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Pressure Vessel Engineering Ltd.

provides: ASME Vessel Code Calculations - Finite Element


Analysis (FEA) - Solid Modeling / Drafting - Canadian Registration Number (CRN) Assistance

Finite Element Analysis Validation – COSMOSWorks 2008 x64 SP5.0

Pressure Vessel Engineering Ltd. validates each release of Cosmos Designer with a simple
validation set to confirm that the program produces results comparable to Roark’s Formulas
results. Roark’s formulas provide the exact derivation of the stresses of components of different
geometry under several loading conditions. These formulas can be compared with FEA results.

Figure 1A provides the formulas for stresses in a heavy wall cylindrical disk or shell with ends
caped and uniform internal pressure applied.

Figure 2A provides the formulas for stresses in a heavy wall spherical head with uniform internal
pressure.

A test case is run and these (2) examples are calculated and compared in the following pages.

Fig 1A – Roark’s formulas for stress in a heavy wall pipe

Fig 2A – Roark’s formulas for stress in a heavy wall sphere

Disclaimer: This document is provided for educational purposes only. Pressure Vessel Engineering
Ltd. is not liable for its use.
Fig 1B – Test Case Geometry
The geometry shown in Fig 1B is used for the heavy wall pipe & sphere comparison. The same
geometry will be calculated by Roark’s formulas and run in COSMOSWorks FEA.

Sphere Test Points

Split line
Split line

Pipe Test Points

Fig 1C – Test Case Geometry


A split line is added to the model as shown in Fig 1C, this provides nodes at the midplane to
probe so that stresses at the mid point may also be analyzed and compared to Roark’s formulas
results.
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Exit Pressure Force

Exit Pressure Area


= 7.068 in^2

Fig 1D – Boundary Conditions & Loads Applied


Fig 1D shows symmetry boundary conditions applied to all faces, with the exception of (1) end
of the pipe. An exit pressure force equal to the exit area of the pipe multiplied by the internal
pressure is applied to this face (7.068in^2)*(1000psi) = 7068lb. 1000 psi is applied to all
internal surfaces.

Sphere Test Points

Pipe Test Points

Fig 1E – Mesh & Error Plot


Fig 1E shows the resulting error plot for a ¼” mesh applied. Reported error is below 5% for the
2nd order elements used. All nodes at test locations (in following pages) report error of less than
0.5%.
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Fig 1F – Probe of Sx Stresses of pipe (Longitudinal)

Fig 1G – Probe of Sy Stresses of pipe (Tangential)

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Fig 1H – Probe of Sz Stresses of pipe (Hoop)

Fig 2B – Probe of Sy Stresses (Equal to Sz) of sphere

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Fig 2C – Probe of Sx of sphere

The FEA results are compared to the results from Roark’s formulas on the following pages. All
results are extremely close to the theoretical values.

Conclusion: The FEA program provided results very close to the exact theoretical derivation
provided by Roark’s formulas. The maximum difference between Roark’s and FEA is 0.8% for
this test section.

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Validation

For each version of Cosmos Designer released and used in Pressure Vessel Engineering Ltd’s
office, the 8” OD x 6” ID test specimen will be identically meshed and run. The difference
reported between COMOSWorks and Roark’s will be expected to be less than 1.0% for the
release to be accepted.

The release will be used once this validation is complete.

Job: PVE-3179
Test Shape: Verification Shape 3.sldprt
Excel File: COSMOSWorks Validation Calculations Rev.0.xls

Signoff:

_______________________ CosmosWorks Version

_______________________ Validated by

_______________________ Date

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1 Heavy Wall Stress FEA Sample - ver 4.00 Page 1 of 1
2 FEA Inputs:
3 COSMOSWorks 2008 x64 SP5.0 Validation description
4 4.000 a [in] - Outside radius
5 3.000 b [in] - Inside radius
6 1,000.0 q [psi] - Inside pressure
7 r [in] = (a+b)/2 ~~ radius at mid thickness (4+3)/2 = 3.500
8 Maximum Stress Values:
9 s1max = q*b^2/(a^2-b^2) 1000*3^2/(4^2-3^2) = 1285.7
10 s2max = q*(a^2+b^2)/((a^2-b^2)) 1000*(4^2+3^2)/((4^2-3^2)) = 3571.4
11 s3max = -q -1000 = -1000.0
12 Stress at inner radius b (measured, calculated and compared):
13 1,285.0 mS1b [psi] - measured stress Sx on model
14 3,577.0 mS2b [psi] - measured stress Sz on model
15 -997.0 mS3b [psi] - measured stress Sy on model
16 s1b = q*b^2/(a^2-b^2) 1000*3^2/(4^2-3^2) = 1285.7
17 s2b = q*b^2*(a^2+b^2)/(b^2*(a^2-b^2)) 1000*3^2*(4^2+3^2)/(3^2*(4^2-3^2)) = 3571.4
18 s3b = -q*b^2*(a^2-b^2)/(b^2*(a^2-b^2)) -1000*3^2*(4^2-3^2)/(3^2*(4^2-3^2)) = -1000.0
19 Check_sb1 = abs((s1b-mS1b)/s1b) ABS((1285.7-1285)/1285.7) = 0.056%
20 Check_sb2 = abs((s2b-mS2b)/s2b) ABS((3571.4-3577)/3571.4) = 0.156%
21 Check_sb3 = abs((s3b-mS3b)/s3b) ABS((-1000--997)/-1000) = 0.300%
22 Stress at mid radius r (measured, calculated and compared):
23 1,286.0 mS1r [psi] - measured stress s1 at the mid radius
24 2,965.0 mS2r [psi]
25 -392.0 mS3r [psi]
26 s1r = q*b^2/(a^2-b^2) 1000*3^2/(4^2-3^2) = 1285.7
27 s2r = q*b^2*(a^2+r^2)/(r^2*(a^2-b^2)) 1000*3^2*(4^2+3.5^2)/(3.5^2*(4^2-3^2)) = 2965.0
28 s3r = -q*b^2*(a^2-r^2)/(r^2*(a^2-b^2)) -1000*3^2*(4^2-3.5^2)/(3.5^2*(4^2-3^2)) = -393.6
29 Check_sr1 = abs((s1r-mS1r)/s1r) ABS((1285.7-1286)/1285.7) = 0.022%
30 Check_sr2 = abs((s2r-mS2r)/s2r) ABS((2965-2965)/2965) = 0.000%
31 Check_sr3 = abs((s3r-mS3r)/s3r) ABS((-393.6--392)/-393.6) = 0.403%
32 Stress at outer radius a:
33 1,286.0 mS1a [psi] - measured stress s1 at the outer radius
34 2,572.0 mS2a [psi]
35 1.0 mS3a [psi]
36 s1a = q*b^2/(a^2-b^2) 1000*3^2/(4^2-3^2) = 1285.7
37 s2a = q*b^2*(a^2+a^2)/(a^2*(a^2-b^2)) 1000*3^2*(4^2+4^2)/(4^2*(4^2-3^2)) = 2571.4
38 s3a = -q*b^2*(a^2-a^2)/(a^2*(a^2-b^2)) -1000*3^2*(4^2-4^2)/(4^2*(4^2-3^2)) = 0.0
39 Check_sa1 = abs((s1a-mS1a)/s1a) ABS((1285.7-1286)/1285.7) = 0.022%
40 Check_sa2 = abs((s2a-mS2a)/s2a) ABS((2571.4-2572)/2571.4) = 0.022%
1 Heavy Sphere Stress FEA Sample - ver 4.00 Page 1 of 1
2 FEA Inputs:
3 COSMOSWorks 2008 x64 SP5.0 Validation description
4 4.000 a [in] - Outside radius
5 3.000 b [in] - Inside radius
6 1,000.0 q [psi] - Inside pressure
7 r [in] = (a+b)/2 ~~ radius at mid thickness (4+3)/2 = 3.500
8 Maximum Stress Values:
9 s1max = ((q/2)*(a^3+2*b^3))/(a^3-b^3) ((1000/2)*(4^3+2*3^3))/(4^3-3^3) = 1594.6
10 s2max = ((q/2)*(a^3+2*b^3))/(a^3-b^3) ((1000/2)*(4^3+2*3^3))/(4^3-3^3) = 1594.6
11 s3max = -q -1000 = -1000.0
12 Stress at inner radius b (measured, calculated and compared):
13 1,597.0 mS1b [psi] - measured stress Sx on model
14 1,597.0 mS2b [psi] - measured stress Sz on model
15 -992.0 mS3b [psi] - measured stress Sx on model
16 s1b = (q*b^3/(2*b^3))*((a^3+2*b^3)/(a^3-b^3))
17 (1000*3^3/(2*3^3))*((4^3+2*3^3)/(4^3-3^3)) = 1594.6
18 s2b = (q*b^3/(2*b^3))*((a^3+2*b^3)/(a^3-b^3))
19 (1000*3^3/(2*3^3))*((4^3+2*3^3)/(4^3-3^3)) = 1594.6
20 s3b = (-q*b^3/(b^3))*((a^3-b^3)/(a^3-b^3))
21 (-1000*3^3/(3^3))*((4^3-3^3)/(4^3-3^3)) = -1000.0
22 Check_sb1 = abs((s1b-mS1b)/s1b) ABS((1594.6-1597)/1594.6) = 0.151%
23 Check_sb2 = abs((s2b-mS2b)/s2b) ABS((1594.6-1597)/1594.6) = 0.151%
24 Check_sb3 = abs((s3b-mS3b)/s3b) ABS((-1000--992)/-1000) = 0.800%
25 Stress at mid radius r (measured, calculated and compared):
26 1,275.0 mS1r [psi] - measured stress s1 at the mid radius
27 1,275.0 mS2r [psi]
28 -360.0 mS3r [psi]
29 s1r = (q*b^3/(2*r^3))*((a^3+2*r^3)/(a^3-b^3))
30 (1000*3^3/(2*3.5^3))*((4^3+2*3.5^3)/(4^3-3^3)) = 1274.4
31 s2r = (q*b^3/(2*r^3))*((a^3+2*r^3)/(a^3-b^3))
32 (1000*3^3/(2*3.5^3))*((4^3+2*3.5^3)/(4^3-3^3)) = 1274.4
33 s3r = (-q*b^3/(r^3))*((a^3-r^3)/(a^3-b^3))
34 (-1000*3^3/(3.5^3))*((4^3-3.5^3)/(4^3-3^3)) = -359.5
35 Check_sr1 = abs((s1r-mS1r)/s1r) ABS((1274.4-1275)/1274.4) = 0.050%
36 Check_sr2 = abs((s2r-mS2r)/s2r) ABS((1274.4-1275)/1274.4) = 0.050%
37 Check_sr3 = abs((s3r-mS3r)/s3r) ABS((-359.5--360)/-359.5) = 0.126%
38 Stress at outer radius a:
39 1,095.0 mS1a [psi] - measured stress s1 at the outer radius
40 1,095.0 mS2a [psi]
41 1.0 mS3a [psi]
42 s1a = (q*b^3/(2*a^3))*((a^3+2*a^3)/(a^3-b^3))
43 (1000*3^3/(2*4^3))*((4^3+2*4^3)/(4^3-3^3)) = 1094.6
44 s2a = (q*b^3/(2*a^3))*((a^3+2*a^3)/(a^3-b^3))
45 (1000*3^3/(2*4^3))*((4^3+2*4^3)/(4^3-3^3)) = 1094.6
46 s3a = (-q*b^3/(a^3))*((a^3-a^3)/(a^3-b^3))
47 (-1000*3^3/(4^3))*((4^3-4^3)/(4^3-3^3)) = 0.0
48 Check_sa1 = abs((s1a-mS1a)/s1a) ABS((1094.6-1095)/1094.6) = 0.037%
49 Check_sa2 = abs((s2a-mS2a)/s2a) ABS((1094.6-1095)/1094.6) = 0.037%