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5.

Course: Hydraulics

5.1 Course Overview

In this course, the basic principles / concepts of hydraulics are discussed with
an emphasis on the real world applications mostly related to civil
engineering.

5.2 Course Objectives

Objective 1

To introduce hydraulics as an important branch of mechanics

Objective 2

To explain the concepts and applications of hydrostatics related to pressure


computation and measurement, computation of total pressure force /
buoyant force and their points of application, stability analysis of submerged/
floating bodies

Objective 3

To elaborate on the various concepts and applications of fluid kinematics

Objective 4

To explain each of the three conservation principles of hydraulics along with


their applications

Objective 5

To describe the various concepts/applications for pressure driven and fully


developed flows through pipes

Objective 6

To elaborate on the two major methods of dimensional analysis and their


applications to hydraulic modeling

Objective 7

To explain the basic features of open channel flow and its applications to
commonly observed hydraulic problems

Objective 8

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To study the principles of hydraulic machinery and their applications through
Pumps, Turbines and other hydraulic machines

5.3 Course Modules

5.3.1 Module: Introduction to Hydraulics

5.3.1.1 Module Overview

In this module, the introductory concepts/ overview of Hydraulics in terms of


the various definitions, types and properties of fluids are discussed.

5.3.1.2 Module Objectives

Objective 1

To present an overview of hydraulics/ fluid mechanics vs. mechanics; control


volume vs. free body diagram.

Objective 2

To explain the various definitions/ meanings/ types of fluids viz., ideal/ real
fluids, liquids/ gases, etc.

Objective 3

To describe the definitions/ dimensions/ units of basic properties of ideal/


real fluids.

Objective 4

To elaborate on the other properties of real fluids like viscosity, surface


tension, compressibility.

5.3.1.3 Module Units

5.3.1.3.1 Unit: Overview of Hydraulics in Engineering

5.3.1.3.1.1 Unit Overview

Blank

5.3.1.3.1.2 Unit Summary

M1U1. Overview of Hydraulics in Engineering


Unit Objectives:

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1. To provide with an overview of hydraulics in engineering;
2. To define hydraulics;
3. To explain/discuss the linkage between hydraulics and other branches of
mechanics.

In this unit, we will be carrying out an overview of ‘hydraulics’ in ‘engineering’.


Engineering is one of the major applications of science. Therefore it forms an important
branch of applied sciences. After analyzing real world situation(s) /problem(s), it aims to
provide technically sound explanation(s) and/ or solution(s) based on the principles of
basic sciences like physics, chemistry, biology etc. Civil engineering, mechanical
engineering, electrical engineering, electronic engineering, aerospace engineering, ocean
engineering are some of branches of engineering which have evolved as applications of
physics. Likewise, chemical engineering, metallurgical engineering are the braches of
engineering which have been developed as applications of chemistry and agricultural
engineering, bioengineering have been established as applications of biology.

Water is a predominant element of nature along with other elements such as land, air,
space and energy in many engineering systems. To analyze such real world situations
involving water (which may be in stationary/ moving form in solid/ liquid/ gaseous/
plasma state), we need to use appropriate branch of science which employs relevant
conservation principles related to mass/ energy/ momentum. ‘Hydrology’ and
‘hydraulics’ are two such branches of science developed specifically to do this. While
hydrology focuses more on the quantitative aspects of water involving mostly the mass
conservation principle, hydraulics focuses on quantitative as well as qualitative aspects of
water. Thus hydraulics deals in all the three principles of mass conservation, energy
conservation and momentum conservation to analyze the water-related real world
phenomena.

Engineering phenomena may be either static or dynamic in nature. To analyze the


mechanical behavior of these phenomena, we need to use ‘mechanics’ –which is the
relevant branch of physics, either in the form of ‘statics’ or in the form of ‘dynamics’.
Mechanics is one of the foremost as well as broad based subjects in engineering. It plays
a major role in orienting ‘engineering’ as an applied science. If these phenomena
comprise of only solid media –which act as rigid bodies generally, we should use solid
mechanics (i.e., rigid body mechanics) for analysis of such phenomena. In such analyses
‘free body diagram approach’ –wherein all the externally acting forces and the internally
acting reactive forces are properly indicated, is used. Force balance and moment balance
equations are used to carry out the analysis.

When engineering phenomena comprise of either fluid (i.e., liquid and/ or gas) media or
solid and fluid media, we need to use the fluid related portion of mechanics -simply
known as ‘fluid mechanics’. When the fluid media happens to be a water media, we need
to specifically employ the ‘fluid mechanics of water’ i.e., ‘hydraulics’. The word
‘hydraulics’ is derived from the Greek word ‘hudour’ -meaning water and it may be
defined as follows:

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Hydraulics is that branch of engineering science or mechanics which deals with water
which is either at rest or at motion. In hydraulics we deal with systems consisting of
‘fluids’ which are those forms of matter capable of ‘flowing’

Alternatively, hydraulics has also been defined as the branch of engineering science
which is based on the experimental observation of water either at rest or in motion.

Since the main difference between a solid and a fluid is that the solid has a definite shape
while a fluid does not have a definite shape, fluid mechanics or hydraulics require an
approach which is different from the free body diagram approach. This new approach is
known as the ‘control volume approach’ wherein all the external forces and their
corresponding internal reactive forces acting on a fluid occupying a specified volume -
known as the control volume, is used to perform the analysis.

Depending upon the constitution of the medium/ media of the engineering phenomena,
we have to employ hydraulics/ fluid mechanics either severally or in combination with
other branch(es) of mechanics. Medium/ media in this case could consist of solid(s) and/
or fluid(s) in the form of soil/ rock/ water/ gas and so on. Accordingly we have to use
solid mechanics/ soil mechanics/ rock mechanics/ hydraulics/ gas dynamics etc. Thus
there exists a strong linkage between hydraulics and other branches of mechanics in the
analysis of engineering phenomena. Such a linkage is very much dependent upon the
constitution of the media in which the engineering phenomena take place.

5.3.1.3.1.3 Unit Objectives

Objective 1

To provide an overview of hydraulics for beginners in engineering


undergraduate program; to define hydraulics and to explain its linkage with
other branches of mechanics.

5.3.1.3.1.4 Unit Level Problems

No Problems

5.3.1.3.2 Unit: Definitions and types of fluids

5.3.1.3.2.1 Unit Overview

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5.3.1.3.2.2 Unit Summary

M1U2. Definitions and Types of Fluids


Unit Objectives:
1. To provide with the various definitions of fluids along with their brief meaning,

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2. To classify fluids based on different criteria.

In this unit, we will discuss the various definitions of fluids along with their meaning and
classification based on different criteria. The word ‘fluid’ is derived from the word
‘flow’. Therefore we can describe a fluid as a substance which is capable of flowing.
Alternatively, fluids can also be considered as those types of matter which do not have a
rigid or a definite shape like the solids. It is the flexible shape of a fluid which is
responsible for its flowing nature. In other words, a portion of the fluid volume gets
sheared (i.e., undergoes relative motion) w.r.t. the adjoining fluid volume. This relative
motion of a portion of the fluid volume (which may be either continuous or intermittent
or momentary) results in the corresponding change in the shape of the fluid. The change
in fluid shape occurs in spite of the fluid resistance. This property of a fluid offering
resistance to its shearing is known as ‘viscosity’. This phenomenon of significant change
in shape does not generally happen in the case of solids. Hence the solids generally
behave like rigid bodies having a reasonably strong tendency to retain their shape.

In spite of this basic difference between the solids and fluids, there is one thing common
to both of them. It is that the solids as well as fluids do not carry any electric charge in
them like the substances in plasma state –which are generally considered as the 4th state
of matter. In simple terms, we can interpret fluids as those types of matter consisting of
liquids and/or gases, both of which do not have a definite shape and both are capable of
flowing. Thus we can summarize that fluids belong to the 2nd / 3rd state of matter, which
are between the solids (generally regarded as the 1st state of matter) and the matter in its
plasma state.

Fluids can be classified based on different criteria. Some of the important criteria for
their classification can be listed as follows:
a. State (or shape) of the matter,

b. Absence of certain important properties like viscosity, surface tension and


compressibility,

c. Ability to have a constant viscosity at all velocity gradient (i.e., shear strain)
values.

Based on the state or shape of the matter, fluids can be classified into liquids and gases.
In case of liquids, the intermolecular distance is small and therefore the intermolecular
force of attraction between similar kind of molecules (i.e., cohesion) is quite large when
compared to that for gases. That is why liquids have a tendency to form a free surface,
unlike the gases. The free surface formed by the liquids generally behaves like a stretched
membrane due to a characteristic property known as the ‘surface tension’.

On the other hand, gases are amenable to compression/ expansion with the application/
release of pressure. This is due to the relatively large intermolecular distance and a
correspondingly reduced intermolecular force between the gas molecules. Therefore
compressibility or expandability [and not surface tension] is predominant in the case of

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gases. Due to this nature, gases have a highly variable size. In comparison to this,
compressibility or expandability is very negligible in case of liquids.

The expandability observed in gases due to the large intermolecular distances, results in
their tendency to occupy as much space as possible subject to gravitational action and
many a times the entire volume of a container in which they are enclosed. If they are not
enclosed in a container, the gas molecules get stacked densely more and more in the
direction of gravity.

There is also another type of fluid known as the ‘vapor’ which is essentially the
evaporated or vaporized portion of the liquid due to its tendency to changeover to a
gaseous state. From a free surface of a liquid, molecules continuously vaporize and such
vapors exert a partial pressure known as the ‘vapor pressure’ on the liquid surface.
Simultaneously, few vapor molecules tend to re-enter the liquid when the liquid has a
confined space above its free surface. In such a case, the partial vapor pressure goes on
increasing till it balances the rate of re-entry of vapor molecules into the liquid. This
equilibrium vapor pressure is known as the ‘saturation vapor pressure’.

If a fluid does not show any of the three important properties viz., viscosity, surface
tension and compressibility, it is called an ‘ideal fluid’. An ‘ideal fluid’ is a conceptual
fluid and therefore none of the fluids existing in nature are ideal fluids. However, certain
fluids may behave almost like ideal fluids under specific conditions. Nevertheless the
ideal fluid concept is required to explain many of the phenomena observed in classical
fluid mechanics.

All the fluids which exist in nature are termed as ‘real fluids’. They show at least one of
the three important properties mentioned above. They may show all the three properties.
However depending upon their state and temperature, generally either one or two
properties among these three will be shown by them predominantly.

5.3.1.3.2.3 Unit Objectives

Objective 1

To provide with the various definitions of fluids along with their meaning and
to classify fluids based on different criteria.

5.3.1.3.2.4 Unit Level Problems

No Problems

5.3.1.3.3 Unit: Basic properties of fluids

5.3.1.3.3.2 Unit Summary

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M1U3. Basic Properties of Fluids

Unit objectives:
1. To describe the basic fluid properties like density, specific gravity, specific
weight, specific volume.

In this unit, we shall discuss the basic fluid properties attributed to them by virtue of their
size (i.e., volume), content of matter (i.e., mass) and the gravitational force (i. e., weight)
acting on them. Most of these properties except the specific volume are generally
defined for solids also.

Firstly, let us consider ‘density’ (i.e., ‘mass density’ or ‘specific mass’ or ‘unit mass’)
generally denoted by Greek alphabet ρ (rho). It is defined as the ratio of fluid mass (m)
to the fluid volume (V). It has the units of kg/m3 in SI system. Thus we have,

m
ρ= (1.3.1).
V

Next, let us consider ‘specific gravity’ which is also known as ‘relative density’. Many a
times it is denoted as SG. It is defined as the ratio of the density of the fluid to the density
of the standard fluid, which is water at 4ºC1. Specific gravity is dimensionless and is
given by,

ρ fluid
SG = (1.3.2).
ρ std . fluid

Now, let us consider ‘specific weight’ (also known as ‘weight density’ or ‘unit weight’).
It is generally denoted by the Greek letter γ (gamma). It is defined as the ratio of fluid
weight (W) to the fluid volume (V). It has the units of N/m3 in SI system. Thus we
have,

W
γ = (1.3.3).
V
Since weight (W) is the product of mass (m) and acceleration due to gravity (g), specific
weight can also be expressed as,

γ = ρg (1.3.4).
Since the acceleration due to gravity (g) is practically having the same value through out
the earth surface, specific gravity (SG) of a fluid can also be defined as the ratio of its

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It is interesting to mention here that water has the highest density of 1000 kg/m3 at 4ºC, when it is still in
liquid form. That is the reason why ice floats on water. When the temperature of water is decreased from
4ºC to 0ºC, on one hand it freezes into ice while on the other hand it expands in its volume marginally
thus showing its peculiar behavior of ‘anomalous expansion’ in that temperature range.

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specific weight to the specific weight of the standard fluid i.e., water at 4ºC.
Accordingly we can write,
γ fluid
SG = (1.3.5).
γ std . fluid

Generally gases are very light having a very small density. For example, at the mean sea
level and at 15.2ºC, air (i.e., the standard atmosphere as considered in the USA)
generally has a density of 1.225 kg/m3. Or in other words, at this temperature and
pressure, air is about 815.5 times lighter than water. The corresponding density values of
gases will be extremely small numbers in other system of units like the CGS system or
the FPS system. Computations involving such small numbers are associated with either
truncation errors or rounding off errors. To overcome these errors in case of gases,
another property known as the ‘specific volume’ -which is defined as the reciprocal of
density or the specific weight, is used.

Thus the ‘mass specific volume’ may be defined as the ratio of the volume of the fluid
(V) to its mass (m). It may be denoted as (vm) and is given as:

V
vm = (1.3.6)
m

Similarly, the ‘weight specific volume’ may be defined as the ratio of the volume of the
fluid (V) to its weight (W). It may be denoted as (vwt) and is given as:

V
vwt = (1.3.7).
W

In SI system, the ‘mass specific volume’ has the units of m3/kg. Likewise, the ‘weight
specific volume’ has the SI units of m3/N.

5.3.1.3.3.3 Unit Objectives

Objective 1

To describe the basic fluid properties like density, specific gravity, specific
volume, specific weight.

5.3.1.3.4 Unit: Other properties of real fluids

5.3.1.3.4.1 Unit Overview

Blank

5.3.1.3.4.2 Unit Summary

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M1U4. Other Properties of Fluids

Unit objectives:
1. To elaborate on the other distinguishing properties of real fluids viz., viscosity,
kinematic viscosity, surface tension, capillarity, compressibility, vapor pressure, bulk
modulus.

In this unit, we shall be discussing the other properties of real fluids which distinguish
them from the ideal fluids. These properties are derived from the three main properties
viz., viscosity, surface tension and compressibility.

Viscosity: Firstly, let us consider ‘viscosity’. As already mentioned in the Unit 2 of this
Module, viscosity is the property of a fluid by which it offers resistance to the shearing
experienced by a flowing fluid. When a fluid is flowing above a solid stationary
boundary without slipping, the fluid velocity continuously varies across its flow
direction. This velocity is zero at the stationary boundary and it continuously increases
as we move away from the boundary reaching a maximum velocity at some distance.
Thus a velocity gradient exists there in a direction normal to the flow. This velocity
gradient results in a shearing action leading to a continuous change in the shape of the
fluid element. As a consequence, a fluid element which is originally rectangular in
shape, may assume the shape of a parallelogram after some time δt. The inclined side
may be either straight or curved depending upon the velocity profile across the boundary.
Refer to Fig. 1.4.1.

u + (du/dy)δy δs u + (du/dy)δy
δx
δθ

δy
δx δx δ

u u
Fig. 1.4.1 [a] Fluid element at time ‘t’ [b]Fluid element at time ‘t +δt’

Assuming that the inclined side of length δy is inclined at an angle δθ -due to the shearing
by two unequal velocity components of u and u+(du/dy)δy, the rate of shear strain (δθ/δt)
is given by:
δθ δs 1 
= {u + du δy} − u ]δt
1 1
= (1.4.1).
δt δy δt  dy δy δt
Therefore we can write,
δθ du
= (1.4.2).
δt dy
Thus the rate of shear strain (δθ/δt) –or simply the shear strain, is equal to the velocity
gradient in a direction normal to the flow. This is simply known as the velocity gradient.

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If the shear stress (τ) in the fluid is proportional to the shear strain in the fluid, then we
can write,
du
τ =µ (1.4.3).
dy
Here the constant of proportionality (µ) represents viscosity or the fluid resistance to
shearing. Thus mathematically, viscosity of a fluid is the ratio of the shear stress to its
shear strain (i.e., the velocity gradient). Notice the similarity in the mathematical
expression of viscosity to those of either the ‘elastic modulus’ (i.e., the ratio of linear
stress to the linear strain) or the ‘bulk modulus’ (i.e., the ratio of volumetric stress to the
volumetric strain).

This relationship between the shear stress and the shear strain of a fluid was first
suggested by Sir Issac Newton. Hence the Equation 1.4.3 is known as the ‘Newton’s law
of viscosity’. All those fluids which obey this law by exhibiting a constant viscosity
value are known as ‘Newtonian fluids’. Such fluids start showing the shear strain right
from the moment they are subjected to a shear stress. This minimum shear stress at
which the fluids start showing a shear strain is known as the ‘yield stress’. In case of
Newtonian fluids, the yield stress is zero.

On the other hand, there are many fluids called ‘Non-Newtonian fluids’ which do not
obey the Newton’s law of viscosity. Such fluids show a variable viscosity value.
However, like the Newtonian fluids, all the non-Newtonian fluids also have a zero yield
stress.

Since viscosity represents the proportionality constant (i.e., a coefficient) in the equation
representing the Newton’s law of viscosity, it is also known as the ‘coefficient of
viscosity’. In SI system, its units are N.s/m2. In the CGS system, the unit of viscosity is
‘poise’ which equals dyne-s/cm2. It is named after the hydraulician –Poiseuille, known
for the ‘Hagen-Poiseuille Equation’ applicable in conduit flow.

We can notice here that, the units of viscosity essentially involve the force units. Hence
many times, viscosity is also referred to as the ‘dynamic viscosity’. If we consider the
ratio of viscosity and density of a fluid, we can totally eliminate the force term from its
units. This ratio of viscosity of a fluid to its density is called the ‘kinematic viscosity’. It
is denoted by the Greek letter ‘ν’ (nu). Thus we have,

µ
ν= (1.4.4).
ρ

Kinematic viscosity has the units of m2/s in SI system and cm2/s in the CGS system. The
CGS system of unit is also known as ‘stokes’ named after another hydraulician –Stokes,
known for the ‘Stokes’ Law’. It is relevant to note here that unlike the dynamic viscosity,
kinematic viscosity unit does not contain the force terms.

Surface Tension: Now let us consider the ‘surface tension’ which has also been briefly
discussed in Unit 2 of this Module. It is the tension (i.e., the property by virtue of which

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a fluid resists the deformation) existing at the fluid surface. Therefore, surface tension is
predominant only in case of fluids which form a free surface viz., liquids with a free
surface generally at the top. Because of surface tension, the free surface behaves like a
stretched membrane. One can observe this phenomenon quite frequently. When a needle
is gently placed on the surface of water or when rice grains are gently poured in a rice
cooker bowl containing water, the needle or some of the rice grains float on water. This
is due to the surface tension phenomenon.

It is generally denoted by the Greek letter σ (sigma). Mathematically, surface tension is


measured as the force (F) per unit length of the surface which is experiencing this
phenomenon. Thus we have,
F
σ= (1.4.5)
l

Due to the surface tension property, a water droplet [of negligible size and weight] or a
soap bubble will be having a spherical shape. This is due to the tendency of the droplet
or the bubble to have a minimum surface area on account of the existence of surface
tension everywhere through out its surface. Refer to Figure 1.4.2.

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Figure 1.4.2 (a). Free body diagram of the left half of a water droplet
(b). Free body diagram of the left half of a soap bubble
(c). Free body diagram of the left half of a liquid jet

Let us consider the free body diagram of the left half of a water droplet as shown in
Figure 1.4.2 (a). Applying the force balance equation in the horizontal direction, we get,

πd 2
p = σπd (1.4.6)
4
This can be simplified to,
pd
σ= (1.4.7).
4

Similarly, while considering the free body diagram of the left half of the soap bubble, we
need to account for the two concentric spherical surfaces existing there with a very small

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distance between them. Therefore the horizontal force balance in this case [which is
shown in Figure 1.4.2 (b)] will be,
πd 2
p = σ 2πd (1.4.8)
4
On simplification this becomes,
pd
σ= (1.4.9).
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Likewise, for a liquid jet [whose free body diagram is shown in Figure 1.4.2 (c)] we get,
pld = σ 2l (1.4.10)
This can be simplified to,
pd
σ= (1.4.11).
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In Unit 2 of this Module, we have already discussed ‘cohesion’ which is the force of
attraction between similar molecules. Likewise, the force of attraction between
dissimilar molecules is known as ‘adhesion’. When adhesion force is more than the
cohesion force, the liquid molecules will tend to spread over the entire solid, with which
they are in contact. This is known as ‘wetting’. One common example for this ‘wetting’
phenomenon is water in contact with glass. Here the angle of contact (θ) –which is the
angle between the liquid surface and the solid -with which it is in contact, is less than
90º [Refer to Figure 1.4.3a]. On the other hand, when cohesion force is more than the
adhesion force, the liquid molecules tend to concentrate among themselves and occupy
the minimum area on the solid surface with which they are in contact. This is known as
‘non-wetting’ for which mercury and glass is a very common example. Here the angle of
contact (θ) –which is the angle between the liquid surface and the solid -with which it
is in contact, is more than 90º. [Refer to Figure 1.4.3b].

Capillarity: An important consequence of surface tension is ‘capillarity’. It is the rise or


fall of a liquid in a very narrow tube or in a pair of vertical parallel plates placed very
close to each other. Capillary rise is such an important phenomenon by which all the
plants transport water and nutrients even to their topmost parts through very thin tubes
known as xylem and phloem running through their stem.

To derive an expression for the capillary rise, we need to consider the force balance in the
vertical direction for the free body diagram shown in Figure 1.4.3a below. This
expression containing the cosine of the angle of contact (θ) will also prove that θ>90º
for non-wetting liquids.

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Figure 1.4.3 (a) Capillary rise in a narrow tube; (b) Capillary depression in a narrow tube

Let us consider the vertical force balance in Figure 1.4.3 (a) shown above. Equating the
weight of the capillary rise volume of the liquid with the surface tension force, we get,

πd 2
γ( h) = σ cos θ (πd ) (1.4.12)
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After simplification, we get the expression for capillary rise (h) as,
4σ cos θ
h= (1.4.13).
γd
This equation will also explain the phenomenon of capillary depression shown in Figure
1.4.3(b). In this case ‘cosθ’ and hence ‘h’ become negative due to the fact that θ >π/2
radians.

Compressibility and bulk modulus: It is time now to consider compressibility (C) which
is the property of a fluid to undergo a volume change under the action of external
pressure. This property is more predominant in gases as compared to the liquids. Bulk
modulus (K) –the reciprocal of C, is the property used to quantify the compressibility of a
fluid. It is defined as the ratio of volumetric stress (i.e., additional external force applied
per unit area or the additional external pressure) to the volumetric strain (i.e., the ratio of
the change in the fluid volume to its original volume). Refer to Figure 1.4.4 (a) and (b).

Figure 1.4.4 (a). A gas subjected to extra pressure; (b) Volumetric stress-strain plot

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Mathematically, we can write,
dp 1
K= = (1.4.14).
− dV C
V
Here the change in volume (dV) is negative for a positive value of the change in the
pressure (dp). Since the bulk modulus is always positive, the volumetric strain term is
taken with a –ve sign in this case.

Vapor Pressure: From a free surface of a liquid, molecules continuously vaporize and
such vapors exert a partial pressure known as the ‘vapor pressure’ (pv) on the liquid
surface. Simultaneously, few vapor molecules tend to re-enter the liquid when the liquid
has a confined space above its free surface. In such a case, the partial vapor pressure
goes on increasing till it balances the rate of re-entry of vapor molecules into the liquid.
This equilibrium vapor pressure is known as the ‘saturation vapor pressure’ (pvs).

If the external pressure imposed on the liquid surface is lowered to a value equal to the
saturation vapor pressure or below it, the vaporization of the liquid starts irrespective of
its temperature. This results in formation of bubbles of dissolved gases and liquid vapors.
These vapor bubbles are carried by the flowing liquid into a high pressure region wherein
they collapse, giving rise to a high impact pressure. This impact pressure is so high and
therefore causes erosion of the material in the adjacent boundaries and thus cavities are
formed. This phenomenon known as ‘cavitation’ is extremely harmful to the material
boundaries on which liquids flow and hence needs to be avoided at all costs.

5.3.1.3.4.3 Unit Objectives

Objective 1

To elaborate on the other distinguishing properties of real fluids viz.,


viscosity, surface tension, capillarity etc.

5.3.2 Module: Hydrostatics

5.3.2.1 Module Overview

This module will introduce the concepts related to pressure in a fluid at rest
and their application in hydraulics.

5.3.2.2 Module Objectives

Objective 1

To explain pressure and its variation in a fluid at rest.

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Objective 2

To explain different datum for pressure measurement (gauge, absolute and


vacuum pressure)

Objective 3

To derive the governing equation for hydrostatics and piezometric head.

Objective 4

To apply governing equation to find out pressure values.

Objective 5

To explain the basic concepts in manometry.

Objective 6

To apply governing equation for calculation of forces on plane and curved


surfaces.

Objective 7

To apply the buoyancy principle for calculation of forces.

Objective 8

To determine stability of submerged and floating bodies.

5.3.2.3 Module Units

5.3.2.3.1 Unit: Governing equation and pressure measurement

5.3.2.3.1.1 Unit Overview

5.3.2.3.1.2 Unit Summary

M2U5 Governing equation for pressure measurement

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Unit objective:

1. To explain the governing equation for pressure and its application in pressure
measurement.

{p+(∂p/∂z).δz/2}δx.δy
{p-(∂p/∂y).δy/2}δx.δz
δx
δy
{p-(∂p/∂x).δx/2}δy.δz γ δx.δy.δz
{p+(∂p/∂x).δx/2}δy.δz

δz
Z

{p-(∂p/∂z).δz/2}δx.δy
{p+(∂p/∂y).δy/2}δx.δz

X
Y

Figure 2.5.1 A static fluid element with forces acting on it.

Consider a static fluid element of specific weight γ in the form of a rectangular prism
having dimensions of δx, δy and δz along the X-, Y- and Z-directions. Let the pressure at
the centroid of this element be p. Considering the pressure gradients as ∂p/∂x, ∂p/∂y and
∂p/∂z along the X-, Y- and Z-directions, we can write down the expressions for pressure
forces on the two faces of the rectangular element perpendicular to the X-axis as {p-
(∂p/∂x).δx/2}.δy.δz and {p+(∂p/∂x).δx/2}.δy.δz respectively. Similarly the expressions
for pressure forces on the two faces of the rectangular element perpendicular to the Y-
axis are {p-(∂p/∂y).δy/2}. δx.δz and {p+(∂p/∂y).δy/2}.δx.δz . Likewise, the expressions
for pressure forces on the two faces of the rectangular element perpendicular to the Z-
axis are {p-(∂p/∂z).δz/2}. δx.δy and {p+(∂p/∂z).δz/2}.δx.δy .

Applying ∑Fx=0 and simplifying, we get

∂p
=0 (2.5.1)
∂x
Similarly applying ∑Fy=0 and simplifying, we get
∂p
=0 (2.5.2).
∂y

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Now let us apply ∑Fz=0. Here we need to consider the self weight of the fluid element (γ
δx.δy. δz) in the –ve Z-direction. After simplification we get,
∂p
= −γ (2.5.3).
∂z
This is the governing equation for pressure gradient in a fluid. According to this
equation, we can state that the pressure gradient exists only in the direction of gravity and
it is having a magnitude equal to the fluid specific weight, γ.

Governing equation for pressure in a liquid: It can be derived from the governing
equation for the pressure gradient. Since liquids are practically incompressible, we can
simplify Eq.2.5.3 to find the governing equation for pressure as under:
p = −γz + C (2.5.4)
To evaluate the constant of integration (C), we need to consider Figure 2.5.2.

Liquid of
Sp. Wt. γ
h
H

z=H+z0-h z0

Datum

Figure 2.5.2 Pressure at a point inside a liquid

The pressure at any point on the liquid surface is the atmospheric pressure (pa). So, Eq.
2.5.4 becomes,
p a = −γ ( H + z 0 ) + C (2.5.5)
Substituting this value of C, we get,
p = −γz + p a + γ ( H + z 0 ) (2.5.6).
Since z = H+z0-h, we can derive the governing equation for pressure at a point h units
below the free surface of the liquid as,
p = γh + p a (2.5.7)
Here γh is known as the ‘gauge pressure’ (i.e., the pressure w.r.t. the atmospheric
pressure) and p is known as the ‘absolute pressure’ at a point which is h units below the
surface of the liquid of specific weight γ. The depth h below the free surface of an
incompressible liquid is known as the ‘pressure head’ which is equal to the ratio of the
gauge pressure p and the liquid specific weight γ. Mathematically we can write,

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p
h= (2.5.8).
γ
Sometimes the absolute pressure at a point may be less than the atmospheric pressure
there. In that case, h will be –ve in the Eq. 2.5.7 and such a gauge pressure is known as
‘negative gauge pressure’ or ‘vacuum pressure’ to indicate that the absolute pressure
there is closer to the ‘absolute zero pressure’ (i. e., vacuum) than the local atmospheric
pressure there. Refer to Figure 2.5.3 for absolute pressure and gauge pressure at a point.

Figure 2.5.3 Absolute pressure and gauge pressure at a point

Pressure at a point in a compressible fluid: If the fluid is compressible, its specific weight
γ is a variable quantity. So, to get the pressure at a point in a compressible fluid, we need
to integrate Eq. 2.5.3 between the appropriate limits. If p1, and p2 are pressures at points
having altitudes z1 and z2 we can write,
p2 z
dp 2

p1
γ
= ∫ dz = ( z 2 − z1 )
z1

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5.3.2.3.1.3 Unit Objectives

Objective 1

To explain the governing equation for pressure and its application in pressure
measurement.

5.3.2.3.2 Unit: Pressure measuring devices-I: piezometers and


simple manometers

5.3.2.3.2.1 Unit Overview

5.3.2.3.2.2 Unit Summary

M2U6: Pressure measuring devices-I: piezometers and Simple Manometers


Unit objectives:
1. To discuss the different pressure measuring devices.
2. To classify manometers.
3. To explain the working principle for piezometers and simple manometers.
4. To derive the basic manometric equation.
Pressure measuring devices: Measurement of pressure is very vital in so many activities.
There are three main pressure measuring devices as listed below:
1. Piezometers,
2. Simple manometers, differential manometers and micromanometers
3. Pressure gauges and pressure transducers

In piezometers and manometers, pressure is measured by means of a balancing liquid


column. The liquid column will be in a tube of reasonably small diameter (of about 10 to
12 mm diameter) wherein there are no capillarity effects. For piezometers, the fluid in the
tube (known as the piezometric tube) will be the same as the liquid whose pressure is to
be found out. On the other hand, for other types of manometers the fluid in the tube
(known as the manometric tube) will be different from the liquid whose pressure is to be
found out. For all practical purposes, piezometers can be considered as the simplest type
of manometers.

In case of pressure gauges and transducers, the pressure measurement is due to the
principle of deflection of an elastic solid element located in a solid-fluid interaction in
proportion to the applied pressure. In pressure gauges, the deflection of the elastic solid
is magnified and/or transferred to either a needle rotating within a graduated
circumferential scale or a graduated bar, which will indicate the pressure measured. Since
the pressure transducers employ electronic instrumentation, their description is beyond
the scope of this course. Therefore they are not discussed here. Now, let us consider the
classification of manometers.

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Classification of Manometers: Based on the type of manometric liquid and the geometry,
manometers can be classified as follows:

Manometers

Piezometers Simple Differential Micromanometers


Manometers Manometers

2-Piezometer Inverted U-Tube U-Tube


Manometers Manometers Differential
Manometers

Single Column Differential


Micromanometers Micromanometers

Among the manometers, piezometers, simple manometers and single column


micromanometers measure the pressure difference between atmosphere and a point
within the fluid. While differential manometers and differential micromanometers
measure pressure difference between two points in two different fluid systems like tanks
or pipes. The micromanometers will have a bulb or a small reservoir in at least one of
their limbs having a cross sectional area of around 100 times the manometric tube cross
sectional area, so as to further minimize the height of the manometric liquid column.
One of their limbs which is not containing the bulb may be inclined so that it can measure
very small pressure differences. The differential manometers and the micromanometers
will be discussed in Unit 7.

Working principle of piezometers and other manometers: As already mentioned,


piezometers do not have a different liquid in their piezometric (i.e., manometric) tube.
This is true for 2-peizometer manometers also, which belong to the differential
manometer category. While the advantage of piezometers is their simplicity, they can be
used to measure only a limited pressure difference ( = γh, the product of the specific
weight and the height difference between the two points) due to the limitation in the

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manometric tube height. Also, they are unsuitable to measure –ve gauge pressures since
air might enter through the piezometric tube. Refer to Figure 2.6.1a for the sketch.

To overcome the above mentioned two limitations of the piezometer, a heavier liquid
(different from the fluid wherein pressure measurement is required) is generally used in
all other manometers except the 2-Piezometer manometer. The simple manometers
generally employ a U-tube (consisting of a heavier manometric liquid) to measure the
pressure difference between atmosphere and a point within the liquid. They can also be
used to measure –ve gauge pressures (i.e., vacuum pressures). Refer to Figure 2.6.1b for
the sketch. In the next objective, let us derive the basic manometric equation along with
the steps involved in writing the equation.

Figure 2.6.1 (a). Piezometer; (b). Simple Manometer

Derivation for and steps to write the basic manometric equation: The governing equation
for pressure [i. e., Eq. 2.5.7] is also used to write the manometric equation. Firstly we
start with the point of known pressure. In many cases it may be the free surface of the
manometric liquid where there is atmospheric pressure (i.e., zero gauge pressure). Then,
we move on to the next interface by taking the pressure difference term ( = γh) with a
+ve sign if this interface is below the previous point of known pressure or with a –ve sign
if this interface is above the previous point). This procedure is continued till we reach the
point for which we need to write the manometric equation. Alternatively, the
manometric equation can also be written in terms of pressure heads by adopting the
procedure mentioned above.

Let us consider Figure 2.6.1a. Adopting the stepwise procedure mentioned above, we
get,

0 + γh = p A = γh (2.6.1)

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Here γ is the specific weight of the liquid in the piezometer and pA is the pressure at point
A.

Similarly, for the Figure 2.6.1b consisting of a simple U-tube manometer, the manometric
equation in terms of pressure at point B can be written as follows:
0 + γ w S 2 h2 − γ w S1 h1 = p B = γ 2 h2 − γ 1 h1 (2.6.2).
Here γw, γ1, γ2 are the specific weights of water (the standard fluid), the fluid in the pipe
and the manometric liquid respectively.

5.3.2.3.2.3 Unit Objectives

Objective 1

• To discuss the different pressure measuring devices.


• To classify manometers.
• To derive the basic manometric equation.
• To explain the working principle for piezometers and simple
manometers.

5.3.2.3.3 Unit: Pressure measuring devices-II: other types of


manometers and pressure gauges

5.3.2.3.3.1 Unit Overview

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5.3.2.3.3.3 Unit Objectives

Objective 1

• To explain the working principle for differential / micro / other


manometers, pressure gauges.
• To identify the merits & demerits of different pressure measuring
devices.

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