular for large machines. • recreation (yachting marina). They could also allow host crews and Figure 36: Harbour at Sea concept. far from shore. • foundations for commissioning of assembled wind turbines. assembling and main- taining offshore wind turbines. • transformer station. such as the Dutch ‘harbour at sea’ • coastguard service. • electrical substation for connections on land (elec- trical hub). • test site for new offshore wind turbines (five places). installation. Such multi-purpose platforms could Source: We@Sea allow sailing times to be reduced for installation and maintenance. For wind energy: • a station for transporting. offshore manufacturing • aquaculture of raw materials for food. concept. and provide We@Sea for offshore installation of transformer stations. energy and capacities are likely to be increasingly located near the materials. • ‘gas-to-wire’ units. Source: www. harbour facilities. OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 61 .haveneilandopzee. in order to facilitate transport and • shelter in emergency situations. This concept is currently being developed to • lifeboat service. Courtesy of technicians on site. • accommodation for personnel (hotel). service the future large offshore arrays implemented • harbour for offshore. • storage of spare parts. Photo: Dong Energy Harbours of the Future Other functions: As discussed in this • heliport. spare parts storage.

and a more established track record from industry. expected to remain in the established clusters in the short term as a stable and reliable supply Bremerhaven has attracted a large number of offshore chain is in place. page 39. players due to its integrated approach towards • as offshore machines increase in size. offshore wind energy(48) (see Harbour section on p. to harbour facilities to ease transportation of The current schemes will however not be sufficient machines and delivery of components. some of the major cost drivers of installation and later for the O&M of the offshore offshore wind energy were addressed: turbine supply. available substructures. vessels and harbours. as the market already complexity they will be built closer to offshore wind faces shortages of project managers and electrical sites. Bremerhaven has put nine separate initiatives in place to encourage offshore wind turbine manufacturers to relocate there. (48) Green Jobs ippr. • as offshore installations increase. Cost • independent offshore O&M companies will emerge reductions for the offshore wind energy sector will be as soon as the market is large enough to support brought about above all from higher market volumes them.58). Chapter 4 . more manu. wind farms. facturers will be relocated directly to or close A similar trend may emerge in Dutch and UK ports. a large number of offshore-ready personnel will be needed for the In this chapter. engineers in particular. 62 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT . Countries in this area can expect to reap • Production of offshore wind turbines can be the benefits of offshore wind development. 2009.Supply Chain Photo: Elsam Future trends in manufacturing for the offshore • the predominant offshore market is planned for wind industry the North and Baltic Seas in the short to medium terms. to supply the necessary number of workers to deliver • as offshore foundations increase in size and 40 GW offshore wind by 2020.

using dedicated and standardised offshore turbines and installation processes.Project scale will increase. OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 63 . This will enable the industry to implement streamlined. repeat- able installation processes. and the trend will continue towards larger offshore wind farms in the 200-300 MW range and beyond. and build the necessary installation vessels and access technologies.

ON . Chapter 5 Main Challenges 64 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT Photo: E.

000 km2.000 km2. the supply chain on the future market volumes at European level. including boats and harbours.000 km2. operation processes. offshore market. the European • manufacturing: supporting the take-off of offshore Environment Agency (EEA) estimates the technical by developing the necessary substructure concepts potential of offshore wind energy in the EU to be and corresponding manufacturing processes and 30. The combined area of the facilitate the planning of the future offshore wind North. several times over.408 TWh in 2030.279 TWh and 4. testing capacities.000 TWh annually.300. harbours. or less than 2% of Europe’s sea area not planning instruments. Therefore.500. or human resources develop a new offshore wind industry in the EU. lowering the risk. including exploring concepts of very large scale turbines in The offshore wind energy resource will never become the 10-20 MW range. These initiatives are intended to • next generation of wind turbines: developing the facilitate European leadership in energy technologies.Wind energy is one of six “European Industrial through the development of advanced measure- Initiatives” proposed by the European Commission to ment techniques and systems. become a limiting factor. to including the Atlantic. important technology. gath. In a recent study. while providing of the main challenges are: guarantees to investors. A foreseen benefit of mari- is more than 1. improving knowledge of the physical environment to reduce development risks It would require eight areas of 100 km times 100 and uncertainty. and developing a accelerate innovation and deployment of strategically high resolution offshore wind atlas. and optimising manufac- a limiting factor. ering detailed knowledge of wind characteristics OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT 65 . The Mediterranean is time spatial planning is to provide guarantees to an additional 2. it will be a challenge to boats.) to meet all of the EU’s electricity • maritime spatial planning: developing spatial demand. km (10. • wind measurements and characteristics: acquiring • personnel: making sure a sufficient number of more detailed knowledge of the wind on complex people are trained to supply the demand of the structures for improving wind turbine designs. devel- estimates total EU electricity demand of between oping standard and replicable installation and 4. Baltic and Irish Seas and the English Channel energy developments. Some could be performed in advance. There is enough energy over the seas turing processes and developing the necessary of Europe to meet total European electricity demand test facilities. investments in the Although the offshore wind energy resource will never corresponding manufacturing capacities. and potentially the cost of capital. The European Commission capacities. next generation of offshore wind turbines. in particular offshore.

400 12.713 117 2023 65.573 33 2016 18.185 2 2006 895.5 3 0.526 71 2020 40.200 8.240 4.6% 4.1% 2.2% 15.500 209 5.2% 4.367 198 2027 110.500 16 0.85 170 1 0.9% 6.431 2 2007 1.2 2 0.470 413 9.400 32 0.8 0 0.7% 16.1% 10.85 50.1% 0.315 59 2019 33.1% 11.1% 0.662 135 2024 75.852 122 3.5% 10.3% 2.717 177 4.5% 2.8% 7.0% 0.6% 13.2% 0.0% 0.001 1.6% 0.0% 0.000 13.0% 0.4% 1.175 2 2005 694.100 282 6.089 0 2002 255.2% 1.1% 0.605 67 1.3% 0.05 259.6% 4.958 24 0.7% 15.303 244 5.007 0 2001 85.483 3 2008 1.6% 7.2% 12.1% 0.593 155 2025 86.4% 5.859 2.259 3.521 176 2026 98.306 1 2003 515.1% 0.779 100 2022 56.1% 0.529 7 2011 4.557 49 2018 27.500 10.559 2.375 4.032 4 2010 3.5% 3.810 85 2021 47.459 1.400 13.2% 0.35 3.320 26 2015 14.690 563 12.700 7.25 210 4 0.8% 16.7% 2. New Energy (€ billion) scenario) Policy) 2000 35.600 10.1% 0.099 11 0.1% 1.6% 15.300 10 2012 6.75 89.501 1.659 3.0% 0.865 101 2.0% 3.915 148 3.0% 0.510 292 66 OCEANS OF OPPORTUNITY OFFSHORE REPORT .08 5 0.200 13.047 40 2017 22.1% 0.480 1 2004 604.9% 0.5% 12.75 90 3 0.7 2 0.471.100 11.090 5.116 82 2.9% 4.700 42 1.2% 0.1% 0.105.1% 0.118 268 2030 150.25 200.904 323 7.3% 5.100 54 1.2% 9.1% 16.320 20 2014 11.5 0 0.000 6.7% 3.5% 13.927 244 2029 136.Annex: Offshore Wind Energy Installations 2000-2030 Wind Wind energy's energy's Annual Cumulative Annual Wind energy share of share of offshore CO2 avoided Year capacity installations production electricity electricity wind power annually (Mt) (MW) (MW) (TWh) demand demand (EC investments (EC ref.3% 8.293 221 2028 123.879 4 2009 1.916 15 2013 8.650 366 8.5% 9.290 511 11.5% 0.0% 6.33 366.901 430 7 0.0% 5.8% 14.6% 8.059 461 10.500 9.