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Definitions of Petroleum Products and Other Terms

(Revised July 2007)
Alcohol. The family name of a group of organic chemical Aviation Gasoline (Finished). A complex mixture of relatively
compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of
series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in aviation
hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH3-(CH2)n-OH (e.g., reciprocating engines. Fuel specifications are provided in ASTM
methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). Specification D 910 and Military Specification MIL-G-5572.
Note: Data on blending components are not counted in data on
Alkylate. The product of an alkylation reaction. It usually refers to finished aviation gasoline.
the high octane product from alkylation units. This alkylate is used
in blending high octane gasoline. Aviation Gasoline Blending Components. Naphthas which will
be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation
Alkylation. A refining process for chemically combining gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene,
isobutane with olefin hydrocarbons (e.g., propylene, butylene) toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers),
through the control of temperature and pressure in the presence of butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other
an acid catalyst, usually sulfuric acid or hydrofluoric acid. The hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates.
product, alkylate, an isoparaffin, has high octane value and is
blended with motor and aviation gasoline to improve the antiknock Barrel. A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons.
value of the fuel.
Barrels Per Calendar Day. The amount of input that a distillation
All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components. See Motor facility can process under usual operating conditions. The amount
Gasoline Blending Components. is expressed in terms of capacity during a 24-hour period and
reduces the maximum processing capability of all units at the
API Gravity. An arbitrary scale expressing the gravity or density facility under continuous operation (see Barrels per Stream Day)
of liquid petroleum products. The measuring scale is calibrated in to account for the following limitations that may delay, interrupt,
terms of degrees API; it may be calculated in terms of the or slow down production:
following formula:
the capability of downstream facilities to absorb the output
141. 5 of crude oil processing facilities of a given refinery. No
Degrees API = − 131. 5
sp. gr. 60° F / 60° F reduction is made when a planned distribution of
intermediate streams through other than downstream
The higher the API gravity, the lighter the compound. Light crudes facilities is part of a refinery’s normal operation;
generally exceed 38 degrees API and heavy crudes are commonly the types and grades of inputs to be processed;
labeled as all crudes with an API gravity of 22 degrees or below.
Intermediate crudes fall in the range of 22 degrees to 38 degrees the types and grades of products expected to be
API gravity. manufactured;

Aromatics. Hydrocarbons characterized by unsaturated ring the environmental constraints associated with refinery
structures of carbon atoms. Commercial petroleum aromatics are operations;
benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX). the reduction of capacity for scheduled downtime due to
such conditions as routine inspection, maintenance,
Asphalt. A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing repairs, and turnaround; and
bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum
processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude the reduction of capacity for unscheduled downtime due to
asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, such conditions as mechanical problems, repairs, and
the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and slowdowns.
petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback
asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per Barrels Per Stream Day. The maximum number of barrels of
short ton. input that a distillation facility can process within a 24-hour period
when running at full capacity under optimal crude and product
ASTM. The acronym for the American Society for Testing and slate conditions with no allowance for downtime.
Benzene (C6H6). An aromatic hydrocarbon present in small
Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation. The refining process of proportion in some crude oils and made commercially from
separating crude oil components at atmospheric pressure by petroleum by the catalytic reforming of naphthenes in petroleum
heating to temperatures of about 600 degrees Fahrenheit to 750 naphtha. Also made from coal in the manufacture of coke. Used as
degrees Fahrenheit (depending on the nature of the crude oil and a solvent, in manufacturing detergents, synthetic fibers, and
desired products) and subsequent condensing of the fractions by petrochemicals and as a component of high-octane gasoline.

148 Energy Information Administration/Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 2007

Catalytic Cracking.) in the presence of catalysts and marketing of petroleum products which has a total bulk storage substantial quantities of hydrogen. Catalytic reforming is reported and is designated in ASTM Specification D1835 and Gas in two categories. It is formed from plant remains that have refinery processes. gas which boils at a temperature of 31. A facility used primarily for the storage and/or the quality of the fractions. or pipeline. etc. A normally gaseous 225 pounds per square inch gauge (PSIG) measured at the straight-chain hydrocarbon that is a colorless paraffinic outlet separator. jet fuel. and can handle high sulfur feedstocks without prior use. and heavy gas oil) and other petroleum (e. A refining process using controlled heat and products by tanker. See Motor Gasoline (Finished). by the use of a catalytic agent and is an effective process for increasing the yield of gasoline from crude oil. chemically altered. See Motor or Aviation Gasoline Fresh Feeds. conversion of olefins to paraffins to reduce gum formation in gasoline. duty for use as fuel for vessels and aircraft engaged in international The process uses one or more catalysts. residual fuel oil. Catalytic Hydrocracking. thereby converting paraffinic and naphthenic type Butane (C4H10). and other processes to upgrade Bulk Terminal. The refining process of breaking down the larger. See Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel. A facility used primarily for the storage and/or coker naphtha. The input (feed) capacity of the refinery and/or isobutane and may also contain propane and/or processing facilities. Crude Oil. A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating Energy Information Administration/Petroleum Supply Monthly. and/or high grade fuel oil. desulfurization. processes fresh feeds and recycled feeds. marketing of petroleum products which has a total bulk storage capacity of 50.. removal of substances (e. natural gasoline. The acronym for the commercial petroleum aromatics Catalytic Hydrotreating. being fed to processing units for the first time. toluene. A facility which has no refining capability but is Recycled Feeds. A refining process that uses hydrogen Bonded Petroleum Imports. low-octane gasoline boiling range fractions) branch-chain hydrocarbon extracted from natural gas or refinery into petrochemical feedstocks and higher octane stocks suitable gas streams.g. Hydrotreating includes capacity of less than 50. been compacted. mechanical blending or blends oxygenates with motor gasoline. A normally gaseous straight-chain or hydrocarbons (e. Low Pressure. A processing unit operating at either equal Fahrenheit and is extracted from natural gas or refinery to or greater than 225 pounds per square inch gauge gas streams. Refinery-Grade Butane (C4H10). Petroleum imported and entered into and catalysts with relatively low temperatures and high pressures Customs bonded storage. See individual categories for fractions from atmospheric or vacuum distillation units (e. reformer feeds. Oxygenate production facilities located within or adjacent to a refinery complex. nitrogen compounds) products by tank car or truck. They are: Processors Association Specifications for commercial butane.1 degrees High Pressure. These streams may also contain significant levels of olefins and/or fluorides Coal. A refining process for treating petroleum benzene. A processing unit operating at less than Normal Butane (C4H10). August 2007 149 . naphthas.000 barrels or more and/or receives petroleum Catalytic Reforming.g. cat cracked naphtha. depending upon product trade. and xylene.g. middle distillates. A readily combustible black or brownish-black rock whose contamination. Crude oil or petroleum distillates which are Blending Components. definitions. Bulk Station. consists of more than 50 percent by weight and more than 70 percent by volume of Butylene (C4H8). and metamorphosed by heat and pressure over geologic time. or (2) withdrawn from storage with duty paid for domestic output. See simpler and lighter molecules. composition. (PSIG) measured at the outlet separator. barge.. Blending Plant.. BTX.000 barrels and receives its petroleum desulfurization. Commercial Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel. and more complex hydrocarbon molecules into Conventional Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (CBOB). An olefinic hydrocarbon recovered from carbonaceous material. heavier. Catalytic cracking is accomplished Motor Gasoline Blending Components.g. Catalytic cracking Conventional Gasoline.Blending Components. gas oil. including inherent moisture. hardened. pressure with catalysts to rearrange certain hydrocarbon molecules. It includes normal butane and refinery-grade butane for blending into finished gasoline. Feeds that are continuously fed back for either capable of producing finished motor gasoline through additional processing. that deactivate catalysts. These imports are not included in the for converting middle boiling or residual material to high-octane import statistics until they are: (1) withdrawn from storage free of gasoline. reformer charge stock. Captive Refinery Oxygenate Plants. A refinery-produced stream that is composed predominantly of normal butane Charge Capacity..

g. or other media for transport to refineries or either a diesel fuel or a fuel oil. 1 Distillate. can be thermally decomposed under conditions of elevated Low Sulfur No. and oil shale. the following: 4 fuel oils are used primarily for space heating and electric power generation. Small amounts of nonhydrocarbons produced from oil. production for a given period is measured as volumes delivered from lease storage tanks (i. 1 Diesel Fuel. Crude oil of foreign origin held as those in city buses and similar vehicles. Lease condensate recovered as a catalytic hydrotreating and other chemical/physical processes liquid from natural gas wells in lease or field separation such as adsorption. 2 Distillate. It is used primarily as fuel for portable outdoor Crude Oil Production.e.. lubricants. A light petroleum distillate that can be used as either a diesel fuel or a fuel oil. These losses the 10-percent recovery point and 550 degrees are due to spills. Desulfurization processes include separately measured. sulfur reduction to 10 ppm).facilities. 2 Distillate. August 2007 . etc. 2 Diesel Fuel. such as those in railroad locomotives and Crude oil is considered as either domestic or foreign. No. The coke can be used it may also include: either as a fuel or in other applications such as the manufacturing of steel or aluminum. Distillate. distillation temperature of 640 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90-percent recovery point and meets the Crude Oil Qualities. propane. Distillate Fuel Oil. and No. and liquid hydrocarbons produced from tar change. and the amount of sulfur removed (e. Includes all crude oil in transit except crude It is used in high speed diesel engines generally oil in transit by pipeline. trucks. such only after entry through customs. The light oils can be processed further in other 150 Energy Information Administration/Petroleum Supply Monthly. A distillate fuel oil that has a water (BS&W). gilsonite. 1. No. supplied for domestic consumption. fires. 2 diesel fuel temperatures and pressure to produce a mixture of lighter oils and that has a sulfur level no higher than 0. No. as well as off-highway engines. Depending upon the characteristics of the crude stream. The amount of such Distillate. See No. or flue gases. which affect processing It is used in high-speed diesel engines that are complexity and product characteristics. Refinery Receipts. Products known as No. naphtha.g. The volume of crude oil produced from oil stoves and portable outdoor heaters. heavy gas oil. such as those in trucks and automobiles. Refers to two properties of crude oil. gasoline. Foreign. Receipts of domestic and foreign specifications defined in ASTM Specification D 975.. atmospheric pressure after being recovered from oil well petroleum oil. refinery inputs. A general classification for one of the Crude oil is refined to produce a wide array of petroleum products.) included. terminals with adjustments for (1) net differences between opening and closing lease inventories. The removal of sulfur. No. 4 diesel fuel are used in on-highway diesel used for their energy or chemical content. 2. and (2) basic sediment and No. A petroleum distillate that can be used as pipelines. and products sands. 1 Fuel Oil. such as those in railroad locomotives. crude oil at a refinery. Imported Athabasca hydrocarbons (tar sands from No. and butane. such as sulfur and various metals. Desulfurization processes vary based on the facilities and later mixed into the crude stream is also type of stream treated (e. It includes diesel fuels and fuel oils. No. Small amounts of hydrocarbons that exist in gaseous phase in natural underground reservoirs but are liquid at Desulfurization.. distillation temperature of 550 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90-percent recovery point and meets the Crude Oil. and automobiles. Domestic. according to agricultural machinery. See Catalytic Hydrotreating. Crude oil produced outside the United States. and No. A light distillate fuel oil that has Crude Oil Losses. 1. contamination. A process by which heavier crude oil fractions trucks. Petroleum desulfurization is a process (casinghead) gas in lease separators and are subsequently that removes sulfur and its compounds from various streams commingled with the crude stream without being during the refining process. Delayed Coking. Foreign crude oil is reported as a receipt operated under frequent speed and load changes. diesel and jet fuels. 1 in bonded storage is excluded. refinery units to meet product specifications. as from molten metals. Disposition. sulfur content and API gravity. engines. Crude oil produced in the United States or from its Aouter continental shelf’ as defined in 43 USC 1331. ethane.05 parts per petroleum coke. Liquids produced at natural gas processing plants are excluded. Represents the volume of crude oil reported by distillation temperatures of 400 degrees Fahrenheit at petroleum refineries as being lost in their operations. etc. See No. as opposed to refinery Fahrenheit at the 90-percent recovery point and meets processing losses. and many other products as No. exports. The components of petroleum disposition are stock Drip gases. the point of custody transfer) to No. 2 Diesel Fuel. oil sands. the specifications defined in ASTM Specification D 396. distillate. Products known asphalt. generally operated under uniform speed and load conditions. 2. petroleum fractions produced in conventional distillation including heating oils. crude oil losses. the specifications defined in ASTM Specification D 975. See No. 1 reservoirs during given periods of time. A light distillate fuel oil that has a Canada) are included. operations.

Feedstocks can be any pumpable Distillate. by weight. the Virgin Islands. natural gas liquids. It is used primarily in motor Exports. asphalt compounds from petroleum fractions. 2 Diesel Fuel. tar sands bitumen. Gasohol. Energy Information Administration/Petroleum Supply Monthly. A thermal cracking process which converts heavy heating or for moderate capacity hydrocarbons such as crude oil.000 barrels of petroleum products or that can receive Fuel Ethanol (C2H5OH). plants. pipelines. oxygenates or finished products) to processing units at a refinery that is being processed (input) into a particular unit for the first No. benzene. No. A blend of finished motor gasoline containing alcohol Ether.g. No. It is used in atomizing type burners for domestic Flexicoking. 4 Fuel Oil. 2 residues into light hydrocarbons. derives its name from having originally been used in the It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at a temperature of . and distillation commercial/industrial burner units. and is intended for sale inside carbon (e. 2 diesel fuel that has a sulfur level above 0. 4 Fuel. Crude oil that is alcohol intended for gasoline blending as described in Oxygenates in-transit by water from Alaska. A refining process for removing storage. methyl tertiary butyl ether). (e. A normally gaseous straight-chain hydrocarbon. Ethylene (C2H4). the specifications defined in ASTM Specification D 396. A liquid petroleum distillate having a viscosity intermediate between that of kerosene and lubricating oil. and bulk terminals that can store at least 50. hydrogen. It is extracted from natural gas and refinery distillate fuel oils and gasoline. Primary stocks of crude oil and petroleum products held in storage as of 12 midnight on the last day of the (2) Unfinished oils coming out of a catalytic cracking unit being month.7 characterized by an oxygen atom attached to two carbon atoms percent oxygen. monoxide nonattainment areas are included in data on oxygenated gasoline. An anhydrous denatured aliphatic petroleum products by tanker. possessions and territories. other hydrocarbons and to ASTM Specification D 975. reformate. Naphthas which will be used for a petrochemical feedstock for numerous chemical applications and blending or compounding into finished aviation or motor gasoline the production of consumer goods. gas streams.and medium-speed diesel engines and conforms unfinished oils.05 parts per million Field Production.127. It also includes No. It Ethane (C2H6). low-grade oils into lighter products. Primary stocks include crude oil or petroleum products looped back into the same catalytic cracking unit to be reprocessed held in storage at (or in) leases.48 manufacture of illuminating gas. which are input into a catalytic cracking unit are considered fresh feed to the catalytic cracking unit. An olefinic hydrocarbon recovered from refinery processes or petrochemical processes. A thermal cracking process utilizing the Specification D 396 or Federal Specification VV-F-815C fluidized-solids technique to remove carbon (coke) for continuous and is used extensively in industrial plants and in conversion of heavy. Represents crude oil production on leases. An oxygenate produce fuel products. alkylate. 2 Fuel Oil (Heating Oil). Examples: Electricity (Purchased). August 2007 151 . barge. 4 Diesel Fuel. by weight. straight-run gasoline. A distillate fuel oil that supply of other hydrocarbons/oxygenates and motor gasoline has a distillation temperature of 640 degrees blending components. Electricity purchased for refinery (1) Unfinished oils coming out of a crude oil distillation unit operations that is not produced within the refinery complex. The recovered stream from this process is used to ETBE (Ethyl tertiary butyl ether) (CH3)3COC2H5. toluene. Shipments of crude oil and petroleum products from the vehicle diesel engines for on-highway use. tank farms. 4 Fuel. such as reduced crude oil. and other U. 4 diesel fuel used Fresh Feed Input. or pipeline. Gas Oil. See No. time. Data on gasohol that has at least 2. Puerto Rico. Ending Stocks. for low. million by weight. and oxygen. See No. Represents input of material (crude oil. blend stock formed by the catalytic etherification of isobutylene with ethanol. natural gas processing are not considered fresh feed. A generic term applied to a group of organic chemical (generally ethanol but sometimes methanol) at a concentration of compounds composed of carbon. commercial burner installations that are not equipped with preheating facilities. natural gas liquids production at natural gas processing plants.. It is now used to produce degrees Fahrenheit. See No.. and fuel ethanol blended into finished Fahrenheit at the 90-percent recovery point and meets motor gasoline. It conforms to ASTM Fluid Coking. 4 Fuel. No.g. new No. High Sulfur No. or that is stored on Federal leases definition. 10 percent or less by volume. hydrocarbons including those containing high concentrations of sulfur and metals. See Oxygenates. Ethylene is used as Gasoline Blending Components. A distillate fuel oil made by blending distillate fuel oil and residual fuel oil stocks. Primary Stocks exclude stocks of foreign origin that are held in bonded warehouse Fuels Solvent Deasphalting. 50 States and the District of Columbia to foreign countries. refineries.S. or in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve is included.

It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at a temperature of 10. Liquefied petroleum gases natural gas or refinery gas streams. materials used as processing aids in the manufacture of other products. propylene. isobutane. being processed as such. Rico. It is a colorless liquid that boils at a temperature of 156.9 degrees Fahrenheit. refinery processes or petrochemical processes. A group of Imports. gilsonite. Kerosene-type jet fuel intended for use in content greater than 500 ppm. high-octane gasoline components. petroleum. ethylene. which have properties similar to those of No. a final boiling point of 572 degrees pentanes plus. Total input to atmospheric crude oil distillation units. Production from 152 Energy Information Administration/Petroleum Supply Monthly. usually as residual fuel oil. Includes all crude Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel. Used to convert normal butane into isobutane (C4). Kerosene has a maximum Merchant Oxygenate Plants. For convenience of transportation. Isohexane (C6H14). Included are No. They include: ethane. Substances used to reduce friction between bearing normal pentane and hexane into isopentane (C5) and isohexane surfaces or as process materials either incorporated into other (C6). A normally gaseous branch-chain through pressurization. and Lubricants. Gross Input to Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Units. called range or stove oil. propane. but capable of being placed natural gas in lease separation facilities. without Light Gas Oils. and other U. High-Sulfur Distillate Fuel Oil. Fahrenheit. Puerto natural gas fractionation. It is extracted from Liquefied Refinery Gases (LRG). lubricants may be produced either from distillates or residues. such as butane and propane. butylene. See Natural Gasoline and Isopentane. lease condensate.2 degrees Low-Sulfur Distillate Fuel Oil. natural gas plant liquids. normal butane/butylene. A mixture consisting primarily of pentanes Idle Capacity. and capacity not in operation but natural gas liquids. these gases are liquefied Isobutane (C4H10). August 2007 . and 10-percent recovery point. possessions and territories. turbojet and turboprop aircraft engines. an alkylation process feedstock. Lease Condensate. Distillate fuel oil having sulfur Commercial. Imported Crude Oil Burned As Fuel. and isobutane/isobutylene. military aircraft. slop oils. 1 fuel oil. The component of operable capacity that is not in and heavier hydrocarbons which is recovered as a liquid from operation and not under active repair. A saturated branch-chain hydrocarbon. fractionated from refinery or still gases. and water heaters and is suitable for use as a light source when burned in wick-fed lamps. normal butane. and oil shale. and oil shale. 1-K and No. tar sands. bases. Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG). the two grades recognized by Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). and other liquid hydrocarbons 10-percent recovery point and a final maximum boiling point of produced from tar sands. Imported crude oil burned as fuel with an approximate boiling range from 401 degrees Fahrenheit to includes lease condensate and liquid hydrocarbons produced from 650 degrees Fahrenheit. gilsonite. Excludes oxygenates (alcohols. content greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm. they are retained in the liquid state. Receipts of crude oil and petroleum products into the 50 hydrocarbon-based gases derived from crude oil refining or States and the District of Columbia from foreign countries. maximum distillation temperature of 400 degrees Fahrenheit at the liquefied refinery gases. A kerosene-based product having a oil. Oxygenate production facilities that distillation temperature of 400 degrees Fahrenheit at the are not associated with a petroleum refinery. which are under active repair that can be completed within 90 days. Kerosene-type jet fuel intended for use in combination with oxygen in water. cook stoves. This category excludes in operation within 30 days. and other hydrocarbons. Excludes still gas. cylinder oil and those used in greases. butane. The Isobutylene (C4H8). Low sulfur distillate fuel oil also includes product with sulfur content equal to or less than Isomerization. It is used for commercial and military range from 651 degrees Fahrenheit to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit. Petroleum distillates with an approximate boiling (Grades JP-5 and JP-8).and xylene). The lightest of all gases. The amount of foreign crude oil burned as a fuel oil. See Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel. Through compression and/or refrigeration. A light petroleum distillate that is used in space heaters. alcohols. and isobutylene. and a minimum flash point of 100 degrees Fahrenheit. ethers). anything from the original material. An olefinic hydrocarbon recovered from reported categories are ethane/ethylene. the Virgin Islands. propane/propylene. A refining process which alters the fundamental 15 ppm if the product is intended for pipeline shipment and the arrangement of atoms in the molecule without adding or removing pipeline has a sulfur specification below 15 ppm.S. Distillate fuel oil having sulfur Fahrenheit. recovered at downstream natural gas processing plants or facilities. occurring chiefly in Military. 572 degrees Fahrenheit and meeting ASTM Specification D 1655 and Military Specifications MIL-T-5624P and MIL-T-83133D Heavy Gas Oil. Petroleum Isopentane. unfinished oils. Lubricants include all grades of lubricating oils from spindle oil to Kerosene. See Motor Gasoline ASTM Specification D 3699 as well as all other grades of kerosene Blending Components. or used as carriers of other materials. Liquid Petroleum distillates heavier than naphtha. 2-K. Hydrogen. hydrocarbon. commercial aircraft. See Natural Gas Liquids. exists also in acids.

alkylate. conventional motor gasoline mixed with MTBE to components of product supplied. and gasoline blended with an alcohol component (e. Conventional Gasoline. lube refining byproducts (aromatic extracts and tars). Naphthas (e. It includes gasoline produced to meet or exceed emissions performance and benzene Methanol (CH3OH). petrolatum. Oxygenated Gasoline (Including Gasohol). classified elsewhere (e. Motor gasoline as a separate product from January 1993 until December blending components that require blending other than with 2003 inclusive. ram-jet fuel. oxygenated gasoline is included in conventional reported as All Other Motor Gasoline Blending gasoline. Historical oxygenated gasoline data Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB).. synthetic natural gas feedstocks. Energy Information Administration/Petroleum Supply Monthly.. having oxygen content of 2. content. toluene. Excludes reformulated blendstock for excluded Federal Oxygenated Program Reformulated oxygenate blending (RBOB). are not counted mixed with other motor gasoline blending components or in data on finished motor gasoline until the blending components oxygenates. and oxygenates when required. hydrogens. gasoline even though the gasoline may not meet all of the composition requirements (e. Non-certified also excluded other reformulated gasoline with a seasonal Foreign Refinery gasoline classified by an importer as oxygen requirement regardless of season. Note: This category excludes reformulated xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) as gasoline. absorption oils. A light. but excludes aviation gasoline. These components include reformulated gasoline well as other blendstock. produce oxygenated motor gasoline). Historical data for oxygenated gasoline Components. volatile alcohol intended for content standards of federal-program reformulated gasoline blending as described in Oxygenate definition. Conventional gasoline blendstock intended for percent or higher by weight. blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) but exclude oxygenates (alcohols. volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of methyl tertiary butyl ether) at a terminal or refinery to additives. blended to form a fuel suitable for use in spark-ignition raise the oxygen content.0 (CBOB). and use in an oxygenated fuels program control area.. resulting in increased volumes of finished motor are blended into the gasoline. all types of oxygenated gasoline. A complex mixture of relatively gasoline blended with an ether component (e.g. excludes Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB) and Gasoline Treated as Blendstock Miscellaneous Products. CBOB must become conventional oxygenated gasoline. category includes Oxygenated Fuels Program Reformulated Gasoline (OPRG). is characterized as Reformulated (Non-Oxygenated). Gasoline (OPRG). Oxygenated gasoline includes all finished motor gasoline. Finished motor gasoline may be further data on blending components. Mechanical mixing of motor gasoline gasoline.7 percent ethanol by volume is included in where it was produced. blendstock to be either blended or reclassified with respect Reformulated Gasoline. and pentanes plus. Motor gasoline. including gasohol. GTAB is for use in motor vehicles. ethers). the composition and properties classified as either reformulated or conventional based on of which meet the requirements of the reformulated emissions performance and the intended end use. gasoline regulations promulgated by the U. Volumetric finished motor gasoline. reformate. Reformulated gasoline Military Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel. categories. oxygenates.g.these facilities is sold under contract or on the spot market to Environmental Protection Agency under Section 211(k) refiners or other gasoline blenders. Reformulated petroleum rocket fuels. and blending components. Finished gasoline formulated to reformulated or conventional gasoline. other than Conventional Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending reformulated gasoline. included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline straight-run gasoline.. such as oxygenates. A general classification of refined petroleum federal-program reformulated gasoline.. Note: Beginning with January 2004 data. Oxygenated gasoline was reported gasoline after blending with oxygenates. Finished motor gasoline not Motor Gasoline Blending Components. Gasohol containing a blending with oxygenates downstream of the refinery minimum 5. Reformulated Motor Gasoline (Finished). Reformulated (Blended with Ether). to produce reformulated gasoline. of the Clean Air Act. Beginning with monthly data for January oxygenates to become finished conventional gasoline are 2004. butane. Reformulated having a boiling range of 122 to 158 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10 gasoline without added ether or alcohol components.g.g. fuel specialty oils). Note: E85 is included only in gasoline and/or changes in the formulation of finished motor volumetric data on finished motor gasoline production and other gasoline (e. “Motor Gasoline” includes conventional Motor Gasoline Blending. engines. oxygen content) of Middle Distillates. as defined in ASTM Specification D 4814 or Federal Specification VV-G-1690C.S. Note: OPRG.g. Reformulated (Blended with Alcohol). benzene. ethanol) at a terminal or refinery to raise the oxygen naphtha-type jet fuel is included in Miscellaneous Products. Includes all finished products not (GTAB). August 2007 153 . Note: This products that includes distillate fuel oil and kerosene.g. “Oxygenated Fuels Program Reformulated Oxygenates are reported as individual components and are Gasoline” is reformulated gasoline which is intended for included in the total for other hydrocarbons. See Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel.. percent recovery point to 365 to 374 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90 percent recovery point.

A fuel in the heavy naphtha boiling range oil companies on matters of oil production. A mixture of hydrocarbons. Those hydrocarbons in natural gas RBOB for Blending with Alcohol. prices and future having an average gravity of 52. see Natural requirements of Federal reformulated gasoline (e. The acronym for the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Naphtha Less Than 401 F. fuel ethanol) at a terminal or facilities. straight-run gasoline. See Petrochemical Feedstocks. Nigeria. field alcohol component (e. pentanes plus. that have organized for the purpose of negotiating with Naphtha-Type Jet Fuel. Represents the utilization of the to be marketed. Current members are Algeria. Excludes produced from natural gas at lease separators and field facilities. tanker. end-point. Operable Capacity. blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB). liquefied petroleum gases (propane. benzene. An ether isomerization of normal pentane. and pentanes plus. Excludes conventional Natural Gasoline and Isopentane. ethane-propane mixtures). xylene) used for blending facilities.8 degrees API. Natural gas liquids include natural gas plant liquids gasoline that meets or exceeds emissions performance (primarily ethane. but capable of being placed in operation within 30 days. mostly pentanes and heavier. per stream day. and distillate fuel oil. Net Receipts. not in operation and not under active primary one being methane. Countries. A gaseous mixture of hydrocarbon compounds. and other specifications for oxygenates (e. butane. A generic term applied to a petroleum fraction with an barge. natural gasoline. (C5H12). These facilities control the quality of the natural gas to or compounding into finished motor gasoline. or other methods in gas downstream of the refinery where it was produced. Saudi Arabia.. butane. Note: 1995. alkylate. ether component (e. meets vapor pressure. Prior to January and meets engine requirements at high altitudes and speeds. adsorption. Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending Natural Gas Liquids. Beginning with January 2004 data.. It United Arab Emirates. o OPEC. butanes. Iran. Cycling plants are classified as gas processing plants. naphtha-type jet fuel is Angola became a member of OPEC. repair. isopentane. Motor gasoline and other small quantities of finished products. and to control the quality of natural gas Operable Utilization Rate. methyl tertiary butyl ether) at a terminal or refinery to raise the oxygen content. The Neutral Zone between is used primarily for military turbojet and turboprop aircraft Kuwait and Saudi Arabia is considered part of OPEC.g. Specially produced reformulated gasoline separated from the gas as liquids through the process of blendstock intended for blending with oxygenates absorption. Indonesia.. Lease condensate is excluded. Iraq. distillation temperatures of 290 degrees to 470 degrees Fahrenheit. at the beginning Natural Gas. condensation. Effective January 2007. propane. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl natural gasoline set by the Gas Processors Association.g. August 2007 . normal butane. conventional gasoline blendstocks for oxygenate blending see Lease Condensate). extracted from natural gas. or not in operation but under active repair that can be completed Natural Gas Field Facility. etc. Angola. Natural Gas Processing Plant. 20 to 90 percent concession rights. and meeting Military Specification MIL-T-5624L (Grade JP-4). The amount of capacity that. Gabon was a member of OPEC. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). some field facilities are designed to recover propane. Includes ether). See Butane. Normal Butane. Generally such liquids consist of Includes RBOB used to meet requirements of the Federal propane and heavier hydrocarbons and are commonly referred to reformulated gasoline program and other blendstock as lease condensate. A field facility designed to process within 90 days. that reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending. intended for gasoline blending as described in Oxygenate definition. however.g. Products obtained refinery to raise the oxygen content. is in operation.g. Kuwait. The difference between total movements into and total movements out of each PAD District by pipeline. propane-butane mixtures. atmospheric crude oil distillation units. such as motor blending components intended to be blended with an gasoline. and. natural gas liquids from a stream of natural gas that may or may not Naphthas (e. Gas Plant Liquids) and lease condensate (primarily pentanes California RBOB and Arizona RBOB). and isobutane. special naphthas. be marketed. include ethane. and Venezuela. approximate boiling range between 122 degrees Fahrenheit and 400 degrees Fahrenheit. have passed through lease separators and/or field separation reformate. RBOB for Blending with Ether. Motor gasoline that are separated as liquids at natural gas processing plants. Facilities designed to recover All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components. isopentane which is a saturated branch-chain hydrocarbon. processing or cycling plants. in some instances. included in Miscellaneous Products. Those hydrocarbons in natural gas that are (RBOB). Operable capacity is the sum of the operating and natural gas produced from more than one lease for the purpose of idle capacity and is measured in barrels per calendar day or barrels recovering condensate from a stream of natural gas.g. toluene. Natural Gas Plant Liquids. and liquefied petroleum intended for blending with oxygenates to produce finished gases.. blending components intended to be blended with an fractionating and cycling plants. Ecuador was a member of OPEC. (CBOB). Qatar. jet fuel. obtained by fractionation of natural gasoline or MTBE (Methyl tertiary butyl ether) (CH3)3COCH3. The rate is calculated by 154 Energy Information Administration/Petroleum Supply Monthly. 1993.. kerosene. Libya. and Naphtha. the of the period. Prior to engines because it has a lower freeze point than other aviation fuels January 1.

calcining. Kuwait. naphtha-type jet fuel. recovered and separated as liquids at Pentanes Plus. The conversion is 5 barrels (of and methanol are common oxygenates. heavier. Methyl condensation process in cracking. Blends up to 15. coal tar for use as a petrochemical feedstock. liquefied petroleum gases. Plant Condensate. Fuel Ethanol. intrastate. kerosene-type jet ASTM volatility specifications as well as phase separation fuel. Other Oxygenates. kerosene. Naphtha Less Than 401o F.. butanol. August 2007 155 . Oils with a excluded. motor gasoline. This product is reported as Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE). In many catalytic operations (e. cracking) carbon is deposited on the catalyst. Blends of up to 5. and other hydrocarbon compounds. increase hydrogen that is the final product of thermal decomposition in the the amount of oxygen in that gasoline blend. synthetic Operating Utilization Rate. Chemical feedstocks derived from petroleum principally for the manufacture of chemicals.dividing the gross input to these units by the operable refining Persian Gulf. Operating Capacity.g. distillate fuel oil. petroleum coke. Qatar. Blends of up to 10 percent by volume anhydrous ethanol (200 proof) (commonly referred to as Catalyst Coke. Those grades of coke produced in delayed or specified that this blended fuel must meet ASTM volatility fluid cokers which may be recovered as relatively pure carbon. Materials received by a refinery and range of less than 401 degrees Fahrenheit that is intended consumed as a raw material.” capacity of the units. Natural gas to be used as fuel is Other Oils Equal To or Greater Than 401o F. Other Oils Equal To or Greater Than 401 F. when added to gasoline. See Petrochemical Feedstocks. and/or GTBA). and the blend must meet gasoline. extracted from natural gas. pentanes plus. One of the natural gas liquids.024 million Btu per barrel. catalytic the “gasohol waiver”). mostly pentanes and gas inlet separators or scrubbers in processing plants. isopropyl ether (IPE) Columbia into five districts by the Petroleum Administration for or n-propanol). MTBE (Methyl tertiary butyl ether). Iraq..0 percent by volume MTBE which must meet the ASTM Pipeline (Petroleum). Petrochemical Feedstocks. Saudi Arabia. mostly pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons. Blends of methanol and gasoline-grade tertiary which is used as a fuel in the refining process. ethanol. the “DuPont” waiver). Defense in 1950. and a variety of plastics. The catalyst is reactivated by burning off the carbon. oxygenated blends (commonly referred to as the “Sun” waiver). 42 U. Petroleum products include propanol. road oil. aviation not exceed 3. Iran. See Motor Gasoline (Finished).. residual fuel oil. Methanol. lubricants. and miscellaneous products. A residue high in carbon content and low in Oxygenates. Fuel Ethanol. Blenders must take precautions transport crude oil and petroleum products respectively.e. Includes isopentane. marketable coke or catalyst coke. and plant condensate.5 percent by weight and the ratio of methanol to GTBA is less than or equal to 1. (including interstate. and natural gas received by the refinery for reforming into hydrogen. The countries that comprise the Persian Gulf are: capacity of the units. Includes hydrogen. It is also Marketable Coke. Represents the utilization of the rubber.S. Oxygenated Gasoline.5 percent by volume cosolvent alcohols processing of crude oil (including lease condensate).7 percent by weight. Other aliphatic alcohols and aliphatic ethers Geographic aggregations of the 50 States and the District of intended for motor gasoline blending (e. derivatives. A mixture of hydrocarbons. having a carbon number of 4 or less (i. Petroleum products are obtained from the minimum of 2. A naphtha with a boiling Other Hydrocarbons. Coke from petroleum has a heating value of 6. does not exceed 3.g. Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE). special naphthas. natural gasoline. Substances which. Crude oil and product pipelines used to D4814 specifications. waxes. natural gas. Bahrain. Petroleum Coke. petrochemical and alcohol purity specifications (commonly referred to as feedstocks. gallons each) per short ton. still gas. Energy Information Administration/Petroleum Supply Monthly. These districts were originally defined during World War II for purposes of administering oil allocation. The categories reported are o atmospheric crude oil distillation units. gilsonite. and the United Arab Emirates. Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) Districts.0 percent by volume methanol with a Petroleum Products. The rate is calculated by “Naphtha Less Than 401 F” and “Other Oils Equal To or Greater o dividing the gross input to these units by the operating refining Than 401 F. The component of operable capacity that is in operation at the beginning of the period. The total oxygen must unfinished oils. asphalt. boiling range equal to or greater than 401 degrees Fahrenheit that are intended for use as a petrochemical o feedstock. thus deactivating the catalyst. specifications (commonly referred to as the “ARCO” This “green” coke may be sold as is or further purified by waiver). and intracompany pipelines) within the 50 that the blends are not used as base gasolines for other States and the District of Columbia. This carbon or coke butyl alcohol (GTBA) such that the total oxygen content is not recoverable in a concentrated form.

and various industrial propane/propylene mixes where the propylene will be purposes. known as No. Any heavy petroleum oil..43. No. natural gas the yield for finished motor gasoline. A general classification for the heavier oils. less than the amount of that same product that is reprocessed have a higher specific gravity than the crude oil processed. Shell Storage Capacity. See Butane. plus refinery production. Production Capacity. to the processing of crude oil into products which. minus stock change. including Amendment 2 petrochemical manufacturing. and net input of motor In general. and motor and Product Supplied. and trace amounts of propane. and oxygenates. in total. including residual asphaltic products from crude oil. (input) or reclassified to become another product during the same month. The volumetric amount by which total refinery refinery production minus refinery input. August 2007 . This difference is due components and finished petroleum products. vessel bunkering. 6 fuel oils. refinery input.67 Motor Gasoline Blending Components. minus refinery inputs. degrees Fahrenheit. in total. The volumetric amount by which total output is oxygenates. Refinery-Grade Butane. Crude Oil. See It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at a temperature of . materials processed at refineries to produce finished petroleum These products are refined to a specified flash point. product supplied of each product in any given period is gasoline blending components must be subtracted from the net computed as follows: field production. or solvents. other hydrocarbons and conforming to ASTM Specification D1836 and D484. Crude Oil. The design capacity of a petroleum Refinery Input. They include crude oil. cleaners. unfinished oils. Refinery yield (expressed as a percentage) be produced from processing facilities. minus exports. natural gas liquids. Total. Crude oil burned on leases and by aviation gasoline blending components appear on a net basis under pipelines as fuel. This difference occur when the amount of a product produced during the month is is due to the processing of crude oil into products which. Residual Fuel Oil. the input of natural gas processing plants. motor gasoline and aviation gasoline blending greater than input for a given period of time. degrees Fahrenheit.e. Before calculating the yield plus imports. Published production of these products equals Processing Loss. Refinery. aviation gasoline. Refinery production of unfinished oils. with a boiling range greater than 1000 of the mix is intended for sale into the fuel market. Excluded is the propylene component of Residuum. components must be subtracted from the net production of finished minus crude oil losses. to 5. Nonfuel use includes Bunker C fuel oil and is used for the production of electric propylene also includes the propylene component of power. 5. Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB). highways. represents the percent of finished product produced from input of crude oil and net input of unfinished oils. operations. that remain after the distillate Propylene (C3H6). units (cokers. (plus net receipts for finished aviation gasoline. 6 fuel oil propylene. Petroleum products produced at a refinery or blending plant. liquids. 5 and No. space heating. The raw materials and intermediate boiling range that are used as paint thinners. input of aviation gasoline blending when calculated on a PAD District basis). etc. No. Specification D1835 and Gas Processors Association Specifications for commercial propane and HD-5 propane. All finished products within the naphtha Refinery Input. See Motor Gasoline (Finished). i.Processing Gain. refineries. plus unaccounted for crude oil. 156 Energy Information Administration/Petroleum Supply Monthly. blending plants. Propane (C3H8). have a lower specific gravity than the crude oil processed.). Propylene that is medium viscosity. production of finished motor gasoline. It is used in steam-powered vessels in includes chemical-grade propylene. other hydrocarbons and oxygenates. polymer-grade government service and inshore power plants. the most liquid. a residual fuel oil of Propylene (C3H6) (nonfuel use). It conforms to ASTM Specifications D 396 and D 975 and Federal Specification VV-F-815C. Refinery Production. The maximum amount of product that can Refinery Yield. pipelines. Nonfuel use propylene (NATO Symbol F-770). the most viscous. other oil used as a dust palliative and surface treatment on roads and hydrocarbons. unfinished oils. and bulk terminals. is also known as Navy Special and is defined in intended for use in nonfuel applications such as Military Specification MIL-F-859E. Total crude oil (domestic plus foreign) storage tank which is always greater than or equal to working input to crude oil distillation units and other refinery processing storage capacity. An olefinic hydrocarbon recovered from fuel oils and lighter hydrocarbons are distilled away in refinery refinery processes or petrochemical processes. It is extracted from natural gas or refinery gas streams. It includes all products designated in ASTM Reformulated Gasoline. separated from the mix in a propane/propylene splitting process. Special products. A normally gaseous straight-chain hydrocarbon. Approximately represents consumption of dividing the sum of crude oil and net unfinished input into the petroleum products because it measures the disappearance of these individual net production of finished products. Residue from crude oil after distilling off all but the propane/propylene mixes where the propylene component heaviest components. It is generally produced in six grades from 0. It is calculated by Products Supplied. Negative production will output is less than input for a given period of time. An installation that manufactures finished petroleum Road Oil. Before calculating products from primary sources. Special Naphthas. products of natural gas naphthas include all commercial hexane and cleaning solvents processing plants.

is below 15 ppm. or from the includes all marketable wax. Mixtures of unsegregated natural gas home heating oil. that was not generated from within the refinery complex. Coal is also classified as being low-sulfur at concentrations of 1 percent or less United States. Note: No. and terminal operators (except refineries) to store crude oil. The difference in volume between the propylene oxide production or by direct hydration of isobutylene. Data are reported for movements between PAD which the straight-chained paraffin series predominates. companies. a buildup) ppm will be classified as low-sulfur distillate fuel oil. Residual liquid components excluding. August 2007 157 . Distillate fuel oil intended for pipeline shipment Note: A negative number indicates a decrease (i. Supply. The components of petroleum supply are field production. Any form or mixture of gases produced petroleum naphthas containing methyl cyclohexane.e. sometimes known as crude oil exports. Distillate fuel oil having conversion factor is 6 million BTU’s per fuel oil equivalent barrel. Thermal cracking includes gas oil. Distillation under reduced pressure (less the refinery production. ethane. congealing point (ASTM D 938) between 80 (or 85) and 240 degrees Fahrenheit and a maximum oil content (ASTM D 3235) of TBA (Tertiary butyl alcohol) (CH3)3COH. butylene. sulfur content of 15 ppm or lower. intermediate. or through a Fischer-Tropsch type process. A solid or semi-solid material at 77 degrees Fahrenheit consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbons obtained or derived from Tanker and Barge. a solvent or feedstock for isobutylene production for MTBE. or combine hydrocarbon petrochemical and synthetic natural gas (SNG) feedstocks are molecules.highway use. kerosene and light gas oils. in stocks during the reporting period. from a PAD District to the Panama Canal. The difference between stocks at the beginning of specification of the shipping pipeline if the pipeline specification the reporting period and stocks at the end of the reporting period. Naphthas to be blended or marketed as motor Thermal Cracking. A thermal cracking process in which heavy isoamylene with methanol. visbreaking. and net receipts when calculated on a atmospheric) which lowers the boiling temperature of the liquid PAD District basis. Unaccounted for Crude Oil. etc.” It is present at various levels of concentration in many fossil fuels whose combustion releases sulfur compounds Unfinished Oils. a drawdown) in that fails to meet a pipeline sulfur specification that is below 15 stocks and a positive number indicates an increase (i. Vessels that transport crude oil or petroleum petroleum fractions.g. ethylene. produced as a co-product of Working Storage Capacity. propylene. made by the catalytic reforming of Still Gas (Refinery Gas). those in plant condensate. atmospheric or vacuum-still bottoms are cracked at moderate temperatures to increase production of distillate products and Tank Farm. See individual categories for definition. The Ultra-Low Sulfur Distillate Fuel Oil. whether crude or refined. used as a chemical feedstock. either a 0. imports. in products. Represents the arithmetic difference Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR).. Still gas is used as a refinery fuel and a petrochemical feedstock. Unfinished oils are commonly used fossil fuels are categorized according to their produced by partial refining of crude oil and include naphthas and sulfur content. normal butane. This fuel. and other high-octane gasoline-blending agent. An alcohol primarily 50 weight percent. heavy gas oils. All oils requiring further processing. Energy Information Administration/Petroleum Supply Monthly. District of Columbia. base for TNT. and chemical processes. being distilled. Sulfur. cracking. A yellowish nonmetallic element. A in refineries by distillation. fluid excluded. except that are considered harmful to the environment. The principal constituents are methane. and commercial and industrial uses. This technique with its relatively low temperatures prevents cracking or decomposition of the charge stock. Toluene (C6H5CH3). The United States is defined as the 50 States and the or high-sulfur at concentrations greater than 1 percent.05 percent sulfur level for off. regardless of use. Steam. rearrange. Petroleum stocks maintained between the calculated supply and the calculated disposition of by the Federal Government for use during periods of major supply crude oil. solvent. The calculated supply is the sum of crude oil production interruption.respectively. coking. is classified as having either no more than 1 product is extracted from natural gas. Steam (Purchased). or that are to be used as are used to break down. and other thermal cracking processes (e. 2 Distillate fuel is currently reported as having residuum.. The calculated disposition of crude oil is the sum of crude oil input to refineries. reforming. “brimstone. Vacuum Distillation.e. percent sulfur or greater than 1 percent sulfur. crude oil producers.05 percent or lower sulfur level for on-highway vehicle use or a greater than 0. with a Panama Canal to a PAD District. TAME (Tertiary amyl methyl ether) (CH3)2(C2H5)COCH3. Ultra-low sulfur distillate fuel oil that will be shipped by pipeline must satisfy the sulfur Stock Change. propane. An installation used by gathering and trunk pipeline reduce viscosity of the distillation residues. Wax. with lower sulfur fuels usually selling at a higher lighter oils. flexicoking). maximum safe fill capacity and the quantity below which pump suction is ineffective (bottoms). delayed coking. An oxygenate blend stock formed by the catalytic etherification of Visbreaking. This Districts. purchased for use by a refinery. crude oil burned as fuel. Some of the most those requiring only mechanical blending. A refining process in which heat and pressure gasoline or aviation gasoline. plus imports minus changes in crude oil stocks. Unfractionated Streams. Colorless liquid of the aromatic group of petroleum hydrocarbons. and crude oil losses.. and price.

petroleum fractions.Xylene (C6H4(CH3)2). chemical intermediates. orthoxylene. solvents. Colorless liquid of the aromatic group of gasoline blending agents. hydrocarbons made the catalytic reforming of certain naphthenic Isomers are metaxylene. August 2007 . Used as high-octane motor and aviation 158 Energy Information Administration/Petroleum Supply Monthly. paraxylene.