EDITORS
Sandeep Pendhari
Prakash Nanthagopalan
Vivek Deshmukh
Abhay Bambole
Yogesh Desai
Editors
Sandeep Pendhari
Prakash Nanthagopalan
Vivek Deshmukh
Abhay Bambole
Yogesh Desai
It is our proud privilege to welcome you all to the Sixth International Congress on
Computational Mechanics and Simulation (ICCMS2016) which is being held at Indian
Institute of Technology Bombay (IIT Bombay), organized and hosted jointly by Department
of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay and Department of Structural Engineering, Veermata Jijabai
Technological Institute (VJTI) Mumbai.
The ICCMS2016 has five plenary speakers, who are eminent researchers from different
parts of the world. Apart from the plenary sessions, six concurrent technical sessions have
been scheduled on each day of the congress for the oral presentation of all accepted
papers. Keynote speakers and session chairmen are leading researchers from the thematic
areas of the respective sessions.
Lastly but not the least, we would like to thank all the volunteers for their dedication and hard
work for making ICCMS2016 a huge success.
Sandeep Pendhari
Prakash Nanthgopalan
Vivek Deshmukh
Abhay Bambole
Yogesh Desai
~................•
'f1'~' ~

~
'11'('11<1 l'Il~1 I ~ ~,,~
Office 2572 3488, 2576 7001
tu
~, ~ 400076, m«f
Res.
EPABX
2572 3738. 25768000
2572 2545. Extn.: 7001 (0). 8000 (R) e
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay Fax 91222572 3546 (Direct). 2572 3480
3
Powai, Mumbai 400076, India Email director@iitb.ac.in
khakhar@iitb.ac.in
c
Website: www.iitb.ac.in l»
Devang V. Khakhar,
~fct.~,~
Director <
Message
I am delighted to note that liT Bombay has taken the initiative, way back in the year
2000, in founding the Indian Association for Computational Mechanics (IndACM), an
affiliate of International Association for Computational Mechanics (IACM) to bring
together researchers, especially young researchers, working in the area of
Computational Mechanics on a common platform and has been conducting the
International Congress on Computational Mechanics and Simulation (ICCMS) on a
regular basis. I am also happy to note that liT Bombay and the VJTI have joined
hands to organize the Sixth ICCMS2016 at liT Bombay on 27 June to 1 July 2016.
A distinct discipline of Computational Mechanics which could stand alone on its own
merit started growing its roots in the nineteen hundred sixties with the development of
a revolutionary computational method  the finite element method and the
simultaneous innovations in the design of digital computers. In simple terms,
Computational Mechanics is concerned with application of discrete numerical methods
to describe the behaviour of real life physical phenomena governed by the principles of
mechanics. Computational Mechanics has enabled transformation of much of the
classical Newtonian mechanics into practical discrete numerical procedures and tools
to understand complex natural physical phenomena. These tools are now used
extensively in both developed and developing world for design and simulation in
manufacturing, transportation, communication, defence and may allied fields. Recent
innovations in Computational Mechanics are already making great strides in quantum,
molecular and biological phenomena. Computational Mechanics has made profound
impact on many facets of life, including medicine, energy conservation and national
security. It is wellrecognized that scientists and engineers of India and of Indian origin
outside the country have played a very significant role in this development.
~
Devang Khakhar
VJTI
Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute
(Central Technological Institute, Maharashtra State, INDIA)
H. R. Mahajani Marg, Matunga. Mumbai 400019
Tel.No. +91 222419810102 Fax:+91 2224102874
www.vjti.ac.in
Message
Hosting the sixth international congress jointly with the premier institute of the
country, the liT Bombay is a matter of pride for my Institute, the VJTI. This four days
event will provide a platform to the researchers, academicians, and the practitioners
to share their experiences, discuss the recent developments and the trends, and I
am sure it will definitely be a value adding experience for all.
D.G. Kakde
Sixth International Congress on
Computational Mechanics and Simulation
Patrons
Devang Khakhar, Director, IIT Bombay, Mumbai.
Omprakash G. Kakde, Director, VJTI Mumbai.
Mentor
Tarun Kant, Institute Chair Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai.
Congress Chairs
Yogesh Desai, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai
Abhay Bambole, Professor and Dean R&D, Structural Engineering Department, VJTI Mumbai.
Organizing Secretaries
Prakash Nanthagopalan, Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai.
Sandeep S. Pendhari, Associate Professor, Structural Engineering Department, VJTI Mumbai.
Vivek B. Deshmukh, Associate Professor, Structural Engineering Department, VJTI Mumbai.
Members
Sauvik Banerjee, Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai.
Deepankar Chaudhary, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai.
T. I. Eldho, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai
Subimal Ghosh, Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai.
K.K. Sangle, Professor and Head, Structural Engineering Department, Dean Infrastructure and Planning, VJTI
Mumbai.
M. A. Chakrabarti, Professor, Structural Engineering Department, VJTI Mumbai.
Nissar Khan, Sr. Tech. Superintendent, Heavy Structures Lab, IIT Bombay, Mumbai.
Advisory Committee
Sondipon Adhikari, Swansea, UK  Satya Atluri, Irvine, USA
Sudhir K Barai, Kharagpur, India  Romesh Batra, Blacksburg, USA
Mallikarjuna Bennur, Detroit, USA  Atul Bhaskar, Southampton, UK
S K Bhattacharyya, Roorkee, India  Gautam Biswas, Guwahati, India
Erasmo Carrera, Torino, Italy  C S Desai, Tucson, USA
Subhasish Dey, Kharagpur, India  B K Dutta, Mumbai, India
A J M Ferreira, Porto, Prtugal  Ranjan Ganguli, Bengaluru, India
Somnath Ghosh, Baltimore, USA  S Gopalakrishnan, Bengaluru, India
Ramana Grandhi, Dayton, USA  Vijay Gupta, Los Angeles, USA
Thomas J R Hughes, Austin, USA  Nagesh Iyer, Chennai, India
C S Jog, Bengaluru, India  Shailendra Joshi, Singapore
Rakesh Kapania, Blacksburg, USA  Santosh Kapuria, Delhi, India
B L Karihaloo, Cardiff, UK  Ashwini Kumar, Gandhinagar, India
Jyant Kumar, Bengaluru, India  G R Liu, Cincinnati, USA
Sudhakar R Marur, Pune, India  Vasant Matsagar, Delhi, India
Sanjay Mittal, Kanpur, India  R Narasimhan, Bengaluru, India
P Nithiarasu, Swansea, UK  J Tinsley Oden, Austin, USA
Nimal Rajapakse, Burnaby, Canada  L S Ramachandra, Kharagpur, India
Manas Chandra Ray, Kharagpur, India  J N Reddy, College Station, USA
Debasish Roy, Bengaluru, India  Anand V Singh, London, Canada
Ram Kumar Singh, Mumbai, India  N Swaminathan, Cambridge, UK
Ramesh Talreja, College Station, USA  Tayfun Tezduyar, Houston, USA
Contents
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
Plenary Sessions
1 Robust Finite Element Modelling Approaches to Systemic Circulation Flow and Heat 1
Transfer
Hasan H., Cocckerelli A. and Nithiarasu P.
Keynote Sessions
5 Free Edge effects in Sandwich Laminates Under Tension, Bending and Twisting Loads 9
Dhanesh N. and Santosh Kapuria
i
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
10 Numerical Studies of Piezoelectric Composites Using Nurbs for Geometry and Field 14
Functions
Singh A.V. and Raj V.
11 Clean Water and Clean Energy Production: simulation Using Finite Element Method 15
Seetharamu K.N., Spandana K.R., Parikshit B.
15 A FastMultipole Unified Technique for the Analysis of Potential Problems with the 19
Boundary Element Methods
Ney Augusto Dumont and, Hélvio De Farias Costa Peixoto
BioMechanics
ii
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
004 Effects of Heat and Mass Transfer on MHD Flow of Blood Through an Artery With 33
Stenosis Having Variable Viscosity
Tripathi B. and Sharma B.K.
Bridge Structures
009 Numerical and Analytical Modelling of Reinforced Concrete Circular Columns Under 50
Torsion
Mondal A., Ghosh T., Gangan A. and Suriya Prakash S.
010 Analysis of Spherical Dome with Openings Using Finite Element Method 54
Khan S., Bambole A.N., and Murgudkar H.C.
Composite Structures
016 Finite Element Modelling of FRP Composite Joints Considering Bolt Torque 79
Mandal B. and Chakrabarti B.
iii
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
017 Thermal Stress Analysis of Functionally Graded Plates and Open Cylindrical Shells 83
Punera D. and Kant T.
018 Bending and Buckling Analyses of Composite Laminates with and Without Presence 87
of Damage and its Passive Control with Optimized Piezoelectric Patch Location
Maiti D.K. and Sreehari V.M.
019 Static Response of Wind Turbine Blade Under Actual Loading Effect 91
Choudhury S., Sharma T. and Shukla K.K.
023 Theoretical Study on Basalt Fiber Reinforced Composite (BFRC) Sandwich Panel 107
Under Flexure
Raj S., Bharathkumar B. H. and Ramesh Kumar V.
024 Effect of Delamination Size and Location on the Dynamics of Thin Pretwisted Strips 111
Salunkhe S.B. and Guruprasad P.J.
025 Stiffened Plates of CNT Reinforced Composites: Static Response Using FEM 115
Bhar A. and Shakya R.
027 Static Analysis of Functionally Graded Beam for PowerLaw Variation of Elastic 124
Modulus
Pendhari S. S., Mahajan M., Dhangare P. M. and Gujar P.
031 Seismic Analysis of Multistorey Building Using Steel Concrete Composite Columns at 140
Soft Storey
Patil S., Jangave S.K and Patil R.S
iv
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
032 Ballistic Impact Response of Laminated GFRP Composite Plate: Experimental and FE 144
Analyses
Ansari M.D.M. and Chakrabarti A.
033 Analysis of Laminated Composite Orthotropic Plates Under Bidirectional Bending 148
Subjected to Concentrated Loads
Raval D. and Bambole A. N.
034 Vibration Damping Capacity of Carbon Nanotubes Based Hybrid Composite Spherical 153
Shell Panel
Swain A. and Roy T.
035 Buckling Analysis of Composite Laminated Skew Plate of Variable Thickness Under 157
Biaxial Compression
Priyanka Dhurvey
037 A Method for Accurate Transverse Normal Stress Evaluation in Laminated Composites 165
Using Simple HSDT
Deshmukh M.B. and Bhar A.
038 Tensile and Compressive Buckling Analyses of Stiffened Laminated Composite Panels 169
Rajanna T., Banerjee S., Desai Y.M. and Prabhakara D.L.
039 Stress and Failure Analysis of Functionally Graded Adhesively Bonded Tubular Socket 173
Joint of Laminated FRP Composites
Nimje S.V. and Panigrahi S.K.
040 NonLinear 3D Finite Element Analysis of Adhesively Bonded CFRP Lap Joint 177
Lavjiit Singh., Mahesh M. S. and Nimje S.
041 Stochastic Natural Frequency of Composite Plates Using Kriging Model 181
Dey S., Mukhopadhay T., Chakrabarty S., Chowdhury R., Adhikari S., Karmakar A.
and Spickenheuer A.
042 Numerical Modeling of Flow Around Cylindrical Bridge Piers With and Without Pile 185
Cap
Gautam P., Vijayasree B.A., Eldho T. I., Behera M. R. and Mazumder B. S.
043 Modified Kinetic StreamlinedUpwind Petrov Galerkin Method for Euler Equations of 189
Gas Dynamics
Jagtap Ameya D.
044 High Enthalpy Simulations for Shock Wave Boundary Layer Interaction 193
Desai S., Kulkarni V. and Gadgil H.
v
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
045 Design and Testing of Axial Fans for Cooling Engines 197
Abdulazeem D., Baruah A. and Kumar S.
046 Aakalan  A Third Order Finite Volume Solver for Unstructured Meshes 201
Bapat C. J.
048 Numerical Simulation Of The Turbulent Air Flow In The Narrow Circular Channel 209
With CentreCleared Rib Vortex
Bhattacharyya S., Chattopadhyay H., Biswas N., Rakshit A. and Roy A.
049 Cost Effective CFD Methodology to Predict the Free Surface Movement Inside Tank 213
Periyasamy S., Shinde G., Joshi A. and Nikam K.
051 Development of Bhism for Performance Based Blast Resistant Design of Reinforced 220
Concrete (RC) Structures
Kumar S. and Sharma H.
052 CFD Simulation of Stratification/Dispersion of Helium Layer by Two Heat Sources 224
and Their Interaction in a Thermally Stratified Vessel
Gera B., Ganju S. and Patel R. J.
053 An Experimental and CFD Based Study to Improve Thermal Performance of Car 228
Radiator Using Twisted and Wire Mesh Inserts by Varying Mass Flow Rate
Jain S. K., Sharma M., Saini D., Sharma V., Dadhich M. and Prajapati O.S.
056 CFD Simulation and Experimental Validation of a Vertical Intake System 239
Samhitha C. D. and Eldho T. I.
058 Numerical Study of Effect of Density and Aspect Ratio on Oscillatory Exchange Flow 246
Through a Circular Opening in Horizontal Partition
Singh R. K., Alam M. and Gera B.
vi
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
059 Numerical Modelling of Laminar Diffusion Flames Over a Hybrid Unstructured Grid 250
Preetirekha B., Amaresh D., Gadgil H. and Ganesh N.
060 Thermal Comfort Analysis of a Room Using Radiant Cooling System: A CFD Based 253
Study
Sharma N.K., Gunjan G., Dhakara M., Choudhary M., Gupta N. and Gupta P. K.
061 Study of Natural Convection in a Wavy Porous Enclosure in Presence of Magnetic 257
Field
Sarkar C., Pandit S. K. and Dalal D. C.
062 Vortex Structure of Incompressible Viscous Flows in a Lid(s) Driven Cavity With 261
Wavy Wall
Karmakar H. and Pandit S. K.
063 Optimization of Simple Air Duct Heat Exchanger by Perforated Plates : A CFD Based 265
Study
Mittal S., Sharma V., Sharma V., Jain S. K., Dadhich M. and Jangid A. K.
064 ADPI Calculation for Thermal Comfort in Operation Theatre With Angular Diffuser 269
Rahate S.D., Waghmare S. A. and Deshmukh P.D.
065 CFD Simulation of Combined Buoyancy and Pressure Driven Hot Gas Flows Through 273
Square Opening Using Salt Water Analogy
Gera B., Singh R. K. and Alam M.
066 Computational Study of Hypersonic Flow Past a Spherically Blunted Nose Cone 277
Ashish Narayan, Rakesh Kumar and Narayanan S.
067 Energy Deposition in Supersonic Flow Past a Hemisphere Using OpenFoam 280
Dhurandhar S. N. and Bansal A.
068 Assessment of Pulsatile Waveforms on the Blood Flow Dynamics in Intracranial 283
Aneurysm
Basumatary M. , Natarajan G. and Mishra S. C.
070 Numerical Study on Effect of Airfoil PinFin Location in Tube Fin Heat Exchanger 291
Jaganathan A., Deepakkumar R. and Jayavel S.
071 A Sharp Interface Immersed Boundary Method for Inviscid Compressible Flows 295
Brahmachary S., Natarajan G., Kulkarni V. and Sahoo N.
072 Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Mixed Convection Around a Heated Square Cylinder 299
Placed in a Lid Driven Cavity
Gera B. and Singh R. K.
vii
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
073 An Immersed Boundary Method for Mixed Convection Flows With Large Temperature 303
Gradient
Kumar M. and Natarajan G.
074 Genuinely Multidimensional Cure for Numerical Shock Instability in a Contact 307
Preserving Riemann Solver
Simon S. and Mandal J. C.
075 Numerical Simulation of LidDriven Square Cavity Using Staggered Grid Based Finite 311
Volume Method
Varma I. J., Maniyeri R. and Kang S.
076 Numerical Investigation of NACA 0025 and NACA 0021 of straight blade Darrieus 315
turbine for Hydrodynamic Application
Patil B.S., Kumar K., Thakare H.R. and Narkhede M.M.
077 WaterGas Two Phase Flow Characteristics in Horizontal PipelineA CFD Study 320
Senapati S. K and Dewangan S. K.
078 Numerical Investigation of Flow Through Steam Turbines Using the Mixing Plane 324
Method
Shukla S., Mishra R., Chaudhary N. and Suman S.
080 Steady Flow Computations Using HLLCPS Scheme With Low Mach Number 332
Correction
Gogoi A. and Mandal J.C.
081 Investigation of 3D Flows in a Tandem Compressor Cascade With Various Chord 336
Ratios
Sherin S. B., Manas M. S. and Shine S. R.
082 Prediction of Flow Parameters for a Flow Past Rows of Staggered Cylinders Using 340
Artificial Intelligence Methods
Sharma N. and Singh U.
083 Effect of Corrugation Geometry on Power Consumption and Friction Factor in a 344
Channel
Bharath Ram R. , Sudharsan T. S. and Naren P. R.
085 Experimental and Numerical Study on Wake Evacuation Effects in Expansion 352
Deflection Nozzles
Mohan K., Munjal P., Vishak S. and Vaidyanathan A.
viii
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
086 Numerical studies of a shellandtube PCM based heat storage unit 356
Samanta H., Roy P.C. and Barman N.
088 Numerical Investigation of Evolving Flow Structure Around Ahmed Body Mounted 364
with Solar Panel of Different Configuration
Mohammad Rafiq B. Agrewale and Maurya R.S.
090 Effect of Winglet Corrugation for Improved MAV Aerodynamic Performance 371
Dwivedi Y. D. and Donepudi Jagadish
091 CFD Analysis of Perfusion Kinetics in Brain Tumor with DCEMRI Derived Model 375
Bhandari A., Bansal A., Singh A. and Sinha N.
092 Numerical Investigation on Effect of Moving Vanes and Vehile Velocity on Exhaust 379
Flow of Engine in Armoured Combat Vehicle
More R.R., Patil B.S., Lagad R.B. and Trikande M.W.
093 CFD Simulation of Cascade Fin Flow at Low Subsonic Speeds and High Angles of 383
Attack
Tripathi M., Mahesh M.S. and Misra A.
094 Boyancy Driven Heat Transfer Effect in Room Ventilation due to Discrete Heat 387
Sources
Gupta N. and Nayak A. K.
095 Evaluating Differences in Airflow Patterns for Similar Rural Kitchens using CFD 391
Ronita Bardhan, Ramit Debnath and Rangan Banerjee
Fluid Mechanics
096 Hydraulic Performance Analysis on Corrugated Type Plate Heat Exchanger 396
Kumar B., Singh D. and Singh S. N.
097 Effect of rotation and baroclinicity on heat transport and turbulent convection in 400
annular flow
Banerjee A.K., Bhattacharya A. and Balasubramanian S.
099 ThermoHydraulic Simulation of Oxidizer Booster Pump for Semicryogenic Engine 407
Thomas B.G., Unnikrishnan Nair P., Sarangi S.K. and Narayanan V.
ix
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
101 High Fidelity Simulation of Flow Over a Flapping Wing Using Parallel Computing 415
Bose C., Gupta S. and Sarkar S.
5102 Reduction of Secondary Flow Losses in Linear Turbine Cascade by Boundary Layer 419
Fence
Kiran K. N. and Anish S.
FluidStructure Interaction
103 3D Coupled CFDFEA Dynamic Stall Analysis of 5 MW NREL Wind Turbine 423
Baseline Rotor
Fatima N. and Gopal K.V.N
104 Coupled FluidStructure Analysis of Inlet Distortion Measuring Rake for Fighter 427
Aircraft
Vashistha R. and Gogoi A.
106 FluidFilm Dependent Added Mass and Added Damping for Parallel Plates 436
Verma G., Eswaran M., Sengupta S., Ram Reddy G., Mammen S. and Bhattacharya S.
108 Explicit Time Marching Coupling Schemes for FluidStructure Interactions 444
Hoskoti L. and Mahesh M. S.
111 Damage Detection in Composite Beams Using Vibration Based Method 457
Joshi S.P. and Dawari V. B.
112 Fatigue Analysis of Concrete Members Under Variable Amplitude Cyclic Loading 461
Jeshna C. C., Bhowmik S. and Ray S.
x
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
113 Mixed Mode Stress Intensity Factor and Crack Growths Modeling of Double Edge 465
Cracks Laminated Composite Plate Subjected to Tensile and Shear Loadings Using
XFEM
Lal A., Mulani S. B., Kapania R. K. and Singh B. N.
115 Meshfree Analysis of Cracked Panel Repaired by Bonded Composite Patch 473
Pathak H., Singh A. and Singh I.V.
116 Determination of Size Independent Fracture Energy for Various Grades of Concrete 476
Beams Three Approaches
Hemalatha T., Ramachandra Murthy A. and Aravindan M.
117 Obtaining Fracture Properties of FRC by Inverse Analysis Using the PGSL 480
Optimization Algorithm
Stephen S. J., Raphael B. and Gettu R.
118 A Linearized Toughness Model for Concrete by Considering Toughening Mechanisms 484
Simon K. M. and Kishen J. M. C.
119 Meshfree Analysis of Beams and Columns in the Presence of Initial Damage 488
Gupta A. and Arun C. O.
122 Stochastic Fracture Analysis of Laminated Composite Panel With Elliptical Crack 500
Subjected to Biaxial Load Using XFem
Palekar Shaiesh P. and Achchhe Lal
123 Numerical Studies on the Influence of Notch Depth and Location on the Natural 505
Frequency of Indeterminate Beams
Stuti M., Varun K., Kalyana Rama J. S. and Ramachandra Murthy A.
124 Influence of Notch to Depth Ratio on Fracture Process Parameters of Plain Concrete 509
Beam Using Concrete Damaged Plasticity Model
George J., Kalyana Rama J. S., Siva Kumar M. V. N., Vasan A. and Ramachandra
Murthy A.
xi
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
130 Failure Assessment in Aluminium Plate Using Continuum Damage Mechanics 531
Nawab S. and Thakkar B.
131 Effect of Flexural Cracks on Behaviour of RCC Beams Under Torsion 535
Bariya M. and Thakkar B.
132 Nonlinear Analysis of Fiber Wrapped Reinforced Concrete Beams With Cohesive 539
Model
Chakraborty S., Jha D. K., Reddy G. R. and Srinivas K.
133 Numerical Simulation of SPT Data Using GTN Material Damage Model to Evaluate J 542
R Curve
Kumar P., Dutta B. K., Chattopadhyay J. and Shriwastaw R. S.
134 Study of Various Damage Indices Under Seismic Loading A Review 547
Parekar S. D. and Datta D.
135 Characterization of Near Crack Tip Stresses for Fracture Testing Specimens from 551
Strength Mismatch Weld
Kumar S. , Singh P. K. and Patel R. J.
Geo Mechanics
136 Effects of Intermediate Principal Stress on Shear Localization During Tunnel 555
Excavation
Sisodiya M. and Das A.
137 A Numerical Study on a Rock Slope Failure with the Rate, State, Temperature and Pore 559
Pressure Friction (RSTPF) Model
Singh A. K. and Singh T. N.
138 Redistribution Principle Approach for Evaluation of Seismic Active Earth Pressure 563
Behind Retaining Wall
Maskar A.D., Madhekar S. N. and Phatak D. R.
xii
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
139 Three Dimensional Computer Simulation of Laterally Loaded Monopile Foundation 567
for Offshore Wind Turbine
Deshmukh R.R. and Sharma V. K.
140 Effect of Soil Structure Interaction on Vertical Irregularity in Framed RC Structure 571
Dhadse G. and Mohod M.
141 Numerical Modeling of Reinforced Copper Slag Embankment using Plaxis 3D 575
Athulya G.K., Choubey M. and Mandal J. N.
Heat Transfer
143 Solution of Stochastic Heat Conduction Problem Using Galerkin Based Polynomial 582
Correlated Function Expansion
Chakraborty S. and Chowdhury R.
145 Comparison of Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics in Triangular and Sinusoidal 590
Shaped Wavy Channels
Harikrishnan S. and Tiwari S.
146 Thermal Behaviour Analysis of VThrough Flat Plate Solar Water Collector: An 594
Experimental and CFD Based Study
Jangid A.K. , Sharma N. K., Jain S. K., Dadhich M., Sharma V. and Agarwal D.
147 Effect of Location of Heat Source and Rayleigh Number on Natural Convection in A 598
Square Cavity Using Thermal Lattice Boltzmann Method
Patil M.Y., Patil A.J. and Sewatkar C.M.
148 Computational Analysis of Flow and Thermal Characteristics of PinFin Heat Sink 602
Manogna J., Deepakkumar R. and Jayavel S.
149 Visualization of Thermal Transport in Discretely Heated 2D Complex Solid 605
Geometries
Narasimha Suri Tinnaluri and Jaya Krishna Devanuri
150 Numerical Simulation of Natural Convection With Radiative Heat Transfer in a Cavity 609
Parmananda M., Khan S. and Dalal A.
151 LBM Simulation of Free Convection in an Enclosure Containing Heat Generating Low 613
Pr Fluid
Gera B. and Singh R.K.
xiii
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
152 Natural Convection in an Open Cavity With Surface Mounted Electronic Components 617
Muthukrishnan S. and Madhusudhana R. Gavara
153 Design, Manufacturing and Performance Analysis of Different Thermoplastic Gears in 621
the Gearbox for Moped
Gupta A.R., Aloni S.N. and Datey S.N.
155 Numerical Analysis Off low Boiling Heat Transfer in Single Horizontal small diameter 628
channel using VOF Multiphase Model
Jignesh R. and Kumar K.
156 Numerical Study on Convective Mass Transfer Enhancement by Baroclinic Torque 631
Induced Vortex
Aravind G.P., Muhammed Rafi K. M., Fahd Bin Abdul Hasis and Deepu M.
158 Numerical Analysis of Natural Convection Around a Pair of Heated Cylinders inside a 640
Cold Square Enclosure
Chauhan S. P. and Thakur H.
160 Thermal Design and Analyses of LithiumIon Battery for Rover of an Interplanetary 648
Missions: Modelling and Simulation
Jayaraman S.., Channi A., Bindagi S.V., Srinivasan M.S., Satyanarayana, Ravindran
R., Barve S.G. and Sharma A.K.
Hydrodynamics
162 A Study on River Bed Degradation Due to Mining of Coarser Top Sediment 652
Barman Bandita and Sarma A. K.
163 Two Phase Interface Model for Transport Phenomena During Sublimation of Crystals 656
and Vapor Phase Reaction
Sawant R., Inamdar S.R., Karimi I. A. and Kulkarni B. D.
164 Flood Plain Simulation of an Urban River Catchment: A Case Study 660
Zope P.E., Eldho T. I. and Jothiprakash V.
Material Modelling
xiv
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
165 Ballistic Studies of Boron Carbide Tiles against 7.62 mm AP Projectile 664
Savio S. G., Srivathsa B. and Madhu V.
166 Inclusion Modelling in Concrete With the Extended Finite Element Method 668
Thirumalaiselvi A., Anandavalli N. and Rajasankar J.
169 Analysis and Optimization of MultiPlate Wet Clutch With Different Friction Materials 681
Shaha U. and Tembhare G.U.
171 FE Based Investigation of Heat Effected Zone and Temperature Distribution in Copper 688
and AISI 304 Stainless Steel Weldment
Singh G., Saxena R.K. and Pandey S.
172 Mechanical Behaviour of Epoxy Matrix Under Tension, Compression and Shear Using 692
DIC: Experiments and Numerical Modeling
Gupta M. and Mahajan P.
173 Study of Agglomerate Breakage in a Shear Flow Using Numerical Simulations 696
Akiti N., Hapgood K. and Khakhar D.
174 Prediction of Compressive Strength of Concrete with Natural Aggregates and Recycled 700
Aggregates Using M5’ Model Tree Algorithm
Jain S. and Barai S.V.
175 Evaluation of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) Geofoam Creep Using Plaxis 3D 704
Beju Y.Z. and Mandal J. N.
xv
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
180 Length Scale Effect on the Deformation Behaviour of BioInspired Nanocomposites 724
using Molecular Dynamics
Mathiazhagan S.and Anup S.
183 Kinematic and Dynamic Analyses of 3Link Cooperative Manipulators Handling 736
Hazardous Chemicals
Ranjan R. and Dwivedy S. K.
184 Pendulum Impact Test on Thermally Damaged Reinforced Concrete Frames 740
Singh Tarvinder, Sharma Shailesh, Parmar R. M. and Reddy G.R.
186 Stroke and Tolerance Stack Up Analysis of an Automotive Side Door Latch 748
Vinod Kumar R., Elango M. and Udupa N.
187 Effect of Nonlinearities in the Suspension of Heavy Goods Vehicles on Vehicle Road 751
Interaction
Joshi S., Vichare C., Pable M.J. and Seshu P.
188 Inverse Dynamic Analysis of Axial Piston Pump Using Augmented NewtonEuler 755
Formulation
Milind T. R. and Mitra M.
189 Numerical Rigid and Flexible Multibody Dynamic Modeling of an Axial Piston Pump: 759
Validation, Comparison and Parametric Studies
Milind T. R. and Mitra M.
190 Boundary Element Modeling of the Acoustic Radiation of an Axial Piston Pump: 764
Numerical Implementation
Milind T.R. and Mitra M.
xvi
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
191 Numerical Modeling of the Structural Acoustic Radiation and Sound Pressure Fields 768
of an Axial Piston Pump
Milind T.R. and Mitra M.
192 Displacement & Arrest of Occupant on Automotive Seat System in Frontal Dynamic 772
Crash Condition: AntiSub Feature on Seat Cushion
Dharmadhikari V. D. and Chougule V.N.
MultiPhase Flow
193 Modelling and Simulation of Cyclic Oxidation of Thermal Barrier Coatings using 776
FEM
Srivathsa B., Meena Kumari V., S. Gokul Lakshmi and Das D.K.
194 Numerical Study of Effects of Particle Diameter and Particle Volume Fractions on 781
Dispersed GasParticle Flows Through Vertical Channels
Kotoky S., Dalal A. and Natarajan G.
195 CFD Modelling of Gas Bubble Formation in a Stagnant & CoFlowing Liquid Medium 785
Prasad V. K., Singh S. P. and Chatterjee D.
196 The Role of Consistency in the Simulation of High Density Ratio Flows 789
Patel J.K. and Natarajan G.
198 Analysis of Droplet Solidification During FCI in Severe Accident of Nuclear Reactors 797
Ghosh B. and Mukhopadhyay D.
200 A MultiPhase Closed Pipelines Simulation Approach for Transportation of Heavy Oil 805
With Open foam in HPC
Alomoy Banerjee and Barman S.
201 Numerical Heat Transfer Analysis of Pin Fin With Ellipsoidal Beads 810
Madhumitha R., Arunkumar S., Balachandar C. and Venkatesan M.
202 Topology Optimization of PreMixing Zone in a T Shaped Micromixer for Enhanced 814
Mixing
Madhumitha R., Arunkumar S., Ravichandran V. and Venkatesan M.
203 Comparative Study of Coal Combustion in Air and O2/CO2 Environment 818
Rajneesh Vachaspati, Om Prakash Singh, and Ray T. K.
xvii
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
205 The Waste Materials as Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate in ConcreteOutlet 827
Ramana P.V., Manish M. and Kunal B.
207 An Efficient Locking Free Multiscale Finite Elements for Free Vibration Analysis of 834
Carbon Nanotubes
Singh S. and Patel B.P.
208 Displacement Analysis of a Compliant MicroGripper Using PRBM & FEA Method 838
Darawade P.B., Shendge M.P., Deshmukh A.S., Jain S.S., Joshi R.S. and Mitra A.C.
209 Adaptive Multiscale Finite Element Method for Simulation of Heterogeneous Material 842
Patil R., Mishra B.K. and Singh I.V.
NonLinear Mechanics
215 Effect of Circular Web Perforation in Rectangular Lean Duplex Stainless Steel (LDSS) 865
Tubular Beams – A Finite Element Study
Sonu J.K. and Singh K.D.
216 Structural Performance of Elliptical Hollow Steel Tubular Braces Under Ultra Low 869
Cycle Fatigue Loading
Narendra P.V.R. and Singh K.D.
xviii
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
217 A Comparative Study on Effect Fibre Volume Fraction on ExSitu BMG Composites 873
Through Unit Cell Simulations
Gouripriya S., Sinha S.A. and Tandaiya P.
219 Estimation of Local Stresses and Strains for Notched Geometries Using NonLinear 881
Analysis
Khatawate V.H., Dharap M.A. and Moorthy R.I.K.
221 Analysis of a Nonlinear Flexural WaveBreathing Crack Interaction in A Slender Beam 889
Using Wavelet Spectral Finite Element Method
Joglekar D. M. and Mitra M.
223 Non Linear Behaviour of Laterally Restrained Beams With Sinusoidal Corrugated 897
Web
Baskar K. and Sadananda H.I.
226 Nonlinear Computational Analysis of Multi Strand Helical Wire Rope Isolators 909
Patel N. and Kumaraswamy A.
228 An Improved Approximation Strategy for Multi Objective Evolutionary Optimization 918
Chatterjee T. and Chowdhury R.
229 Design and Optimization of Brake Slack Adjuster for Light Commercial Vehicle 922
Braking System
Karwande S.V.
xix
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
230 Stability Preserving Runge Kutta Method Using Genetic Algorithm 925
Neelan A. G. And Nair M. T.
231 A Refined Time Series Model for Structural Health Monitoring 929
Lakshmi K. and A. Rama Mohan Rao
233 Computational Mechanism on Large Deformable Bodies Using Novel Technique 937
Ramana P.V.
235 A review on Applications of Meshless Methods to Flow and Transport Processes in 942
Porous Media
Boddula S. and Eldho T.I
236 The Equality of Partial Solutions for Nth Order Differential Equations Using Novel 946
Technique
Ramana P.V. and Gupta S.
237 Modelling and Analysis of Metal Drilling Process Using Experimental Study and Finite 951
Element Method
Ponnusamy Pandithevan and Vinayaga Muruga
239 Finite Element Simulation of PZT Induced Guided Wave Modes in Isotropic 959
Cylindrical Shells
Jayesh P. and Bijudas C.R.
240 A Computer Numerical Simulation Study Between System Level and Component 963
Level Model of a System Under Design
Hariram Shanmuganathan
241 Optimizing the Design of Engine Timing Chain System of Passenger Car 967
Shinde A.P.
242 Novel Algorithms for Simulation of Free and Moving Boundary Problems 971
Rangarajan R.
xx
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
244 Optimization of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers by Minimizing the Entropy 978
Generation Using Bat Algorithm
Tharakeshwar T.K., Seetharamu K.N., Durga Prasad B. and Kumar B.
246 A Study on the Behaviour of the Basis Functions in Differential Quadrature Method 986
for ElastoStatic Problems
Durga Rao S.S. and Sethuraman R.
247 MultiBlock Structured Grid Generation using Algebraic Techniques for Complex 990
Rocket Models
Kumaravel G. and Unnikrishnan C.
248 Effect of Friction Between Punch & Die on Springback in 60 Degree V Bend 994
Sayyad V.M., Phalle V.M., Vishwadeep C. H. and Patil S. S.
249 A Computer Simulation Model for Smartly Actuated Dorsal Fin With Compliant 998
Mechanism and Shape Memory Alloy
Govindarajan G. and Sharma R.
250 Comparative Study of Metallic and Composite Belly for Belly Landing of a Light 1002
Banakar P. and Akshatha H. T.
251 Heat Transfer Enhancement of Heat Exchanger Using Porous Medium: A CFD Based 1006
Study
Sharma V., Mittal S., Sharma N.K., Jain S.K., Sharma V. and Dadhich M.
252 Simulation of AdvectiveDispersive Transport in a Porous Medium Using the Operator 1010
Splitting Technique
Tinesh Pathania
253 Characterization of Flow and Thermal Behaviour of Product Gas Constituents in the 1015
ThroatLess Downdraft Gasifier
Kane A. A., Maurya R. S., Tiwari I. and Lobo S.
255 Design and Development of Energy Efficient Cold Storage Interior Using 1023
Computational Techniques
Maradkar R. R. and Maurya R. S.
xxi
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
Smart Structures
257 Dynamic Response of an Asymptotically Correct Piezoelectric Sensor With a Tip Mass 1033
Banerjee S. and Roy S.
258 NotchType Damage Detection in Plate Structures Using a Refined TimeReversed 1037
Lamb Wave Method
Kapuria S. and Agrahari J. K.
259 FE Modeling of Sandwich Beam With TwoPlane Edge Debonding of Piezoelectric 1042
Shear Actuator
Venkat Rao K., Raja S. and Munikenche Gowda T.
261 Impact of Irregularity on the Propagation Behavior of Surface Wave in a Layered 1051
Piezoelectric Structure
Singh A. K., Kumar S. and Mahto S.
262 Detection of Damage in SurfaceMounted PZT Transducers using Voltage Amplitude 1055
Spectrum
Ashwin U., Sathyanarayana C.N. and Raja S.
264 Finite Element Analysis of a Piezoelectric Plate Based on First Order Shear 1063
Deformation Theory
Pendhari S. S., Jadhav S.S., and Patil V.
265 Behaviour of Polypropylene Fibre Reinforced Concrete Pavement Under Static Wheel 1067
Load
Mohod Milind and Kadam K. N.
267 An Experimental Study of a Novel Energy Scavenger Cum Vibration Absorber 1075
Vishvanath Allamraju K. and Srikanth K.
268 An EnergyBased Approach for Extracting the Dynamic Instability Parameters of 1079
Dielectric Elastomer Actuators With Unequal Biaxial Prestress
Bajpayee S., Joglekar D. M. and Joglekar M. M.
xxii
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
269 Radial and Thickness Mode Calculations of PZT5H Disc by Using Ambient 1084
Vibrations
Vishvanath Allamraju K.
270 Vibration Based Hybrid Energy Harvester for Broadband Harvesting 1088
Rajarathinam M. and Ali S. F.
272 Rayleigh Wave Propagation in Liquid Layer Lying over a PreStressed Orthotropic 1097
HalfSpace
Chudhary S. and Sahu S. A.
273 Thermostructural Design of an Unconventional Section with Stiffened and Unstiffened 1100
Panels
Jayanthi G. and Jain P.C.
274 An Experimental Study on Slender Hollow Circular Stainless Steel Columns with 1104
Single Circular Perforation Subjected to Axial Compression
Lalthazuala R., Konjengbam D. Singh
275 Gauge Widening/Condemning of Parabolic Profile Locomotive Wheels While Braking 1008
with Composite Brake Blocks
Vineesh K.P., Vakkalagadda M.R.K and Racherla V.
276 Flexure of Fixed Thick Beam Using Trigonometric Shear Deformation Theory 1112
Dahake A. G., Manal S. S. and Sawant R. M.
277 Micromechanical Modelling of Spiral Wound Gasket Under Uniaxial Compression 1116
Rino Nelson N., Siva Prasad N. and Sekhar A. S.
278 Analysis of Prestressed Hollowcore Slabs With Openings: A Numerical Study 1120
Sameer K. Sarma P. and Surya Prakash S.
280 Static Analysis of Doubly Curved FGM Panel on Rectangular Planform 1127
Bahadur R., Upadhyay A. K. and Shukla K. K.
281 Static Analaysis of Doubly Tapered Thin Walled Composite Box Beam Under Axial 1131
Loading
Tushar Sharma, Murari V. and Shukla K.K.
xxiii
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
283 Study of Rayleigh Wave in Orthotropic Layer Lying Over an Orthotropic HalfSpace 1139
With Initial Stress
Singhal A. and Sahu S. A.
284 Energy Absorption Characteristics of Aluminium Alloy 6061 Square Corrugated Tubes 1142
Under Axial and Oblique Impact Loading
Rawat S., Upadhyay A.K. and Shukla K.K.
286 Fragility Based Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Framed 1150
Structures b
Veerendra Kumar P. and Siva Kumar M. V. N.
287 On Plane Strain Problems of Eccentric Elastic Rings in Bipolar Coordinate Systems 1154
Desai P. and Pandya V.
291 Buckling Analysis of Functionally Graded Plates Using Inverse Hyperbolic Shear 1170
Deformation Theory
Kulkarni K., Singh B.N and Maiti D.K.
292 Evaluation of Coupled Partial Models Using Graph Theory and Sensitivity Analysis 1174
Naik A. and Balu A. S.
294 Adaptive Refinement Strategy for Crack Propagation Analysis Using EFG Method 1182
Bhavana S. S. Patel, Babu K. S. N., Katta V.
xxiv
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
296 Experimental Investigation of Hollow Stainless Steel Square Stub Column With Single 1190
Perforation Under Axial Compression
Sanasam Vipej Devi, Konjengbam Darunkumar Singh
297 Large Deformation Analysis of Point Supported Conoidal Shells Using Element Free 1194
Galerkin Method
Watts G., Pradyumna S. and Singha M.K.
299 BSpline Wavelet Finite Element Method for 1D BiMaterial Problems in Elasto 1202
Statics
Vadlamani S. and Arun C.O.
300 Floor Response Spectra Considering Structural Nonlinearity Effect: Experiments and 1206
Analysis
Kothari P., Parulekar Y. M., Reddy G. R. and Shenai G.V.
302 Layerwise Solution for Nonlinear Static and Dynamic Stability of Laminated 1215
Composite Plates Using BSpline Finite Element Method
Susmita Mondal and Ramachandra L.S.
303 Strength of Fixed Ended Circular, Square, and Flat Oval Hollow LDSS Slender 1219
Columns Under Axial Compression
Sachidananda K., Singh K. D.
304 Effect of CrossSectional Shape on Compressive Strength of LDSS Stub Columns 1223
Brahma J., Singh T.G., and Singh. K. D.
305 Static and Free Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Plates: Mechanical, Thermal 1227
and Hygrothermal Loading
Dhinde M. and Desai Y.M
306 Study of Indentation of an Elastic Layer Substrate by a Rigid Wedge Indenter Under 1231
Plane Strain Conditions
Karuriya A.N. and Bhandakkar T.K.
308 Effect of Damping on the Dynamic Response of a Beam With NonIdeal Boundary 1239
Supports
Mahapatra Kavikant, Panigrahi S.K. and Gaur Abhishek
xxv
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
309 Retrofitting and Rehabilitation of Elevated Water Tank After Investigation of 1244
Corrosion Status by Using Nondestructive Techniques
Nayak C.B. and Thakare S.B.
310 Validation of Theoretical Stress Concentration Factor for Varying Notched Geometries 1248
Using FEA
Khatawate V.H., Dharap M.A. and Moorthy R.I.K.
311 Force Based Linear Static Analysis of 2D Curved Tapered Timoshenko Beam 1252
Elements
Rajapakse R.M.C.M., Wijesundar K.K. and Dissanayake P.B.R.
312 Effect of Cover to Longitudinal Reinforcement of Square RC Column for Axially 1256
Compression Testing.
Narule G. and Bambole A.N.
313 Non Local Analysis of Laminated Plates using Third Order Shear Deformation Theory 1260
Considering Surface Stress Effects
Raghu P. and Rajagopal A.
315 Growth of Yield Front in Statically Indeterminate Bar by Using Domain 1268
Decomposition Method
Nayak P. and Saha K.N.
316 Behaviour of RC Shear Wall With and Without Opening Using Concealed Bracing 1272
Mahadik S. N. and Bhagat S. R.
317 Design and Testing of Compressor Mapping Test Cell for High Horse Power 1276
Turbocharger
Kumbhalkar S. and Khairnar H.P.
318 Acceptable External Loads on Nozzle of a Pressure Vessel by NonLinear Finite 1280
Element Method
Pranitha Prabhakaran and Jadhav P.A.
319 Simplified Approach for Seismic Analysis of Base Isolated MultiStoreyed Structure 1284
Nagender T., Parulekar Y. M. and Reddy G .R.
321 Large Deflection Analysis of Leaf Spring Under Three Point Bending 1291
Ghuku S. and Saha K.N.
xxvi
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
322 Linear Static Analysis of a Structural Member by Finite Element Method 1295
Bandgar S. and Kshirsagar S. D.
324 SemiAnalytical Solutions for Functionally Graded Smart Plate in Cylindrical Bending 1303
Sawarkar S., Pendhari S. and Desai Y. M.
326 Inverse Problem on a Timoshenko Beam Using Time Domain Spectral Finite Element 1312
Method
Kulkarni R.B., Gopalakrishnan S. and Trikha M.
328 Inspection of Adhesively Bonded Lap Joints Using Spectral Finite Element Method 1319
Paunikar S. and Gopalakrishnan S.
330 Simulation of Quarter Car Model for the Shock Absorber Compliance with Rubber 1327
Bush and Washers
Barethiye V., Pohit G. and Mitra A.
332 Numerical Investigation into Effect of Cell Size of Honeycomb Core on the Free 1335
Vibration Behaviour of Polymer NanoComposite Sandwich Beams
Royal Madan, Rajesh Kumar Bhushan, Santosh Kumar Sahu and Rama Sreekanth P.S.
333 A FE Model for Dynamic Behavior of a Functionally Graded RotorBearing System 1339
Debabrata G., Debabrata C. and Rajiv T.
xxvii
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
334 Seismic Behavior of LNG Tank Isolated by Double Variable Curvature Friction 1343
Pendulum System
Patel F.V., Soni D.P. and Chauhan N.H.
335 Seismic Response of ShortPeriod Buildings With Special Reference to Response 1347
Reduction Factor
Pingale O., Madhekar S.N. and Pore S.M.
336 Dynamic Behaviour of Communication Antenna for Space Missions: Modeling and 1351
Simulation
Jataraman S., Trikha M., Somashekar V.N., Kamesh D, Venkatesh K. and Ravindra M.
337 Nonlinear Analysis of Active Vibration Absorber With Self Sensing and Actuating 1355
PZT Actuator by Acceleration Feedback
Mohanty S. and Dwivedy S K
339 Use of Top Weak Storey of Multistoreyed Building as a Tuned Mass Damper for 1363
Seismic Response Mitigation
Deshmukh S., Ghadage J., Gunjal K., Hoke A., Kawle D. and Madhekar S.
340 Seismic Vibration Control for 20Story NonLinear Benchmark Building: A Stateof 1367
TheArt Review
Moyade R. and Madhekar S.
341 Optimization of Passive Vehicle Suspension System by Genetic Algorithm Using 1371
Matlab/Simulink
Mitra A C , Desai G.J., Patwardhan S.R. , Shirke P.H., Kurne W. M. H. and Banerjee
N.
345 Free Vibration Analysis of Isotropic Moderately Thick Spherical and Conical Shell 1387
Panels Using a Four Node Discrete Kirchhoff Quadrilateral Flat Shell Element.
Kulkarni S.D., Chopade V.S , Badhe A.S. and Dagade V.A.
xxviii
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
346 Free Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Sandwich Plates Using Four Node 1391
Discrete Kirchhoff Quadrilateral Element Based on Reddy'S Third Order Shear
Deformation Theory.
Deshpande G.A. and Kulkarni S.D.
349 Flow Induced Vibration Design of Heat Exchanger Tubes Subject to Cross Flow 1403
Patil G.V., Dharap M.A., Moorthy R. I. K. and Khot T. K.
350 Dynamics of a 2D Curved Cantilever Timoshenko Beam Element Using Force Based 1407
Finite Element Formulation
Kasun Dharmasiri, Wijesundara K.K., Dammika A.J. and Dissanayake P.B.R.
352 Influence of the Poisons Ratio on the Eigen Values of PZT Discs for Uniaxially Loaded 1415
Energy Harvesters
Viswanath K. Allamraju and Srikanth K.
354 Application of Energy Harvester for Controlling the Propeller Induced Vibration and 1422
Generating the Electricity
Viswanath K Allamraju and Srikanth K.
356 Evaluate the Performance of Quarter Car Suspension System With Nonlinear 1431
Hysteresis Magnetorheological Damper
Hemanth K., Lohit S. K., Hemantha Kumar and Gangadharan K. V.
357 Dynamic Modeling & Simulation of Dual Clutch Transmission With Mechatronics 1435
Unit
Deotarey Rahul
358 Analysis of Natural Frequencies and Loss Factors in Sandwich Composite Plates With 1438
Magnetorheological or Electrorheological Elastomer Core
Gopal K.V.N., Sharma P., and Garg M.
xxix
Page
Sr. No. Description
No.
359 Seismic Risk and Loss Assessment of Open Ground Storey RC Structures 1442
Gautham A. K. and Gopikrishna
360 Vibrational Analysis and Detection Crack Parameter in ClampedClamped Beam 1446
Using Cascade Artificial Neural Network
Banerjee A. and Pohit G.
363 Fault Diagnosis of Anti Friction Bearing Using Daubechies Wavelet 1458
Patil Sangram S. and Phalle V.M.
365 Response of an Elastic Plate With a Constrained Interior Point Under the Effect of 1466
Grazing Sound
Swapnil Sapkale,.Sucheendran M. M. and Shakti Gupta
367 Dynamic Characteristics of Retrofitted RC Frame Building with Yielding Type X 1470
Shaped Metallic ElastoPlastic Damper
Madheswaran C.K., Prakashvel J., Sathishkumar K. and Ashmimonisha I.
368 Application of Friction Dampers for Improving the Seismic Performance of Structures: 1474
An Overview
Pednekar S.C., Iwalekar A.A. and Bambole A.N.
369 Earthquake Analysis Of Concrete Gravity Dams: Some Recent Development 1479
Maity D. and Mandal A.
370 Free Vibration Finite Element Analysis of a Circular Cylindrical Shell 1483
Rawat A., Matsagar V. and Nagpal A.K.
xxx
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Abstract: We have been developing a parallel partitioned simulation system to solve large
scale real world’s coupled problems. This paper describes some key technologies of the
system, and demonstrates its practical performance and effectiveness through solving
various kinds of real world’s problems.
Keywords: Coupled analysis; Partitioned approach; Parallel computing; FSI.
_______________________________
______________________
4
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Abstract: An accurate analytical solution for predicting the free edge effects in
sandwich laminates under tension, bending and twisting loading is presented. The
recently developed mixedfield multiterm extended Kantorovich method (MMEKM)
has been used to obtain the solution of the governing equations, which are developed
using the Reissnertype variational principle. The present mixedfield approach
enables the exact and pointwise satisfaction of tractionfree edge and interlaminar
continuity conditions for displacements and stresses. The numerical results presented
for different loadings and layup show rapid convergence of the iterative series
solution. The comparison of the present results with the detailed FE solution shows
good agreement. The present solution captures the singularity of stresses in the free
edge region by showing the rise in its peak magnitude with the number of terms in the
solution. The presented accurate 3D elasticity based solution can act as a useful
benchmark for assessing the accuracy of solutions obtained from other approximate
methods.
________________________________
Abstract: The objective of the paper is to present the advanced methodologies for
fracture analysis and damage tolerant evaluation of metallic structural components
for efficient and safe design of structural systems meeting the functional criteria. An
efficient and novel Numerically IntegratedModified Virtual Crack Closure Integral
(NIMVCCI) technique has been demonstrated for 4noded bilinear, 8noded (regular
& quarterpoint), 9noded Lagrangian and 12noded cubic isoparametric family of
finite elements. Another advanced numerical method, Extended Finite Element
Method (XFEM) for fracture analysis of cracked stiffened panels has been discussed.
Methodologies for crack growth and remaining life assessment of structural
components under constant and variable amplitude loading have been presented.
Brief description on residual strength evaluation has been provided. Numerical
studies on fracture analysis to compute Strain Energy Release Rate (SERR), G and
stress intensity factor (SIF) and remaining life assessment and residual strength
evaluation have been conducted and the results are compared with the respective
analytical/experimental results.
Keywords: Crack closure; Linear elastic fracture mechanics; Stress intensity
factor; Strain energy release rate; Damage tolerant design;
Remaining life; Residual strength; Extended finite element method
_____________________________
12
*Author for Correspondence: Email: nageshiyer@acsir.res.in
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
___________________________
*Author for Correspondence: Email: Nimal.Rajapakse@carleton.ca 13
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Abstract: This paper deals with the response studies of piezoelectric sandwich
composites by the energy method. The equation of motion is deduced from the
principles of minimum potential energy. To do this displacement and electrical fields
are required as a priori. Hence, the above said field functions are described by Non
Uniform Rational BSplines (NURBS) in two and three dimensional domains and
applied against static and free vibration analyses of thin and very thick sandwich plates
and piezoelectric prismatic bar. Nonlinear variation of the electric potential is
considered through the thickness and modelled by a discrete layerwise linear scheme.
The present formulation is successfully validated against a finite element code.
__________________________________
Abstract: A physically based continuum plasticity model for metals from the
consideration of nonequilibrium thermodynamics is presented. The modeling is
accomplished in a twotemperature framework that appears naturally by considering
the thermodynamic system to be composed of two weakly interacting subsystems,
namely the kinetic vibrational and configurational subsystems. While the atomic
vibrations of plastically deforming metals form the kinetic vibrational subsystem,
much slower degrees of freedom in terms of the motion of defects constitute the
configurational subsystem. Both subsystems assume their own temperatures and fall
out of equilibrium from each other because of the externally imposed driving.
Dislocation density characterising the configurational subsystem is considered to be
the state variable for the present development. The continuum model accommodates
finite deformation and describes plastic deformation in a yieldfree framework via a
microforce balance along with the conventional macroforce balance.
Keywords: Metal viscoplasticity; Nonequilibrium thermodynamics; Two
temperature framework; Dislocation density
_______________________________
_________________________________
_______________________________
the bone. To analyze the structures of discussed physical principles associated with
complicated geometry and materials which forced oscillations to determine its impact on
are not homogeneous, FEA is used. FEA is vibration exercises. (Gupta and Tse, 2014)
primarily based on a computer interface. For studied about the vulnerability of the femur
modelling of the complicated shapes and bone to fracture as it is the highest load
inhomogeneous material properties, FEA is carrying bone of the human body.
accepted widely and considered as an
alternative tool in the field of Biomechanics. VIBRATIONAL ANALYSIS OF
The femur is considered as the largest and FEMUR
longest bone of the human skeletal system. It For analyzing various characteristics of the
is also called as the thigh bone. The hip joint femur bone, finite element modelling is
is formed by the femur in connection with the considered as the best tool as it exactly
pelvis at the proximal end and knee joint is approximates the result. The accuracy of
formed in connection with the tibia at the finite element modelling depends mostly on
distal end. The highest percentage of the the consideration of geometry, loading
weight of the body is taken by the femur; conditions and boundary conditions. The
hence it carries the maximum chances of geometry of femur bone varies from person
bone fracture. Some previously available to person. Practically the bones are
literature on vibrational behaviour of femur anisotropic and nonlinear materials. But for
bone can be cited as follows. the ease of analysis, they are taken as
Koch (1917) analyzed the structural isotropic and linear in nature. Their
mechanics of the femur and examined properties are also taken as elastic for
various loads applied to the femur and the analysis.
response of the femur to these loads. Toridis The various properties of the femur bone
(1969) studied about determination of are approximated as below:
mechanical stresses developed in the femur
Material density ρ = 866 Kg/m3
under various loading conditions. Piotrowski
and Wilcox (1971) developed a computer Poisson’s ratio γ = 0.4
operated program for the calculation of Young’s modulus E = 7.585 GPa
torsional and bending stresses developed in
the femur. (Rybicki, Simonen and Weis, For restriction of motion created by the
1972) used a mathematical model to examine adjacent bones during normal sitting or
the effects of muscle forces on the femur and standing, a fixedfixed boundary condition is
the stresses thus developed (Khalil, Viano taken for the analysis at both knee joint and
and Taber, 1981) identified the resonant hip joint. In order obtain the responses of the
frequencies and mode shapes of the femur by femur, modal analysis is performed by finite
applying both analytical and experimental element tools. The governing equation of
methods. (Gdoutos, Raftopoulos and Baril, dynamic response is given as follows:
1982) critically reviewed about the M x C x K x 0 (1)
mechanical behavior of human femur.
(Stenfelt, Hakansson and Tjellstrom, 2000) Where [M] = Mass Matrix
examined about patterns of vibration in bone [C]= Damping Coefficient matrix
conducted sound using a skull added with
[K]= Stiffness matrix
damping material. (Rittweger, 2010)
23
Vibrational Characteristics of Femur Bone
REFERENCES
Gdoutos E E Raftopoulos D D and Baril J D
1982 A critical review of the
24
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Abstract: The fixation of fracture of a bone can be done by using different implants
such as screws, plates and nails. The bone in human body is usually exposed to axial
compressive load, torsional load (Twisting moment) and bending load. Among these
three types of loadings, axial compressive force and torsional load are being exerted
Therefore the objective of this research work is to deduce the stability against axial
compressive, torsional load and combination of both the loads following
instrumentation of implants such as plate and screws (Only screws or plate with
screws). Over and above, the stresses due to the axial compressive force and twisting
moment are usually seen to play in bones exposed more for movements (as seen in
upper limb) as lower limb is required for stability. So the objective of this work is to
find out the effectiveness of screw with plate and screw following fracture fixation in
consideration to axial and torsional loading. Plate and screws are commonly used in
upper limb fracture fixation where emphasis is laid down on mobility. From the Finite
Element Analysis (FEA) of the bone, plate, screw model (using MIMICS & Solid
Works) and theoretical analysis, it is observed that the screw and plate arrangement
provides maximum resistance to the fracture site for maintaining stability following
compression of the fracture site. The deformations and the magnitude of stress were
also found to be less in comparison to the independent screw arrangements for
fracture fixation.
Keywords: Screw; plate; stability; fracture; FEA; theoretical.
finite element solid model [Zhang et al., that 3D finite element solid model of femurs
2013] of femurs in partial has been analyzed In partial volume is more close to the real
by exposing the volume using the CT scan bone and fit for FEA when compared to the
data and conducted the finite element analysis results by rendering the whole volume. A
(FEA) considering different materials for parametric study [Haase and Rouhi, 2013]
cortical bone, cancellous bone and pulp have been performed based on finite element
cavity. The compressive stress was found to analysis on the bonescrew models to
be in the medial surface of the femur i.e. in evaluate the stress shielding of the stimuli by
the calcar femorale. They have concluded comparing the stress and strain.
energy density (SED). It has been found from Theoretical Analysis
the study that, stress and SED have been The stress and strain developed in the bone
transferred between the bone and screw can be formulated considering the internal
which can be attributed to the stimuli transfer energy as function [Ciarlet and Ayache,
parameters. However, it has been observed 2004]. The stress matrix has been presented
that transfer of both stimuli has been in equation (1), where the components are the
increased with the screw with angle thread combination of normal stresses and shear
and small diameter and transfer of stress has stresses acting along the X, Y and Z
been increased with the reduction of the directions.
screw's elastic modulus. In both the cases
σ = xx , yy , zz , xy , xz , yz
t
SED has been found to decrease which [1]
signifies that, the bonescrew model analysis
requires the proper assessment of SED. A The strain and the external stress are related
comprehensive study of the different fixation as per the equation (2) exhibiting a linear
techniques [Taljanovic et al., 2003] have been elastic model.
[2]
performed and from the study, it has been σ=Ce
observed that the internal and external Considering the equilibrium conditions of the
fixators are basically used for bone fracture system under consideration and following
healing. Even bone grafts are also adopted by laid down boundary conditions, the
surgeons for stabilization of fractured bone. equilibrium equations can be described as;
MATERIALS AND METHODS xx xx xx [3.1]
Fx 0
x x x
The different materials involved in the
xy yy yz [3.2]
analysis are bone and stainless steel. The Fy 0
x y z
material properties for the bone has been
xz yz zz
considered with respect to the grey scale Fz 0 [3.3]
x y z
value obtained from MIMICS software. For Through finite element method, the stiffness
stainless steel the material properties such as and the force can be related as per the
density, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio equation (4).
are considered as 7750 kg/m3, 193 GPa and
K U F
0.31 respectively. [4]
Where, U is the vector containing the
The bone and implant assembled models are displacement of the pth node and expressed as
analyzed using two methods such as equation (5).
Theoretical analysis and Finite element
analysis (FEA). U= u 1, x , u u
1, y , u u u
1, z , .................... n, x, n, y, n, z t [5]
26
Analysis of Implants used for Stabilization of Fractured Bone
27
Dash et al.
The dental implant placed into the bone well as geometry [Frisardi et al., 2012].
serves as an anchor for the prosthetic device Cortical Bone is outer shell of bone is 2mm
as shown in Figure.1 and it is one of the thick and inner bone is called as cancelleus
better preventive maintenance procedures in bone. The elastic material properties of the
dentistry. Bone is a complex anisotropic, cancellous and cortical bones have used in
porous, viscoelastic and composite. It is also the study are shown in Table 1.
non homogeneous in material properties as
Table 1. Elastic Material properties
Materials Modulus of elasticity Poisson's ratio
Ex = Ey = 12600, Ez = 19400 µ xy = 0.3, µ xz = µ yz = 0.253
Cortical Bone
Gxy = 4850, Gxz = Gyz = 5700 µ yx = 0.3, µ zy = µ zx= 0.39
Ex = Ez = 1148, Ey = 210 µ xy = 0.055, µ xz = 0.322, µ yz = 0.010
Cancellous Bone
Gxz = 434, Gxy = Gyz = 68 µ yx = 0.010, µ zy = 0.055, µ zx= 0.322
Twist Drill Tool, E = 104000 G = 38806 0.34
Titanium Ti 6al4V
31
Mahajan and Kadam
32
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Abstract: In this paper, the effect of heat and mass transfer on blood flow through
a stenosed artery subject to the action of external magnetic field is investigated.
Effects of viscosity variation and variable hematocrit at the arterial wall have been
duly taken care of in the study. Governing equations have been modeled by taking
blood as incompressible magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) Newtonian fluid. The
highly nonlinear momentum equations are simplified under the assumption of mild
stenosis. Homotopy analysis method (HAM) is used to solve nonlinear equations of
momentum, temperature and concentration profile. The effects of Hartmann
number, variable hematocrit parameter on velocity, temperature and concentration
have been analyzed with the help of graphs.
Keywords: Newtonian Fluid; Incompressible fluid; Stenosis; Magneto hydro
dynamical fluid (MHD); Hematocrit; Homotopy analysis method
(HAM).
𝑟 𝑚
where h(r)=H[1� � ].
𝑅0
∂p
= 0, (3)
∂r
∂p 1 ∂ ∂w 1
= [r ( )] + 𝑎2 [( − (𝑚 +
∂z r ∂r ∂r 𝑟
𝑚−1 ∂w 1 ∂ ∂w
1)𝑟 ) + (1 − r m ) ( )]
∂r r ∂r ∂r
1 1−𝑟 𝑚
–[(M2 + ) +𝑎2 ( )]w (4)
Z 𝑍
Figure 2(b). Velocity variation with
1 ∂ ∂θ ∂w 2 change in Magnetic field M
[r ( )] +𝐸𝑐 𝑃𝑟 � � =0(5)
r ∂r ∂r ∂r
1 1 ∂ ∂σ 1 ∂ ∂θ
[ (r ( ))] + 𝑆𝑟 [ (r ( ))] =0(6)
Sc r ∂r ∂r r ∂r ∂r
where
34
Effects of Heat and Mass Transfer on MHD Flow of Blood through an Artery with Stenosis Having
Variable Viscosity
REFERENCES
Liao S J1995 An approximate solution
technique not depending on small
parameters a special example
International Journal of Nonlinear
Figure 4. Variation in temperature with Mechanics 30(3) 371380.
change in porosity parameter Z
Mekheimer Kh S EI Kot M A
2008Themicropolar fluid model for
blood flow through a tapered artery
with a stenosis. Acta MechSin 24
637644.
Nadeem S Akbar Noreen Sher Hayat T
Hendi Awatif A 2011Influence of
heat and mass transfer on Newtonian
biomagnetic fluid of blood flow
through a tapered porous arteries with
a stenosis Journal Transport in
Porous Media 91 81100.
Sinha A and Mishra J C 2014 MHD flow
of blood through a dually stenosed
artery effects of viscosity, variable
Figure 5. Variation in concentration hematocrit and velocityslip The
with change in Schmidt number
Canadian Journal of Chemical
CONCLUSION Engineering 92 2331.
35
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
37
A Novel Computer Model for Bone’s Adaptation to Mechanical Environment
38
Goyal and Prasad
Table 1: Coefficients of various parameters responsible to predict new bone formation thickness at various locations
of mid section tibia of C57BLJ6 mice in case of cantilever bending at periosteal =22.8
Para. (16) Fx Mx Si Ci R pi 1/ Age
Coeff. (16) 209355 20217 4.5 9.3 0.6 88
Para. (712) CRT F TCE NLTE M xCi M y Ci
Coeff. (712) 0.7 0.34 0.011 0.001 338109 411995
Para. (1318) Si Ci Si Rpi Ci Rpi Fx M y Ci M x M y Ci M x Si Ci
Coeff. (1318) 220 0.05 0.6 1426600 137739 18251
Para. (1924) M y Si Ci M y Ci Rpi Si Ci Rpi Fx Rpi Fx M y Si Ci M xCRT
Coeff. (1924) 22190 0.2 9 0.4 66 0.04
Para. (2530) Si / Age Si CRT Si NLTE C Rpi i
2
FxC Rpi i
2
Rpi / Age
Coeff. (2530) 17 0.1 0.0003 4.7 14.5 1.2
Para. (3136) Rpi F Si Ci / Age Rpi Ci / Age Fx Rpi Ci / Age M x SiCi / Age Rpi Si Ci / Age
Coeff. (3136) 0.005 889 4 11 291 4
Para. (3742) CRTSi Ci CRTCi Rpi CRTSi Ci Rpi FM x Si Ci FM y Ci Rpi TCESi Ci
Coeff. (3742) 37 0.003 0.3 0.1 0.002 0.9
Para. (4348) TCESi Ci Rpi NLTEM xCi NLTESi Ci NLTECi Rpi NLTEFx M y Ci NLTEFxCi Rpi
Coeff. (4348) 0.006 0.0025 0.04 0.00015 0.007 0.0003
Para. (4954) NLTEM x SiCi NLTESi Ci Rpi M y Si C i
2
M y SiCi Rpi M x M C 2
y i
2
Si2Ci Rpi
Coeff. (4954) 0.008 0.0007 33 1.3 5 0.09
Para. (5560)
Si C Rpi
i
2
M x M y Si C i
2
M y S C i
2
i
2
S C Rpi
i
2
i
2
Si Ci R 2
pi
M x M y SiCi Rpi
Coeff. (5560) 1.3 4.4 12 0.6 0.03 0.05
Para. (6166)
M y S Ci Rpi
i
2
M y Si Ci R 2
pi S Ci R
i
2 2
pi M x M y C Rpi i
2
M y Si C Rpi i
2
M y Ci2 Rp2i
Coeff. (6166) 0.008 0.005 0.0014 0.11 0.3 0.0115
Para. (6772)
Si C R i
2 2
pi M x M Si C
2
y i
2
M SiC Rpi
2
y i
2
M y S C R i
2
i
2 2
pi M y Si C R i
2 2
pi Ci2
Coeff. (6772) 0.02 0.1 0.08 0.13 0.002 136
Para. (7378)
( M y Ci ) 2
( Si Rpi ) 2
(Ci Rpi ) 2
(M x M y Ci ) 2
(M y Ci Rpi ) 2
(SiCi Rpi )2
Coeff. (7378) 26 0.005 0.04 0.3 0.001 0.006
39
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
In Eq. 1, ε0, ν0 μ0, k and l are ZyssetCurnier QUANT3D [Ketchman and Ryan, 2004].
(ZC) model constants, ρ is the volume These values are put in Eq. 1 to compute the
fraction and mi is the eigenvalues of the compliance matrix of all samples. A
fabric tensor. ZC constant can be evaluated comparison for stiffness components
using the linear regression analysis over a obtained from FE and ZC model is shown in
number of sample data. figure 1.
The main aim of this paper is to present the Bounds for each sample have been evaluated
two different methods for finding out the using the anisotropic composite materials
anisotropic elastic behaviour of trabecular bounds relations [Cowin et al., 1999; Yoon et
bone. Both the methods are applicable to any al., 2002] to compute the effective properties
random oriented porous media (e.g. snow). (isotropic effective Young’s moduli and
First method is finite element method based isotropic effective Poisson’s ratio) of each
and is commonly used to find anisotropic sample. RVE size for sample 1185 and sub
elastic behaviour of porous materials. samples (1185_1 to 1185_8) have been
Whereas the second method is Zysset predicted considering isotropic effective
Curnier model based which is microstructure Young’s moduli (Eeff) and isotropic effective
based. Poisson’s ratio (νeff) as a deciding parameter.
Table 1. µCT image details of five
SAMPLE DETAILS AND FEA
different trabecular bone samples.
FE simulation on image based finite element Sample Resolution Cubic size Cube side
models built from μCT images is carried out (µm) (pixels) length
on 29 trabecular bone samples. These 29 (mm)
samples are extracted from 5 samples out of 1003 59.9 301 16.77
which three are bigger samples (1003, 1185 1224 30.0 301 8.38
and 1289) that are partitioned into eight parts 1185 59.9 301 16.77
making the physical dimension equivalent to 1122 30.0 301 8.38
other two samples (1122 and 1224) making a 1289 59.9 301 16.77
total 29 samples (8.38 mm). MicroCT details Table 2. ZC model constant
of 5 samples is shown in table 1.
ZC parameters
Compliance matrix for each sample is Sample
ε0 ν0 µ0 k l
computed using the homogenization All 0.85 0.18 0.29 2.20 0.91
technique. Periodicity mixed uniform
boundary condition [Pahr and Zysset, 2008]
are imposed on all μFE models for the
computation of compliance tensor. The
Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio of
trabeculae are assumed to be 1 GPa and 0.22
respectively.
effective property vs. volume (%) is drawn as has the knowledge of microstructural
shown in figure 2 and figure 3 to predict the parameters.
correct RVE size. From figure 2 effective RVE size is within the range as given in
property are getting converge at 40% of the previous literature (35 mm of side length)
cubic volume size. for trabecular bone.
Appendix I
A1
CONCLUSION
ZC model stiffness components are
comparable with the FE based stiffness
components with a coefficient of
determination 0.7792. ZC model is
morphology based and therefore this REFFERENCE
approach can well predict the anisotropy of a
porous material. This approach can be Cowin Stephen C 1985 The relationship
applied to any porous random media, if one between the elasticity tensor and the
42
Singh et al.
43
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Abstract: In the present work an analysis has been made on internal fixation plates.
For analysis purpose, bone, screws and metal plates are chosen. Finite Element
analysis is made using ANSYS software. Parametric and validation models are
considered and their results are compared. The models discussed reveals insight into
the nature of applied fixation plates. Axial compressive loading are stable in nature
but may cause stress shielding in bones and hence resulted in bone loss, screw tear
and fixation failure. Parametric study, gives the possibility to reduce the problem by
decreasing the plate thickness and angle.
Keywords: Internal Fixation; Bone; Cantilever; Stress
INTRODUCTION
METHODOLOGY
Internal fixation is a process that involves Present study is done with finite element
surgical implementation of implants for the software ANSYS. Analysis is done on stress
purpose of repairing a bone. Internal fixators shielding of two bone plate models, one is
include bone, screws and metal plates. Metal parametric model and other one is validation
plates for internal fixation of bones are being
model. Validation model deals with a range
used for more than 100 years. Although
of static loading conditions on a three
initial shortcomings such as corrosion and
dimensional model of a selfcompressing
insufficient strength have been overcome,
stainless steel plate applied to an Plexiglas
more recent designs have not solved all
tube which represents of bone postunion.
problems. It is the goal of researcher to Subsequent parametric models involve the
develop a plate that accelerates fracture changes in plate thickness, position of
healing while not interfering with bone
screws, and angle of coverage of plate over
physiology [Rouhi G., 2006].
the bone surface.
The introduction of rigid plates had by far the
Initial observations reveal that with the
greatest impact on plate fixation of fractures.
increase in thickness of plate and the angle of
It has been suggested scientifically that bone
coverage of plate over the bone surface
loss is mainly caused by stress shielding but
reduces the stresses that develop on the
not with the interference with the cortical
underlying bone. Comparison is made
perfusion secondary to bone plate contact. In
between two models one is the ideal case and
internal fixation of bone the bone plates are
the other represents a practical situation i.e.
fastened to the bone on its tensile surface.
fixed bone model and control bone model.
The main problem in the internal fixation of
The fixed bone model is modelled as the
bone is the difference in stiffness of plate and
plate is rigidly fixed to the surface of the
bone which causes alteration in normal
bone this result in the elimination of
loading conditions of the bone [19852006].
separation of plate and the bone. This also
allows the transfer of normal and shear
stresses from the plate to the bone and vice r0 is the distance from neutral axis when a
versa. Under different loading conditions the force F is applied Practically the bone is not
Von Mises stresses are observed in each case rigidly fixed to the surface of the bone but
as it is one of main failure criteria in any instead it is fixed with screws. A model
material [Cheal et al. 1983]. Three types of representing this situation is made in and is
loading conditions are used for the fixed plate being analyzed. The stainless steel plate is
model; fixed to the bone surface with four titanium
1. The axial stress which acts along the axis screws. There is also change in the
of the bone. parameters the thickness of the plate is
changed from 3 to 4.5 mm and the angle of
2. The bending moment that place in the coverage is also changed from 60 to 90
first case. degrees. A fourpoint bending moment
3. Eccentric force which is similar to the produces high value of stress in the model, as
axial force but the axial of loading is not symmetry exists in the model only onehalf
along the central axis of the bone. of the models are used for the analysis.
REFERENCES
Cheal E J Hayes W C White A A 1985. Stress
analysis of a compression plate
fixation system and its effects on
long bone remodelling Journal of
Biomechanics 18(2) 141150
Cheal E J Hayes W C White A A Perren S M
Figure 4 Effect of applied bending 1983. Stress analysis of a simplified
moment (a) Equivalent strain distribution compression plate fixation system for
and (b) Equivalent Stress distribution fractured bones Computers and
Structures 17(5/6) 845855
stresses due to plate and screw tensions
requires complex models such a model is Perren S M 2002. Review Article: Evolution
designed in ANSYS to analyze the stresses. of the internal fixation of long bone
fractures Journal of Bone and Joint
The application of axial stress results in Surgery 84B(8) 10931100
bending moment of the composite fixed bone Rouhi G 2006. Theoretical aspects of bone
model and its magnitude is maximum at the remodelling and resorption processes:
fracture plane. It was observed that the PhD Thesis, University of Calgary,
application of eccentric axial stress results in
2006.
increase of equivalent stress at the outer edge
of bone contact region and its value is not
significant if a bending moment is applied.
However, all the three loading conditions
result in the increased value of stresses at the
fracture site.
46
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Abstract: Bangladesh has a very high road accident fatality rate with official figures
indicating more than 60 deaths per 10,000 motor vehicles. Everyday around eight
persons die in road accidents. The actual rate of fatality is likely to be even higher. As
a result, it is a matter of concern to deal with the after effects of accidents. Without
understanding the biomechanics of a human body that falls victim to an accident, it’s
difficult to take proper actions to mitigate the effect. This paper focuses on the
accidental injury & Biomechanics analysis with a view to increase health safety.
Keywords: Accident; Biomechanics; Fatality.
INTRODUCTION
The problems related to the accident
reporting system and the data derived from it,
as reported by Quium (1995), have not been
resolved and official statistics are prone to
under reporting. The number of accidents has
increased by 43% between 1982 and 2000,
while the number of fatalities has increased
by around 400% within the same period
[Louis Burger, 2005]. In Dhaka City, 15 to Figure 1. Stress Strain curve of a human
20% of accidents involve minibuses, cars or bone
buses. In Bangladesh as a whole, buses and
trucks are each involved in more than 20% of THE MECHANISM OF WHIPLASH
accidents [Maniruzzaman and Raktim Mitra] INJURIES
So it’s important to understand the after In a normal human’s neck, the cervical spine
effects and biomechanics of a human body has a lordotic shape [Galasko et al., 1993] In
during an accident. Necessary actions can be rearend collisions, the passenger seat moves
taken by understanding the phenomena. towards the impact, and the back part of the
seat applies force to the body of the
ACCIDENT AND BIOMECHANICS
passenger. As the seat pushes the result of
When an accident occurs & a person falls to this force the lower part of the neck moves in
victim, shockwaves occur in the body & the same direction. At the moment of the
cause stress and strain in the organ. If the impact, the lordotic shape of the neck
type & size of stress exceed the strength of disappears, and the cervical spine straightens
the tissue, the injury occurs. As the body of the passenger continues to be
pushed, the head moves backwards, and the guideline for Roads transport authority to
extension starts. establish road safety in Bangladesh
49
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Abstract: This paper compares the efficiency of tension stiffened softened truss
model (TSSTM) and a nonlinear finite element (FE) model to predict the behaviour
of reinforced concrete (RC) circular columns under torsional loading. Predictions of
the models are calibrated with test data on two circular columns taken from literature.
Overall torque – twist behaviour and average strain in the transverse reinforcements
were parameters for comparison. It is observed that both the models predicted the
overall torsional behaviour of the test specimens reasonably well. However, the peak
twist and post peak behaviour were better captured by the TSSTM. Average strain in
transverse reinforcements predicted by the TSSTM was also closer to the measured
values compared to the FE predictions. On the whole, it can be concluded that, TS
STM performs better than nonlinear FE model in capturing the overall response of
circular RC columns subjected to torsional loading.
Keywords: Circular RC columns; Torsion; Nonlinear finite element analysis;
Softened truss model.
STRAIN IN REINFORCEMENT
Strain in the transverse reinforcement of
specimen H/D(3)T/M()1.32% measured
during experiment is compared with
predicted values as shown in Figure. 3. It was
observed that, TSSTM predicted strain
values are closer to the experimental data
compared to FE predictions.
Figure.3 Strain in transverse
reinforcement
CONCLUSIONS
The FE model developed in this study
efficiently predicts overall torsional response
reinforced concrete circular columns
including the strain in reinforcement.
However, TSSTM was found to outperform
the proposed FE model in regards to accuracy
of prediction. Peak twist and post peak
torsional response was better captured by the
a) H/D(3)T/M()1.32% TSSTM. Besides, local behaviour like strain
in transverse reinforcement predicted by TS
STM showed better correlation with
measured values compared to FE predictions.
On the whole, it may be inferred from this
study that, TSSTM is relatively more
accurate than the proposed FE model in
predicting overall torsional response RC
circular columns.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This analytical work is carried out as part of
the project funded by SERB, Department of
b) H/D(6)T/M()0.73%) Science and Technology, India. Their
financial support is gratefully acknowledged.
Figure.2.Overall torque  twist
Experimental data used in this study was
behaviour
carried out as a part of a project funded by
NEESNSFNEESR, USA, the National
University Transportation Centre, and the
Intelligent Systems Centre of Missouri S&T,
52
Mondal et.al.
USA. Their financial support during the PhD Mondal T G and Prakash S S 2015 Effect of
work of second author is also gratefully Tension Stiffening on the Behavior of
acknowledged. Reinforced Concrete Circular Columns
under Torsion Engineering Structures
REFERENCES Journal Elsevier 92 186195.
Abaqus Analysis User's Manual 6.11 Prakash S S 2009 Seismic Behavior of RC
Dassault Systèmes Simulia Corporation, Circular Columns under Combined
Providence RI USA. Loading Including Torsion PhD Thesis
Department of Civil Engineering
Hsu T T C 1968 Torsion of Structural Missouri University of Science and
Concrete  Behavior of Reinforced Technology Missouri USA.
Concrete Rectangular Members
Torsion of Structural Concrete SP18 Zimmermann S 2001 Finite Elemente und
American Concrete Institute Detroit MI. ihreAnwendung auf physikalisch und
geometrischnichtlineareProbleme
Jankowiak T and Lodygowski T 2005 Report TUEBCO 01. 05. Technische
Identification of Parameters of Universitat Eindhoven Niederlande.
Concrete Damage Plasticity
Constitutive Model Foundations of
Civil and Environmental Engineering 6.
53
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Abstract: Dome structures are widely used in the field of construction technology
such as nuclear reactors, pressure vehicles, space vehicles, roofs of industrial
buildings, etc. Domestic applications includes domes in mosques, auditorium, igloos,
etc. The dome structure require certain number of openings which are essential for
services like maintenance, ventilation etc. The main aim of this study is to perform
finite element analysis of Spherical Dome with openings under static loading which
result from the selfweight of dome and a concentrated load at the crown to obtain the
most economical size of opening that can be provided at different locations and to
obtain the optimum location (in terms of angle with horizontal) at which an opening
of a particular size can be provided. Equations have been developed for most
economical aspect ratio and optimum angle at which openings should be provided for
various cases of Spherical Dome with 2/4/6 number of openings. Variations in
maximum stress intensity produced in the dome due to increase in aspect ratio and
increase in angle of opening have been shown.
Keywords: Spherical dome; most economical aspect ratio; Optimum location of
openings; Maximum stress intensity; Maximum stress zones;
ANSYS.
55
Analysis of Spherical Dome with Openings Using Finite Element Method
56
Khan et al.
57
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Abstract: Design of the bridge truss possesses a very high degree of complexity, due
to involvement of large number of parameters. Such design process comprises many
challenges and in order to carry out design, a designer requires knowledge expertise,
capability to take intuitive decisions. To carry out the efficient design, a large
database generated is used interactively with the conventional methods, which in turn
can optimize the design process. The said database comprises of knowledge from
different experts, books, rules etc. An algorithm which uses the knowledge or
database, and carry out the design in similar manner in which an expert, with all the
necessary knowledge is termed as an Expert system. In present work, an Expert
system is developed which aims for the optimum design of the bridge trusses for the
IRC loading.
Keywords: Truss bridge design; Expert system; Artificial Intelligence;
Optimization
ANALYSIS OF TRUSS
Stiffness matrix method is used for the truss
analysis by the. Skyline method is used for
the matrix formation.
OPTIMIZATION OF THE TRUSS The design process has broadly four steps,
MEMBERS conceptual design, preliminary design,
analysis for the dead and live loads, and the
59
Expert System for Bridge Truss Design
final detailed design. Conceptual design knowledge base. The inference can work
consisting of selecting the type of truss, and both forward and backward ways in order to
its configuration in terms of height, number achieve the desired goal. The GUI can plot
of panels etc. The type of bridge is selected the truss configuration, loads, influence line
based on the heuristic and knowledge base. diagrams (Figure.2). The developed Expert
Number of panels are selected based on the system has provision to the user to override
machine experimentation. The preliminary the values suggested by the system. User can
design process is selection of the initial cross alter the design parameters based on his/her
section of the truss members. Expert system judgement, in addition to the suggestions by
initially classifies the members in 4 groups Expert system. A numerical study is carried
viz. bottom chord members, top chord out on a 52 m span truss bridge
member, inclined members, vertical
members. Constant cross section is assumed
as a starting point and subsequently the
optimization is carried out based on the
experimentation study. The minimization
function is as follows
𝑊 = 𝑤 𝑥 ∑(𝑥𝑖𝐿𝑖)
The minimization of the above equation is
subjected to following equations,
𝜎𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑥 ≤ 𝜎𝑖𝑎𝑡 … 𝑗 ∊ 𝑗1
𝜎𝑖𝑚𝑖𝑛 ≤ 𝜎𝑖𝑎𝑐 … 𝑗 ∊ 𝑗1
⃒𝜎𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑥 − 𝜎𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑥 ⃒ ≤ 𝜎𝑠𝑡𝑟 𝑟
𝑖 = 1,2,3 … . 𝑛
𝐾𝑖 𝐿𝑖
≤ 𝑆𝑖
𝑟𝑖
𝛿𝑚𝑎𝑥 ≤ 𝛿𝑎 Figure.3: Tree Diagram for Machine
The relationship between minimum radius of Experimentation
gyration and the area of cross section is
worked out for optimization. W14 section is DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
used for the reference. It is observed that the The Expert system developed can provide an
piece wise linear regression fit approximates optimum truss design for four types of truss
the minimum radius of gyration. based on the IRC loading. The knowledge is
obtained through machine experimentation.
ARCHITECTURE OF EXPERT
The recommended truss for a particular range
SYSTEM
of the truss is divided into number of spans.
The interactive Expert system is developed in Several design alternatives consisting
the C language. The architecture of the different number of panels and heights
Expert system comprises of Knowledge Base, pertaining to constraints are carried out. The
Parameters, Rules, Control Boards (CB), optimization is carried out subsequently. The
Inference System and GUI. (Figure. 2) The most optimum shape of the truss among the
parameters comprises of main parameters spans is obtained. A linear regression
like length, truss type etc. The rules define between span length and key layout
the conditions. The control blocks are main parameter is established as
building blocks which interact with the
60
Bambole et al.
Abstract: In this paper free vibration analysis is carried out on a simply supported steel
beam of I cross section. Experimentation is carried out on a steel beam of 6m span. The
BDI (Bridge Diagnostics, Inc.) system is used for data acquisition. Accelerometers were
used to catch the vibration response of the beam. The Natural frequency values were
obtained using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. FE modelling is carried out
using ABAQUS software. Block Lanczos method is used to perform modal analysis.
For theoretical validation the EulerBernoulli beam theory is used. The theoretical,
experimental and analytical values are compared. Good agreement between the
theoretically calculated natural frequency, analytical and the experimental natural
frequency is seen after comparison.
Keywords: Natural frequency; EulerBernoulli; ABAQUS; Modal analysis; Block
Lanczos
THEORETICAL APPROACH
DIMENSIONS OF BEAM
Flange Width = 50mm
Flange Thickness = 5mm
Beam Height = 100mm
Web Thickness = 4mm
Length of Beam= 6000mm
Figure 2. Frequency Plot from FFT
By using equation (20) the theoretical values
obtained for the first three modes are shown The experimental values obtained for the first
in Table 1. two modes are shown in Table 2.
64
Kamble et al.
Figure 5. Mode 3
Table 3. Analytical Natural Frequency
65
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
incorporates both, transverse shear strain and nonzero linear strains associated with the
transverse normal strain. To implement this displacement field in Eq. (1) are:
theory, a suitable C0 continuous 𝜕𝑢𝑜 𝜕2 𝑤𝑏 𝜕2 𝑤𝑠
εx = −𝑧 + 𝑔(𝑧)
isoparametric finite element with 8 degrees of 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 2 𝜕𝑥 2
2 2
freedom (DOFs) per node is considered to 𝜕𝑣𝑜 𝜕 𝑤𝑏 𝜕 𝑤𝑠
εy = −𝑧 2
+ 𝑔(𝑧)
minimize the computational exercise without 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 2
′ (𝑧)𝑤
affecting the solution accuracy. The material ε𝑧 = 𝑓 𝑠 (2)
properties of functionally graded material 𝜕𝑢𝑜 𝜕𝑣𝑜 𝜕2 𝑤𝑏
𝛾𝑥𝑦 = + − 2𝑧 +
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥𝜕𝑦
plate are assumed to vary continuously 𝜕2 𝑤𝑠
through the thickness of the plate, according 2𝑔(𝑧)
𝜕𝑥𝜕𝑦
to a powerlaw distribution of the volume 𝜕𝑤𝑠
𝛾𝑦𝑧 = (𝑔′ (𝑧) + 𝑓(𝑧))
fraction of the constituents. The effect of the 𝜕𝑦
plate parameters such as aspect ratios, side to 𝜕𝑤 𝑠
𝛾𝑥𝑧 = (𝑔′ (𝑧) + 𝑓(𝑧))
thickness ratios, and volume fraction index 𝜕𝑥
on the natural frequencies of FGM plates is It is evident from Eq. (2) that in the present
presented for various boundary conditions. theory both, transverse shear strain and
The comparative and convergence study of transverse normal strain exist which is the
proposed theory is also accomplished with novelty of the present theory. Further
assumption is made to ascertain the Co
the available published results available in
continuity as ϕ x =w b , x ϕ y = w b,y , 𝜃 x = w s , x
R
open literature.
, 𝜃 y = w s,y.
R
68
Gupta and Talha
Highest frequency parameter is seen in the the available exact 3D elasticity solutions.
case of all edges clamped boundary condition The results reflect that the fundamental
(CCCC), whereas, the lowest frequency frequencies decrease with increasing the
parameter is observed for Clamped –Free volume fraction index as well as sideto
boundary condition (CCFF).
thickness ratios.
Table 2. Frequency parameter ω� for
SUS304/Si3N4 FGM plate with all edges Table 5. Frequency parameter ω
� for
clamped (CCCC) SUS304/Si3N4 FGM plate with Clamped
Free (CCFF) boundary condition
Volume fraction index ‘n’
b/a a/h Volume fraction index ‘n’
0 0.5 2 10 100 b/a a/h
5 0.7385 0.5089 0.3982 0.3435 0.3225 0 0.5 2 10 100
1 10 0.2314 0.1595 0.1252 0.1082 0.1011 5 0.4325 0.2967 0.2331 0.2023 0.1891
20 0.0647 0.0446 0.0351 0.0303 0.0283 1 10 0.1214 0.0836 0.0657 0.0569 0.0531
5 0.6685 0.4608 0.3602 0.3108 0.2919 20 0.0319 0.0219 0.0173 0.0150 0.0139
√2 10 0.2078 0.1432 0.1124 0.0971 0.0908 5 0.3094 0.2122 0.1666 0.1447 0.1353
20 0.0578 0.0398 0.0313 0.0271 0.0253 √2 10 0.0866 0.0596 0.0468 0.0406 0.0379
20 0.0227 0.0156 0.0123 0.0107 0.0195
Table 3. Frequency parameter ω
� for
SUS304/Si3N4 FGM plate with Simply REFERENCES
supported (SSSS) boundary condition
Abrate S 2008 Functionally graded plates
Volume fraction index ‘n’ behave like homogeneous plates
b/a a/h
0 0.5 2 10 100
5 0.4890 0.3359 0.2651 0.2291 0.2138 Composites Part B—Engineering 39
1 10 0.1567 0.1080 0.0849 0.0733 0.0685 151–158.
20 0.0463 0.0319 0.0251 0.0216 0.0202
5 0.3786 0.2605 0.2050 0.1771 0.1655
Ferreira A J M Batra R C Roque C M C Qian
√2 10 0.1164 0.0803 0.0630 0.0544 0.0509 LF Jorge RMN 2006 Natural
20 0.0341 0.0236 0.0185 0.0160 0.0149 frequencies of functionally graded plates
Table 4.Frequency parameter ω
� for by a meshless method Composite
SUS304/Si3N4 FGM plate with Simply Structures 75 593–600.
supported –Clamped (SSCC) boundary Gupta A and Talha M 2015 Recent
condition development in modeling and analysis
of functionally graded materials and
Volume fraction index ‘n’
b/a a/h structures Progress in Aerospace Sci.79
0 0.5 2 10 100
5 0.6903 0.4753 0.3719 0.3212 0.3015 114.
1 10 0.2130 0.1468 0.1152 0.0996 0.0931
20 0.0589 0.0406 0.0319 0.0276 0.0258
Koizumi M 1997 FGM activities in Japan
5 0.6282 0.4327 0.3383 0.2922 0.2743 Compos Part B 28 1–4.
√2 10 0.1923 0.1325 0.1040 0.0899 0.0840 Talha M and Singh B N 2010 Static
20 0.0529 0.0364 0.0286 0.0248 0.0231
Response and Free Vibration Analysis
CONCLUSION of FGM Plates using Higher Order
Shear Deformation Theory Appl. Math.
In this article, the cosine function based shear Model 34(12) 3991–4011.
deformation theory is proposed for Uymaz B and Aydogdu M 2007 Three
investigating the free vibration response of dimensional vibration analysis of
FGM plates. This theory account for both the functionally graded plates under various
transverse shear and normal deformations of boundary conditions J. Reinf. Plastic
the plate. Free vibration of FGM plates with Compos.26(18) 1847–1863.
various boundary constraints are carried out Vel S S and Batra R C 2004 Three
assuming the variation of material properties dimensional exact solution for the
follows power law distribution. The present vibration of functionally graded
rectangular plates J Sound Vibr.272(3)
computational solutions are compared with
703–30.
69
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
performance of the ECC retrofitted masonry depicts the nomenclature and descriptions of
beams. beams used in the study. All beams were
tested under fourpoint loading and subjected
The objective of the present study is to
to monotonic load till failure. The schematic
analyse the flexural response of clay brick
of 4point loading arrangement for beam is
masonry beams externally strengthened with
shown in Figure 1.
precast ECC sheet on tension face and/ or
both on tension as well as compression face Table 1.Mix proportion of ECC in Kg/m3
of masonry beams. Moreover, numerical
Super Recr
modelling has been done for validations and Cem Silica Fly
Water Plastici on
parametric study to predict the effect of span ent Sand ash
zer Fiber
todepth ratio using commercial finite 620 620 620 290 8.5 26
element software ABAQUS.
Table 2. Details of beam specimens
EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS
Specimen
A total of 7 clayburnt brick masonry beams Specimen Details
ID
of size 230 mm (width) x 110 mm (depth) Numerically modelled masonry
CBA
and 860 mm length were cast. The masonry control beam
beams have nine brick units with eight mortar Experimentally tested masonry
CBE
joints, each of approximately 20 mm control beam
thickness. Out of the 7 beams, 2 beams were Numerically modelled sandwich
SBA
masonry beam
strengthened on bottom (tension face) with
Experimentally tested sandwich
ECC sheet of 35 mm thickness and 2 beams SBE
masonry beam
were strengthened on both the compression Numerically modelled tension
TSBA
and tension faces like sandwich beam with strengthened masonry beam
ECC sheet of 35 mm thickness. The other Experimentally tested tension
TSBE
three beams acted as control beams (i.e., strengthened beam
unstrengthened). Epoxy was used as bonding
material for strengthening purpose. The mix
proportion of cement mortar used for casting
of masonry beams was 1:3 (cement: sand).
The beams were cured for 28 days before
testing. The fivebrick prisms compressive
strength of masonry and the compressive Figure1. Schematic loading arrangement
strength of 70.7 mm cubes of cement mortar
are 2.85 MPa and 21.67 MPa, respectively. NUMERICAL MODELLING
Generally, ECC mix consists of cement,
Numerical modelling was performed using
micro silica sand, flyash, water, super
commercial finite element software,
plasticizer, and polymeric fibers to reinforce
ABAQUS (2011). All the parts were created
the mix. Present study used polyester fibers
as a three dimensional (3D) deformable solid
of triangular shape with a trade name Recron
part.The concretedamaged plasticity model
3s CT2424 supplied by Reliance, India. The
of ABAQUS was used to model ECC and
mix proportion of ECC is presented in Table
masonry as it precisely accounts the
1. The 28days compressive strength of the
nonlinear behaviour. This nonlinear material
150 mm ECC cube is 55 MPa. Table 2
71
Experimental and Numerical Simulation of ECC Strengthened Masonry Structures in Flexure
properties reflect the material behaviour experimental result (TSBE) and shown in
beyond elastic range. The plasticity figure 4. The nature of load versus deflection
parameter such as dilatation angle have been curve is observed to be similar.
taken as 30° and 37° for masonry and ECC,
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
respectively. Solid elements C3D8R, i.e.,
linear 8 nodes isoparametric three The effect of spantodepth ratios (L/d) on
dimensional brick elements with reduced the flexural response of strengthened beams
were examined by the numerical modelling
integration were used for masonry and ECC.
using ABAQUS.
The element type COH3D8, i.e., 8 nodes
three dimensional cohesive elements was 12
used for epoxy and cement mortar. The
10
cohesive elements were finely meshed
compared to solid elements. 8
Load (kN)
Num (SBA)
6
2.5 Exp (SBE)
4
2 2
Num (CBA)
Exp (CBA) 0
1.5
Load (kN)
0 1 2 3 4
MidSpan Deflection (mm)
1
Figure3. Numerical validation of
0.5 sandwich masonry beam response
0 8
0 0.5 1 1.5 7 Num (TSBA)
MidSpan Deflection (mm)
6 Exp (TSBE)
5
Load (kN)
72
Singh et al.
L/d=4.3
6 L/d=12 tension and/ or compression with precast ECC
strips.
4 i. The numerical responses obtained using
2 ABAQUS closely capture the experimental
responses of ECC strengthened clayburnt
0
0 1 2 3 brick masonry beam.
MidSpan Deflection (mm) ii. For a given bonding agent of particular
thickness, the load carrying capacity of
Figure 5. Effect of L/d ratio on flexural sandwich beam is higher in comparison to the
responses of sandwich beams (SB) corresponding tension strengthened beam.
The spantodepth ratios of the beams were iii. The effect of span todepth ratio on the
changed from 4.3 to 12 for sandwich beam flexural response of masonry beam depends
and from 5.4 to 12 for tension strengthened on the type of strengthening. The load
beams. While changing the spantodepth capacity of tension strengthened as well
ratio, the depth of tension strengthened or sandwich beams decreases while deformation
sandwich beams were kept constant while capacity increases with increase in L/d ratio.
length was varied.As observed from Figure. 5
for sandwich beams the peak load is obtained ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
for the smaller spantodepth (L/d) ratios, i.e.,
for 4.3 and similar response is observed for This project is a part of Department of
tension strengthened beams also (Figure. 6). Science and Technology (DST), Govt. of
However, the maximum deformation India sponsored research project (No.
capacity with reduced load carrying capacity SR/S3/MERC/0051/2012).The financial
is observed for the larger span to depth ratio support of DST is highly appreciated.
for L/d=12.
REFERENCES
7
6 Dassault Systèmes Simulia Corporation
5
L/d=5.4 2011Abaqus analysis user’s manual 6.11
Load (kN)
74
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
solutions. As per the author’s knowledge, midsurface of the plate. The plate is
there is no solution exist for an orthotropic subjected to arbitrary boundary conditions
rectangular plate with arbitrary boundary with all the edges having different types of
condition using zigzag theory. In this support. Transverse deflection and inplane
paper, a closedform analytical solution for displacements u x and u y are expressed as
rectangular composite plate with an arbitrary (Kumari and Kapuria, 2011)
boundary condition at all edges is presented
w( x, y, z) w0 ( x, y); (1)
here.
u( x, y, z) u0 ( x, y) zw 0d ( x, y) R k ( z) 0 ( x, y)for zk 1 z zk (2)
THEORETICAL FORMULATION where
Consider a laminated rectangular plate u 0 =[u 0 x u 0 y ]; w0 d =[w 0, x w 0, y ]; 0 =[ 0 x 0 y ]
(Figure 1) of total thickness h, made of L and Rk(z) is 2x2 matrix dependent on
perfectly bonded layers of crossply material properties. Using the plate constitute
composite materials. The composite material equation and governing equilibrium equation
is orthotropic with respect to the principal of plate, weak form of governing equations is
material directions x1, x2 and x3, where the expressed as:
plane of symmetry x1x2 is parallel to the
[( A
a b
u
21 0 x , x A22u0 y , y A24 w0,xx A25 w0, yy A27 0x ,x A2,10 0 y , y N y ) N y
( A33 (u0x , y u0y ,x ) 2 A36 w0,xy A38 0x , y A39 0 y ,x N xy ) N xy
( A83 (u0x , y u0 y ,x ) 2 A86 w0,xy A88 0x , y A89 0 y ,x Pyx ) Pyx (w0, y [w0, y ]) w0, y
( A10,1u0x ,x A10,2u0 y , y A10,4 w0,xx A10,5 w0, yy A10,7 0x ,x A10,10 0 y , y Py ) Py (3)
( A51u0x ,x A52u0 y , y A54 w0,xx A55 w0, yy A57 0x ,x A5,10 0 y , y M y ) M y ( N x, x N xy , y ) u0x
(M xx, xx (Vy M xy , x ), y pz ) w0 ( Pxy , x Py , y Qy ) 0 y (w0,x [w0,x ]) w0,x ( N xy , x N y , y ) u0 y
( Px, x Pyx, y Qx ) 0x ( A11u0 A12u0 A14 w0, A15 w0, A17 0 A1,10 0 N x ) N x
x ,x y,y xx yy x ,x y,y
The additional equations any one of them at time is used for solution as follows:
(M
a b x, x (Vx M xy , y ) 2 A63 (u0x , yy u0 y ,xy ) 4 A66 w0,xyy 2 A68 0x , yy 2 A69 0 y ,xy ) (Vx M xy , y )dydx 0
(M
a b y, y (Vy M xy , x ) 2 A63 (u0x ,xy u0 y ,xx ) 4 A66 w0,xxy 2 A68 0x ,xy 2 A69 0 y ,xx ) (Vy M xy , x )dydx 0
Out of which, one is used as primary variable Depending upon boundary condition, at
and other is calculated after the solution. particular direction (x or y), maximum 6
Total we have 17 equations out of which 16 variables at one edge can be prescribed. For
will be used for obtaining solution. The example along x axis (0, a), maximum 12
boundary variables specified at particular variables can be prescribed, there we can
edge. solve only 12 ODE equation at a time.
u0 n / N n , u0 s / N ns , w0 / (Vn M ns , s )
w0,n / M n , 0 n / Pn , 0 s / Pns
76
TwoDimensional Static Analysis of Composite Plate Subjected to Arbitrary Boundary Conditions using Extended
Kantorovich Method
In this step, functions fl (1 ) are assumed, for variations fl are arbitrary, the coefficients
77
Kumari et al.
78
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Abstract: Threedimensional finite element models have been developed for the
analysis of singlelap singlebolt and doublelap multibolt composite joints using
finite element code ABAQUS. Solid brick element has been used to model the joints.
The present finite element model has been validated by comparing the load
displacement behaviour and the surface strains with numerical and experimental
results available in literatures. The effects of element types and variation in mesh
density have been studied. The effect of including the grip area has also been studied.
A parametric study has been performed considering different values of bolt torque in
each bolt of the doublelap multibolt composite joint.
In this paper, 3D finite element models have have been defined, namely, (1) between
been developed for the analysis of laminated laminated plates, (2) between bolt and plate
composite bolted joints. Solid brick element holes, (3) between bolt and washer holes, (4)
available in finite element code ABAQUS between laminate and washers and (5)
has been used to model the joints. The effects between washers and bolt head/nut.The bolt
of element types and variation in mesh preload has been incorporated using the
density have been studied. The effect of BOLT LOAD option available in ABAQUS.
including the grip area has also been studied.
A parametric study has been performed RESULTS
considering different values of bolt torque in Joint stiffness, outofplane displacement,
each bolt of the doublelap multibolt and surface strains have been calculated for
composite joint. singlelap singlebolt and doublelap multi
bolt composite joints. The present results are
FORMULATION compared with those obtained by McCarthy
A3D finite element model of the laminated et al. (2005b).The effect due to change in
composite bolted joint is required to model a element types and variation in mesh density
laminated composite bolted joint. Solid brick have been studied. The effect of including the
element available in ABAQUS has been used grip area has also been studied. A parametric
to develop the three dimensional FE model. study has been performed for the doublelap
For the joint portion of the plate near the multibolt composite joint considering
bolthole, finer meshing is provided as shown different values of bolt torque in each bolt.
in Figure 1.The mesh size has gradually The joint geometry considered for the single
became coarser away from the hole to match lap singlebolt joint is shown in Figure 2. The
with the remaining parts of the plate, carbon/epoxy material (HTA/6376) with
modelled with coarser mesh size. unidirectional material properties (Table 1)
has been used for the laminated plates as
described in McCarthy et al. (2005b). Two
different lamination schemes have been
considered: (i) quasiisotropic with [45/0/
45/90]5s layups, (ii) zerodominated with
[(45/02/45/90)345/02/45/0]s layups.
The joint stiffness and maximum outof The plot of outofplane displacements along
plane displacement obtained from the present edge 1 obtained from present analysis and
analysis considering quasiisotropic layup are available in literature are presented in Figure
compared with the results reported in 3.The results for the validation purpose have
McCarthy et al. (2005b) in Table 2. The been generated using eight nodded C3D8R
results match quite well. elements. The variation in results due to
change in element type will also be reported
Table 2. Joint stiffness (kN/mm) and in full length paper. The effect of modelling
maximum outofplane displacement the grip area has also been studied.
(mm)of the composite joint. The joint geometry considered for the
doublelap multibolt joint is shown in Figure
Present McCarthy et 4. The doublelap multibolt joint consists of
al. (2005b) three bolts with 36 mm center to center
Joint stiffness 31.62 31.5 distance.
81
Mandal and Chakrabarti
REFERENCES
Gray P J and McCarthy C T 2011 A highly
efficient userdefined finite element for
load distribution analysis of largescale
bolted composite structures Composites
Science and Technology71 1517–1527.
Lawlor V P McCarthy M A and Stanley W F
82
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Abstract: A higher order shear and normal deformation theory (HOSNT) is presented
to study the thermoelastic behaviour of functionally graded (FG) plates and open
cylindrical panels with diaphragm supported ends. Present theory considers the effect
of transverse shear strains as well as thickness stretching of the shell structure. A
refined thickness criterion with consideration of first power term of thickness to
radius of curvature ratio is used to extend the theory to moderately thick shells.
Material volume fraction is assumed to be following simple power law gradation in
thickness direction for elastic modulus while Poisson’s ratio is considered to be
constant throughout the thickness. Analytical solution for one dimensional heat
conduction equation is used to consider the variation of temperature through the
thickness of the shell. Principle of minimum total potential energy is used to derive
the system of equations along with necessary boundary conditions. A trigonometric
variation is assumed for displacement and thermomechanical loading terms which
reduces system of partial differential equations (PDEs) to ordinary differential
equations (ODEs) in terms of Fourier amplitudes. The orthogonality condition of
trigonometric functions further generates system of algebraic equations with constant
coefficients. Results for FG isotropic cylindrical panel are presented and compared
with available solutions in the literature. An excellent agreement is met with the
available solutions and present theory qualifies to be the closest to the three
dimensional (3D) solutions. Also, FG plates are considered as a special case of shell
structures and results are compared with available 3D solutions.
Keywords: HOSNT; Functionally Graded (FG) plates and shells; thermo
mechanical.
functionally graded materials can generate Small strain and small displacement
moisture potential within their structure. This relationship in curvilinear coordinates with
84
Thermal Stress Analysis of Functionally Graded Plates and Open Cylindrical Shells
R
2
3j α j Tdz
Rmin
(4)
h
approach of taking << 1 . Where Q ij refers to coefficient of compliance
Rmin matrix, α i denote coefficient of thermal
Stress resultants can be expressed in expansion and T is the thermal variation
simplified manner for thermal effect through the thickness.
inclusion.
SOLUTION APPROACH
N FN 0 0 ε NT The set of above thermal stress resultants
0
= N ij FIS 0 γ ij − 0 (3) contribute to nonhomogeneous part of
FTS γ iz 0
Qi 0 0 partial derivative equations with
displacement parameters as dependent
Here N represents all normal stress resultants
variables. Separation of variables approach
and couples, N ij represents insurface shear
can be applied to convert given PDEs to
stress resultants and couples and Qi ordinary differential equations assuming
represents transverse shear stress resultants double trigonometric series solution for
and couples. Following the similar displacement parameters. With these simply
representation FN denotes rigidity matrix for supported boundary conditions are also
normal stress resultants/ couples; FIS denotes satisfied. Non homogeneous terms i.e.
external loading and temperature change are
insurface shear stress resultants/couples
also expressed in double trigonometric series
while FTS denotes transverse shear stress
following eigen function expansion approach.
resultants/couples. NT represent contribution ∞ ∞
of thermal change on the constitutive model. T = ∑∑ (T ( z )) mn sin α m x sin β nφ (5)
=
m 1=
n 1
N = { N1 , N 2 , A, M 1 , M 2 , B, P1 , P2 , D, C1 , C2 }
T
,
Temperature distribution through thickness is
Tt − Tb dξ
γ ij = {γ 120 , λ120 , χ12 , κ12 , γ 12* , λ12* , χ12* , κ12* }
T 2
T ( z=
) Tt − h ∫ λ (ξ ) (6)
Qi = {Q1 , Q2 , S1 , S 2 , T1 , T2 , J1 , J 2 }
T 2 z
dz
∫ λ ( z)
,
85
Punera and Kant
Pure Thermal u w
L ×10−6 L ×10−6
Bottom Middle Top Bottom Middle Top
L/h= 3D 0.08492 0.7862 1.699 5.522 5.635 6.021
10
Present 0.04813 0.82684 1.74455 5.53719 5.65856 6.06212
Abstract: This work presents an efficient technique to enhance the bending and
buckling characteristics of a smart composite plate. This paper discusses about the
employment of piezoelectric fibre composite patches (PFCP) in their optimized
location using unified particle swarm optimization (UPSO) for enhancing the
performance and thereby reducing the effects of internal flaws. A finite element
formulation based on Inverse Hyperbolic Shear Deformation Theory (IHSDT) for
handling bending and buckling analysis of a smart composite plate is used in the
present work. The obtained results are matched with those existing in the literature
and various parametric studies are performed. In addition to the best performance,
reduction in weight of piezoelectric material is obtained as we employ a segmented
piezo patch to overcome the degradation in buckling strength due to damage in a
composite plate, which indeed addresses the design issues.
Keywords: Composite plate; Finite element method; Piezoelectric fibre
composites; Optimization.
each solution and is referred to as a particle. they are near the fixed end in a cantilever
Mathematically, the positions of ith particle plate. Obviously, once the actuator patches
(xi) in a swarm of S particles is a D are optimally placed, the effects due to
dimensional search space, provides a damage are suppressed and the bending and
candidate solution for the problem. The buckling capacity of composite laminates are
position and velocity of the particles at tth enhanced. The detailed results are omitted
iteration can be represented by xi(t) = (xi1, xi2, here for sake of brevity.
xi3, ……….., xiD) and vi(t) = (vi1, vi2, vi3…….., viD) 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100
; where i S. Motion of each particle to new 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90
positions during the search process is based 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80
on the previous best position of itself and the
61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70
best position so far found by any individual
51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
of the population. Here the population and its
41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
individuals are referred respectively as
31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
swarm and particles. The swarm is updated
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
by velocity and position update. Algorithm
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
will lead to a converged solution after several
iterations. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
than what they are expected to. In addition to Franco Correia V M Mota Soares C M and
other reasons, if we use segmented PFCPs Mota Soares C A 2003 Buckling
over a composite substrate considerable optimization of composite laminated
weight reduction is obtained. The present adaptive structures J Compos Struct 62
work provides the optimal placement of 315–321.
PFCP actuators. Investigations are carried out Parsopoulos K E Vrahatis M N 2002 Recent
on application of optimized piezo locations in approaches to global optimization
strengthening structures, thereby controlling problems through Particle Swarm
the deformations (due to external forces or Optimization Nat Computing 1 235306.
caused as an effect of a flaw present in the
system) and increasing the critical buckling Sreehari V M Linju Joseph George and Maiti
load. It is observed from this work that UPSO D K 2015 Bending and buckling analysis
is a very promising optimization technique of smart composite plates with and
and can be successfully applied to find the without internal flaw using an inverse
maximized buckling loads of smart hyperbolic shear deformation theory J
structures. ComposStruct.doi:10.1016/j.compstruct.20
15.11.045
REFERENCES Sreehari V M and Maiti D K 2015 Buckling
and post buckling analysis of laminated
Bent A A 1997 Active Fiber Composites for
composite plates in hygrothermal
Structural Actuation Ph. D. Thesis,
environment using an Inverse hyperbolic
Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
shear deformation theory J Compos
Cambridge.
Struct 129 250255.
90
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Abstract: The paper presents the static analysis of realistic wind turbine blades. A
modern 9.2m long rotor blade of NPS100 is modelled with different order of
polynomial variation of twist throughout the span of blade. The variation of aerofoil
(NREL S821, S825 and NACA 2412) is also employed in the present work. The
actual load acting on wind turbine blade is been extracted through Blade Element
Momentum (BEM) theory. The blade models have been generated using NuMAD and
analysis is performed using FE simulation tool ANSYS.
Keywords: Realistic Wind Turbine Blade; Blade Element Momentum (BEM)
Theory; FE Simulation.
Figure 1: Wind turbine blade (a) NuMAD model (b) Meshed rotor blade in ANSYS
turbine blade is obtained by applying the
1.2
actual load which is computed through BEM
theory. A realistic 9.2 long rotor blade is 1 root transition body
modelled with different aerofoil and twist
Chord (m)
0.8
variation throughout the span of blade.
0.6
MODELLING & SIMULATION
0.4
Sandia National Laboratories has developed a
user friendly preprocessor software NuMAD 0.2
(Numerical Manufacturing and Design Tool),
0
which is used to model realistic three
0 Blade Length
5 (m) 10
dimensional wind turbine blades as shown in
Figure. 1(a).The external and internal
geometry, material layup and stacking
sequence are provided by NuMAD (Berg &
Resor, 2012).The output file from NuMAD is
an ANSYS code which is imported in
ANSYS to create the FEM model of the rotor
blade. The variation of material properties
along the span is also taken into account. The
material chosen for each segment is taken
from the literature (Locke and Valencia,
2004). The meshing of the rotor blade is Figure 3: Different order polynomial
created using SHELL 281 element (Figure. curves for twist variation along the span
1b). The blade is modelled as cantilever i.e.
blade element theory, the total span is
fixed at root ends and free at the tip end.
discretized into N segments. The rotor is
The realistic load acting on the wind turbine
assumed to have an infinite number of blades.
blade is complicated due to irregular shape of
A correction factor known as the Prandtl’s tip
the aerofoil and varying air pressure
loss factor is taken into account.
throughout the aerofoil along the span. Thus,
to have an estimate of the actual static load The BEM theory provides an iterative
acting on the rotor blade, a simplified theory procedure to determine the axial and
known as the Blade Element Momentum rotational induction factors. Estimation of the
(BEM) theory is implemented. The BEM induction factors allows us to compute the
theory combines the integral momentum aerodynamic forces per unit span which can
theory to the blade element theory. An be integrated throughout the span to find the
actuator disc model is considered in the load distributions. The local lift and drag
momentum theory and the flow is assumed to forces per unit span can be computed as
be steady, incompressible and laminar. In the
92
Static Response of Wind Turbine Blade under Actual Loading Effect
Figure 4: (a) Actual load acting on the rotor (b) Flap wise deformation after solution
(Hansen, 2008); tangential aerodynamic loads computed from
pL = Cl (α ) * (1 2 ) * ρVrel2 c(r ) (1) the BEM code is linearly distributed
throughout the span. The gravity load is
pD = Cd (α ) * (1 2 ) * ρV c(r )
2
(2)
rel maximum when the rotor is horizontal. The
These forces can be projected along the combination of above loads is applied to the
normal and tangential direction to the rotor rotor blade in ANSYS as shown in Figure.
plane to obtain the flap wise and edgewise 4(a).The actual loading condition causes the
aerodynamic forces. These are; rotor to bend mainly in the flap wise direction
=pN pL cos φ + pD sin φ (2) as shown in Figure. 4(b).Thus, for the design
=pT pL sin φ − pD cos φ (4) of wind turbines, the aerofoils and twist
orders which give the minimum flap wise
Same aerofoil profile and twist variation is deformations are considered to be better.
implemented in BEM code, as used in Maximum deformations for S821 aerofoil
modelling to compute the actual aerodynamic with different order of twist variations is
loads acting on rotor blade. given in Table 2. It has been observed that
the linear twist distribution for the aerofoils
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION showed better results compared to the other
A realistic 9.2 m long NPS100 rotor blade order of twist variations for S821 profile.
which uses NREL S821 aerofoil with loading Furthermore, the blade having constant twist
at tip is chosen as a case study for validation. throughout the span produces least tangential
The span wise chord variation is shown in force and thus least power. Also, the flap
Figure.2.The results obtained show a good wise deformations for the constant twist are
agreement with the results previously somewhat higher compared to the other twist
reported in literature and are shown in Table order variations.
1.In the present work, three different
aerofoils vizS821, S825 and NACA2412 has CONCULSION
been analyzed for different order of A realistic rotor blade having 9.2m span and
polynomial for twist variations along the span different material layup along the span has
(Figure. 3)subjected to actual loading. The been modelled and analysed in ANSYS.
actual load consists of the aerodynamic (flap Different order of polynomials for twist
wise and edgewise), centrifugal and gravity variation along the span has been
loads. The centrifugal load for each blade implemented. The blades were subjected to
elements is computed from the mass distribution realistic loading computed from the BEM
for each section. The actual normal and theory. The effects of twist variation are
93
Choudhury et al.
Table 2: Maximum deformations for S821 aerofoil for different order of twist variations
Twist Variation Flapwise (mm) Edgewise (mm) Axial (mm) Twist (rad)
Constant 408.603 3.839 4.588 0.018773
Linear 340.194 33.089 4.231 0.033069
Quadratic 365.879 34.022 4.113 0.031732
Cubic 383.7 29.839 4.214 0.030853
Fourth order 416.809 23.539 4.606 0.04277
appreciable on the maximum deformations. Koh W X M Ng E Y K 2016 Effects of
The blade with linear order of twist variation Reynolds number and different tip loss
produced lower flap wise and edge wise models on the accuracy of BEM applied to
deflection. The tangential force produced tidal turbines as compared to
with linear twist variation is also higher and experiments Ocean Engineering 111 104
thus the blade will generate more power. The 115.
constant twist rotor produced the maximum Lee Y J Jhan Y T Chung C H 2012 Fluid–
flap wise deflection and the least tangential structure interaction of FRP wind turbine
force which is not desirable. blades under aerodynamic effect
Composites Part B: Engineering 43(5)
REFERENCES
21802191.
Berg J Resor B 2012 Numerical Locke J Valencia U 2004 Design studies for
manufacturing and design tool (NuMAD twistcoupled wind turbine blades Sandia
V2. 0) for wind turbine blades: User’s Report SAND20040522.
guide Sandia National Laboratories
Albuquerque NM Technical Report No. Mc Kittrick L R Cairns D S Mandell J
SAND2012728. Combs D C Rabern D A Van Luchene D
V 2001 Analysis of a Composite Blade
Cardenas D Escarpita A A Elizalde H Design for the AOC 15/50 Wind Turbine
Aguirre J J Ahuett H Marzocca P Probst O Using a Finite Element Model Sandia
2012 Numerical Validation of a finite Report Sandia National Laboratories
element thinwalled beam model of a SAND 2001–1441.
composite wind turbine blade Wind
Energy 15 203223. Singh S K Sharma T Murari V Shukla K
K2015 Effect of airfoil shape and taper
Cox K Echtermeyer A 2012 Structural design along the blade span on static and dynamic
and analysis of a 10MW wind turbine behaviour of wind turbine blades
blade Energy Procedia 24 194201. Proceeding of 2nd Indian Conference on
Hamdi H Mrad C Hamdi A Nasri R 2014 Applied Mechanics (INCAM 2015)230
Dynamic response of a horizontal axis 235 IIT Delhi India July 2015.
wind turbine blade under aerodynamic Staino A Basu B Nielsen S R 2012 Actuator
gravity and gyroscopic effects Applied control of edgewise vibrations in wind
Acoustics 86 154164. turbine blades Journal of Sound and
Hansen M O L 2008 Aerodynamics of wind Vibration 331(6) 12331256.
turbines Earthscan Book Co 2 4554.
94
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Abstract: This paper discusses about Composite framing system consisting of steel
beams acting interactively with metal deckconcrete slab and concrete encased
composite columns, which has been as a viable alternative to the conventional steel
or reinforced concrete system in the highrise construction. It also talks about its
advantages and construction methods. Composite structure is made with the help of
composite beams, composite slabs and composite columns which is different from
the conventional ones. To support this information some images and few examples
have been given.
Keywords: Composite beam; composite slab; composite column.
story height and consequently the cost of Advantages of constructing in steel: High
cladding in a building and lowers the cost of ratio between bearing capacity and weight,
embankment in a flyover (due to lower prefabrication and high accuracy.
height of embankment). Cost of formwork Its disadvantages are low fire resistance and
is lower compared to RCC construction, need of higher educated personal.
Easy structural repair/ modification/
maintenance. Reductions in overall weight Comparing these two methods a
of structure and thereby reduction in combination of both presents the most
foundation costs. economic way i.e. higher bearing capacity,
higher stiffness and plastic redistribution.
These make the advantages for the
composite structures. In composite
construction the two different materials are
tied together by the use of shear studs at the
interface having lesser depth which saves
the material cost considerably. Thermal
expansion (coefficient of thermal
expansion) of both, concrete and steel being
is nearly same.
CONSTRUCTION ELEMENTS
Figure 1. Typical Composite Floor
System
96
SteelConcrete Composite Structure
and a working platform. It may also provide deep, in which case it is known as deep
lateral restraint to the beams during decking. Additional reinforcing bars may be
construction. Another common type of placed in the decking troughs, particularly
composite beam is one where, as with a for deep decking. The profiled decking is
traditional noncomposite steel framed often designed to be continuous over two
solution, a precast concrete slab sits on top spans when acting as formwork. Composite
of the top flange of the steel beam. The slabs are normally designed to be simple
effective span range for this type of solution spanning at room temperature, but
is around 6 to 12 m, which therefore makes continuous under fire conditions.
it a competitor to a number of concrete
flooring options.
Advantages of composite beam are:
Keeping the span and loading unaltered, a
more economical steel section (in terms of
depth and weight) is adequate in composite
construction compared with conventional
noncomposite construction, reduction in
beam depth and Encased steel beam sections
have improved fire resistance and corrosion. Figure 6. Reentrant decking
97
Suresh Sahu
EXAMPLES
MILLENIUM TOWER, VIENNA,
AUSTRIA
Figure 10. Final Executed Building
CONCLUSION
From the above information and supporting
examples it is proved that composite
structures has more advantages in
comparison to the conventional steel or
reinforced concrete system in the highrise
construction, in ways of economy, architecture,
functionality and service and flexibility.
REFERENCES
Panchal D R 2014 Int. Journal of
Figure 9. Final Executed Building Engineering Research and
Applications July 2014 124138
No. of storey in the building is 55, with a
height of 202m. Ground floor area is www.steel construction.info for composite
38000sq.m and a capital expenditure is of structures.
about 145 million euro. Total time taken for Technology Information, Forecasting and
the erection was 8 months having maximum Assessment Council, Department of
speed of 2 to 2.5 storeys per week. Science and Technology website.
BHURJ KHALIFA, DUBAI
Over 45,000 m3 (58,900 cu yd) of concrete,
weighing more than 110,000 tonnes were
used to construct the concrete and steel
foundation, which features 192 piles buried
more than 50 m (164 ft) deep. Burj Khalifa's
construction will have used 330,000 m3
(431,600 cu yd) of concrete and 39,000
tonnes (43,000 ST; 38,000 LT) of steel
rebar, and construction will have taken 22
million manhours. The amount of rebar
used for the tower is 31,400 metric tons 
laid end to end this would extend over a
quarter of the way around the world.
98
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
100
Orthogonal Cutting Process Modeling of Idealised CFRPs
30 MPa 40 MPa 268 N/m 1450 N/m CONLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK
REFERENCES
ABAQUS theory manual version 6.3
Pawtucke Hibbitt Karlsson and
Sorensen Inc. 2002.
Agarwal H Amaranath A Jamthe Y Gururaja
S 2015 An Investigation of Cutting
Figure 5. Orthogonal model with Mechanisms and Strain Fields during
boundary condition (Benzeggagh 1996) Orthogonal Cutting in CFRPs
101
Kubher and Gururaja
102
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Abstract: The inherent high specific strength and stiffness of FRP increased their
application in various engineering fields. Further, the tailoring ability of physical and
mechanical properties helps to meet the specific design requirements. Meantime, the box
beam applications also have been increased due to their high torsional rigidity. The
combination of FRP and boxbeam is ideal for lightweight bridges. But, being a thin
walled structure, stability is governing the design. In the FRP boxbeam two type of
buckling is possible, i.e. Flange and web. To study the flange buckling, a lot of
researchers have applied the uniform compression load over the panel edges. But, when
panels become a part of the beam the state of stress will be changed which finally affect
the buckling behaviour. The number of works carried out for flange buckling behaviour
as a part of beam is meager. In this paper, flange buckling behaviour of simply supported
boxbeams subjected to lateral load has been studied with the help of finite element tool
‘ANSYS 15’ by changing geometry and fiber orientation of various elements. Attempts
are made to extract various trends which are affecting the buckling behaviour; it will be
helpful to the designer.
Keywords: Flangebuckling; FRP boxbeam; Stability problem.
The discrete plate method is the simplest As aforementioned many researchers have
approach to find the local buckling strength of studied the buckling of plates with various
various FRP shapes. In that, various element of unloaded edge boundary restraints and
FRP shapes treated as an individual plate and different type of load to understand the
analyzed with idealized and appropriate buckling behaviour of various FRP shapes.
boundary restraints from the adjacent plate. Some of them have studied the flange buckling
Under plate loaded by linearly varying inplane behaviour of various FRP shapes with
load, Lopatin and Morozov (2011) studied consideration of rotational restraints, but they
with one unloaded edge is free and other is treated flange and web element as an
clamped. Zhong and Gu (2007) studied with individual plate, but when it is a part of
unloaded edges are clamped and others are structure the state of stress will be changed and
simply supported. Qiao and Shan (2005) it will affect the buckling behaviour. In this
studied various boundary restraint of unloaded paper, parametric study based on finite element
edges rotationally restraint (RR) and analysis has been conducted by changing the
rotationally free (RF) under uniform geometry and fiber orientation of various
compression load. Qiao et al. (2001) studied elements. In addition, attempt is made to
various boundary and elastic restraint extract various trends which are affecting the
condition under uniform compression and in buckling behaviour of beam, it will helpful to
plane shear load. Housner and Stein (1975) the designer.
have studied the simply supported and clamped
plate under shear and compression load. They MODEL GEOMETRY
developed the buckling equation by using In this step, geometry of various element of
newly developed trigonometric finite boxbeam has been defined. The length and
difference method. Stroud and Agranoff (1976) cross section details of box beam as shown in
have studied the hatstiffened and corrugated Figure 1.
panel subjected to longitudinal compression
and shear loading. Kollar (2003) developed the
explicit closedform solutions to obtain the
buckling strength of various FRP shapes based
on proposed formula by past researchers under
axial load and bending. Kuehn et al. (2014)
have developed the analytical model to analyze Figure 1. Schematic view of the analyzed
various FRP shapes under compressive load girders
with consideration of shear deformation
effects. The developed model is based on first NEED FOR STUDY
order shear deformation theory. They
The study of boxbeam gives an opportunities
employed classical ReissnerMindlin plate
to study the buckling behaviour of flange of
theory to analyze various FRP shapes.
the beam under true state of stress of box
Additionally, they used RayleighRitz method
beams. The simulation of these things is not so
to find the web and flange buckling load. Liu
easy in isolated plate study.
et al. (2014) have developed the analytical
In present study geometry of boxbeam as well
model for plate with rotational restraint unload
as fiber orientation in various elements are
edge boundary restraints under combined in
varied. During these studies geometrical
plane shear and linearly varying load. The
parameters of boxbeam i.e. width and
influence of rotational restraint on buckling
thickness are varied along with variation of
load is also shown with the help of parametric
fiber orientation in flange and webs. Three
studies.
104
Numerical Studies on Flange Buckling Behaviour of FRP BoxBeams
fiber orientation 0°, ±45° and 90° are flexural stiffness of the flange. Further, there is
considered to cover extreme cases of a major increase in buckling stress where
orthotrophy. flange fiber orientation kept as constant and
web fiber orientation is increased from 0° to
EFFECT OF FIBER ORIENTATION 90°. This shows the effect of rotational
Fiber orientation plays very significant role in restraint offered by web to flange. Web with
deciding strength and stiffnesses properties of 90° fiber orientation gives better rotational
the laminate. Buckling depends on stiffness restraint and as a result major increase in
parameters so it gets affected substantially by buckling stress can be observed.
[VALUE [VALUE
change of fiber orientation in flange of box
bf*tw
3.50 3.30
3.00
2.50 3.05
(σb,f)
2.50
1.50
2.14
0 45 90
Flange fiber orientation (θf)
105
Kasiviswanathan and Upadhyay
buckling stress. Further, it shows that with compression and shear panels NASA TN
increase in δ buckling stress increases due to D7996.
rotational restraint provided by web to flange. Stroud W J and Agranoff N 1976 Minimum
Figure. 4, shows the influence of slenderness mass design of filamentary composite
of flange/web ratio (δ). panels under combined loads: design
procedure based on simplified buckling
CONCLUSION
equations NASA TN D8257.
In the present work web buckling behaviour of
Kollar LP 2003 Local buckling of fiber
FRP boxbeam was studied. Numerical studies
reinforced plastic composite structural
carried out by using ‘ANSYS 15’. True state of
members with open and closed Cross
stress and boundary conditions of web of FRP
Sections Journal of structural
boxbeams can be simulated easily by this
engineering 129 15031513.
approach. The results clearly brings out the
significance of fiber orientation in various Kuehn T et al 2014 Local buckling of shear
elements of boxbeam as well as the deformable laminated composite beams
significance of rotational restraint provided by with arbitrary crosssections using
web to flange buckling. discrete plate analysis Composite
Structures 113 236248.
REFERENCES Liu Q et al 2014 Buckling analysis of
Lopatin A V and Morozov E V 2011 Buckling restrained orthotropic plates under
of the SSCF rectangular orthotropic plate combined inplane shear and axial loads
subjected to linearly varying inplane and its application to web local buckling
loading Composite Structures 93 1900 Composite Structures 111 540552.
1909.
NOTATIONS
Zhong H and Gu C 2007 Buckling of
symmetrical crossply composite bf, bw  width of the flange and web
rectangular plates under a linearly
varying inplane load Composite δ  Slenderness ratio of flange and
Structures 80 4248. web
Qiao P and Shan L 2005 Explicit local q  Uniform lateral pressure load of
buckling analysis and design of fiber beam
reinforced plastic composite structural θf, θw  Fiber orientation of flange and
shapes Composite Structures 70 468483. web
Qiao et al 2001 Local buckling of composite t f ,t w  Thickness of the flange and web
FRP shapes by discrete plate analysis
σ b,f  Flange buckling stress of flange
Journal of structural engineering 127
245255. E1, E2,  Lamina modulus
G 12
Housner J M and Stein M 1975 Numerical
analysis and parametric studies of the υ 12 , υ 21  Lamina major and minor poison
buckling of composite orthotropic ratio
106
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Abstract: In this paper, analytical and finite element model has been validated with
experimental study on flexural behaviour of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Composite
(BFRC) sandwich panel subjected to two point loading. The sandwich panel
comprises of top and bottom skin, both composed of BFRC mix and flanges of profile
sheet entwined together to act as composite, whereas the core is constituted by the
web portion of profile sheet. For the analytical study, model has been proposed
adapting relative stiffness as in Euler bending theory. The finite element model has
been created as elasto plastic model along with interaction property using cohesion
and friction. The results from the finite element study and analytical model have been
compared with the experimental results of BFRC sandwich panel and are found to be
in good agreement. The model proposed can be generalised for sandwich panels
pertaining to same configuration and test setup.
Keywords: BFRC; profile sheet; skin; core; composite; bending equation;
relative stiffness; finite element; elastoplastic model.
bonding (shear interaction)in the bottom skin experimental stress strain data of material
by attaching prefabricated segment to profile used in the panel.
sheet (Prabha et. al, 2013) using selftapping Compositeness in the panel has been
screws(Wei et. al, 2012).The prefabricated modelled in terms of cohesion and friction at
segment is made of BFRC mix (Raj et. al, the interface between of BFRC segment and
2014) reinforced with basalt mesh. profile sheet. The FE model (Top and Bottom
Combination of both prefabrication and cast partial tied) assuming 70% friction in both
insitu construction technique has been top and bottom skin was found to depict the
adopted in aiming at reduced construction behaviour as obtained in the experiment. The
cost and time. A detailed and cross sectional deflected profile of the panel is shown in
view of BFRC panel is shown in Figure 1. Figure 2, for load of 36kNand 10 mm
deflection is compared with experimental
behaviour of BFRC sandwich panel (Raj et.
al, 2013) as shown in Figure 3.
109
Raj et al.
was calculated as 25.63 mm which has been Mechanics Group, Advanced Material Lab.
marked by point F in the graph. For the same This paper is being published with the kind
load of 14.97 kN, deflection was computed to permission of the Director, CSIRSERC
be 43.94 mm for 6000 micron strain which
has been marked by point G in the graph. REFERENCES
Through analytical model, full composite Burton W S & Noor A K 1997 Structural
behaviour shown by OBCEFG of Figure 3 is analysis of the adhesive bond in a
predicted till the failure of the panel based on honeycomb core sandwich panel Finite
change in effective cross sectional area as per Elements in analysis and design 26(3)
the panel behaviour in the strain limiting 213227.
range
I.S 4562000 Indian Standard Plain And
30 Reinforced Concrete  Code of Practise
(Fourth Revision).
C
25 Matteis De G & Landolfo R 1999 Structural
behaviour of sandwich panel shear
20 E walls: An experimental analysis
Materials and structures 32 (5)331341.
Load kN
15
F G Prabha P Marimuthu V Saravanan M Palani
10 Experimental Values G S Lakshmanan N Senthil R 2013
B Effect of confinement on steelconcrete
5 FE Model (Top and
Bottom partial tied)
composite lightweight loadbearing
Analytical model 2 wall panels under compression Journal
0 O of Constructional Steel Research 81 11
0 20 40 60
19.
Deflection mm
Raj Smriti 2013 Development of Basalt Fiber
Reinforced Sandwich Panel M. Tech.
Figure 3 Numerical& Analytical Model Thesis Academy of Scientific and
Vs Experiment Innovative Research CSIRSERC
Chennai.
CONCLUSION
Raj Smriti Smitha Gopinath Nagesh R Iyer
Through analytical and numerical studies, it 2014 Compressive behavior of basalt
can be concluded that bonding mechanism so fiber reinforced composite International
opted in making of BFRC panel (internal Journal of Structural Analysis & Design
bonding at top skin by castin situ and 1(1) 4953.
external bonding in the bottom skin through Toma A Sedlacek G & Weynand K
selftapping screws) was not able to ensure 1993Connections in coldformed steel
full composite behaviour inside the panel. Thinwalled structures 16(1) 219237.
The connection mechanism has to be
improved to increase the flexural capacity of Wei Lu Zhongcheng Ma Pentti Makelainen
the panel. Although, with the adopted Jyri Outinen 2012 Behaviour of shear
connections and construction methodology connectors in coldformed steel sheeting
resulted into flexural strength of 26 kN with at ambient and elevated temperature
reduction in construction cost and time. Thin Walled Structures 61229238.
Yu W W& La Boube R A 2000 Coldformed
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT steel design John Wiley & Sons.
The author's thank the support rendered by
the staff of Computational Structural
110
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
under inplane static or fatigue loading. A theory to nonlinear 1D theory using the
considerable amount of analytical models and variational asymptotic method. Delamination
numerical techniques have also been reported is included in the model by following the
on the modal behavior of composite sublaminate approach. The _nal results from
structures with delaminations. A detailed this approach will include linear as well as
review about delamination modeling in nonlinear stiffness terms that account for the
beams and its effects on the structural delamination length and location in closed
dynamics are provided by Della and Shu form. Subsequent to the 1D analysis it is
(2007). Majority of the available possible to completely recover the 3D stress
methods/techniques can be categorized into and strain fields along with the inplane and
two classes: (a) region approach  the outofplane warping fields. As a first step,
delaminated laminate is divided into sub only linear stiffness quantities are used within
laminates or segments and the continuity the 1D linear finite element method (FEM)
conditions are imposed at the delamination that is adopted to investigate the modal
junctions, each of these sublaminates is behavior of the strip. The utility of the model
analyzed using the equivalent single layer is demonstrated by determining the natural
theories; (b) layerwise approach  the frequencies and mode shapes of a pretwisted
laminate is modeled using the layer wise and initially curved delaminated anisotropic
theories, which are based on piecewise, layer strip and, where possible, compared to full
bylayer approximations of the response 3D FEM and experimental results in order to
quantities in the thickness direction, in this validate the present approach. The approach
approach delamination is modeled as an shows good agreement with experimental and
embedded layer or by introducing 3D FEM results available in the literature.
discontinuity functions in the displacement
fields. Shen and Grady (1992) have RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
performed experiments to investigate the The material and geometric properties of the
modal behavior of delaminated composite composite cantilever beam used for the
beams. They also presented an analytical purpose of validation of the present models
model based on the Timoshenko beam theory are given in the Table 1. The stacking
and the cracked beam theory. These sequence used in the analysis is (0/90) 2s .
experimental and analytical results are widely Experimental, analytical and numerical
used as benchmark values by in literature. results are available in the literature for this
More recently, Kumar et al. (2013) developed type of configuration; hence it is useful .The
a generic model of modeling partial first bending natural frequency of cantilever
delamination in composite beams and delaminated beam for the case of full width
implemented using the finite element method. delamination and for different lengthwise
In the present work, an asymptotically exact delamination at different interfaces are shown
cross sectional model coupled with in the Figure. 1. It is seen that the bending
geometrically nonlinear onedimensional natural frequency decreases as delamination
(1D) theory of modeling partial delamination size increases, irrespective of the
in composite beams is proposed and delamination location in the composite beam.
implemented using the finite element method. Similar trends are seen from the experimental
This analytical model is based on the and the 3D FEM results shown in Figure. 1.
dimensional reduction of laminated shell It is noted that at small delamination length
112
Effect of Delamination Size and Location on the Dynamics of Thin Pretwisted Strip
Table 2 : Numerical results of natural frequency (Hz) along widthwise delamination for
graphite/epoxy without pretwist and initial curvature (B – Bending , T  Torsional , E –
Extensional , Tr  Transverse)
The model was first validated by comparing with dynamic characteristics and the results
the static deformation characteristics of a obtained are compared with the results
delaminated strip made up of Winckler's type computed using 3D FEM. The comparative
study is done for various frequencies and it is
antisymmetric layup considered in [4] (α 2 /
(α – 90) 4 / α 2 /  α 2 / (90  α) 4 / α 2 ). tabulated in Table 2. It is observed that the
This layup exhibits strong extensionaltwist present model is able to produce the results
coupling. Later, the same model is computed
113
Salunkhe and Guruprasad
with fewer errors for various frequencies in delamination on the overall modal behavior
very less time frame compared to 3D FEM. of the pretwisted anisotropic strip with initial
curvature.
It can be observed that performance of
material drops, and the % elongation
decreases steadily as the elongation rates are
increased.
116
Stiffened Plates of CNT Reinforced Composites: Static Response using FEM
Constitutive Relations 2z *
V=
cnt ( z )
*
Vcnt ; 1 + Vcnt ;
The wellknown reduced stressstrain h
(3)
relations for the material behaviour is 2z * 2 z *
2 1 − Vcnt and 2 Vcnt
} [Q ]{ε} (1)
{σ= h h
*
Where the elements of the [Q] matrix are where Vcnt represents some critical volume
fraction, calculated from the mass fraction of
E11 , E22 , CNT and mass density of CNT & matrix.
Q11 = Q22 =
1 − ν 12ν 21 1 −ν 12ν 21
Finite Element Formulation
ν 21 E11 ,
Q12 = Q44 = G23 , Q55 = G13 , Q66 = G12
1 −ν 12ν 21 The stiffened plate finite element developed
and used in present work consists of the
The standard symbols used at the right hand combination of a nine noded quadrilateral
sides represent the effective material plate element and a three noded beam /
properties of the CNTRC considered. It stiffener element. Further description of the
should be mentioned that these effective same may be found in Bhar (2011).
properties are determined from those of the Finally, the standard form of discretized
constituent CNTs and the matrix used, based system of governing algebraic equations for
on Molecular Dynamics theory. the static analysis of the system may be
derived using Variational procedures as
Effective Properties of CNTRC
[K ]{d } = {F } (4)
Following Zhu et al. (2012), the effective
material properties of the CNTRC are NUMERICAL EVALUATIONS
E11 =η1Vcnt E11cnt + Vm E m
Validation (Bare CNTRC Plate):The
η2 Vcnt Vm
= cnt
+ (2) details of the problems presented here can be
E22 E22 Em found in Zhu et al(2012).The plates clamped
η3 Vcnt Vm at all edges (CCCC) are considered here.
= + Further, the materials properties considered
G12 G12cnt G m *
are for the case of Vcnt =0.11, η1 =0.149 and
whereE 11 cnt, E 22 cnt and G 12 cntindicate the η2 =0.934.The results are obtained in terms
Young’s moduli and Shear modulus of
SWCNT S , respectively. Em and Gm represent of nondimensional central deflection (w* =
corresponding properties of the isotropic w o /h), where w o is the central deflection of
the plate.
matrix. η j (j= 1, 2, 3) represent CNT
efficiency parameters. Further, Vcnt and Vm 95 CCCC, V*CNT=0.11
UD
Ping Zhu et. al., 2012
dimensional
matrix, sum of which is unity at every point. Ping Zhu et. al., 2012
Non
FGO
It is important to note that because of the Ping Zhu et. al., 2012
different CNT distributions within the matrix, FGX
Ping Zhu et. al., 2012
as described in Figure 1, both of Vcnt and Vm
5
vary across the plate thickness. Expressions 0 b/h 50
of Vcnt as function of the thickness coordinate
Figure 2.Nondimensional central
(z) for the four types of CNT distributions, in deflection (w* = w o /h) of bare CNTRC
same order as in Figure1, are given by plates
117
Bhar and Shakya
118
Stiffened Plates of CNT Reinforced Composites: Static Response using FEM
119
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
121
Coating Effect on Engine Piston Thermal Behaviour
shows the temperature distribution for mullite A comparative evaluation was made between
and alumina coated piston. the temperature distributions of the uncoated
aluminum alloy piston and the ceramic
coated piston. The maximum surface
temperature of the ceramic coated piston is
improved approximately 28% for zirconia
stabilized with magnesium oxide coating,
22% for mullite coating and 21% for alumina
than the uncoated piston by means of ceramic
coating. It is observed that the use of ceramic
coating for aluminum alloy piston increases
the temperature of the combustion chamber
of the engine and the thermal strength of the
base metal. Finally the combustion chamber
temperature increases the thermal efficiency
of the engine also increases.
Figure 5. Temperature Distribution: (a)
Mullite coated piston (3Al 2 O 3 2SiO 2 ) and CONCLUSION
(b) alumina coated piston (Al 2 O 3 ) From above analysis, we can conclude the
The maximum surface temperature on the following:
piston crown of the Aluminum alloy piston is • With the use of TBC maximum surface
determined as 295.86 °C. The maximum
temperature raised by 28% and hence
surface temperature on the piston crown for
zirconia coated aluminum alloy piston is helps to increase the thermal efficiency of
determined as 377.07 °C, for mullite Coating engine as well as improves combustion
it is 360.6 °C and for Alumina coating it is and reduce the emission.
357.45 °C.
• Zirconia coated piston have maximum
surface temperature in comparison to other
coating. Hence a better choice for TBC for
IC engines.
REFERENCES
Buyukkaya E 1997 Effects of thermal barrier
coating on a turbocharged diesel engine
exhaust emissions Sakarya University
Figure 6. Comparison of surface Mechanical Engineering Department
temperature variation for uncoated and Ph. D. thesis Institute of Sciences and
coated piston Technology Turkey.
Figure 6 represents the temperature Cerit M 2011 Thermo mechanical analysis of
distribution comparison curve of uncoated a partially ceramic coated piston used in
Aluminum surface temperature of coated an SI engineSurface & Coatings
pistons is more than that of uncoated piston. Technology 205 3499–3505.
While among the coated piston the zirconia Muchai J G Kelkar A D Klett D E and
coated piston has maximum surface Jagannathan S 2002 Thermal–
temperature. Mechanical Effects of Ceramic Thermal
122
Babu et al.
123
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
z
and the 2D equations of equilibrium are, xz Bz
z x
zx z
Bz 0 The above PDEs defined by Eq. (7) can be
x z reduced to a coupled firstorder ODEs by
(3)
x xz
Bx 0 using Fourier trigonometric series expansion
x z for primary dependent variables satisfying
Further, it is assumed that the Poisson’s ratio the simple support end conditions at x = 0
is constant through the thickness and and L.
m x
variation of Young’s modulus through the u ( x, z ) um ( z ) cos
beam thickness is given by, m L
(8)
2z h m x
k
E ( z ) EM ( EC EM ) (4) w( x, z ) wm ( z )sin
2h m L
Where EM and EC are the elastic modulus at Substituting Eq. (8) and its respective
the bottom and top surface of beam, derivatives into Eq.(6) and further, use
respectively. And k is the material gradation orthogonality conditions of trigonometric
index ( k 0 ).Also, it is assumed here that functions, the following ODEs are obtained,
FG material is isotropic at every point.
Therefore, material constitutive relations for
FG beam can be written as,
x C11 C12 0 x
z C21 C22 0 z (5)
0 C33 xz
xz 0
125
Static Analysis of Functionally Graded Beam for PowerLaw Variation of Elastic Modulus
127
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Abstract: An efficient and robust design methodology is presented for sandwich core
Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bridge decks by integrating finite element analysis
(FEA), design of experiments, response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic
algorithm. The sandwich core bridge deck considered in this study consists of
composite laminated plates at faces and isotropic material as core which is fixed on
two opposite edges whereas other two edges are assumed to be free. The panel is
subjected to selfweight and imposed live load according to IRC loading conditions.
The ply thicknesses of top and bottom face plate, depth of core and fiber orientation
of different layers are considered as basic design parameters for structural
optimization. The most important parameters influencing governing criteria (i.e.,
deflection) are determined using FE analysis results based on Doptimal design of
experiment algorithm and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Optimum dimensions are
finalized using genetic algorithm interfaced with response surface model while
satisfying strength and serviceability criteria.
Keywords: Laminates; Finite element analysis; Statistical properties/methods;
Response surface methodology.
core Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bridge of the panel. Usage of response surface
decks/panels as illustrated in a flowchart in instead of computationally cumbersome finite
Figure 1. The proposed optimization element analysis for optimization engine
methodology is simple, robust and efficient accounts for time saving characteristics of the
due to its time saving characteristics. Nature methodology. Optimum configurations are
of proposed methodology enables to use it for checked against failure and serviceability
material, geometrical and structural criteria.
component optimizations of sandwich core
bridge deck/panels for different boundary and MODELLING
loading conditions. Initial configurations and
The various components of bridge deck i.e.
range of design parameters conforming to the
bottom face plate, sandwich core and top face
design constraint specifications and
plate are generated in the part module of
manufacturing constraints are decided by trial
ABAQUS/CAE and assembled. Elements used
and error using GUI of ABAQUS/CAE.
for face plates and sandwich core foam are
conventional 4 node shell elements (S4R:
Conventional Stress/Displacement Shell, 4
node linear element geometry) and 8 node
brick elements (C3D8R: standard 3D
stress/Displacement solid element, 8node
linear brick element) respectively.
The interaction between the adjacent
components is defined using tie constraint
which ensure the perfect bond between the
adjacent components. As model has two
different types of elements i.e. one solid
linear brick element and other is shell
element. Therefore, it is important to define
interaction between the two different element
types. The interaction is defined using shell
to solid coupling in interaction module. The
analysis is done using the general static
loading option. The model is validated with
refined higher order shear deformation theory
(RHSDT) as proposed by Khandelwal et
Figure 1.Flow chart for proposed al.(2012) (Table 1).
optimization methodology Table 1.Model verification
Responses i.e., deflections for design points Case(span 2 m) Deflection(mm)
generated from Doptimal code are obtained
using modified python script of Top ply thick./core ABAQUS RHSDT
ABAQUS/CAE. Nonsignificant parameters depth/bottom ply
affecting deflection are screened out by thick.
performing Analysis of variance (ANOVA).
18/150/18 2.64 2.53
A predictive model for deflection in terms of
critical design parameters is created using 14/200/14 2.50 2.43
response surface methodology (RSM). The
response surface is coupled with genetic 10/250/10 2.64 2.44
algorithm to find the optimum design 6/300/6 2.67 2.44
parameters corresponding to minimum cost
129
Optimisation of Sandwich Core FRP bridge Deck
130
Gangwar et al.
In the present study, following objective MATLAB and optimisation is performed for
function equation is used: minimum cost incorporating four different cost
weightage parameters i.e. N as 1, 0.25, 0.4, 0.6.
𝐶 = 𝑉𝑓𝑟𝑝 + 𝑁 × 𝑉𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑒 Table 3 summarise the optimum design
configurations for span 2 meter.
Obtained response surface from reduced model is
integrated with genetic algorithm toolbox of
REFERENCES
Adali S Summers E B Verijenko V E 1994
Minimum weight and deflection design
of thick sandwich laminates via symbolic
computation Composite Structures 29
145160.
Aref A J Alampalli S He Y 2005
Performance of a fiber reinforcement
131
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Abstract: In construction industry, CFRP composites are widely used for retrofitting
and rehabilitation of columns and bridge piers so as to enhance the service life of
structures. The slenderness of the column largely influences the confining strength of
FRP wraps. The main objective of this paper is to study the slenderness effect on
reinforced concrete circular columns confined with fiber reinforced polymer
composites on strength parameter and compare the results with the variable
slenderness ratio unwrapped RC circular column specimen. The experimental
program included twelve RC circular column specimens which consisted unwrapped
and wrapped columns with slenderness ratio in the range of two to four. The
slenderness effect study was established through the comparison of experimental and
modelling results in terms of the ultimate axial strength, axial and lateral strain. The
experimental results showed that for RC circular concrete specimens, the variation in
slenderness ratio significantly affect on the confinement effectiveness when compare
with unwrapped and wrapped column specimens. The results of experiments and
computational modelling comparison clearly demonstrate that the strength
performance and ductility behaviour of unwrapped and CFRPC wrapped reinforced
circular columns are predominately influenced by change in slenderness ratio.
Keywords: Carbon fiber reinforced polymer; Circular columns; Slenderness
ratio; Rehabilitation
different lengths. Out of these, six specimens compression testing machine with loading
were control specimens and remaining were rate of 2.5 KN/sec. Data acquisition (DAQ)
confined with one layer of CFRP sheet. system was used to measure the readings
Strain gauges were pasted to measure strains from the instrumentation. The strain gauge
in steel, concrete and CFRP. To find load and readings were taken and established
deflection, load cell and LPs were installed. relationship between effect of slenderness
All the specimens were tested on a 300T ratio and strength parameters.
U4001
U4002 62.3 19.45
U4003
84.54 82.42
W4001
W4002 114.97 35.48
W4003
U8001
U8002 58.27 18.19
U8003
90.1 90.16
W8001
W8002 110.77 34.59
W8003
133
Slenderness Effect on Behaviour of CFRP Wrapped RC Circular Column
Pmax Δmax
Specimen Py (ton) Δy (mm) μ % increase in μ
(ton) (mm)
134
Narule et al.
REFERENCE
135
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Abstract: Composite materials are very light in weight with higher strength and
stiffness, and are very helpful in applications like aerospace, aircraft, automotive,
energy, infrastructure etc. Though composite materials are strong enough, but
sometimes when subjected high impact loading or shocks, they lacks in the stiffness
which changes the dynamic responses of the structure, which modifies the modal
parameters like natural frequencies, mode shapes, damping etc. So these modal
parameters can be used to judge the variation in stiffness or damage occurrence in the
composite structures. This paper deals with the modal analysis of composite
cantilever beam using ABAQUS (FEA) software. Model of composite cantilever
beam for two different fibre orientations, for quasi isotropic [0/45/45/90] s and for
unidirectional with all layers of 0⁰orientation has be made in ABAQUS finite element
analysis software and modal analysis of the beam is performed for both the fibre
orientations. Natural frequencies for first five modes of bending from ABAQUS
(FEA) software are compared with natural frequencies by analytical method for
validation of ABAQUS (FEA) results. It is observed that there is good agreement
between the natural frequencies obtained from ABAQUS (FEA) and analytical
calculation.
Keywords: Composite beam; Modal analysis; ABAQUS (FEA).
analytical formula with same beam ABAQUS (FEA) results for beam with fibre
dimensions and material properties used in orientation [0/45/45/90]s for first three
ABAQUS (FEA) modelling. Comparison of modes are shown in Figure.1 to Figure.3
results from both methods i.e. ABAQUS
(FEA) as well as analytical method is done to
check whether the results obtained from
ABAQUS (FEA) are in the range of results
from analytical method. For analytical
calculations of natural frequencies, formula
used is given in equation (1) and value of
modulus of elasticity in equation (1) is taken
as equivalent modulus of elasticity calculated
from nine engineering constants of carbon
fibre using MATLAB code for quasi
isotropic beam.
Figure 1. Mode 1 for [0/45/45/90]s
𝑐𝑛 𝐸𝐼
𝑓𝑛 = � (1)
2𝜋 𝑚𝐿4
Where,
f n = Natural frequency of cantilever beam
n= No of modes, n=1, 2, 3…..
E= Modulus of elasticity
L=Length of cantilever beam
I= Moment of inertia of cantilever beam
m=Mass per unit length of cantilever beam
C n = Constant (changing) for every mode
137
Modal Analysis of Composite Beam Using ABAQUS (FEA)
1 46.5286 46.048
2 291.58 287.89
3 820.07 803.10
4 1599.86 1565.3
5 2644.73 2569.6 Figure 6. Mode 3 for UD with all 0⁰
REFERENCES
138
Navale et al.
139
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Abstract: Due to increase in population, car parking space is major concern. Hence
trend has been set up to use ground floor for parking purpose. Literature shows that,
large number of reinforced concrete (RC) building with soft storey damaged by
earthquake shaking due to many structural deficiencies such as, column with
insufficient confinements, strong beam weak column, formation of plastic hinge at
beamcolumn joint, opening of 90 degree ties, poor detailing in beamcolumn
connection joint etc. This paper includes seismic analysis of multistorey frame
structures using steel concrete composite column (SCC) section in soft storey. The
structure with SCC column section is analyzed and compare with general RCC frame
structure by using response spectrum and pushover analysis method. The parameters
compare from analysis are displacement, base shear, plastic hinges, time period of
mode shapes and performance point. Commercial software SAP2000 v16 is used for
analysis. The result shows that plastic hinge formation during earthquake at beam
column joint can improved performance with use of steel reinforced composite
column section at soft storey.
Keywords: Pushover analysis; Soft storey; Steel reinforced composite column.
RESPONSE SPECTRUM
For Zone IV, medium soil and 0.05% of
Figure 1. Plan of building G+14 and damping response spectrum graph is as,
G+20
This models are analysis by response
spectrum method. From this we take time
period for mode shape and calculate target
displacement for each storey given in fema
356. This displacement is use for pushover
141
Seismic Analysis of Multistorey Buildings using Steel Concrete Composite Columns at Soft Storey
12000
1 2 0 00
10000
8000
8000
6000
4000
4
4000
00
2000
2 0 0..02 0..04 0 ..0 6 0..08
0 0..02 0 ..0 4 0 ..0 6 0..08 0..1
142
Patil et al.
143
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Abstract: In the present work, impact behaviour of laminated GFRP composite plate
has been studied with experimental work as well as FE analysis. Material
characterization of GFRP based on material stress/strain criteria has been carried out
and implemented in the present FE model to study the progressive damage evolution
in composite plate due to ballistic impact. Experimental impact tests on GFRP
laminate is performed by pneumatic gun. Numerical results obtained from the present
FE model in terms of residual velocity and damage pattern in composite plate are
compared with the results from experimental impact tests which show good
agreement. Shock effect due to impact is also considered in the material model of
composite plate. Pressure wave generation in composite plate due to impact is studied
in detail. Results from the present FE model show, delamination is the dominant mode
of damage in laminated composite plate under impact due to matrix failure in tension.
Many new results are presented which should be useful for the researches in this field.
Keywords: GFRP; Material characterization; FE analysis; Ballistic impact.
NUMERICAL MODELING 0
0 200 400 600
Three dimensional numerical models of Incidence velocity (m/s)
composite plate of size 140 x 140 x 3.12 mm3
Figure. 2. Variation of residual velocity
and blunt impactor (steel 4340) of diameter
with incidence velocity
19 mm and mass 52 gm are made in
It is observed that the residual velocity
AUTODYN (Figure. 1). Hexahedron brick
obtained from the present FE model is more
element is assigned to the numerical models
than that obtained from the results of
with Lagrangian process. Interaction between
experimental impact tests (Figure. 2). This
plate and impactor is defined by gap
difference may be due to the frictional loss of
interaction method with gap size of 0.05 mm
energy of impactor. However, frictionless
and frictionless contact.
contact is defined between impactor and plate
145
Ballistic Impact Response of FRP Composite Plate: Experimental and FE analyses
Acceleration (m/s.s)
frame is presented in Figure. 3. It is observed
that most of the damage occurs due to 0.4
Vi=40 m/s
delamination i.e. failure of matrix in tension. Vi=100 m/s
0.6
Due to high incidence velocity, some part of
composite plate flown off with impactor 0.8
(called Plug).
1
Figure. 4 shows the accelerationtime
histories of impactor at different incidence Figure. 4. Accelerationtime histories of
velocities during penetration in laminate. At impactor
lower incidence velocity (Vi=40 m/s), Figure. 5 shows the pressure wave variation
fluctuation in acceleration of impactor is on the back face of composite plate from
observed which means that the penetration centre to the boundary along x axis at
resistance offered by laminated composite is different time frame. It is observed that as the
more at lower incidence velocity. time passes, magnitude of pressure decreases
but concentration area of pressure increases.
Nature of pressure also changes from positive
t=0.015 ms
to negative during penetration process of
impactor.
800
700
Delamination t=0.04 ms 600
500
Pressure (MPa)
400 t=0.015 ms
300 t=0.027 ms
Plugs erosion t=0.041 ms
t=0.068 ms 200
100
0
100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
200
300
Distance (mm)
Figure. 3. Progressive damage evolution
in composite plate at Vi= 274.5 m/s
Figure. 5 pressure wave on the back face
Pressure applied by impactor at impact point of composite plate at Vi=274.5 m/s
appears like a wave that travels throughout
the body of composite. This pressure wave
causes the generation of various stresses in
laminate.
146
Ansari and Chakrabarti
Pagano (1969) elasticity solutions for through thickness variations of stresses and
laminate under cylindrical bending under deformations has been presented which can
sinusoidal load were extended for uniformly be considered as benchmark solution.
distributed and line load by Pagano and
Wang (1971) modelling line load as FORMULATION
uniformly distributed load over narrow strip. A laminated composite orthotropic plate
Pagano (1970) elasticity formulation for bi consists of ‘N’ no. of unidirectional laminae
directional bending under sinusoidal load was with material symmetry axis parallel to the
extended by Savithri S. and Varadan T. plate axes x, y, z as shown in figure1(a) has
(1992) to bidirectional bending of laminated been considered for formulisation. The plate
composite plates for uniformly distributed is considered to be simply supported as
and concentrated loads (small patch load). shown in figure1(b). The concentrated load
Savithri and Varadan (1992) used Fourier ‘Q’ is positioned on the top surface of
formulations that simulates concentrated load laminate is also shown in figure2.
as uniformly distributed loading over a small
square area of width=0.05a. However exact
formulation for concentrated load has not
been presented yet.
In present work 3D elasticity formulation for
bidirectional bending of simply supported
laminated composite plates subjected to
concentrated load modelled with the help of
double Fourier series is presented. Present
formulation is based on Pagano’s (1970)
formulation for bidirectional bending of
laminated composite plates subjected to
sinusoidal loading.
As the concentrated load could not be
represented by continuous loading function
Savithri and Varadan (1992) has observed
that Fourier series do not converge at the
point of discontinuity. In the present
formulation as the point load has been Figure 1. General laminate plate
modelled as exact point load thereby number
of discontinuity has been reduced to one.
In order to avoid the mathematical
disturbance and get reliable results the
response of the plate is evaluated at a short
distance away from the location of point load.
Since the load has been formulated with
single discontinuity convergence of results is Figure 2. Laminate subjected to
achieved with significantly less no. of concentrated load
harmonics as compared to formulations
presented by Savithri and Varadan (1992). A generic load qz(x ,y) expressed as Fourier’s
Solutions for few problems in detail with series approximation:
149
Analysis of Laminated Composite Orthotropic Plates Under Bidirectional Bending Subjected to
Concentrated Loads
150
Raval and Bambole
S z z
z z
z
151
Analysis of Laminated Composite Orthotropic Plates Under Bidirectional Bending Subjected to
Concentrated Loads
REFERENCES
Pagano N J 1969 Exact solutions for
composite laminates in cylindrical
bending Journal of Composite Materials
3 398411.
Pagano N J 1970 Exact solutions for
rectangular bidirectional composites and
sandwich plates Journal of Composite
Materials 4 2034.
Pagano N J and Wang A S D1971 July
Further study of composite laminates
under cylindrical bending Journal of
Composite Materials 5 521528.
Reddy JN 1997 Mechanics of Laminated
Composite Plates: Theory and Analysis
CRS Press Florida.
Savithri S and Varadan T K 1992 Laminated
plates under uniformly distributed and
concentrated loads ASME Journal of
Applied Mechanics Brief notes 59(1)
211214.
152
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Abstract: The present work proposes a numerical model to evaluate the elastic
properties as well as to analyse dynamic responses of hybrid composite shell
structures which consists of conventional carbon fiber (CF) as reinforcing phase and
multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based polymer as matrix phase. The Mori
Tanaka based strength of material method has been implemented to determine the
elastic properties of such hybrid composite structures. An eight noded shell element
having five degrees of freedom at each node has been used for modeling and analysis
of such hybrid shell structures. Stress resultanttype Koiter’s shell theory has been
used and no restriction has been imposed on the magnitude of curvature components
to capture the deep and shallow shell cases. Twist curvature component has also been
incorporated to keep the strain equations complete. The transverse shear effect has
also been considered according to the Mindlin’s hypothesis. The Rayleigh damping
model has been implemented in order to study the effect of carbon nanotubes (CNTs)
on damping capacity of such hybrid composite shell structures. Different types of
shell panels (such as cylindrical, spherical, elliptical and doubly curved) have been
analyzed in order to study the time and frequency responses. Results indicate that the
elastic properties as well as damping properties of such hybrid composite structures
improved with the addition of CNTs as compared to conventional carbon fiber
reinforced composites (CFRCs) laminates and effects of some important parameters
on the vibration characteristic of such hybrid composite shell structures have also
been presented.
Keywords: Carbon fibre; Polymermatrix composites (PMCs); Nanostructures;
Vibration; Finite element analysis (FEA); Numerical analysis
whereas few studies presented that addition (PMNC) have been obtained by using the
of 2% CNT in matrix phase can lead to MoriTanaka method. In second phase,
1000% increase of the loss modulus of a bar effective properties of the hybrid composite
under axial cyclic loading (2005). which is a combination of CNT based
polymer matrix and carbon fiber is
From the literatures review, it is cleared that
determined using strength of material
strength, load bearing as well as wear and
method.
fatigue resistance capacity increases when
CNTs is blended in the polymer matrix phase
in the proper ratio. Research work in this
field is already initiated but detail modelling
and analysis of CNTs based hybrid composite
structures is still unrevealed. So, the present
work focuses the effects of randomly oriented
CNTs, carbon fiber on vibration
characteristics of hybrid composite shell Figure 1. Various constituents of CNT
structures. The Mori–Tanaka method based based hybrid composite.
strength of material method is implemented
to obtain the elastic properties of hybrid FINITE ELEMENT (FE)
composite material which is made up of FORMULATION AND ANALYSES
sixteen layers with stacking sequence of [0 /
The stressresultant type Koiter’s shell theory
45/ 45/ 90]2s. An eight noded shell element
has been considered in the present finite
considering shear deformation effect
element formulation of the hybrid composite
according to the Mindlin’s hypothesis has
shell structures. The effect of shear
been formulated for finite element modelling.
deformation to the Koiter Shell theory based
Obtained elastic properties have been used to
on the Midlin’s hypothesis (2010) has also
study the impulse responses of such hybrid
been considered in the present FE
shell structures. The damping characteristics
formulation.
of such hybrid composite shell structures has
been implemented based on the Rayleigh The shell geometry used for the present
damping model in order to study the effects formulation has been developed using an
of CNTs on the settling time i.e. how fast the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system
system responses reach to steady state under with the midplane of the shell assumed to be
impulse loading. Frequency response the reference surface as shown in Figure. 2
analyses have also been carried out to study
the effects of CNTs on the resonance
frequencies and absolute amplitudes of
frequency responses of such various hybrid
shell structures.
a parametric domain through the suitable to verify the present shell finite element code
exact parameterization. Two independent developed, the static and free vibration
coordinates (1 , 2 ) in the parametric space analysis has been performed for the
have been considered as the midsurface laminated spherical composite shell and
curvilinear coordinates of the shell. The validated.
normal direction coordinate to the middle
surface of the shell has been represented by z TRANSIENT RESPONSES OF THE
. The reference surface or the shell mid HYBRID COMPOSITES DUE TO
surface can be described in the global IMPULSE LOADINGS
cartesian coordinates in terms of the position Various simple supported spherical
vector as composite shell structures on the square base
r (1 , 2 ) X (1 , 2 )iˆ Y (1 , 2 ) ˆj Z (1 , 2 )kˆ (1) (a = b) have been analyzed under the impulse
loading. In all the cases, the shell panel has
Where, iˆ , ĵ and k̂ are unit vectors along the been subjected to an impulse load of 10 N at
X, Y and Z axis, respectively. the center up to 10 time steps and impulse
responses of the panels have been calculated
EQUATION OF MOTION with a time step of /10 where the time
The dynamic finite element formulation has period is corresponding to first natural
been derived by using the Hamilton’s frequency of the system. In all the cases, the
principle as follows global responses are calculated considering
t2 first ten modes. The main purpose of this
[ (T U ) W ]dt 0 (2) present study is to analyze the effects of
t1 CNTs on the maximum response and settling
time of the shell panel. The settling time is
T is the kinetic energy of the system, U is the calculated as the time required to reach the
elastic strain energy and W is the external amplitude of vibration to 5% of maximum
work done by the force on the structure. After amplitude. The Figure. 3 shows the transient
putting the energy expressions in Equation responses of such shell panel for R/a = 5 and
(2) and taking first variation, the equation of a/h = 10.
motion can be written as
M uue d e Kuue d e F e (3)
Simply supported and clamped supported of these plies are different along the
boundary conditions are considered for the laminate’s axis. When theses plies are
analysis. dropped at different locations in a laminate,
the rise of out of plane stresses at each drop
off may be different to the stiffness of the
dropped plies. The globallocal approach has
been used for analyzing the laminates with
variable thickness. So, the location of the ply
dropoff was kept away from both load and
constraint locations to avoid their
interference. The laminate is assumed to be
linearly elastic until the point of delamination
[Varughese et al., 2001]. A five layer
composite laminated plate 120mm long and
100mm wide with two ply drops has been
Figure 1 Geometry of Laminated Skew
analyzed under biaxial inplane compression
Composite Plate with Ply Drop
load as shown in figure 1. The thickness of
So for the analysis five different layup each lamina is taken as 0.75 mm. Detail of
configurations are selected including 00, 450 five different layup configurations
and 900 fibres as they are most commonly considered for analysis are given in Table1.
used practically. The stiffness contributions
Table 1. Layup Configurations
Stacking sequence and Lengths for the laminated composite with ply
Layup dropoff (mm)
configurations Thick Taper section Thin
Thick section Thin section
section (1/20 ply ratio) section
LC 1 [(0/90] 2 /0] [0/90/0] 60 15 60
LC 2 [(90/0] 2 /0] [90/0/0] 60 15 60
LC 3 [(45/45] 2 /0] [45/45/0] 60 15 60
LC 4 [45/45/0/90/0] [45/90/0] 60 15 60
LC 5 [45/45/90/0/0] [45/0/0] 60 15 60
158
Buckling Analysis of Composite Laminated Skew Plate of Variable Thickness Under Biaxial
Compression
(c)
(a)
(d)
(b)
Figure 2 Variation of buckling load with
skew angle for different layup
configuration for simply supported and
(b) clamped supported
(e)
Figure 3 Variation of buckling load with
skew angle for different ply drop ratio for
(a)LC1, (b)LC2, (c)LC3, (d)LC4 and(e)
LC5 layup configuration
(a)
EFFECT OF TAPER ANGLE ON
BUCKLING LOAD
The effect of taper angle on buckling load is
investigated by considering three different
ply drop ratio (Th/L) for analysis as 1/20,
1/18 and 1/16 for simply supported boundary
condition for different layup configurations
are shown in figure 3. It is observed that as
ply dropoff ratio changes from 1/20 to 1/16,
the buckling load increases for all layup
configuration, it is because the laminate
(b)
159
Priyanka Dhurvey
160
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
defined as the deformation caused on the flat Using Eq. (1), springin has been calculated
parts due to toolpart interaction whereas for the considered CFRP part with predefined
springin is the difference in angle caused layup sequence, thickness and geometrical
during process in angled components such as dimension as 0.57° analytically.
in L and C shaped components. Various
studies have been conducted so far to NUMERICAL APPROACH
determine the effect of various parameters on The geometry modelling and finite element
deformation of the composite part during the simulation has been carried out using
autoclave processing. In cured thermoset ABAQUS software. Various analysis like
composite part, enclosed angle is changed thermochemical, flow compaction and stress
from original angle due to material deformation have been performed for L
anisotropy. During curing process in shaped 2D laminate to predict springin
autoclave machine, chemical shrinkage takes deformation using COMPRO plugin with
place due to polymerization. Extrinsic factors ABAQUS. The AS4/8552 Hexcel prepreg
such as toolpart interaction condition, tool system considered as a composite part
material used may also have major impact on material with symmetric layup sequence
springin [Fernlund et al., 2002]. [0/90]6s and aluminum as a tool material used
in simulation. The composite part and
ANALYTICAL APPROACH metallic tool is meshed with 420 and 527
The springin deformation has been elements using 3Dstress hex elements with
determined for Lshaped CFRP component quadratic geometric order. Tool part
using analytical approach by considering interaction properties are assigned in which
various assumptions. The layup sequence, coefficient of friction is kept as 0.15 and
thickness and geometry for the Lshaped part limiting shear stress as 40000 N/m2. The
as well as for the aluminum tool has been methodology adopted for the numerical
considered as fixed parameter for the approach as a flow chart format as shown in
calculation for springin deformation. Figure 1.
An analytical model as given in Eq. (1) have In the thermochemical module, heat transfer
been developed for determining springin of coefficient of 80 W/m2 K on top of composite
L shape laminate [Radford and Diefendorf, and 20 W/m2 K on bottom of the tool is
1993]. The anisotropy components such as applied as boundary conditions. The degree
longitudinal coefficient of thermal expansion of cure vs. time plot is obtained for the given
can be determined using laminate plate curing cycle of the composite part as shown
theory [Albert, 1997] and transverse in Figure 2. The deformed shape of Lshape
coefficient of thermal expansion can be composite part is gained from stress
calculated from lamina properties using the deformation analysis. During tool removal
methods described by Pagano [Pagano, step, symmetric boundary conditions are
1974]. applied on the composite part which results
into springin deformation. The deformed and
undeformed shape for the Lshaped part is
shown in Figure 3. From that, springin angle
is calculated as 0.66° using simple
mathematical calculations.
162
Prediction of Springin Deformation for Lshaped CFRP Components
Figure 1. Methodology for Numerical Simulation using ABAQUS with COMPRO plugin
Figure 2. Degree of Cure vs. Time Plot Figure 3. Deformed and Undeformed
Shape of Composite Lshaped Part
163
Shah et al.
Abstract: Transverse shear and normal stresses play important role in causing
delamination of laminated and sandwich plate / panel structures. Conventionally, in
the postprocessing phase of a displacement based finite element analysis (FEA), the
transverse shear stresses are recovered by integrating the first two of the stress
equilibrium equations and then the transverse normal stress is recovered from these
transverse shear stresses, by integrating the third stress equilibrium equation.
However, a new method for transverse shear stress recovery using a least square of
error (LSE) method and a semi refined higherorder shear deformation theory
(SRHSDT7), based on simple equivalent single layer approach, was developed earlier
by the second author. The present work is an extension of the same, for recovery of
transverse normal stresses in such laminated plates. The novelty of the method lies
with the fact that, instead of recovering transverse normal stress from transverse shear
stresses, it is obtained directly from the primary displacement solutions obtained from
the FEA, by using the LSE method and the third stress equilibrium equation. The
present method is found to yield very accurate results, when compared to elasticity
solutions due to Pagano, as well as FE or other numerical solutions based on
computationally costly layerwise theory or complex mixed Variational theorems. Due
to the simplicity and robustness of the method, it can be used for accurate transverse
normal stress recovery in any arbitrary laminate configuration, including in sandwich
plates, for which it is an important factor.
Keywords: Laminated Composite, Transverse Normal Stress Recovery, Least
Square of Error Method, Semi Refined HSDT, Finite Element
Analysis
INTRODUCTION delamination failure. Hence, delamination
FRP laminated composites, due to their failure analysis of such laminated composites
advantages like high strengthtoweight ratio, is an essential part of their proper analysis
design flexibility, ease of replacement etc.; and design processes. The transverse stresses
have found widespread application in are known to have considerable influence on
different engineering industry, especially for the delamination failure and hence accurate
weightcritical structural applications. Such evaluation of the transverse stresses is
laminated composite plate/panels frequently important for delamination analysis of such
act as important load bearing components. composites.
However, because of inherent weakness of Generally, for laminated composites,
laminae interfaces, such laminated displacement based analyses are more
composites are highly susceptible to popular over the stress based mixed analysis
procedures, due to relative simplicity of the method of transverse shear stress recovery at
former. Within these displacement based the postprocessing phase, using a least
procedures, the twostep approach of using a square of error (LSE) method applied to the
simple two dimensional ‘equivalent single stress equilibrium equations based on the
layer theory’ (FSDT or some HSDT) to semi refined HSDT (SRHSDT7), also
obtain the primary displacement solution and proposed by them.
inplane stresses and then recovering the
This work extends the last mentioned work,
transverse stress components applying the
particularly for computation of transverse
stress equilibrium equations is quite common.
normal stress using the LSE method
For this purpose, superiority of the HSDTs presented therein, along with the same
over the FSDT and simplicity of such HSDTs SRHSDT7. However, since the formulations
over layerwise and zigzag theories is well here are little bit different than those used for
known. Naturally, a number of different the transverse shear stress recovery, they
HSDTs have been put forward by the deserve to be presented separately. In this
research community over the years, on which work, the transverse normal stress field
a comprehensive review can be found in Bhar
through the thickness at a point of the
(2011), wherein a semi refined HSDT
laminate is considered as a cubic polynomial.
(SRHSDT7) was also proposed.
Then it is computed through the thickness
The approach of recovering the transverse somewhat similarly as in Bhar and Satsangi
stresses at the postprocessing phase of a (2011), as briefed in next section.
displacement based analysis, using the three
dimensional stress equilibrium equations, THEORETICAL FORMULATION
was discussed perhaps for the first time in Since the same HSDT (SRHSDT7) is used
open literature by Pryor and Barker (1971) for describing the plate kinematics, as can be
and then by Lo et al. (1978). Later, some found in Bhar (2011) or Bhar and Satsangi
other variants of such approach were also (2011), the process of obtaining the primary
presented by Chaudhuri (1986) and some displacement solution remains the same. So
others. The important similarity amongst all here we start directly with discussion on
these works, and many at later times, is that recovery process particularly for the
the second stage solution for the transverse transverse normal stress ( ). Notations for
stresses are obtained by through the thickness symbols used, are those used conventionally,
integration of the 3D stress equilibrium unless mentioned otherwise.
equations, performed layer by layer.
The wellknown third stress equilibrium
Towards some new developments, Kant and equation, using which is to be recovered,
Menon (1991) developed a finite difference is given by
based method applied to the 3D equilibrium
equations, for obtaining the transverse (1)
stresses at the post processing phase. After Here we assume the to be recovered
more than a decade, Hossain et al. (2004) through the thickness of an arbitrary point
briefly presented a transverse stress recovery P(x,y) at the reference plane, as a cubic
technique from the equilibrium equations polynomial of the thickness coordinate (z)
based on a weighted residual method, for corresponding to pth layer, as
laminated shell panels. More recently, Bhar
and Satsangi (2011) formulated a new (2)
166
A Method for Accurate Transverse Normal Stress Evaluation in Laminated Composites Using Simple
HSDT
REFERENCES
plates subjected to inplane uniform edge matrix form by considering either tension or
loading. A relatively less number of papers compression inplane edge loads (Kumar et al.
deal with the vibration and stability problems 2003):
under the action of nonuniform inplane
edge compressive loads. However, the tensile
M q K P KG q 0 (1)
buckling characteristics of a panel are where [K], [KG] and [M] are assembled
sparsely treated in the literature. It is worth system stiffness, geometric stiffness and mass
mentioning that to the best of the authors’ matrices respectively.
knowledge, no comprehensive work has been The governing equations for the buckling and
carried out on the tension buckling of vibration problems can be obtained by
stiffened laminated composite plates reducing Eq. (1) as follows:
subjected to partial edge loading. In this Static Buckling problem: When {𝑞̈ } = {0}
work, the tensile and compressive buckling Eq. (1) reduces to a static case as
of laminated stiffened panels are investigated
with the influences of various parameters like K q Pcr KG q 0 (2)
partial edge load length and its position, ply Vibration problem: When the plate vibrates
orientations and stiffener parameters. under the action of inplane compression or
tension edge loads, Eq. (1) reduces to
THEORETICAL ANALYSIS
K q P KG q  2 M q 0 (3)
In the above Eq. (3), if P is equal to zero, the
equation represents a free vibration problem
without inplane load. If the inplane load
exists, then for a particular value of P, the
square of the frequency (ω2) becomes zero
Figure 1. Geometry of the stiffened and then the corresponding load represents
panel. the critical buckling load.
P/2 P/2 c/2
b
P P
P P c P/2 P/2 c/2 c FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION
(a) (b) (c)
In this study, a 9node heterosis plate element
Figure 2. (a) Partial edge load from one is employed with five degrees of freedom
edge;(b) Partial edge load from two (DOFs) u, v, w, θx, and θy at all edge nodes
adjacent edges.
and four DOFs such as u, v, θx, and θy at the
The stiffened laminated composite panel interior node. In order to develop heterosis
considered in this work is simply supported element, the serendipity shape functions are
on all four sides. The geometry of the used for transverse displacement w, and
stiffened panel of length a, width b, thickness Lagrange shape functions for remaining
h along x, y and z axes respectively is shown DOFs that includes u, v, θx, and θy as shown
in Fig.1. The typical loading cases considered in Fig. 3. This type of element exhibits
in this study are shown in Fig. 2. improved characteristics as compared to 8
node serendipity and 9node Lagrange
GOVERNING EQUATIONS elements (Butalia et al. 1990). A computer
The governing differential equation of motion code is developed using FORTRAN language
for a discretized structure can be written in to perform all the necessary computations.
170
Tensile and Compressive Buckling Analyses of Stiffened Laminated Composite Panels
8N Serendipity 9N Heterosis 9N Lagrange and attains minimum γcr at c/b = 0.5 and θ =
(±90o)2. The similar phenomena is again
observed at c/b = 0.0. It may be due to the
higher restraints at c/b = 0.0 and 0.5.
Node with u, v, w, θx, θy degrees of freedom
Node with u, v, θx, θy degrees of freedom 140
130 c/b
Figure 3. Different types of plate 120 bp p
0.0
11000 P c
P 0.2
The ratio of thickness of plate to the width of 10000
0.3
9000
0.4
the plate (h/b) is considered as 0.01, the 8000 0.5
7000
length to breadth ratio (a/b) is 1.0 and the 6000
5000
material properties E11/E22 = 25, G12/E22 = 4000
load changes towards the centre of panel, the Ply orientation (+/+/)
value of γcr generally increases and attains Figure 6. Variation of tensile γcr for
maximum γcr at c/b = 0.5 and θ = (±0o)2. different edge load length from both ends
However, the value of γcr continuously and plyorientations.
decreases with the further increased plyangle
171
Rajanna et al.
80
75
b
P/2 P/2 c/2
F formation of compressive zone at some
70
Nondimensional frequency ( ) 65
P/2
simply supported panel
P/2 c/2 E locations of panel.
60
55 D
50
45
40
CONCLUSION
35
30
c/b In case of tensile load, the frequency initially
A 0.0
25
B 0.1
20 C
C 0.2
increases with the load and starts decreasing
15
D 0.3
10
5
B E 0.4 at certain values of load. But, when the load
A F 0.5
0
0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 2400
is compressive, the natural frequency keeps
Nondimensional load ( decreasing. As expected, the fundamental
Figure 7. Variation of (ω
̅ ) vs. tensile load frequency becomes zero at respective
for (15/15)2 layup stiffened panel. buckling load. The compressive buckling
load is more pronounced at θ = (±0)2 for c/b
TENSILE BUCKLING OF STIFFENED = 0.0 and 0.5 and θ = (±30)2 to (±45)2 for c/b
PANELS = 0.1 to 0.4. In case of tensile load, the γcr is
It is observed from Fig. 5 that the tensile significant at (±0)2 layup and it is keep on
buckling load γcr increases with the increased decreasing with the increased plyangles.
c/b and found to be significant at higher c/b
(= 0.5) and insignificant at c/b = 0.0. It may REFERENCES
be due to the fact that the buckling load Butalia T S Kant T and Dixit V D 1990
depends on the strength and area of Performance of heterosis element for
compressive zone. This compressive zone bending of skew rhombic plates
rapidly decreases with the increased tensile Computers and Structures 34(1) 2349.
zone at higher c/b ratio and resulting rapidly Kumar L R Datta P K and Prabhakara D L
increase of tensile buckling loads. 2003 Tension buckling and dynamic
stability behaviour of laminated
The same phenomenon can also be observed
composite doubly curved panels
for the stiffened plate with edge load from subjected to partial edge loading
both ends as shown in Fig. 6. In this case, the Composite structures 60(2) 171181.
tensile buckling loads are comparatively less
Leissa A W and Ayoub E F 1988 Vibration
as compared to that of the previous case and buckling of a simply supported
(tensile load from one edge). It may be rectangular plate subjected to a pair of
attributed to the formation of compressive inplane concentrated forces Journal of
zone nearer to the weaker portion of the panel Sound and Vibration 127(1) 155171.
i.e., central zone of the panel. It is also Rajanna T Banerjee S Desai Y M and
observed from Figs 5 and 6 that there is no Prabhakara D L 2016 Effect of partial
appreciable variation in the buckling load edge loading on vibration and buckling
beyond (30o)2 plyorientation. characteristics of stiffened composite
plates Latin American Journal of Solids
and Structures, an ABCM Journal
VIBRATION OF STIFFENED PANELS 13(5) 854879.
It is observed from Fig. 7 that the natural Satish Kumar Y V and Mukhopadhyay M
frequency initially increases with the load. As 2000 A new triangular stiffened plate
the load further increases, the frequency element for laminate analysis
starts decreasing and becomes zero at the Composites Science and Technology
onset of tensile buckling load. The deceasing 60(6) 935943.
nature of frequency is mainly due to the
172
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
can be exploited for testing purposes, their The geometry and configuration of bonded
applicability in an industrial context is not tubular socket joint analyzed is shown in
straightforward. The recent development of Figure 1. The socket and both the tubes of
nanotechnologies and their applications in the tubular socket joint are made of Gr/E
adhesives lead to strong improvements in laminated FRP composites (T300/934) with
terms of mechanical properties of the ply configuration [0/90] s. The material
polymer and of the joint. It is possible to vary properties along with their strength values
continuously the elastic modulus of the for tubes/socket and adhesive are shown in
adhesive by controlling the percentage of Table 1 and 2. The adhesive thickness (δ =
reinforcement, obtaining so called 0.1 mm), total length of the structure (2L =
functionally graded adhesives (FGA) 178 mm), outer radius of tube (r1 = 14.4
[Spaggiari A et al. & Stapleton S et al. 2012]. mm), outer radius of socket (r2 = 16 mm),
Kumar and Scanlan (2010) also provided an tube thickness (t1 = 1 mm), coupling
analytical framework study for stress analysis thickness (t2 =1.5 mm), coupling length (2c
of a shafttube bonded joint using a = 26 mm) and gap between the tubes (g =
variational technique. Functionally modulus 0.2 mm) have been adopted from literature
graded bond line (FMGB) adhesives were [Das and Pradhan, 2011]. The adhesively
employed in order to reduce peak peel and bonded tubular socket joint structure
shear stress levels. Those investigators found subjected to axial loading of 10 MPa is
that there was a significant decrease in peak considered for stress analysis. Two types of
peel and shear stress levels in FMGB adhesives namely monomodulus and
compared to those of monomodulus functionally graded adhesives are used to
adhesive materials. However, their research bond both the tubes with socket. The
was limited to tubular joint made of isotropic material gradation profile for functionally
adherends. graded bond line is expressed as:
for (± c/2 ≤ z ≤ ± c)
and modulus ratio ‘R’ is expressed as
(3)
174
Stress and Failure Analysis of Functionally Graded Adhesively Bonded Tubular Socket Joint of Laminated
FRP Composites
Ez 127.50 (GPa)
Er 4.80 (GPa)
Eθ 9.00 (GPa)
Gzr= Gzθ 4.80 (GPa)
Gθr 2.55 (GPa)
υzr = υzθ 0.28
υθr 0.41
Figure 3. Peel stress (σrr) distribution
along the interface of tube and adhesive
Table 2. Elastic properties of epoxy
with varied modulus ratios 'R' for graded
adhesive
tubular socket joint.
E 2.8 (GPa)
υ 0.4 The peel and shear stress distributions at the
interface of tube and adhesive are shown in
Figures 3 and 4. Modulus ratio 'R=1' refers
to monomodulus adhesive. Figures 3 and 4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
show that peel and shear stress magnitudes
Adhesively bonded tubular socket joint are maximum at both the free edges of
experiences two vital modes of mechanical coupling region and at the centre of the
failure; failure onset at the tube/socket joint. However, highest magnitude of
adhesive interfaces due to excessive peel stresses are observed at both the free ends of
and shear stresses and cohesive failure coupling region. Further, effects of graded
within adhesive bond layer. Such failure adhesive on magnitudes of peel and shear
occurs/propagates from the stress singularity stresses are clearly reflected from Figures 3
points which are called interfacial failures. and 4. Results indicate that when there is
175
Panigrahi and Nimje
CONCLUSIONS
Tubular socket joint with functionally
graded adhesive will retard the possibility of
failure initiation by reducing peak levels of
outofplane stresses by which structural
integrity of joint can be improved
significantly.
REFERENCES
Cognard J Y 2008 Numerical analysis of
edge effects in adhesivelybonded
176
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Abstract: Conventional metallic structural joints with mechanical fasteners and weld
joints are rapidly being replaced with composite bonded joints for the last few decades
in the aerospace industry. This is because of their high strength to weight ratio, lesser
cost and low stress concentrations. Slowly, such joints are getting adapted in various
industries including automotive sector. Experimental evaluations require specialized
equipment and skilled technicians which are time consuming and costly. Analytical
methods are too idealistic as various assumptions are involved. Finite Element
Method overcomes these limitations and evaluates precise results. Accurate modeling
of adhesively bonded joints remains a challenging task. In this paper geometrically
nonlinear 3D models are used for both the adherend (CFRP) and the adhesive
(epoxy) in the lap joint which is subjected to tensile loads to analyse the debonding
behaviour, loads and stresses. The results are compared with the experimental data
available.
Keywords: FEA; CFRP; lap joint; geometric nonlinearity.
hybrid (bolted/bonded) joints with flexible bonded joints are being included in the global
adhesives. They did 2D plane strain and 3D models where adhesive layer is discretised
analyses, and used the hyperelastic Mooney– with very fine meshes resulting in high
Rivlin potentials to model flexible adhesives. degree of freedom model.
Campilho (2012) et al. developed a FE model In this paper finite element model of a single
of singlelap joint based on cohesive zone lap bonded joint with composite adherend is
model (CZM), and discussed the influence of modeled with the aim of establishing the
the cohesive law parameters of a triangular model as accurately as possible. The model
CZM. and properties are referred from the work of
Nowadays, as we have achieved a good Jianfeng Li et al. (2015).
progress in computational capabilities, the
Table 1. Properties
CFRP (T300 /QY8911) J116B
E 1 =135 GPa, E 2 =8.8 GPa, E=1 GPa
E3=8.8 GPa, G 12 = 4.5 GPa, G=0.38 GPa
G 23 = 4 GPa, G 13 = 4.5 GPa, ν=0.3, σ =14 MPa
ν 12 =0.33, ν 23 =0.35, ν 31 =0.0216 τ =14 MPa
ρ = 1414 kg/m3 ρ = 600 kg/m3
178
Nonlinear 3D Finite Element Analysis of Adhesively Bonded CFRP Lap Joint
The adhesive layer was meshed using 10 Figure 3 shows the load vs. displacement
elements through its thickness to capture the curve from finite element analysis which
stresses and deformations accurately. The shows that the failure load is 7.5 kN. Curves
meshing in the adherends in the joint region for different adherend thicknesses are not
was same as that of adhesive layer in loading shown here.
direction and width wise. Figure 2 shows the
meshing in x and y axis in which area in
contact with the adhesive layer is densely
meshed. Since the most important effects
occur at the overlap ends, refinement of the
mesh in this region would improve the
accuracy of the model. In this example a
uniform mesh models the whole overlap;
however, the use of finer meshes in those
regions where stress concentrations are
expected is recommended.
CONCLUSION
The finite element model of the joint is
established. We can see that the behaviour of
the graph is nonlinear and this nonlinearity
increases with increase in adherend thickness.
We can easily plot shear stress curve and peel
stress curve along the adhesive length of the
Figure 1. Lap Joint joint.
REFERENCES
Banea M D da Silva L F M 2009 P I Mech
Eng LJ Mater 223(1) 1.
Campilho R D S G Banea M D Neto J A B P
da Silva L F M 2012 Modelling of
single lap joints using cohesive zone
models: effect of the cohesive
parameters on the output of the
Figure 2. FE mesh of the joint simulations Journal of Adhesion Science
and Technology 88 513–33.
RESULTS
179
Singh et al.
180
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Abstract: In this paper, the stochastic natural frequency for laminated composite
plates is mapped by using Kriging model. The Kriging model is employed as
surrogate and is trained by using Latin hypercube sampling. Subsequently the
stochastic first three natural frequencies are quantified with Kriging based uncertainty
quantification algorithm. The convergence of the proposed algorithm for stochastic
natural frequency analysis of composite plates is verified and validated with original
finite element method (FEM). The sample size and computational cost are reduced by
employing the present approach compared to traditional Monte Carlo simulation
(MCS).
Keywords: Composite plate; Kriging; uncertainty quantification; stochastic
natural frequency
GOVERNING EQUATIONS
A laminated composite cantilever plates is
considered as shown in Figure 1. An eight
noded isoparametric quadratic element is
considered in finite element formulation.
Using Hamilton’s principle and Lagrange’s
equation, the dynamic equilibrium equation Figure 1. Laminated composite plate
for the equation of motion of free vibration
system can be expressed as KRIGING MODEL
(1)
[ M (ω )] [δ] + [ K (ω )] {δ } = 0 The Kriging model [Cressie, 1990] postulates
In the above equation, M( ω ) and [K( ω )] are a combination of a known function employed
the mass and stiffness matrix, respectively for simulation of required output (natural
and {δ} is the vector of generalized frequency) is expressed as,
coordinates. The governing equations are (3)
y ( x) = y0 ( x) + Z ( x)
derived based on Mindlin’s theory
incorporating transverse shear deformation. where y(x) is the unknown function of
For free vibration, the random natural interest, x is an m dimensional vector (m
frequencies [ω n (ω ) ] are determined from the design variables), y0 ( x) is the known
standard eigenvalue problem using QR approximation (usually polynomial) function
iteration algorithm. For the composite plate, and Z(x) represents is the realization of a
the natural frequencies of are obtained as: stochastic process with mean zero, variance,
1 (2) and nonzero covariance. The covariance
ω 2j (ω ) =
λ j (ω ) matrix of Z(x) is given as
(4)
Cov[ Z ( x ) , Z ( x )] = σ R [ R ( x , x )]
i j 2 i j
where j = 1, 2, 3, . . . . . . . . , nmod e
where R is a (p × p) correlation matrix and
Here λ j (ω ) is the j th eigenvalue of matrix
R(xi, xj) is the correlation function between
A = K −1 (ω ) M (ω ) and nr indicates the any two of the psampled data points xi and
number of modes retained in this analysis. xj. R is an (p x p) symmetric matrix with ones
along the diagonal. The correlation function
To implement the effects of material and
R(xi, xj) is specified by the user, and a variety
manufacturing uncertainties, a set of random
of correlation functions exist. Using Gaussian
variables representing laminate mechanical
correlation function
properties, density and orientation angles is
n 2
chosen. The randomness in these variables R( x , x ) = exp − ∑ θ k xki − xkj
i j
(5)
can be quantified either experimentally or k =1
using simulation codes. To the best of the
182
Stochastic Natural Frequency of Composite Plates using Kriging Model
where n is the number of design variables, θ k considered in the present analysis are as
is the unknown correlation parameters used to follows:
fit the model, and xki and xkj are the kth (a) Variation of plyorientation angle only:
components of the sample points x i and x j ,
θ (ω ) = {θ1 θ 2 θ 3 ........θ i ......θ l }
respectively. The predicted estimates, ŷ of (b) Combined variation of ply orientation
the response y (x) at random values of x are angle, elastic and shear modulus and mass
density:
defined as Kriging predictor
g {θ (ω ), E1 (ω ), E 2 (ω ), G12 (ω ), G23 (ω ),
yˆ ( x) = βˆ + r T ( x) R −1 [ y − f βˆ ] (6) µ12 (ω ), ρ (ω )} = { Φ 1 (θ1 ..θ l ), Φ 2 ( E1(1) ..E1(l ) ),...
.....Φ 3 ( E 2 (1) ..E 2 (l ) ) ,Φ 4 (G12 (1) ..G12 (l ) ),
The estimate of variance between underlying ......Φ 5 (G23(1) ..G23(l ) ), Φ 6 ( µ12 (1) ..µ12 (l ) ),
global model β̂ and y is estimated by
.......Φ 7 ( ρ1 ..ρ l )}
where θ i , E 1(i) , E 2(i) , G 12i , G 23(i) , μ 12(i) and
1
σˆ 2 = ( y − f βˆ ) T R −1 ( y − f βˆ ) (7) ρ i are the ply orientation angle, elastic
p moduli, shear moduli, Poisson ratio and mass
where y is the column vector of length p that density, respectively and ‘l’ denotes the
contains the sample values of the frequency number of layer in the laminate. In present
responses and f is a column vector and study, three layered graphiteepoxy
βˆ = ( f T R −1 f ) −1 f T R −1 y and symmetric angleply laminated composite
r T ( x) = [ R( x, x1 ), R( x, x 2 ),....R( x, x p ) ]T with cantilever shallow plate is considered with
deterministic length, width and thickness of
the sample data points {x1 , x 2 ,...............x p } .
1 m, 1 m and 5 mm, respectively. Material
Now the model fitting is accomplished by properties of graphite–epoxy composite [Qatu
maximum likelihood (i.e., best guesses) for and Leissa, 1991a] considered with
θ k . The maximum likelihood estimates (i.e., deterministic mean value as E 1 = 138.0 GPa,
“best guesses”) for the θ k in Eq. (5) used to E 2 = 8.96 GPa, G 12 = 7.1 GPa, G 13 = 7.1
fit a Kriging model are obtained as GPa, G 23 = 2.84 GPa, μ = 0.3, ρ=1600 kg/m3.
Max. Γ (θ k ) = −
1
2
[
p ln(σˆ 2 ) + ln R ]
(8) Table 1 presents the finite element mesh
convergence study for nondimensional
where the variance σ2 and R are both fundamental natural frequencies validated
functions of θ k , is solved for positive values with results obtained by Qatu and Leissa
of θ k as optimization variables. After (1991b). Figure 2 represents the probability
obtaining Kriging based surrogate, the density plot for validation of results obtained
random process Z(x) provides the by Kriging model with traditional Monte
approximation error that can be used for Carlo simulation (MCS). Figure 3 shows the
improving the surrogate model. scatter plot for validation of Kriging model
with original finite element model.
STOCHASTIC APPROACH BY
KRIGING CONCLUSIONS
The layerwise stochasticity in material and This presents a Kriging based approach for
geometric properties are considered as input uncertainty quantification in natural
parameters. The individual and combined frequencies of laminated composite plates.
cases of layerwise random variations The computational cost is reduced by using
Kriging compared to MCS. The results are
183
Dey et al.
presented for fundamental natural frequency geometric properties to illustrate the proposed
considering individual and combined approach.
stochasticity in ply orientation, material and
184
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
SOLUTION METHODS
Steady state and pressurebased solution for
absolute velocity formulation was done for
(b) both the cases.
Figure 1. (a) Isometric view of The turbulence models solved for the domain
computational domain for uniform cylinder; were viscous standard and realizable 𝑘 − 𝜀
(b) Zoomed in view of mesh
models. In general, 𝑘 − 𝜀 turbulence model is
the most commonly used twoequation model
for the simulation of turbulent characteristics
of flow. It gives the description of turbulence
by solving two partial difference ‘transport’
equations.
The simulation for all the cases were done for
an average velocity 0.33 m/s applied on the
(a)
inlet boundary. For pressurevelocity
coupling, SIMPLE scheme was adopted.
186
Numerical Modelling of Flow Around Cylindrical Bridge Piers with and Without Pile Cap
experimental results at few locations and dimensional flow field around circular
found to be in reasonable agreement. piers Journal of Hydraulic Engineering
130 91100
Beheshti A A and AtaieAshtiani B 2010
Experimental study of 3dimensional
flow field around a complex bridge pier
Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 136
143154
Fluent Manual 2012 Manual of FLUENT
ANSYS FLUENT
(a)
(b)
Figure 5. Comparison of Streamwise
velocity profiles obtained in Numerical
Simulation and Experiments: (a) For
Uniform Cylinder; (b) For Cylinder with
Pile Cap.
REFERENCES
Ali K H M 2002 Simulation of flow around
piers Journal of Hydraulic Research 40
161174
Salaheldin T M, Imran J and Chaudhry M H
2004 Numerical modeling of three
188
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Upon taking moments with suitable moment Taking moments with suitable moment
function vector one can recover the Euler
equations of gas dynamics. function and using the
linearity property of moment operator one
GOVERNING EQUATIONS can obtain
where
where
190
Modified Kinetic StreamlinedUpwind Petrov Galerkin Method for Euler Equations of Gas Dynamics
Figure 1. Sod’s shock tube problem Figure 2. Lax’s shock tube problem
191
Jagtap Ameya
CONCLUSION
In this paper a modified KSUPG (mKSUPG)
scheme based on thermal velocity is
proposed. Proposed scheme is free from
computationally expensive error and
exponential functions and hence it is more
efficient than the KSUPG scheme. Moreover,
192
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Abstract: Shock wave boundary layer interaction (SWBLI) along with real gas
effects is studied numerically in the present work. Both the phenomena have
potential to influence strongly the aerothermodynamics of the flow. For present
numerical investigations, a finite volume unstructured solver is employed to solve
coupled Navier Stokes and species continuity equations. Convective fluxes are
calculated using well known AUSM scheme and tested in high enthalpy ramp
induced SWBLI case. All flow features like separation shock, reattachment shock,
separation region, plateau pressure etc. were found very well captured by present
solver. In present study, the effects of wall condition and leading edge bluntness on
SWBLI are also examined. Adiabatic wall condition is found to show more
upstream influence, separation bubble size and high plateau pressure and hence,
strong interaction is observed in comparison with isothermal wall condition. Efforts
are made herein to verify mitigation of SWBLI by providing leading edge
bluntness. For present free stream conditions, leading edge bluntness made SWBLI
strong rather than weak. Therefore, prior study is required for effective
implementation of blunt leading edge SWBLI mitigation technique.
Keywords: Real gas effects; Shock wave boundary layer interaction; blunt
leading edge
Some of the earlier findings in SWBLI deal real gas effects in SWBLI cases.
with perfect gas assumption [John et al.,
2014; Marini, 1998; Coët and Chanetz, RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
1993] wherein various flow features like To assess SWBLI with real gas effects,
upstream influence location, separation freestream Mach number M ∞ =7, static
bubble size, peak pressure and peak heat temperature T ∞= 600 K and pressure
transfer rate are predicted with assumption P ∞= 1600 Pa are considered. For present
of ideal gas flow. Later few studies are laminar conditions, a sharp leading edge
concentrated on high enthalpy effects in flatplate geometry of length 50 mm
their SWBLI investigations [Tchuen et al. followed by a 15o inclined compression
2008; Davis and Sturtevant, 2000] and ramp is taken for investigations. This
various other cases [Desai et al., 2016]. freestream and geometry conditions are
Some of the studies verified the earlier tested in various cases for different gas
literature reported corelations for the models.
upstream influence location, separation
bubble size, peak heat flux and plateau EFFECT OF WALL CONDITION
pressure by the numerical simulation based
results [John and Kulkarni, 2014]. In present studies, adiabatic and isothermal l
(T w  500K) wall conditions are tested for
In view of such limited findings for SWBLI earlier described conditions. A Mach
at high enthalpy conditions, present contour obtained from numerical simulation
investigations are planned to analyse the is shown in Figure. 1 for adiabatic wall
proposed interaction for 15° ramp attached conditions. In this figure, all flow features
to a flat plate. Reacting flow version of in are found very well captured. Wall skin
house developed solver USHAS friction coefficient and pressure distribution
(Unstructured Solver For Hypersonic are plotted in Figure. 2 (a) and Figure. 2 (b)
Aerodthermodynamic Applications) has for both cases. More upstream influence,
been employed herein. This version of the high plateau pressure and high re
solver accounts for five species (N 2 , O 2 , attachment shock are evident from Figure. 2
NO, O and N) with temperature dependent (b) for adiabatic wall condition. Here, skin
properties and eleven prominent friction coefficient plot is used for accurate
dissociationrecombination reactions among estimation of separation bubble size. The
them. There is a provision in this version of stream wise negative region length of skin
USHAS by which reaction part of the solver friction coefficient gives idea of separation
can be made silent to simulate the frozen bubble size. The obtained separation bubble
flow condition. For present simulations, sizes are tabulated for all gas models in
AUSM scheme is used for inviscid flux Table 1. It was noticed that adiabatic wall
computations. Studies with perfect, frozen condition shows much larger separation
and nonequilibrium flow solvers are region in comparison to isothermal wall
conducted to evaluate the prominence condition which is consistent in all gas
between thermal and chemical non models. Higher upstream influence, thicker
equilibrium in this SWBLI. Such hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layer,
investigations are found essential in case of larger wall gradients are the main reasons
SWBLI in the presence of high temperature for the same.
real gas.
CONCLUSIONS
NUMERICAL METHODOLOGY SWBLI with high enthalpy free stream
Governing equation of two dimensional conditions have been demonstrated in
(2D) NS equations and species continuity present study. It was found that frozen and
equations are solved for investigation of nonequilibrium flow shows almost same
194
High Enthalpy Simulations for Shock Wave Boundary Layer Interaction
trend whereas differences have been upstream influence, large separation bubble
observed with respect to perfect gas flow. It size, high plateau pressure are noticed in
is noticed that the real gas tend to reduce the adiabatic wall case in comparison to
size of the separation bubble. High isothermal case.
Figure 1. Mach number contour for SWBLI simulations for reacting gas flow
with adiabatic wall condition.
b).
Figure 2. Effect of wall conditions on distribution of wall parameters (Reacting
gas model). a).Surface skin friction coefficient & b). Surface pressure.
195
Desai et al.
196
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Abstract: This project aims to establish the correlation between test results and CFD
simulation. Also sensitivity of different turbulence models has been studied. To
establish comparative results (±10% test result) exact modelling of wind tunnel is
must. Experimental test has been performed in Air flow performance tester and CFD
simulation is carried out with FEM based CFD solver ‘Acusolve’. The inputs for the
axial fan are volumetric flow rate (m3/hr) and speed (rpm). Final answer is pressure
difference between outlet and inlet. By changing volume flow rate and rpm the graph
between pressure difference (Pa) and rpm is drawn. Different cases by changing mesh
and zone refinement are compared and also different turbulence model such as Spalart
Allmaras (SA), SST model are discussed. Modelling of fan done by using solid
works, for surface meshing ‘Hypermesh’ had been used.
Keywords: CFD; Sensitivity; FEM; Volumetric flow rate; Zone refinement;
Volume meshing; Boundary condition.
198
Design and Testing of Axial Fans for Cooling Engines
u t =ῤ ῠf v1
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
x3
f v1= The main aim of this work is to match test
x3+ Cv13
results with CFD simulation results by
ῠ
x= changing parameters like rpm and flow rate
𝑣
and getting results in the form of pressure
The walldamping function, fv 1 , is a damping difference at inlet and outlet. From figure6 it
factor between zero and one. At high is clear that with refinement of mesh around
Reynolds numbers the function tends to unity fan and also because of adding zone mesh at
and is equal to the kinematic turbulent downstream for SA answers are within 10%
viscosity. The viscosity affected region of the range to test results. But still for higher rpm
boundary layer must be solved, which at 3370 and 3326 answers are not acceptable.
requires a y+value of approximately one. So for this reason SST is used for finer mesh
by keeping all other conditions same.
KW SST MODEL
Because of changing turbulence equation
The kω SST turbulence model, proposed by from SA to SST answers are within range of
Menter (1993), combines the stable 10% of actual test results (see figure7). From
performance of the k turbulence model in the this is understood that by SA is predicting a
free stream region with the kω model which flow for lower rpm and for higher rpm SA is
is characterized by the simplistic yet accurate not as accurate as SST. So to validate this
prediction of the nearwall region. These two point rpm kept constant at 3150 only mass
models are added together by a blending flux is changed and this is solved by using
function which activates the appropriate SA as turbulance equation (see graph
model in the separate regions. It also allows figure8). For rpms lower than 3250 SA is
for smooth transition between the two giving answers which are within 10% of the
models. Furthermore, performance in flows actual test results. But for rpms more than
with adverse pressure gradients and wake 3250 SA is not as accurate as SST. From this
regions are improved by limiting turbulent it is clear that for CFD analysis of axial fan
viscosity. This model proves to be reliable for this air performance tester actual
and accurate for a wide variety of flows. modelling of test setup, with proper meshing
at critical regions and selection of turbulence
SOLUTION PROCEDURE equation creates big impact on final
Actual modelling of fan is to be done by simulation answer.
considering inlet same as that of tunnel From figure6 it is clear that SA is giving
dimensions and outlet to replicate same test predicting good results except for two rpms
conditions. Also in actual case fan is tested that is at 3370 and 3326rpm. So for these two
with back mount (shroud) which is also to be cases velocity magnitudes are generated to
added in geometry. First grid independence compare the flow capture around fan in SA
study is to be done with two different types and SST. For convergence the solution is run
of mesh, coarse and fine. In finer mesh, zone for 100 iterations at 20 CPU’s for 2hrs. SST
mesh and finer mesh around fan is
199
Abdulazeem et.al.
is combination of Kw and K it is more accurate than SA. Upto certain rpm range SA
accurate for higher speeds than the SA predicts well but after that limit it is difficult
model. From following figure it is clear that to get accurate solution, so SST can be used
SA is not capturing the flow seperation which above those levels. Here pressure drop is
is occuring at the back mount, which is easily increases as mass flux is decreasing, this is
capturable by the SST. If rpm is below 3250 because of vaccum effect created by fan.
SA is predicting good flow and giving
answers within range of 10% of actual test
results.
20
Test_resul
10 ts
Pressure difference
Coarse_m
esh
Fine_mes
0 h
15 Error band
Pressure_difference
Test_results
10 Finemesh_SA
5 Finemesh_SST
Figure 10 Velocity magnitude comparison
0 between SST and SA for 3370 rpm
3000 3100 3200 3300 3400
5 RPM REFERENCES
Figure 7 Graph rpm vs pressure Jain S and Deshpande Y 2009 CFD
difference for finer mesh by using SA and modelling of a Radiator Axial Fan for
SST Air Flow Distribution International
12 Journal of Mechanical, Aerospace,
10
Industrial, Mechatronic and
Manufacturing Engineering 6.
Pressure difference
8
Test_results
6 Dushyant D. Devendra Singh D. 2013 CFD
Simulation_
4 SA Analysis of Axial Flow Fans with
2
Skewed Blades International Journal of
Emerging Technology and Advanced
0
0 0.5 Mass_flux 1 1.5 Engineering 3(10).
Mohd Yusoff S Azraai S B Wan Mokhtar
Figure 8 Graph mass flux vs pressure Wan Abdullah 2009 CFD Modelling of
difference at constant rpm by using SA Air Flow Distribution from a Fan
International Conference on
CONCLUSION Applications and Design in Mechanical
The flow of axial fan around region is studied Engineering 11 – 13
numerically and through simulation. By using Tushar C A Shivprakash B 2014 Design and
AcuSolve it is easy to match test results with Analysis of Engine Cooling Fan
simulation results. Also efficiency of International Journal of Current Engg
simulation can be controlled within range of and Technology ISSN 2277 INPRESSO.
10% efficiency. From work it is clear that for
such type of applications SST is more
200
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Abstract: Aakalan is a new numerical solver for applications that require high
accuracy. It has been designed to work with structured, unstructured or polyhedral
meshes. Aakalan maintains high accuracy of the numerical solutions by using
quadratic interpolations for spatial reconstruction of all variables and their gradients.
Numerical problems involving incompressible and compressible fluid flow and heat
transfer are solved using a segregated pressure based finite volume method.
Additionally, a series of new higher order limiters have been developed to solve
problems involving discontinuities and extremely high gradients. Aakalan can thus
become a very effective tool for engineers, designers and researchers working in
many different areas like aerodynamics, multiphase reacting flows, aeroacoustics,
electromagnetics etc.
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics; CFD; Unstructured mesh; High accuracy;
Higher order scheme; Quadratic interpolation;Higher order limiters.
202
AAKALAN A Third Order Finite Volume Solver for Unstructured Meshes
made of triangles only. The solver is able to The next problem is chosen to demonstrate
resolve the shock very well. This problem the performance of the solver on a
shows that the flux limiters used in Aakalan computational mesh made of different cell
work equally well with unstructured meshes. types. Figure 4 shows contours of xdirection
velocity for flow over a sphere with Reynolds
number of one hundred. The computational
mesh used for solution of this problem is
made of triangular nonuniform prisms near
the solid boundary and nonuniform
tetrahedra away from the boundary. Some of
the cells in this mesh are highly non
orthogonal and skewed. The drag coefficient
due to the flow around the sphere is
calculated to be 1.2 using this mesh. This
Figure 2.Mach 2.0 flow over a wedge. value is slightly higher than the
experimentally determined value of
The next problem is chosen to test the
approximately 1.0 (Munson et al. 1990).
working of the solver with high aspect ratio
However, the error in the drag coefficient can
cells. The variation of skin friction
be reduced by using a computational grid
coefficient (c f ) with Reynolds number for
R R
CONCLUSIONS
Figure 3.Variation of skin friction A new third order finite volume solver for
coefficient (c f ) with Reynolds number for
R R
generic unstructured meshes has been
turbulent flow over a flat plate. developed. All variables and gradients are
203
Bapat C.
204
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
Abstract: The numerical solution for the unsteady incompressible viscous flow in a
rectangular cavity [Dalai, 2014] is obtained by solving the time dependent
ω n +1
=
(d x ) ( )
− c xij ω ijn++11 + d x + c xij ω ijn−+11 solution is obtained when
ij
1 + 2d x + 2d y ψ ij − ψ ij ≤ 10 and ω ij − ω ij ≤ 10 .
n +1 n −10 n +1 n −10
+
(d y ) ( )
− c yij ω in++11j + d y + c yij ω in−+11j + ω ijn
...(5)
First the results are obtained in the lid
driven square cavity for validation purpose.
1 + 2d x + 2d y These results are validated with Erturk et al.
(2005). The Figure 1 shows that the
and computed u and vvelocity profiles along the
ψ ijn+1 + ψ ijn−1 ψ in+1 j + ψ in−1 j center of the cavity match very well with
+ + ω ijn Erturk et al. (2005) velocity profiles at
∆x 2
∆y 2
Reynolds numbers 1000 and 20,000. The
ψ ijn +1 = ..(6)
2 2 present result is computed using grid sizes
+ 2
∆x 2
∆y 1002x1002 whereas the Erturk et al. (2005)
result is computed in the grid sizes 601x601.
∆t ∆t
Where d x = , c x ij = , The number of grid points for the rectangular
Re ∆x 2
Re ∆y 2 cavity along xdirection is 257, 513 and 1002;
∆t ∆t and the number of grid points along y
c xij = u ijn , c yij = v ijn and Δx and Δy are
2∆x 2∆y direction is computed by multiplying the
the grid sizes along the x and ydirections aspect ratio (A) with the corresponding grid
respectively. points along the abscissa. Using these grid
sizes, the solutions were computed up to
The vorticity value along the boundary walls maximum Reynolds number 20,000. The
are evaluated from Eq.(4) using Taylor series results have been computed for aspect ratio
expansion. The coupled Eq.(1) and (2) along range 0.1 to 0.9. The study of flow properties
with boundary conditions, Eq.(3) & (4) are includes the observation of stream function
solved using GaussSeidel iteration and vorticity contours in the cavity and
techniques in a single loop. The time step thorough visualization of location of main
chosen for the solution is the CFL time step. subeddies in the first primary eddy and
Though the discretised Eq.(1) is implicit in counter rotating primary eddy.
nature but the time step chosen for that
scheme is explicit in nature. The steady state
Figure 1(a) u
Figure 1 (b) v
Figure 1©u Figure 1(d) v
velocity, Re=1000
velocity, Re=1000.
velocity, velocity, Re=20000
Re=20000.
Figure.1 Validation of u and vvelocity profiles at Reynolds number 1000 and 20,000.
206
Unsteady Flow in A Rectangular LidDriven Cavity
Figure 2(a) stream function contour at Figure 2(b) Stream function contour at
Re=100. Re=20,000.
Figure 3(a) The stream function contours Figure 3(b) The stream function contours
at Re=100. at Re=5000`
Figure 4 (a) The stream function contours Figure 4(b) The stream function contours
at Re=1000. at Re=15000.
counter rotating primary eddy can be said as downstream corner eddies with increase of
first type. Reynolds number in a particular aspect ratio
which shows the reverse trend to that of lid
The Figure 3(a) shows a cavity of aspect ratio
driven square cavity.
0.4 in which the primary eddy does not
contain separatrix up to Reynolds number REFERENCE
1000. At Reynolds number 1000, the counter
Jagadish B S 1977 Numerical study of
rotating primary eddy is developed due to the
transient and steady induced symmetric
growth of left corner eddy along the lower
flows in rectangular cavities Journals of
horizontal wall of the cavity. This second
Fluids Engineering 526530.
primary eddy is located near the left vertical
wall of the cavity. This counter rotating Dalai B Laha M K 2014 Chapter 4
primary eddy does not contain separatrix and Incompressible viscous flows in two and
it becomes full grown primary eddy at three dimensional liddriven cavity PhD
Reynolds number 5000 as shown in Figure 3 thesis, Indian Institute of Technology
(b). This type of flow patterns are continued Kharagpur.
up to aspect ratio 0.6. This type of Erturk E Corke T C and Gockol C 2005
development of counter rotating primary Numerical solutions of 2D steady
eddy can be said as second type. incompressible driven cavity flow at
From the Figure 4(a) and (b), the separatrix is high Reynolds numbers International
totally absent in the primary eddies in the Journal of Numerical Methods in Fluids
cavity of aspect ratio 0.7. Here the counter 48 747774
rotating primary eddy is formed due to the Roache P J 1987 Chapter 8: Semidirect
growth of the left corner eddy and the methods for nonlinear equations of
secondary eddy along the left vertical wall of fluidynamics114  115 in Elliptic
the cavity. The number of counter rotating Marching Methods and Domain
primary eddies become two at Reynolds Decomposition CRC Press New York
number 15000. By that time the first primary
eddy has grown to a big circular primary
eddy as shown in Figure 4(b). It is also
observed that the appearance of the number
of counter rotating primary eddy increases as
the aspect ratio of the cavity is increased up
to 0.7 and that decreases suddenly when the
cavity reaches the aspect ratio 0.8. This type
of development of counterrotating primary
eddy can be said as third type.
CONCLUSION
From the above discussion, it is clear that
there are essentially three types of
development of counter rotating primary
eddies within the aspect ratio range 0.1 to 0.9
and their appearance in aspect ratio ranges
are: (1) 0.10.3 for first type, (2) 0.40.6 for
second type and (3) 0.70.9 for third type.
Their location also varies for three ranges of
aspect ratios. Another close observation will
also ensure that the growth of the upstream
corner eddies become faster than the right
208
ICCMS2016
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27July 1, 2016
change of flow regime from laminar through In the present investigation, at constant
intermittent to turbulent. angular ribs of Ɵ = 60⁰ with six different
centre clearances were considered, i.e. C = 0,
0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6. The geometrical
configuration of the circular tube with centre
cleared angular ribs discussed in the present
work is shown in Figure 1. Air enters the
channel at an inlet temperature, T in of 300 K
and wall temperature, T wall of 500 K.
Uniform wall temperature boundary
condition is considered with no slip. The
range of Reynolds number employed is
Figure 1 Schematic diagram of 10,000 to 1,00,000. At inlet, a uniform profile
computational domain is used with a level of turbulent intensity of
Varun et al. (2007) reviewed the geometry of 5% even in the laminar regime following
roughness used in heat exchangers and Abraham et al. (2009).
reported the optimum geometry of roughness The governing equations are discretized on a
that is adapted in case of solar air collectors. nonuniform structured grid using finite
Hans et al. (2009) studied the basic geometry volume method and transition  SST model
of roughness element employed by various has been used which predicts the change of
researchers to enhance the thermal efficiency flow regime from laminar through intermittent
of solar air heaters. In view of the search for to turbulent. The velocities and pressures
optimal roughness pattern, few decent were predicted using semi implicit pressure
roughness geometries have been compared linked equations (SIMPLE) scheme. The
on the basis of thermohydraulic interpolation of the gradients of velocities
performance. Bhushan et al. (2010) presented and temperature used the thirdorder accurate
their attempt to classify and examine the scheme. While the gradients for intermittency
geometry of artificial roughness used in the (γ), turbulent kinetic energy, specific
ducts of solar air collectors. Chandra et al. dissipation rate, and momentum thickness
(2003) explained the thermal characteristics used second order accurate upwind scheme.
in a square channel with continuous ribs on The discretized equations are then linearized
one, two, three, and four walls and found that using an implicit scheme and solved
the heat transfer and pressure drop increase iteratively using Ansys Fluent 15, 3d double
with the rise in the number of ribbed walls. precision solver. The convergence criteria for
It is evident from the review above the continuity, momentum and energy are set at
arrangement of inclined ribs inside a circular 104, 105, and 107 respectively.
duct provide better mixing; this new type of
ribs with holes could provide even better RESULT AND DISCUSSION
enhanced heat transfer from the wall. The
By doing computations, the result obtained
aim of this work will be to put forth the
findings of heat transfer and thermal for heat transfer and friction factor
performance of this novel inclined ribs characteristics in the plain channel are
attachment. verified in terms of Nusselt number and
friction factor. The predicted results from the
MATHEMATICAL MODEL proposed correlations are shown in Figure 2
210
Numerical Simulation of the Turbulent Air Flow in the Narrow Circular Channel with CentreCleared
Rib Vortex Generator
3. According to this figures, the present heat transfer enhancement with similar trend
results are in good agreement with the Dittus pattern in comparison with the plain channel
Bolter correlation for Nusselt number and and thus, the Nu increases with the rise of
Blasius correlation for friction factor with Reynolds number. One can see from the
tolerances of ± 1.3 % and ± 1.5%, Figure 4 that the small centre cleared ribs
respectively. shows some promising result in terms of
Nusselt number. The rib with no centre
clearance gives the best result.