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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A SINGLE PHASE AUTOMATIC CHANGEOVER

SWITCH

ABSTRACT

An Automatic Changeover Switch switches off the generator and automatically changes

over to NEPA. An Automatic Changeover Switch will automatically switch off your

generator and change over to MAIN ( Public power supply/NEPA) on resumption.

You will save fuel and no risk of electrocution. It also serves as power surge protector for

appliances.

The main aim of any electric power supply in the world is to provide uninterrupted power

supply at all times to all its consumers. Although, in developing countries, the electric

power generated to meet the demands of the growing consumers of electricity is

insufficient, hence power instability and outage.

Power instability or outage in general does not promote development in the public and

private sector. The investors do not feel secure to come into a country with constant or

frequent power failure. These limit the development of industries. In addition, there are

processes that cannot be interrupted because of their importance for instance, surgery

operation in hospitals, transfer of money between banks and lots more. Power instability

and outage in developing countries (Nigeria) creates a need for alternative sources of

power to backup the mains supply.

Automatic changeover switches find a wide application scope wherever the reliability of

electrical supply from the utilities is low and it is used in lighting/motor circuits wherever

continuity of supply is necessary, for switching to an alternative source from main supply

and vice versa.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE

APPROVAL PAGE

DEDICATION

ACKNOWELDGEMENT

ABSTRCT

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT

AIM/OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT

PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT

STATEMENT OF PPROBLEM

LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT

APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT

DEFINITION OF TERMS

PROJECT ORGANISATION

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 REVIEW OF ELECTRICAL PHASES

2.2 REVIEW OF THREE-PHASE ELECTRIC POWER

2.3 REVIEW OF CAUSES OF POWER FAILURES

2.4 POWER SUPPLY RELIABILITY


CHAPTER THREE

3.0 CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY

3.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE SYSTEM

3.2 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

3.3 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION

3.4 SYSTEM OPERATION

3.5 COMPONENTS LIST

3.6 DESCRIPTION OF MAJOR COMPONENTS USED

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 RESULT ANALYSIS

4.1 CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE AND TESTING

4.2 ASSEMBLING OF SECTIONS

4.3 CONSRUCTION OF THE CASING

4.4 ECONOMIC OF THE PROJECT

4.5 PROJECT VIABILITY

4.6 PROJECT RELIABILITY

4.7 PROJECT MAINTAINABILITY

4.8 PROJECT EVALUATION

4.9 TESTING, TROUBLESHOOTING AND REMEDY

CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSIONS

RECOMMENDATION

5.3 REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION
The Changeover Switch is a device used to switch off a power supply and subsequently

switch on another power supply. Basically it is aimed at switching on a more convenient

power supply to the load.

Since it switches on power to the load, precautions has to be taken while choosing the

type of Changeover Switch, while selecting the appropriate size, the control of arcing has

to be put into consideration.

A good switch should be the one whose contact is made in such a way as to limit the arc

formation by having no contact-bounce and by having contacts made of good conductive,

corrosion resistance and wear resistance materials.

A good change over switch must have adequate insulation and must be so constructed

and located as not to constitute a potential hazard.

A good change over switch should also have tight contact points so as to limit or

eliminate the possibility of partial contact at the contact point. The partial contact leads

to overheating of the components and may lead to fire outbreak in the entire room.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT

If some of these big firm do not make provisions for stand-by power source, frustration

could set in which may lead to the closure of business and thus throwing workers into

unemployment. Also in the case of hospital, undergoing a surgical operation and power

supply suddenly go off, the patient might loose his or her life due to the power outage.

An Engineering Author, “Tony Rudkin” said in his book titled “Upgraded Signal Source

with Improved Performance and Reliability” that the cost and depredation associated with

breakdown vary from one application to the other, and in some cases, the user has little

choice but to ensure that a stand-by unit is available to take over on event of failure of

primary system.
Furthermore, if the president of the country is making nationwide broadcast and all of a

sudden power went off in the transmitting station, it would be viewed as an attempt to

sabotage the government ruling and some people must pay for it.

Sequel to the rate at which more sophisticated electrical/electronics gadgets are being

procured and installed in our homes, hospitals and business premises, there is a

justifiable need for a faster and more reliable change over system in an event of power

outage.

In view of these considerations, this project is aimed at designing and constructing a

workable automatic change over switch with a phase failure detecting circuit also known

as “Automatic Mains Failure” which switches on the head from power Holding Company

(PHC) to a generator when power fails and from generator to PHC when power comes

back.

1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT

Due to inconsistent supply of power, there is a growing need for an alternative source of

power supply. This has lead to heavy capital investment in a bid to suppress power failure

and ensure regular power supply for the industry, hospitals, schools and homes. The

problem of power failure can be checkmated with the use of stand-by generating set.

However, the objective of this work is to design an automatic switching device that will

change to an alternative power supply (Generator), and back to the main supply when it

is restored.

1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT

The automatic change over switch, the switch aimed at achieving the following automatic

actions;

To change power over to generator

To change back to PHC


To change the generator.

The automatic change over unit can be operated in single or three phase system. The

automatic change over switch has the following advantages;

It minimizes damages to lives/equipment since it has its own monitoring system and

its switching requires no human contact with the switch, thus eliminating human

error.

It reduces its change over timing to the minimum due to its fast response to power

outage.

It maintains high quality of service through its fast and prompt response.

Moreover, the size and captivity of the unit will depend upon the load for which it will be

used. The unit is also portable, easy, convenient and safe to install.

1.4 PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT

The purpose of this project is to maintain constant supply to the main circuit that is being

supplied by making-up for the time lapse or delay that usually accompanies the manual

switching from one source to another. The design comprises of the power connection

circuit and control connection circuit. The main components to be used include;

contactors, relays and timer.

1.5 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

In every home, office or industries, automatic power changeover plays a vital role, that

is, It provides a means of switching from utility AC mains to generator in the case of

power failure; This project has been improved on the existing types of electromechanical

device that has being in use over the years.

In the course of designing this project, different kinds of problem was notice such as:

Difficulty in troubleshooting with circuit without the circuit diagram

Difficulty in connecting the output without short-circuiting, until a multiplexing


circuit was gotten.

Difficult in wiring because of the strong wiring the project required..

1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This work covers only a one phase automatic changeover which can only be used for

providing a means of switching from one phase of AC mains to generator in the case of

failure in public utility.

1.7 APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT

Some common examples of entities that implement automatic switches out of necessity

are: hospitals, data centers, jails and prisons, fire departments, defense organizations,

and police departments.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

CHANGEOVER: Generally, a changeover switch is a system which could be operated

manually or automatically , that changes one source of power supply to another source in

case of power failure from either of the two sources.

RELAY: relay is one of the major components used in this work which is an electrical

device, typically incorporating an electromagnet, which is activated by a current or signal

in one circuit to open or close another circuit.

POWER FLUCTUATIONS: is a periodic dip or spikes in the electrical current of any given

circuit.

POWER FAILURE: is a short- or long-term loss of the electric power to an area.

1.9 PROJECT WORK ORGANISATION

The various stages involved in the development of this project have been properly put

into five chapters to enhance comprehensive and concise reading. In this project thesis,

the project is organized sequentially as follows:


Chapter one of this works is on the introduction to changeover switch. In this chapter, the

background, significance, objective limitation and problem of changeover switch were

discussed.

Chapter two is on literature review of changeover switch. In this chapter, all the literature

pertaining to this work was reviewed.

Chapter three is on design methodology. In this chapter all the method involved during

the design and construction were discussed.

Chapter four is on testing analysis. All testing that result accurate functionality was

analyzed.

Chapter five is on conclusion, recommendation and references.

ABSTRACT
This project work deals on the design and construction of an automatic power changeover that will
change/transfer control from MAINS to Gen set and can switch ON/OFF the Gen automatically. The
system integrates phase selector in MAINS and changeover to Gen. It is designed in several blocks
all combined to from one functional unit. A +5v regulated DC power supply unit forms the first block
whose output is fed to priority encoder and decoder block. The output of the BCD – Decimal decoder
is used to select the phase in priority through a transistor driver stage and electromagnetic relay that
activates contactors. The least prioritized phase is the Gen set which contains a circuitry that
automatically starts and stops the Gen set. The system is realized with TTL chips market. LEDs and
AC panel lamps are used to indicate the status of the system while a manual switch is used to
demonstrate the mode of operation of the system.
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Industrial automation and control has contributed immensely to the high rate of the world’s
technological growth. Power control and automation is a part of this field which is applied in virtually
anywhere electrical power is used, generated or transmitted. Manual power change-over switches
have been in existence and in different forms and shapes. 1959, the advent of microelectronics has
paved way to modify the manually operated change-over switches. This project deals with the
design and construction of automatic change-over switch with indicator. It eliminates the time and
energy spent in operating the manual change – over and starting of Gen. Set. It is fully automated. It
can be used in residential houses, offices and most importantly, in factories that required constant
power supply. It has so many advantages over the existing ones/types.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
This project work is embarked upon to eliminate nearly every shortcomings associated with the
manually operated type to ensuring that it is fully automated.
This system is realized in several functional blocks all combined to form one functional system. The
first block is a 3-phase MAINS regulated dc power supply unit that powers the overall circuit and acts
as the input. The output of thin block is fed into a priority encoder (74147) which selects the most
prioritized phase at a time. The third block is a BCD – to – DECIMAL Decoder (7442) used to
decode the prioritized phase.
The fourth is the driver stage which comprises of NPN transistor that energizes the electromagnetic
relay which switches the phase in priority. The Gen set switching section is achieved using the least
prioritized phase. This section switches ON the Gen set when all the NEPA phases are low, OFF or
faulty. Once the Gen set phase is selected, a switching transistor fires an SCR which conducts large
battering current to the ignition coil of the Gen set. Panel indicators are used to show the status of
the system.
1.2. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
The aims and objectives of this project is to:
Design and construct an automatic change-over switch with indicator that will switch load from the
mains power supply (PHCN) power supply (Generator) with simplicity.
To introduce a circuitry that will sense power outage and at the same time sense fluctuationin the
power supplied to the load at any point time.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
This project eliminates the stress, time delay and other drawbacks in manually operated types. The
project is modified to display the phase in use at a particular time using a single seven segment
Display and its appropriate circuitry.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This project work was carried out primarily with the aim of solving the problem of manual change-
over switch when there is need for changing to generator due to power failure from public power
supply.
Also, the essence of this project work is to design and construct a 90A, 220V, 50Hz automatic
change-over switch which will serve as a standby switch to generator when there is power outage.
LIMITATIONS OF THE PROJECT
Due to the principal operation of the device, it cannot switch two voltage supply once, during
operation. So the power switching of the supplies depends on the state in which the device is, that
means it can only be in an on or off state, so as to avoid voltage clashing which will lead to fire
outbreak.

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AUTOMATIC CHANGEOVER SWITCH


(WITH STEP LOADING) FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS
Osaretin C.A.1; Ibhadode E.I.2; Igbinovia S.O.3
1,2,3Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering, University of Benin, Benin, Nigeria.
charles.osaretin@uniben.edu1; ehimen.ibhadode@uniben.edu2; samuel.igbinovia@uniben.edu3
+23480395775041; +23480536273092; +23480214730433
Abstract
Instability of power supply is a major challenge in developing countries like Nigeria. The need
for alternative power supply makes the switching of load between two or more power sources
imperative. The automatic changeover eliminates the need for manual or human intervention
bysensing mains supply and switching to an available source. Automation eliminates the delay
and the cost of inefficiency associated with manual operation. The device automatically switches
between the power sources and also indicates if utility power is restored when an alternative
power is in use. This paper presents the design and implementation of an automatic
changeover(with step loading) for renewable energy systems. The microcontroller based
automatic changeover consists of power supply circuit consisting of step-down transformer,
rectifier (full wave bridge), filter capacitor and the voltage regulator(all the aforementioned
basically converts ac to dc power), logic circuit that detects when utility supply is restored, an
astable multivibrator integrated circuit (555timer) which triggers the audio and visual indicators
respectively. Renewable energy sources generating direct current will require inverters to
produce the alternating current necessary for domestic and industrial use. Otherwise they can
substitute for the hydrocarbon powered conventional alternator as alternative energy source.After
the design, construction and testing of this circuit, it was found to have performed satisfactorily
in switching from mains supply to generator/renewable energy source(s) and vice versa.
Keywords: mains supply, generator, microcontroller, rectifier, regulator, changeover,
multivibrator.
Copyright ©2016 National Centre for Energy and
Environment,
Energy Commission of Nigeria, University of Benin:
ISSN 2504-9593
Int. J. Renew. Energ & Environ Vol.2, pp179-192 (2016)
180
1.0 Introduction
Industrial and commercial processes are
dependent on electric power supply.
Electricity supply instability in developing
countries creates a need foralternative sources
of power (to back up the utility supply)
andthe automation of electrical power
generation(Ahmed, et al., 2006).
The introduction of these alternative sources
of supply brings forth the challenge of
switching smoothly and timely between the
mains supply and the alternative sources,
whenever there is a power interruption on the
mains source(Ezema, et al., 2012).
While the era of fluctuation and failure in
supply of electricity is long forgotten in many
industrialized nations of the world, many
developing countries still suffer setbacks
arising from incessant power failures. The
provision of alternative power source
(generators) has no doubt brought succour but
not without an attendant challenge associated
with manual operation of the
changeover(Obasi, et al., 2015). Hence the
need for an automatic changeover (automatic
transfer switch).
Automation of power generation is required
as the rate of power outages becomes
predominantly high(Rockis & Mazur, 2001).
If the processes of changeover are manual,
time is wasted;mal-operation and equipment
damage can also result from overloading at
changeover. The step loading feature helps in
the protection of the coils of our generator
thereby increasing the life span of our
generator, ensuring continuous flow of power
and reducing machine downtime. In order to
eliminate downtime (when downtime cannot
be tolerated from power outage), an automatic
changeover is required (Anant, 2016).
In view of the inherent features of the
switching device, this project presents the
design and construction of an automatic
changeover, which switches electrical power
supply from public supply to generator, in the
event of power outage. The system uses an
electronic control circuit involving integrated
circuits, transistors and electromechanical
devices. The generator delay will help protect
both the generating set and the appliances; a
delay circuit allows the generator to run to
full load, before connecting the load to it. The
power indicator on the other hand givesthe
operator both visual and audio indication,
when the public power is restored thereby
reducing cost of power as it is cheaper to run
on public power supply.
This project combines twin functions of
automatic changeover and sequential (gradual
or step) loading to eliminate the need for
manual changeover, protect the loads, extend
the lifespan of the generator and improve
reliability of power supply. The importance of
automatic change over and step loader cannot
be over emphasized especially in critical
industries like banking, telecommunications,
defence, and healthcare where continuous
operation is critical and interruption of power
supply has grievous consequences. A
sequential loader is used to ensure power gets
to every load step by step. This is to ensure
that power supply to the load is not
accompanied by overloading of the generator.
This project is designed to eliminate the
common problem of overloading the
generator during changeover
Int. J. Renew. Energ & Environ Vol.2, pp179-192 (2016)
181
(manual/automatic), which reduces the life
span of the generator.
In this project, an electronic control monitors
the incoming public supply voltage and
detects when the voltage drops below a level
when electrical or electronic gadgets can
function depending on the utility supply. In
this case 160V is the limit at which the system
switches from public supply to generator and
vice-versa.
There are basically three types of changeover
switches based on the design and mode of
operation namely: manual changeover,
electrical changeover and electronic
changeover. Manual changeover is the most
popular changeover switch in use. Manual
change-over switch consists of a manual
change over switch box, switch gear box and
cutout fuse or the connector fuse (Rockis &
Mazur, 2001). This change-over switch box
separates the source between the generator
and public supply (Ahmed, et al., 2006). The
contact is manually switched from mains
terminal to the generator terminal and vice-
versa. The major drawbacks are that firstly, it
requires a lot of human action to operate and
also the ceramic insulator can crack during
switching and lead to electric shock if the
contact wire touches the metal casing.
Secondly, it has led to several deaths and
damage to electrical appliances (Emerole, et
al., 2015). Rapid wear and tear of the
mechanical parts also occurs due to
continuous up and down movement which
will lead to increased frequent maintenance
(Nwafor, et al., 2012)
Electrical change overuses A.C. relay for its
operation. It is also referred to as an
Automatic Transfer Switch (ATS) or
“Generator Transfer Switch” and is designed
to enable the automatic operation and transfer
of power supply between a public utility
supply and a power generator. The ATS,
which is a switchgear control system,
provides a functional system that provides
anautomatic switching of power supply
between a primary source (public utility) and
a secondary power source (generator). The
methods employed in designing the ATS
involve the use of electromechanical type
relays, contactors, voltage monitoring relays
and delay timer relays as main components of
the system (Agbetuyi, et al., 2010)). The
circuit does not require a d.c power pack or
controlling board. The advantage of this
circuit is that it is cheap and easily
constructed. The drawbacks includenoise
associated with switching of relays, wear and
tear, arching which can cause fire outbreak,
high component count making the system
more prone to failures (Nwafor, et al., 2012).
Also, at low mains voltage, the a.c. relay and
some contactors start chattering causing the
output to be oscillating and this is dangerous
to equipment connected to the output.
Electronic changeover comes the shortcoming
of the a.c.relay/contactor based changeovers.
Two common approaches can be used. Solid
state thyristors and opto-triac can be used for
the switching or d.c relay (powered from a
transformer power pack, whose stabilised
voltage work to the desired value
recommended) could be used. The chattering
associated with relay and contactors is
eliminated because the control circuit shuts
down and starts the generator to supply
power to the load. The relays are switched
on and off by a transistor biased as a switch.
Int. J. Renew. Energ & Environ Vol.2, pp179-192 (2016)
182
The electronic changeovers are of two types.
The first type does not have a time delay,
which means it changes over immediately
when the mains voltage is gone. But the
generator starter has a periodic delay to start
the generator. After starting, the feedback
circuit from the generator helps deactivate
the control circuit.
The second method has a delay before it
changes over. The delay keeps the generator
running, until the mains voltage is present
for say 1 to 5 minutes before switching off
the generator. This method is still very good,
but the only drawback is the fuel consumed
during the delay time, hence it is hardly used
in design because it is not cost
effective(Kolo, 2007).
The automatic change over switch has the
following advantages(Emerole, et al., 2015);
a) It minimizes damages to lives/equipment
since it has its own monitoring system
and its switching requires no human
contact with the switch, thus eliminating
human error.
b) It reduces its change over timing to the
minimum due to its fast response to power
outage.
c) It maintains high quality of service
through its fast and prompt response.
The automatic change-over switch can be
used in any place where alternative power is
needed tocomplement the main power
supply. In this project, a generating set is
used to represent the alternative power
supply. The generator to be used with the
device should have the following features.
(a) The generator must have electrical ‘start
and stop’ facility.

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Of The Study

The automatic change over switch can be applied in many elds

of engineering

technology as it will ease the pain, time and stress of switching from one source of

electrical supply to the other. In the time past we had designs such as manual change

over system. This change-over switch box Separate the source between the generator

and public supply, when there is Power supply Outage from public supply, someone

has to go and change the line to generator. Thus when power supply is restored,

someone has to put OFF the generator and then change the source line from generator

to public supply.

In view of the above manual change-over switch system that involves manpower by

using ones energy in starting the generator and switching over from public supply to

generator and vice-versa when the supply is restored. The importance attached to

cases of operation in hospitals and air ports e.t.c makes it important for the design and

construction of an automatic change-over switch which would solve the problem of


manpower and the danger likely to be encountered in changeover. The electronic

control monitors the incoming public supply voltage and indicates when the voltage is

present or absent.

1.1 Problem Statement

The automatic changeover switch that is being designed will be a complete system

with various sub-systems and components arranged and linked to function primarily as

a means of manipulating the supply of electrical power to any desired load. This is

typically a switching system whose function is based on the predetermined


conguration

of the unit. It selects the available power source without the intervention

of the user, hence, ensuring the availability of supply at all times provided that at least

one power source is available.

The change from one source to another can only be achieved by device or a system

that determines when the change should actually take place and which source to be

given preference to supply the load. This brings about the need for unique control

system. The basic problem to be addressed will be how to connect two dierent

sources of electrical power simultaneously to a single unit (the automatic changeover

switch) that can serve as a link between these power sources and the load or network.
Moreover, preference will be given to the power sources such that only one source

supplies the load at a time and when the rst

(mains) source fails, the link immediately

connects the second (generator) source to the load.

1.3 Project Aims

Design and construction of an automatic changeover switch that will switch

load from the mains power supply (PHCN supply) to a back-up power supply

(generator) with simplicity.

Construction of a circuitry that will sense power outage. Measurement and evaluation

Interfacing, wiring and test-running

1.4 Methodology

The source of information used in putting up this design include

The information super-highway (internet)

Textbooks

Previous works and


General intuition

They play a major role in the actualization of this design by providing ready and

accessible information at any time.

1.5 Project Motivation

This project will provide a lasting solution to the heavy losses incurred by commercial

institutions, industries, hospitals, airports, etc caused by poor power change-over. It will

also be of use in our households because poor power change-over also causes

damage to our household equipment e.g. electronics like television, radio, video

players and electrical appliances like refrigerators, air conditioners, fans, etc.

1.6 Project Outline

This report is outlined in the following format, chapter one contains the introduction,

chapter two; the review of related works, comparative analysis and area of application,

chapter three; the circuit design which consist the circuit diagram, and the circuit
mathematical design analysis and principle of operation, chapter four; the consruction

testing details and chapter ve

contains the conclusion, recommendation and

referen