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PV Source Integrated Micro-Grid for Power Quality Improvement


Department of Electrical Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur, India

Abstract—Recently the power productions by PV source devices are based on power electronics and
are growing fast & affect the electric power generation microelectronics. These two technologies are considerably
market in the way of power prices. But it is very improved the quality of modern life. But, at the time of the
challenging to integrate with distribution system because it nonlinearity and unbalance condition, same sensitive
directly affects the power quality in a distribution system. technologies are conflicting with each other and create a
This paper present an active power component theory challenge to maintain quality of service in form of poor
based shunt active power filter (SAPF) to integrate the PV power factor, increased heating losses, transient and steady
source at Micro-Grid distribution level with the significant state disturbance nearby PCC [1]. Ultimately end users
reduction of the harmonic. The control strategy consists of suffer from poor power quality problems and pay
mainly three parts: (1) calculate reference current template additional electricity penalty and in an industry it may be
(2) regulate the DC voltage across PV source and (3) loose customer productivity. Conventionally, passive LC
generation of firing pulses. Overall a high accuracy in filters have been used to solve this type of problem [1].
source current is achieved by a current control loop, which However, there are lot of limitations like as fixed
influences the performance of APF-PV system with fast compensation, large size, tuning problem, exile resonance
dynamic response. The fuzzy controller used to conditions and inability to compensate changing harmonic
compensate DC voltage by voltage control loop. It is also current content [1-4]. Active power filters are now seen as
important to note that APC offers a smaller total harmonic a viable alternative solution over the classical passive
distortion of the source current with integrated PV. The filters, to compensate harmonics and reactive power
steady state and dynamic performance of proposed scheme requirement of the non-linear loads, because of its
has been tested by simulation under a diode bridge rectifier excellent performance characteristics and simplicity in
load RL in balance & unbalance condition. implementation, both in single and three phase system [1].
Various control strategies of SAPF have been published
Index Terms— Active Power Component (APC), Shunt
from past long years [5-7], but PV source integration with
Active Power Filter (APF), Point of Common Coupling
3P4W grid is popular to compensate the harmonic as well
(PCC), Renewable Energy Source (RES).
as to transfer the power [8]. From the kinds of literature [1-
Nomenclature 8], generally control strategy consists of mainly three
𝑖𝐿 Load Harmonic Current parts:
𝑖𝑠 Micro-Grid Current before Compensation
𝐼𝐴𝑓 Active Load Current  Calculate reference current template
𝐼𝑅𝑓 Reactive Load Current  Regulate the DC voltage across the capacitor and
𝐼𝐻𝑓 Harmonic Load Current
𝐼1 &𝐼𝑛 Peak Value of Fund. and nth Component of Current
 Production of firing pulses.
𝐼𝑃 Peak Value of Active Fund. Component of Current
𝐼𝑠𝑝 Peak Current Supplied by Micro-Grid at After Comp.
Reference current template generations usually
𝑖𝑠𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠 Total Loss Current of System Supplied by Micro-Grid involve various techniques, but in this paper APC method
𝑖𝑟∗ Reference Current (Generated by Control Algorithm) has been used due to fast dynamic response and less
𝐼𝑝∗ Peak Error Reference Value complexity. Overall a high accuracy in source current is
𝑖𝑠∗ Micro-Grid Current after Compensation achieved by a current control loop, which mainly
𝑖𝑐 Compensating Current
𝑋𝐿 Equivalent System Impedance
influences the performance of APF system with fast
𝑉𝑚 Maximum Voltage dynamic response. The fuzzy controller is used to
𝑢𝑠𝑎𝑏𝑐 Voltage of Micro-Grid compensate DC voltage. The wide literature has been
𝑉𝑑𝑐 .𝑟𝑒𝑓 Reference DC Link Voltage published in reference [8,9]. The solar power generations
𝑉𝑑𝑐 .𝑎𝑐𝑡 DC Link Voltage across Capacitor are used for improving the load demand power with power
𝑃𝐴 Active Power Drown by Load
𝑃𝑅 Reactive Power Drown by Load
quality improvement at the PCC. Firstly the domestic load
𝑃𝐻 Harmonic Power of Load is supplied by solar power with battery bank, when power
𝑃𝑠 Fundamental Load Power demand or load varies; the system is automatically
𝑈𝑎 Unit Sine Vector Template connected through grid and supply/consumes the balance
𝜑1 &𝜑𝑛 Phase Angle of the Fund. & Harmonic Component power. At a time of load variation, harmonics are
𝐿𝑐 Coupling Inductor
ℎ𝑏 Width of Hysteresis Band generated in the system. The common DC link voltage of
VSC is regulated using a fuzzy logic controller. The grid
I. INTRODUCTION interfaced RES has been developed in [11,12]. This control
The widespread use of nonlinear loads is common in technique is comparatively more reliable. The
distribution systems because the user required the compact determination of the power system parameters is
and low energy consumable devices. Generally those dependent the following system characteristics:

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 The maximum allowable voltage drop at PCC. semiconductor switches. Although a single pulse for each
 The characteristics of the expected voltage and current half cycle can be applied to synthesize an AC voltage, for
harmonics to be compensated. most applications requiring dynamic performance, pulse
width modulation is the most commonly used today. PWM
 Interconnection of solar energy to micro- grid.
techniques applied to a voltage source inverter consist of
The simulation and analysis study given in this paper chopping the dc bus voltage to produce an AC voltage of
and it focuses on study state and dynamic state behavior of an arbitrary waveform. With PWM techniques, the AC
the system as well as harmonic compensation in the output of the filter can be controlled as a current or voltage
system. source device. Voltage source converters are preferred
over current source converter because it is higher in
II. DESIGN OF SAPF SYSTEM efficiency and lower initial cost than the current source
Most of the active power filter topologies use voltage converters [13]. They can be readily expanded in parallel
source converters, which are a voltage source at the dc bus, to increase their combined rating and their switching rate
usually a capacitor, as an energy storage device. This can be increased if they are carefully controlled so that
topology, shown in Figure 1, converts a dc voltage into an their individual switching times do not coincide.
AC voltage by appropriately gating the power

Figure 1. Configuration of Shunt Active Filter and PV Source with Micro-Grid System.

Therefore, higher-order harmonics can be eliminated Here PA is active fundamental power. Only active
by using converters without increasing individual fundamental components can responsible for delivering
converter switching rates. The Instantaneous current & load power. The PR & PH is reactive and Harmonic power
load can be written as flow in the system due to unbalance & nonlinearity
characteristic of a load. So active or real power drawn by

the load from the source is
𝑖𝑠 = 𝐼𝑛 sin 𝑛𝜔𝑡 + 𝜑𝑛
𝑛 =1
𝑜𝑟 𝑃𝐴 = 𝑉𝑚 𝐼1 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜔𝑡 × 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑1
∞ 𝑜𝑟
… … … … (1)
𝑖𝑠 = 𝐼1 sin 𝜔𝑡 + 𝜑1 + 𝐼𝑛 sin 𝑛𝜔𝑡 + 𝜑𝑛 𝑃𝐴 = 𝑉𝑠 𝑡 × 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜔𝑡. 𝐼1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑1
… … … … … … … … … … … (3)
𝑜𝑟 𝑃𝐴
𝐼1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑1 = = 𝐼𝑝
𝑖𝑠 = 𝐼𝐴𝑓 + 𝐼𝑅𝑓 + 𝐼𝐻𝑓 𝑃𝑠 𝑡 . 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜔𝑡
Where 𝐼𝐴𝑓 , 𝐼𝑅𝑓 , 𝐼𝐻𝑓 is active, reactive and harmonic load current
Therefore, source current after compensation will be given
by equation (3)
𝑃𝑠 = 𝑉𝑠 × 𝐼𝑠 Where 𝐼1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑1 = 𝐼𝑝
𝑜𝑟 … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … . … . (2) In a practical converter, there are switching,
𝑃𝑠 = 𝑃𝐴 +𝑃𝑅 +𝑃𝐻
conducting and capacitor leakage losses. So that losses
- -

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must be supplied by the Micro-Grid itself. Hence, total and Point of Common Coupling (PCC). The filtered DC
peak current supplied by Micro-Grid will be given as voltage is subtracted from the reference value and the error
signal is fed to fuzzy controller. The aim of fuzzy
𝐼𝑆𝑃 = 𝐼𝑝 + 𝐼𝑠𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠 … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … (4) controller is to maintain constant DC voltage under
varying load conditions. The fuzzy logic controller works
where 𝐼𝑆𝑃 = Total peak current supplied by Micro-Grid. as a voltage regulator and generates Vdc,error.
where 𝐼𝑠𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠 = loss current of converter supplied by the
source. IS X

If total harmonic and reactive power of the load is 1 S1

 X
supplied, by the Active Power Filter then there will not be VDC, error 
any harmonic in source current and source current will be 2 X S2
in phase with the source voltage. Therefore, the total VS t
source current including losses will be given as UVT 
𝑖𝑠∗ = 𝐼𝑆𝑃 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜔𝑡 … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … . (5) Figure 2. UVT based control Algorithm with HCC.

So compensating current will be given as Now this Vdc,error is multiplied with UVT output and
then subtracted from an actual current. After subtraction,
𝑖𝑐 𝑡 = 𝑖𝑠 − 𝑖𝑆∗ … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … . . (6) the error is given to hysteresis controller as shown in Fig.2.
Hysteresis controller is generating switching signal for
It is obvious from above discussion that for four legs IGBTs (P1 to P8.). Now these gate pulses are
instantaneous compensation of reactive power, in addition, driven the IGBTs. The requirement of a neutral load
harmonic power, Micro-Grid should be able to supply current is compensated through the fourth leg of voltage
current i∗s . Therefore, it is necessary to find i∗s which is source converter.
known as the reference current. IV. SIMULATION RESULTS
The several different techniques are available for
generation of the reference current. These reference Fuzzy logic based SAPF with PV model is simulated
currents should be in phase with the supply line voltages in MATLAB. The complete SAPF system is composed
for synchronization of SAPF output with the grid. The mainly of three-phase four wire source with a nonlinear
peak value of these currents should be as explained in load as a voltage source PWM converter. A diode rectifier
equation 4. Therefore, three-phase reference current will with R-L load is taken as non-linear load and use as
be given as balanced as well as unbalanced condition. The parameters
selected for simulation studies are given in appendix ―A‖.
∗ = 𝐼 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃
𝑖𝑠𝑎 A highly nonlinear characteristics based load is considered

𝑖𝑠𝑏 = 𝐼𝑆𝑃 sin 𝜃 − 1200 … … … … … … … … … … … … … … (7)
for performance study. The THD in the load current is
∗ = 𝐼 sin 𝜃 + 1200 30
𝑖𝑠𝑐 𝑆𝑃


The fuzzy logic controllers try to regulate/maintain the
capacitor voltage at given reference value. This variation
of DC capacitor voltage will govern the real power
exchange between PV and grid. So this output of voltage
regulator produces an Active currentIp . Now this Active
current component Ip is multiplied by unity vector
templates (Ua , Ub and Uc ) and generates the reference grid
current. For a balanced system, the neutral current should
be zero. The grid-synchronizing angle obtained from phase
locked loop (PLL) is used to generate unity vector

Ua = Sinθ

Ub = Sin θ −
3 … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … (8)

Uc = Sin θ +

As shown in the Fig.1, that capacitor voltage first

passes through the low pass filter, which eliminates the
high-frequency ripple from the voltage. The reference
value is required to compensate capacitor voltage. This
- value
reference - decides the power exchange between PV

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Vdc (Volt)

400 Transient Response while SAPF ON

ts (Settling Time) = 0.075 Sec



0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45
Time in Second

Figure 5. DC Voltage Response across the Capacitor.



In (Amp)



0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45
Time in Second

Figure 6. Neutral Current Compensation in System. 20000

Reactive Power (VAr)
15000 Active Power (VA)



0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 025 0.3 0.35 0.4
Time in Second

Figure 10. Representation of Power Consumption by Load.

The compensator is switched ON at t=0.25sec. The source

currents before and after compensation are shown in Fig.
4. However, some transients are produced during
synchronizing at PCC. From the Fig.5, the DC voltage
responses across a capacitor are depicted switching of
SAPF, hence, here the settling time required is 0.075 sec.
Also, the neutral current compensation gives better
performance with fuzzy controller shown Fig.6. Fig.7
shoes the improvement of power factor. Fig.8 represents
the compensation current. The reduction of harmonic
distortion with compensator is shown in Fig. 9. The source
current THD is reduced near to 1.23% in overall current
with PV. Fig.10 represents the active & reactive power
consumption of load.
PV based SAPF simulated in MATLAB is implemented
Total RMS before Total RMS after THD% for harmonic and reactive power compensation of the non-
Currents Compensation Compensation
Phase a 62.52 50.92 1.16
linear load at PCC purpose. The simulation results show
Phase b 39.70 49.84 0.88 the improvement in power quality of the Micro-Grid
Phase b 40.38 48.74 1.00 distribution system by eliminating harmonics and reactive
power compensation of non-linear load, which makes the
978-1-5090-2157-4/16/$31.00 ©2016 IEEE load current sinusoidal and in phase with the source
APPENDIX [12] Chao-Shun Chen, Chia-Hung Lin, Cheng-Ting Hsu, ―Enhancement
of PV Penetration With DSTATCOM in Tai power Distribution
Voltage and frequency 230 V,50 Hz System,‖ IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 28, May 2013.
line inductance ,resistance 0.1mH,.1 Ω
Coupling inductance 3.5mH [13] Bhim Singh a, P. Jayaprakash B, D.P. Kothari, ―New control
For CS Type Load resistance, load inductance 26.66 Ω,50mH approach for capacitor supported DSTATCOM in three-phase four
For CS Single phase b/w c and n 36.66 Ω,50mH wire distribution system under non-ideal supply voltage conditions
Single phase linear load b/w a and n 60 Ω,30mH based on synchronous reference frame theory,‖ Electrical Power
Inverter DC( bus voltage and capacitance 710 V, 3200µF and Energy Systems, vol. 33, pp. 1109–1117, Jun. 2011.
[14] Rade M. Ciric, Antonio Padilha Feltrin, and Luis F. Ochoa, ―Power
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Engineering, Malaviya National Institute
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