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# CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1BACKGROUND
If you are using an electronic device perhaps a mobile phone and you
need to recharge the battery then you will probably have to get a charger
and connect the phone to the wire. But what if you could charge it without
having to connect it to wire? Meaning power will be transferred wirelessly.
This is possible through a concept called Wireless Power Transmission.
Research and studies have been done ever since the 19th century but it is
only recently that this concept has begun to be implemented. Currently
engineers are trying to discover how to increase the efficiency of power
transmitted wirelessly and also methods that that are safe to human beings
and the environment and notwithstanding, methods that are cheaper and
hence can be commercially viable. Though still in the early stages, several
electronic companies are beginning to roll out devices that can wirelessly
transmit power. Wireless power transmission (WPT) is based on the
principle of electromagnetic induction. Electromagnetic induction works on
the concept of a primary coil generating a predominantly magnetic field
and a secondary coil being within that field so a current is induced within
its coils. This causes the relatively short range due to the amount of power
required to produce an electromagnetic field.
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
The project seeks to eliminate the use of wires in the transmission of
power from the source to the device to be powered. Although WPT is
based on electromagnetic induction, there are various methods that are
used. Some are less efficient than others and costly while others don’t
allow for a longer range of transmission. In this project, it is required to
design and construct an electronic device that shall transmit power within a
small range. The device can then be used to charge batteries for devices
like pace makers. In the project a suitable method will be used to ensure
that enough power is transmitted wirelessly so that it can then charge
batteries. The major challenge will be in the coupling circuit which
comprises of the coils where electromagnetic induction occurs. The number
of turns of the coil, inductance
1.3 OBJECTIVES
The project has a main objective whose achievement is aided by breaking
it further down into other smaller specific objectives. This helps in showing
comprehensively how the final objective of the project is achieved in a
clear and concise manner.
1.3.1 Overall objective
The main objective of the project is to develop a device for wireless power
transfer
1.3.2 Specific objectives
The project will be divided into the following specific objectives that will aid
in achieving the main objectives
 Design and assemble a power supply unit.
 Step up the dc supply.
 Design and assemble an appropriate oscillator.
 Develop transmitter and receiver coils.
 Design the receiver module and rectify the ac voltage received on the
 Designing a battery charging circuit.
1.4 JUSTIFICATION FOR THE STUDY
The need for devices that can wirelessly transmit power has over the
years increased. Currently a lot of research is being conducted in order to
obtain suitable methods that can be used in the development of such
devices. The following are reasons why it is important
(a) Flexibility: WPT will eliminate the use of conductors and wires. Rather
than have many wires running from a power source to power devices, the
power can be transmitted wirelessly hence the mess caused by cables can
be avoided and also more devices can be powered without having them all
placed next to the power source
(b) Safety: With the increase in electrification in areas, cases of electrical
shocks have been rampant as people and even animals end up touching
the conductors. WPT will eliminate these conductors hence preventing the
electrical shocks.
(c) Convenience: The application of WPT will enable the convenient use of
devices. For example, in the medical field pacemakers which use batteries
can be recharged rather than having a surgery every time the battery life is
over. This will save on costs for surgery and also is a more convenient
option.
(d) Reliability: Many times people are using a device and it runs out of
power yet one doesn’t have a cord to charge the device or perhaps there is
no source of power around. However with WPT the devices can be charged
wirelessly hence the risk of low battery power will be eliminated.
1.5 SCOPE OF WORK
This project covers the hardware and software design and
implementation of a device that will be able to transfer power wirelessly.
The study will look into the methods that are currently in use and seek to
improve on the areas where the performance is low. The hardware system
will involve the design and construction of a transmitter and receiver
modules. Once there is proof that power has been transmitted, a battery
charging circuit will be designed and developed to charge a 9V battery so
as to show the application of a wireless power transfer device. The
software system will include code that will control ensure the system is
intelligent enough to determine the battery capacity and also to display the
various parameters that are important.
1.6 PROJECT PAPER ORGANIZATION
This project paper comprises five chapters namely:
Chapter 1: Introduction
This gives the project definition, project overview, objectives, project
justification and scope of work.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
This chapter presents information on the evolution and present state of
theory, practice and research of wireless power transmission.
Chapter 3: Theoretical Framework
In this chapter the theory behind the design of the project is given.
Chapter 4: Methodology and Materials
This chapter gives a detailed explanation on how the device once
assembled operates. It also explains the components used and their role in
the design of each part of the device.
Chapter 5: Results and Analysis

This chapter, the results obtained are explained and discussed. The
modifications that were carried out are also explained in this section.
conclusion and recommendations after completion of the final year project.
It covers assessment of whether project objectives and scope were
achieved, a highlight of areas for future development, bibliography and
appendices.
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 OUTLINE OF THE CHAPTER
This chapter contains an evaluation of the current work with respect
to the existing works. It is devoted to a critical review of the technical and
academic literature on previous works done on wireless power transfer
 History of Wireless Power Transfer
 Main concepts of wireless transmission of electric energy
 Health and safety considerations
 WPT Standards and Alliances
2.2 HISTORY OF WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER
What exactly is wireless power transfer? This is the transmission of
electrical energy from a power source to an electrical load, such as an
electrical power grid or a consuming device, without the use of discrete
man-made conductors. The word wireless from a basic description means
without wires. Wireless power transmission (WPT) is one of the fields of
engineering that has in the past few years received a lot of attention. A lot
of companies are spending millions of dollars trying to research and
develop ways of transferring power wirelessly. However the concept of
WPT has been in existence for over a century. This concept was first
discussed in the late 19th century. Nikola Tesla was the brains behind this
concept. He together with Heinrich Hertz theorized the possibility of power
being transmitted wirelessly. Tesla’s main idea was to use the planet as the
conductor to transmit power to any point on the earth. In 1899 Tesla
successfully managed to illustrate the concept by powering fluorescent
lamps 25 miles away from the source of power. In 1901 Tesla built the
Wardenclyffe Tower.

## His intentions were to use it to transmit messages and also to

incorporate his WPT ideas. This however wasn’t fruitful as his financier
refused to invest in the project. Tesla’s ideas were then dismissed as being
impractical and unsafe. Later on William .C. Brown came up with the
theory of microwaves. His ideas majored on beaming electric power from
one point to another without wires, to vacuum tubes and solar power
satellites using microwaves. Around 1960, he invented the rectenna which
converts microwave to dc power. This was a major breakthrough in WPT.
This contributed much to the modern development of microwave power
transmission which forms a major basis of the research and development
of WPT currently. The next step towards WPT was development of the
RFID system.
2.3 MAIN CONCEPTS OF WIRELESS TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRIC
ENERGY
As a result of the extensive research in WPT, various categories have
arisen. WPT can be categorized in terms of efficiency, distance of
transmission, power level and size. Classification based on distance of
transmission however is more relevant.

## Fig 2.Classification of WPT 1

For any electromagnetic source both electric (E-fields) and magnetic
(H-fields) fields are generated around it. These fields are characterized by
from the source they can either be near field, transition zone or far field.
The transition zone possesses characteristics of both the near and far field
transfers. The near field region can be said to be the found within the
radius of a wavelength while far field region is the area outside a radius of
two wavelengths. This however is for transmitters and receivers that have
diameters shorter than the wavelength being used. The near field transfers
have all the polarization types i.e. vertical, horizontal, elliptical and circular
while the far field transfer only has one type. This far in research the near
field transfer has been found to have a higher efficiency during transfer of
power. This can be attributed to the decrease in both electric and magnetic
fields proportionally to the distance from the source. In addition, the near-
field region allows higher diffraction of the wave, resulting in stronger
penetrability and weak directivity on a short range. In light of all these,
more research is being focused on development of the near field transfers
as compared to far field transfer. Both near field transfer and far field are
further categorized based on the method of operation of the transfer.
Some of the methods are as follows:
FAR FIELD TRANSFER
(a) Microwave Power transfer
In this method, dc is fed to the microwave generator which converts it to
microwaves. This radiation is passed through the coaxial-waveguide
adaptor, and then through the waveguide circulator, which reduces the
through the tuner and directional coupler device, which separates the
signal according to signal propagation direction. The radiation is then
transmitted over the air through antennae, where it is received by the
antenna at the rectenna, at which the microwave radiation passes through
a low pass filter, then a matching network, and then a rectifier as it is
converted to DC power

## The other methods in far field transfer are:

(b) Photo electricity
(c) Propagating electromagnetic waves Near Field Transfer

## (a) Inductive Coupling

This will be further elaborated in chapter 3 as it is the method of near field
transfer that will be used in the implementation of the project.
2.4 HEALTH AND SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS
Wireless power transmission is largely based on the radiation of
electromagnetic fields. However, there are safety limits that determine the
levels of human exposure to electromagnetic fields. Currently two world
bodies give directives on the human exposure guidelines. These are the
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) and the International
Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The main
standards are: “IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human
Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz”
(IEEE C95.1-2005) and “ICNIRP Guidelines For Limiting Exposure To Time-
Varying Electric, Magnetic and Electromagnetic Fields (up to 300 GHz).
REFERENCES
[1] Fei Zhang, Steven A. Hackworth, Xiaoyu Liu, Haiyan Chen, Robert J.
Sclabassi, and Mingui Sun, “Wireless Energy Transfer Platform for Medical
Sensors and Implantable Devices”, 31st Annual International Conference of
the IEEE EMBS, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, September 2-6, 2009.
[2] Robert Puers, “Implantable Sensor Systems”.
[3] Ning Yin, Guizhi Xu, Quingxin Yang, Jun Zhao, Xuewen Yang, Jianqiang
Jin, Weinong Fu, and Mingui Sun, “Analysis of Wireless Energy
Transmission for Implantable Device Based on Coupled Magnetic
Resonance”, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol.48, no.2, February 2012.
[4] Fei Zhang, Steve A. Hackwoth, Xiaoyu Liu, Chengliu Li, and Mingui
Sun, “Wireless Power Delivery for Wearable Sensors and Implants in Body
Sensor Networks”, 32nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE
EMBS, Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 31-September 4, 2010.
[5] Steven A. Hackworth, Xiaoyu Liu, Chengliu Li, and Mingui Sun,
“Wireless Solar Energy to Homes: A Magnetic Resonance Approach”,
International Journal of Innovations in Energy Systems and Power, vol.5
no.1, April 2010.
[6] Aristeidis Karalis*, J.D. Joannopoulos, and Marin Soljačić, “Efficient
Wireless Non- radiative Mid-range Energy Transfer”.
[7] A. Kurs, Aristeidis Karalis, Robert Moffatt, J. D. Joannopoulos, Peter
Fisher, and Marin Soljacic, “Wireless Power Transfer via Strongly Coupled
Magnetic Resonances”, Science, vol. 317 no. 5834, pp. 83-86, July 2007.
[8] William A. Sahlam, and Evan Richardson, “WiTricity: Electricity cuts the
cord”, Harvard Business School, N9-811-045, November 2010.
[9] Hermann A. Haus, and Weiping Huang, “Coupled-Mode Theory”,
Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 79 no. 10, October 1991.