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Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) 500 mg • Post-exposure prophylaxis of anthrax.

adults and children).
• Generic name: Ciprofloxacin
hydrochloride Nausea, diarrhea, liver function tests abnormal,
• Brand/Trade names: Cipro, Ciprobay, vomiting and rash are the most common side
Ciproxin, Ciproxine, Ciflox effects you may experience with Ciprofloxacin.
• Dosages:
Tablets 100 mg, 250 mg, 500 mg, 750 mg Ciprofloxacin
Powder for oral suspension 250 mg/5 mL
(5%) (when reconstituted); 500 mg/5 mL Pharmacological characteristics
(10%) (when reconstituted)
Tablets, extended-release 500 mg, 1000
• Absorption: Rapid (50% to 85%).
Injection (premixed) 200 mg, 400 mg; • Metabolism: Partially hepatic; forms 4
Injection (concentrate) 10 mg/mL metabolites.
• Pharmacologic category: • Elimination half-life: 3-5 hours.
Fluoroquinilone antibiotic • Excretion: Urine (30% to 50% as
• FDA approved: October 22, 1987 unchanged drug); feces (15% to 43%).
• Habit forming? No
• Pregnancy risk factor: C Cipro (Ciprofloxacin) for urinary tract infections

Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum a Antibiotics are the mainstay treatment for all
fluoroquinolone antibiotic marketed by Bayer UTIs. The choice of antibiotic and length of
under the brand name Cipro. treatment depend on the patient's history and
the urine tests that identify the offending
bacteria. The sensitivity test is especially useful
Ciprofloxacin indicated uses include:
in helping select the most effective medication.

• Urinary tract infections: urethritis Fluoroquinolones are the standard alternatives to
(infection of the urethra), cystitis sulfa drugs (TMP-SMX). Ciprofloxacin is frequently
(infection of the bladder), pyelonephritis used to treat urinary infections. In fact, it is often
(infection of the kidneys). the first choice where there are the high rates of
• Acute uncomplicated cystitis in women. bacterial resistant to TMP-SMX.
• Chronic bacterial prostatitis.
• Lower respiratory infections (pneumonia, For most infections the recommended
bronchitis, tracheobronchitis). Ciprofloxacin dose for adults is 250-750 mg
• Acute sinusitis. (immediate release tablets) every 12 hours.
• Skin and skin structure infections: cellulitis
(infection of the dermis and subcutaneous Benefits
tissue), erysipelas (superficial form of
cellulitis), folliculitis (inflammation of the
hair follicles, if the infection of the follicle • Convenient twice daily dosing regimen.
is deeper and involves more follicles, it • Broad spectrum of antimicrobal activity.
moves into the furuncle and carbuncle), • Does not cause a significant QT interval
furuncles, carbuncles, abscesses, impetigo prolongation 14.
(large vessicles or honey-crusted sores), • Very effective antibiotic against P.
infected ulcers and infected burns and aeruginosa (bacteria that causes
other. infections of the pulmonary tract, external
• Bone and joint infections. ear, urinary tract, burns, and wounds)
• Complicated intra-abdominal infections • Low cost due to generic availability.
(used in combination with metronidazole).
• Infectious diarrhea: Escherichia coli Concerns
infection, Campylobacter infection, and
shigellosis. • Tendon rupture, tendonitis and
• Typhoid fever (enteric fever) . arthropathies. Rupture may ossur several
• STDs: gonorrhea. months after medication has been
• Complicated urinary tract iInfections and discontinued. Fluoroquinolone-associated
pyelonephritis in children (1 to 17 years of tendinitis most commonly involves the
age). Achilles tendon, but the quadriceps,
peroneus brevis, extensor pollicis longus,

Ciprofloxacin taken with a meal that contains these appears to be an effective antibiotic of products (eg. tingling. Ciprofloxacin is effective and well-tolerated maintenance antipseudomonal therapy in cystic fibrosis. and repair of bacterial DNA. in practice even in high dosages as 2 g daily is insufficient for treatment of chlamydial infection and often results in relapsing infection. antibacterial agents that inhibit (prevent the • Very rare cases of vision disturbance 15. Topoisomerase IV is an enzyme Unlabeled uses known to play a key role in the partitioning of the chromosomal DNA during bacterial cell division. • Cystic fibrosis 6. • Chlamydia infections 10. 11. activity) DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. the long head of the biceps. Brucellosis is an The symptoms of neuropathy include pain. and superior to • Potential for serious drug interactions with amoxycillin/clavulanic acid. numbness. • Chronic ear disease (chronic fortified juices alone. and rotator treatment with ciprofloxacin or cuff tendons have also been reported. propranolol. 13. infectious disease transmitted from burning. This benign infectious disease caused by the intracellular parasite Bartonella usually resolves spontaneously and does not require antibiotic. aeruginosa infection is important for people with cystic fibrosis. fallopain tubez (salpingitis) and ovaries (oophoritis). • Poor activity against Streptococcus • Tuberculosis 7-8. Ciprofloxacin not always provide optimal effective treatment for pelvic inflammatory disease if used alone. warfarin and some other medications. the replication. However. theophylline. chronic otitis media. Ciprofloxacin should be stopped provide optimal treatment for acute if person experiences these symptoms in brucellosis and should be used in order to prevent the irreversible condition. broad-spectrum increasing rates of bacterial resistance. transcription. antibiotic does not sensation. • Cat-scratch disease 2. azithromycin is effective. Althougt Ciprofloxacin has good activity ahgainst Chlamydia in test tubet. is highly active in-vitro (in test tube) temperature. • Brucellosis 3-5. post-partum endometritis) 12. position sense. vibratory against Brucella. • Peripheral neuropathy (nerve damage). uterus (endometritis). pain.a major cause of pneumonia second-line treatment for tuberculosis in and meningitis. It resistant tuberculosis. Mode of action • Widespread use of Ciprofloxacin. persons who cannot use conventional anti- • Ciprofloxacin absorption may be tuberculosis medications or for drug- significantly reduced by dairy products. has lead to Ciprofloxacin is a synthetic. Ciprofloxacin is a pneumoniae . • Gynecological infections (pelvic inflammatory disease. Despite ciprofloxacin have deficits in light touch. cereal with milk). it may be suppurative otitis media) 9. DNA • Research has found that Ciprofloxacin gyrase is an essential enzyme that is involved in may delay the fracture healing 16. combination with aother antibacterials. should not be taken with dairy or calcium. animals to humans. sometimes inappropriate. weakness. In more serious cases . Ciprofloxacin is not the best choice for Chlamydia infections. There is increasing evidence that prevention of chronic P. Pelvic inflammatory disease can affect the cervix (cervicitis).