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PV Source Integrated Micro-Grid for Power Quality Improvement

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Department of Electrical Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur, India

Abstract—Recently the power productions by PV source devices are based on power electronics and

are growing fast & affect the electric power generation microelectronics. These two technologies are considerably

market in the way of power prices. But it is very improved the quality of modern life. But, at the time of the

challenging to integrate with distribution system because it nonlinearity and unbalance condition, same sensitive

directly affects the power quality in a distribution system. technologies are conflicting with each other and create a

This paper present an active power component theory challenge to maintain quality of service in form of poor

based shunt active power filter (SAPF) to integrate the PV power factor, increased heating losses, transient and steady

source at Micro-Grid distribution level with the significant state disturbance nearby PCC [1]. Ultimately end users

reduction of the harmonic. The control strategy consists of suffer from poor power quality problems and pay

mainly three parts: (1) calculate reference current template additional electricity penalty and in an industry it may be

(2) regulate the DC voltage across PV source and (3) loose customer productivity. Conventionally, passive LC

generation of firing pulses. Overall a high accuracy in filters have been used to solve this type of problem [1].

source current is achieved by a current control loop, which However, there are lot of limitations like as fixed

influences the performance of APF-PV system with fast compensation, large size, tuning problem, exile resonance

dynamic response. The fuzzy controller used to conditions and inability to compensate changing harmonic

compensate DC voltage by voltage control loop. It is also current content [1-4]. Active power filters are now seen as

important to note that APC offers a smaller total harmonic a viable alternative solution over the classical passive

distortion of the source current with integrated PV. The filters, to compensate harmonics and reactive power

steady state and dynamic performance of proposed scheme requirement of the non-linear loads, because of its

has been tested by simulation under a diode bridge rectifier excellent performance characteristics and simplicity in

load RL in balance & unbalance condition. implementation, both in single and three phase system [1].

Various control strategies of SAPF have been published

Index Terms— Active Power Component (APC), Shunt

from past long years [5-7], but PV source integration with

Active Power Filter (APF), Point of Common Coupling

3P4W grid is popular to compensate the harmonic as well

(PCC), Renewable Energy Source (RES).

as to transfer the power [8]. From the kinds of literature [1-

Nomenclature 8], generally control strategy consists of mainly three

𝑖𝐿 Load Harmonic Current parts:

𝑖𝑠 Micro-Grid Current before Compensation

𝐼𝐴𝑓 Active Load Current Calculate reference current template

𝐼𝑅𝑓 Reactive Load Current Regulate the DC voltage across the capacitor and

𝐼𝐻𝑓 Harmonic Load Current

𝐼1 &𝐼𝑛 Peak Value of Fund. and nth Component of Current

Production of firing pulses.

𝐼𝑃 Peak Value of Active Fund. Component of Current

𝐼𝑠𝑝 Peak Current Supplied by Micro-Grid at After Comp.

Reference current template generations usually

𝑖𝑠𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠 Total Loss Current of System Supplied by Micro-Grid involve various techniques, but in this paper APC method

𝑖𝑟∗ Reference Current (Generated by Control Algorithm) has been used due to fast dynamic response and less

𝐼𝑝∗ Peak Error Reference Value complexity. Overall a high accuracy in source current is

𝑖𝑠∗ Micro-Grid Current after Compensation achieved by a current control loop, which mainly

𝑖𝑐 Compensating Current

𝑋𝐿 Equivalent System Impedance

influences the performance of APF system with fast

𝑉𝑚 Maximum Voltage dynamic response. The fuzzy controller is used to

𝑢𝑠𝑎𝑏𝑐 Voltage of Micro-Grid compensate DC voltage. The wide literature has been

𝑉𝑑𝑐 .𝑟𝑒𝑓 Reference DC Link Voltage published in reference [8,9]. The solar power generations

𝑉𝑑𝑐 .𝑎𝑐𝑡 DC Link Voltage across Capacitor are used for improving the load demand power with power

𝑃𝐴 Active Power Drown by Load

𝑃𝑅 Reactive Power Drown by Load

quality improvement at the PCC. Firstly the domestic load

𝑃𝐻 Harmonic Power of Load is supplied by solar power with battery bank, when power

𝑃𝑠 Fundamental Load Power demand or load varies; the system is automatically

𝑈𝑎 Unit Sine Vector Template connected through grid and supply/consumes the balance

𝜑1 &𝜑𝑛 Phase Angle of the Fund. & Harmonic Component power. At a time of load variation, harmonics are

𝐿𝑐 Coupling Inductor

ℎ𝑏 Width of Hysteresis Band generated in the system. The common DC link voltage of

VSC is regulated using a fuzzy logic controller. The grid

I. INTRODUCTION interfaced RES has been developed in [11,12]. This control

The widespread use of nonlinear loads is common in technique is comparatively more reliable. The

distribution systems because the user required the compact determination of the power system parameters is

and low energy consumable devices. Generally those dependent the following system characteristics:

The maximum allowable voltage drop at PCC. semiconductor switches. Although a single pulse for each

The characteristics of the expected voltage and current half cycle can be applied to synthesize an AC voltage, for

harmonics to be compensated. most applications requiring dynamic performance, pulse

width modulation is the most commonly used today. PWM

Interconnection of solar energy to micro- grid.

techniques applied to a voltage source inverter consist of

The simulation and analysis study given in this paper chopping the dc bus voltage to produce an AC voltage of

and it focuses on study state and dynamic state behavior of an arbitrary waveform. With PWM techniques, the AC

the system as well as harmonic compensation in the output of the filter can be controlled as a current or voltage

system. source device. Voltage source converters are preferred

over current source converter because it is higher in

II. DESIGN OF SAPF SYSTEM efficiency and lower initial cost than the current source

Most of the active power filter topologies use voltage converters [13]. They can be readily expanded in parallel

source converters, which are a voltage source at the dc bus, to increase their combined rating and their switching rate

usually a capacitor, as an energy storage device. This can be increased if they are carefully controlled so that

topology, shown in Figure 1, converts a dc voltage into an their individual switching times do not coincide.

AC voltage by appropriately gating the power

Figure 1. Configuration of Shunt Active Filter and PV Source with Micro-Grid System.

Therefore, higher-order harmonics can be eliminated Here PA is active fundamental power. Only active

by using converters without increasing individual fundamental components can responsible for delivering

converter switching rates. The Instantaneous current & load power. The PR & PH is reactive and Harmonic power

load can be written as flow in the system due to unbalance & nonlinearity

characteristic of a load. So active or real power drawn by

∞

the load from the source is

𝑖𝑠 = 𝐼𝑛 sin 𝑛𝜔𝑡 + 𝜑𝑛

𝑛 =1

𝑜𝑟 𝑃𝐴 = 𝑉𝑚 𝐼1 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜔𝑡 × 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑1

∞ 𝑜𝑟

… … … … (1)

𝑖𝑠 = 𝐼1 sin 𝜔𝑡 + 𝜑1 + 𝐼𝑛 sin 𝑛𝜔𝑡 + 𝜑𝑛 𝑃𝐴 = 𝑉𝑠 𝑡 × 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜔𝑡. 𝐼1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑1

… … … … … … … … … … … (3)

𝑛=2

𝑜𝑟

𝑜𝑟 𝑃𝐴

𝐼1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑1 = = 𝐼𝑝

𝑖𝑠 = 𝐼𝐴𝑓 + 𝐼𝑅𝑓 + 𝐼𝐻𝑓 𝑃𝑠 𝑡 . 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜔𝑡

Where 𝐼𝐴𝑓 , 𝐼𝑅𝑓 , 𝐼𝐻𝑓 is active, reactive and harmonic load current

Therefore, source current after compensation will be given

respectively.

by equation (3)

𝑃𝑠 = 𝑉𝑠 × 𝐼𝑠 Where 𝐼1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜑1 = 𝐼𝑝

𝑜𝑟 … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … . … . (2) In a practical converter, there are switching,

𝑃𝑠 = 𝑃𝐴 +𝑃𝑅 +𝑃𝐻

conducting and capacitor leakage losses. So that losses

- -

must be supplied by the Micro-Grid itself. Hence, total and Point of Common Coupling (PCC). The filtered DC

peak current supplied by Micro-Grid will be given as voltage is subtracted from the reference value and the error

signal is fed to fuzzy controller. The aim of fuzzy

𝐼𝑆𝑃 = 𝐼𝑝 + 𝐼𝑠𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠 … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … (4) controller is to maintain constant DC voltage under

varying load conditions. The fuzzy logic controller works

where 𝐼𝑆𝑃 = Total peak current supplied by Micro-Grid. as a voltage regulator and generates Vdc,error.

where 𝐼𝑠𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠 = loss current of converter supplied by the

source. IS X

X

supplied, by the Active Power Filter then there will not be VDC, error

any harmonic in source current and source current will be 2 X S2

in phase with the source voltage. Therefore, the total VS t

source current including losses will be given as UVT

HCC

𝑖𝑠∗ = 𝐼𝑆𝑃 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜔𝑡 … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … . (5) Figure 2. UVT based control Algorithm with HCC.

So compensating current will be given as Now this Vdc,error is multiplied with UVT output and

then subtracted from an actual current. After subtraction,

𝑖𝑐 𝑡 = 𝑖𝑠 − 𝑖𝑆∗ … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … . . (6) the error is given to hysteresis controller as shown in Fig.2.

Hysteresis controller is generating switching signal for

It is obvious from above discussion that for four legs IGBTs (P1 to P8.). Now these gate pulses are

instantaneous compensation of reactive power, in addition, driven the IGBTs. The requirement of a neutral load

harmonic power, Micro-Grid should be able to supply current is compensated through the fourth leg of voltage

current i∗s . Therefore, it is necessary to find i∗s which is source converter.

known as the reference current. IV. SIMULATION RESULTS

The several different techniques are available for

generation of the reference current. These reference Fuzzy logic based SAPF with PV model is simulated

currents should be in phase with the supply line voltages in MATLAB. The complete SAPF system is composed

for synchronization of SAPF output with the grid. The mainly of three-phase four wire source with a nonlinear

peak value of these currents should be as explained in load as a voltage source PWM converter. A diode rectifier

equation 4. Therefore, three-phase reference current will with R-L load is taken as non-linear load and use as

be given as balanced as well as unbalanced condition. The parameters

selected for simulation studies are given in appendix ―A‖.

∗ = 𝐼 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃

𝑖𝑠𝑎 A highly nonlinear characteristics based load is considered

𝑆𝑃

∗

𝑖𝑠𝑏 = 𝐼𝑆𝑃 sin 𝜃 − 1200 … … … … … … … … … … … … … … (7)

for performance study. The THD in the load current is

∗ = 𝐼 sin 𝜃 + 1200 30

𝑖𝑠𝑐 𝑆𝑃

The fuzzy logic controllers try to regulate/maintain the

capacitor voltage at given reference value. This variation

of DC capacitor voltage will govern the real power

exchange between PV and grid. So this output of voltage

regulator produces an Active currentIp . Now this Active

current component Ip is multiplied by unity vector

templates (Ua , Ub and Uc ) and generates the reference grid

current. For a balanced system, the neutral current should

be zero. The grid-synchronizing angle obtained from phase

locked loop (PLL) is used to generate unity vector

template.

Ua = Sinθ

2π

Ub = Sin θ −

3 … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … (8)

2π

Uc = Sin θ +

3

passes through the low pass filter, which eliminates the

high-frequency ripple from the voltage. The reference

value is required to compensate capacitor voltage. This

- value

reference - decides the power exchange between PV

800

700

600

500

Vdc (Volt)

ts (Settling Time) = 0.075 Sec

300

200

100

0

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45

Time in Second

30

20

10

In (Amp)

-10

-20

-30

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45

Time in Second

Reactive Power (VAr)

15000 Active Power (VA)

10000

Power

5000

-5000

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 025 0.3 0.35 0.4

Time in Second

currents before and after compensation are shown in Fig.

4. However, some transients are produced during

synchronizing at PCC. From the Fig.5, the DC voltage

responses across a capacitor are depicted switching of

SAPF, hence, here the settling time required is 0.075 sec.

Also, the neutral current compensation gives better

performance with fuzzy controller shown Fig.6. Fig.7

shoes the improvement of power factor. Fig.8 represents

the compensation current. The reduction of harmonic

distortion with compensator is shown in Fig. 9. The source

current THD is reduced near to 1.23% in overall current

with PV. Fig.10 represents the active & reactive power

consumption of load.

V. CONCLUSION

TABLE:1 THD ANALYSIS

PV based SAPF simulated in MATLAB is implemented

Total RMS before Total RMS after THD% for harmonic and reactive power compensation of the non-

Currents Compensation Compensation

Phase a 62.52 50.92 1.16

linear load at PCC purpose. The simulation results show

Phase b 39.70 49.84 0.88 the improvement in power quality of the Micro-Grid

Phase b 40.38 48.74 1.00 distribution system by eliminating harmonics and reactive

power compensation of non-linear load, which makes the

978-1-5090-2157-4/16/$31.00 ©2016 IEEE load current sinusoidal and in phase with the source

voltage.

APPENDIX [12] Chao-Shun Chen, Chia-Hung Lin, Cheng-Ting Hsu, ―Enhancement

of PV Penetration With DSTATCOM in Tai power Distribution

Voltage and frequency 230 V,50 Hz System,‖ IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 28, May 2013.

line inductance ,resistance 0.1mH,.1 Ω

Coupling inductance 3.5mH [13] Bhim Singh a, P. Jayaprakash B, D.P. Kothari, ―New control

For CS Type Load resistance, load inductance 26.66 Ω,50mH approach for capacitor supported DSTATCOM in three-phase four

For CS Single phase b/w c and n 36.66 Ω,50mH wire distribution system under non-ideal supply voltage conditions

Single phase linear load b/w a and n 60 Ω,30mH based on synchronous reference frame theory,‖ Electrical Power

Inverter DC( bus voltage and capacitance 710 V, 3200µF and Energy Systems, vol. 33, pp. 1109–1117, Jun. 2011.

[14] Rade M. Ciric, Antonio Padilha Feltrin, and Luis F. Ochoa, ―Power

REFERENCES Flow in Four-Wire Distribution Networks—General Approach,‖

[1] Hasan Komurcugil ―Double-band hysteresis current-controlled IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 18, pp. 1283 – 1290,

single phase shunt active filter for switching frequency mitigation,‖ Nov. 2003.

Electric Power and Energy System, vol. 69, pp. 131-140, July

2015.

[2] C. S. Lam, M. C. Wong Y. D. Han, ―Hysteresis current control of Mr. Pradeep Anjana received the B.E

hybrid active power filters,‖ IET Power Electronics, Vol. 5, Degree from University of Rajasthan and

pp. 1175 – 1187, Aug. 2012. the M.Tech from Malaviya National

Institute of Technology Jaipur. Currently

[3] Vinod Khadkikar, ―Enhancing Electric Power Quality Using pursuing Ph.D from Malaviya National

UPQC:A Comprehensive Overview,‖ IEEE Transactions on Power Institute of Technology Jaipur and his area

Electronics, vol. 27, pp. 2284 – 2297, May 2012. of research is Power Quality improvement

using Micro-Grid and Renewable Energy

[4] S. Orts-Grau, F. J. Gimeno-Sales, A. Abellán-García, S. Seguí-

Sources. E-Mail ID is

Chilet, and J. C. Alfonso-Gil, ―Improved Shunt Active Power

p.anjana87@gmail.com.

Compensator for IEEE Standard 1459 Compliance,‖ IEEE

Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 25, pp. 2692 – 2701, Oct.

Dr. Harpal Tiwari received the B.E.

2010.

(Electrical Engineering) and M.Sc.

[5] Reyes S. Herrera and Patricio Salmerón, ―Instantaneous Reactive Engineering degree in electrical

Power Theory: A Comparative Evaluation of Different engineering in the year 1982 and year

Formulations,‖ IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 22, pp. 1986 respectively. He obtained a Ph.D.

595 – 604, Jan. 2007. degree from University of Rajasthan in the

year 2000. He is working as an associate

[6] Anup Kumar Panda, Suresh Mikkili, ―FLC based shunt active ﬁlter professor in Department of Electrical

(p–q and Id–Iq) control strategies for mitigation of harmonics with Engineering, Malaviya National Institute

different fuzzy MFs using MATLAB and real-time digital of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur INDIA. His

simulator,‖ Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 47, pp. 313– research interests include power

336, May 2013. electronics and nonconventional energy

[7] Rakhee Panigrahi, Prafulla Chandra Panda, Bidyadhar Subudhi, ―A sources.

Robust Extended Complex Kalman Filter and Slidingmode Control Dr. Vikas Gupta working as an associate

Based Shunt Active Power Filter,‖ Electric Power Components and professor in Department of Electrical

Systems, vol. 42, pp. 520–532, Feb. 2014. Engineering, Malaviya National Institute

[8] Arunkumar, Bhim Singh, D.T. Shahani, ―Grid interfaced solar of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur INDIA. His

photovoltaic power generating system with power quality research interests include power

improvement at ac mains,‖ in Proc. Sustainable Energy electronics, electrical machines and drive

Technologies (ICSET) 2012 IEEE Third International Conf., pp. and nonconventional energy sources.

177 – 182.

Dr. Nitin Gupta working as an Assistant

[9] ambrish Chandra, bhim singh, b.n. singh and kamal al haddad ―an

Professor in Department of Electrical

improved control algorithm of shunt active filter for voltage

Engineering, Malaviya National Institute

regulation, harmonic elimination, power factor correction, and

of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur INDIA.

balancing of nonlinear loads,‖ IEEE Transaction on Power

Research Interests: Power Electronics And

Electronics, vol.15, May 2000.

Drives, Power Quality, Electrical

[10] Karuppanan P Kamal Kant Mahapatra ―PI and fuzzy logic Machines, Renewable energy and energy

controllers for shunt active power filter- Areport,‖ ISA policy modelling, Artificial Intelligence

Transactions, vol. 51, pp. 163-169, Jan. 2012. And Applications To Intelligent Control.

[11] Sara Eftekharnejad, Vijay Vittal, Gerald Thomas Heydt, Brian Keel,

―Impact of Increased Penetration of Photovoltaic Generationon

Power Systems,‖ IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 28, pp.

893 – 901, May 2013.

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