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osting is a key element of management accounting.

This page is an introduction to the topic but

further detail can be explored using the above navigation bar.

Terminology - cost units and cost centres

Cost units

To help with the above purposes of planning, control and decision making, businesses often need
to calculate a cost per unit of output.

A key question, however, is what exactly we mean by a “unit of output”, or “cost unit”. This
will mean different things to different businesses but we always looks at what the business

 A car manufacturer will want to determine the cost of each car and probably different
components as well.
 In a printing firm, the cost unit could be the specific customer order.
 For a paint manufacturer, the unit could be a litre of paint.
 An accountancy firm will want to know the costs incurred for each client. To help with
this it is common to calculate the cost per hour of chargeable time spent by staff.
 A hospital might wish to calculate the cost per patient treated, the cost of providing a bed
for each day or the cost of an operation, say.

Cost centres

A cost centre is a small part of a business for which costs are determined. This varies from
business to business but could include any of the following:

 The Research and Development department

 The Human Resources function
 A warehouse
 A factory in a particular location

It is important to recognise that cost centre costs are necessary for control purposes, as well as
for relating costs to cost units. This is because the manager of a cost centre will be responsible
for the costs incurred.

Cost, profit and investment centres

Some businesses use the term “cost centre” in a more precise way than that given above:

 A cost centre is when the manager of the centre (department or division or location
or...) is responsible for costs but not revenue or investment. This is usually because
the centre has no revenue stream.
For example, a research and development department.
 A profit centre is when the manager of the centre (department or division or
location or...) is responsible for costs and revenues but not investment.
For example, a local supermarket where investment decisions are made by the main
 An investment centre is when the manager of the centre (usually a division) is
responsible for costs and revenues and the level of investment in the division.
For example, the US subsidiary of a global firm. The CEO would usually have
authority to open new factories, close others and so on.

Cost classification

Costs can be classified (collected into logical groups) in many ways. The particular
classification selected will depend upon the purpose for which the resulting analysed data will be
used, for example:

Purpose Classification
By function - Cost of sales, distribution costs, administrative
Financial accounts
Cost By element – materials, labour, other expenses
Cost accounts By relationship to cost units – direct, indirect
Budgeting, decision making By behaviour – fixed, variable

Classification by function

For financial accounting purposes costs are split into the following categories:

 Cost of sales – also known as production costs. This category could include production
labour, materials, supervisor salaries and factory rent.
 Distribution costs – this includes selling and distribution costs such as sales team
commission and delivery costs.
 Administrative costs – this includes head office costs, IT support, HR support and so on.

Note that some costs impact each of the above - e.g. depreciation. This is a measure of how
much an asset is wearing out or being used up. The classification will depend on which asset is
being depreciated. For example,

 Cost of sales – depreciation on a machine in the production line

 Distribution – depreciation of a delivery van
 Admin – depreciation of a computer in the accounts department

Cost classification by element

The simplest classification is splitting costs according to element as follows:

 Materials - includes raw materials for a manufacturer or alternatively the cost of goods
that are to be resold in a retail organisation
 Labour - Labour costs can consist of not only basic pay but overtime, commissions and
bonuses as well.
 Other expenses – also known as overheads. This includes electricity, depreciation, rent
and so on.

Cost classification by nature - direct and indirect

Direct costs

Direct costs are costs which can be directly identified with a specific cost unit or cost centre.
There are three main types of direct cost:

 direct materials - for example, cloth for making shirts

 direct labour - for example, the wages of the workers stitching the cloth to make the shirts
 direct expenses - for example, the royalties paid to a designer, or the freight charges for
imported special materials.

The total of direct costs is known as the prime cost.

Indirect costs

Indirect costs are costs which cannot be directly identified with a specific cost unit or cost centre.
Examples of indirect costs include the following:

 indirect materials - these include materials that cannot be traced to an individual shirt, for
example, cotton
 indirect labour - for example, the cost of a supervisor who supervises the shirt makers
 indirect expenses - for example, the cost of renting the factory where the shirts are

The total of indirect costs is known as overheads.

Cost classification by behaviour

Costs may be classified according to the way that they behave. Cost behaviour is the way in
which input costs vary with different levels of activity. Cost behaviour tends to classify costs as
one of the following:

 Variable costs are costs that tend to vary in total with the level of activity. As activity
levels increase then total variable costs will also increase
 A fixed cost is a cost which is incurred for an accounting period, and which, within
certain activity levels remains constant.
 A stepped fixed cost is only fixed within certain levels of activity. Once the upper limit
of an activity level is reached then a new higher level of fixed cost becomes relevant
 Semi-variable costs contain both fixed and variable cost elements and are therefore
partly affected by fluctuations in the level of activity

Cost cards

Once costs have been analysed, management may wish to collect the costs together on a cost
card. A cost card (or unit cost card) lists out all of the costs involved in making one unit of a

COST CARD - statement of the total cost of one unit of a product

Understanding a cost card

 The total production cost is the marginal production cost (total direct costs) plus any
fixed production overheads.
 It is important that the total production cost of a product is clearly identified as being
such. Non-production costs must be analysed separately. This is because when finished
products are transferred to the warehouse as finished goods, they are transferred at a
value that reflects the direct manufacturing costs that were involved in producing them,
i.e. total production cost.
 When finished goods are transferred to the warehouse, this is where they remain until
they are sold to customers or held as inventory. When inventory is sold, it is important
that it is given a value that reflects the 'cost of sale' of the product, so that a profit can be
calculated and reported in the income statement.
 Similarly, at the end of an accounting period, inventory is valued and reported in the
balance sheet of an organisation at its total production cost.
 It is important, therefore, that the production costs and the non-production costs are
clearly distinguished for the purposes of valuing output and inventories.

Standard costing

Many businesses will determine an expected or standard cost at the start of a period and then use
this as the basis for evaluating actual costs.

Determining the components of a cost card.

For any business the elements of a cost card that require the most work are the following (click
on the links to explore in more detail):

 materials costs
 labour costs
 overhead costs

Marginal and absorption costing

Different businesses have different approaches to whether or not they include fixed overheads in
their cost per unit calculation. Marginal costing (MC) excluded fixed overheads but total
absorption costing (TAC) includes fixed production overheads.

Costing in different industries

Different organisations have different types of production, which impacts on their costing

 Specific order costing is the costing system used when the work done by an organisation
consists of separately identifiable jobs or batches.
 Continuous operation costing is the costing method used when goods or services are
produced as a direct result of a sequence of continuous operations or processes, for
example process and service costing.

To explore the implications of this further please click on the following links:

 Job costing
 Batch costing
 Process costing
 Service and operations costing
 Joint and by-product costing
Cost control and cost reduction

Cost control and cost reduction are priorities for many businesses. To explore these aspects
further click on the following links:

 Cost control
 Cost reduction techniques

Cost and Cost Classifications

Cost is a sacrifice of resources to obtain a benefit or any other resource. For example in
production of a car, we sacrifice material, electricity, the value of machine's life (depreciation),
and labor wages etc. Thus these are our costs.

Costs are usually classified as follows:

Product Costs Vs. Period Costs

Product costs are costs assigned to the manufacture of products and recognized for financial
reporting when sold. They include direct materials, direct labor, factory wages, factory
depreciation, etc.

Period costs are on the other hand are all costs other than product costs. They include marketing
costs and administrative costs, etc.

Breakup of Product Costs

The product costs are further classified into:

 Direct materials: Represents the cost of the materials that can be identified directly with the
product at reasonable cost. For example, cost of paper in newspaper printing, cost of
 Direct labor: Represents the cost of the labor time spent on that product, for example cost of
the time spent by a petroleum engineer on an oil rig, etc.
 Manufacturing overhead: Represents all production costs except those for direct labor and
direct materials, for example the cost of an accountant's time in an organization, depreciation
on equipment, electricity, fuel, etc.

The product costs that can be specifically identified with each unit of a product are called direct
product costs. Whereas those which cannot be traced to a specific unit are indirect product costs.
Thus direct material cost and direct labor cost are direct product costs whereas manufacturing
overhead cost is indirect product cost.
Prime Costs Vs. Conversion Costs

Prime costs are the sum of all direct costs such as direct materials, direct labor and any other
direct costs.

Conversion costs are all costs incurred to convert the raw materials to finished products and they
equal the sum of direct labor, other direct costs (other than materials) and manufacturing

Cost Classification Diagram

Fixed Costs Vs. Variable Costs

Fixed costs are costs which remain constant within a certain level of output or sales. This certain
limit where fixed costs remain constant regardless of the level of activity is called relevant range.
For example, depreciation on fixed assets, etc.

Variable costs are costs which change with a change in the level of activity. Examples include
direct materials, direct labor, etc.

Sunk Costs Vs. Opportunity Costs

The costs discussed so far are historical costs which means they have been incurred in past and
cannot be avoided by our current decisions. Relevant in this regard is another cost classification,
called sunk costs. Sunk costs are those costs that have been irreversibly incurred or committed;
they may also be termed unrecoverable costs.
In contrast to sunk costs are opportunity costs which are costs of a potential benefit foregone. For