Sulzer Chemtech

Efficiency Benefits of High Performance Structured Packings

Kevin Bennett, Sulzer Chemtech Mark Pilling, Sulzer Chemtech

Prepared for Presentation at Department of Energy Texas Technology Showcase 2003 Separation & Distillation Technology Session

Introduction

Sulzer Chemtech

• Structured Packing is the Internal of Choice for Low Pressure and Low Liquid Rate Systems • High Capacity • High Efficiency • Low Pressure Drop • Proper Distribution is Critical

Mechanical Construction

Sulzer Chemtech

• Thin Sheet Metal • Angled Corrugation • Textured & Perforated • Layers are Segmented & Rotated

004” .0.008” – Larger Crimp Packings May Require More Thickness – Essentially No Corrosion Allowance • Material Selection is Critical • Gauze Packings Made From Woven Metal Cloth – Usually for Very High Efficiency Applications .Mechanical Construction .Base Material Sulzer Chemtech • Sheet Metal Typically 0.

Mechanical Construction .Surface Treatment Sulzer Chemtech • Typically Textured & Perforated – Texturing Promotes Spreading of Liquid on Surface – Perforation Allows Equalization of Flows and Pressures Between Sheets – Lack of Texture and/or Perforation Reduces Efficiency .

Mechanical Construction . Capacity & Cost • Second Most Commonly 60o (Sulzer X Designation) – More Often Used in Absorption & Heat Transfer Applications Where Surface Area is More Important .Corrugation Angle Sulzer Chemtech • Most Commonly 45o (Sulzer Y Designation) – Usually the Optimum Angle for Efficiency.

Y Sulzer Chemtech – Lower Surface Area Packing (40 .Mechanical Construction .90 m2/m3) Often Grid Type • Heat Transfer & Scrubbing – High Surface Area > 500 m2/m3 • Air Separation & Fine Chemicals .Surface Area • Typically Expressed in Units of m2/m3 – Normal Range (40 .900 m2/m3) – Benchmark M250.

When To Use Structured Packing Sulzer Chemtech • System Pressure & Liquid Rates • Vessel Diameter • Number of Stages • Presence of Two Liquid Phases • Thermal Degradation .

Low Pressure Means Low Liquid Rates and High Vapor Velocities. Ideal for Structured Packing – High Pressure Absorption with Low Liquid Rates are also Good Structured Packing Applications .System Pressure & Liquid Rates Sulzer Chemtech • Structured Packing Works Has its Greatest Advantage with Low Liquid Rates and High Vapor Velocities – In Distillation Systems.

Number of Stages Required Sulzer Chemtech • Structured Packing’s High Efficiency Makes it Ideal for Applications Requiring Many Stages – Exception: Superfractionators with High Pressures and High Liquid Rates .

Performance Characteristics .Efficiency Sulzer Chemtech • Mainly a Function of: – Packing Geometry • Surface Area • Crimp Angle – Distribution Quality – Process System Properties .

Efficiency Sulzer Chemtech • Packing Geometry – Surface Area: Efficiency Increases With Surface Area – Crimp Angle: Efficiency Increases with Decreasing Crimp Angle .Performance Characteristics .

Special Design Considerations are Needed .Efficiency • Things Requiring Special Consideration: – High Liquid Rates • Rates Above 20-25 gpm/ft2 May Have Lower Efficiencies – High Relative Volatility (α > 3) – High Liquid Viscosity & High Stripping Factors – Absorption & Stripping Applications – High Surface Tension • Sulzer Chemtech All These Systems Have Been Packed with Structured Packing.Performance Characteristics .

Hydraulic Loading • Beyond the Loading Point. Liquid Holdup in Conventional Structured Packing Begins at the Interface Between Layers .Sulzer Chemtech Performance Characteristics .

MellapakPlus: Background.Sulzer Chemtech 1. Performances & Potential Development steps ! Concept: modify transition between the packing layers ! CFD Analysis ! Mechanical issues .

Sulzer Chemtech Product Mellapak® MellapakPlus® .

Y .Sulzer Chemtech Close Up Mellapak 252.

Switzerland 3.03 m) Sulzer Chemtech VKG Chloro/Ethyl Benzene at 75mm Hg (100 mbar) .3 ft (1 m) 9.Sulzer Chemtech Sulzer Chemtech Testing • Facility: • Column Diameter: • Bed Depth: • Distributor Type: • Test System: Winterthur.9 ft (3.

pressure drop. capacity.I. 2000 Category 1 Packing Test • Industrial Scale Test Facility • Measure efficiency. holdup .Sulzer Chemtech FRI Testing • F.R.

Sulzer Chemtech FRI Testing • Facility • Column Diameter: • Bed Depth: • Distributor Type: • Test Systems: Stillwater.2 m) 12 ft (3. OK 4 ft (1.7 m) Sulzer Chemtech VKG Ortho/Para-Xylene at 100mm Hg (133 mbar) C6/C7 at 5 & 24 psia (345 & 1650 mbar) .

Sulzer Chemtech .

65 0. m/s 0. 77 mm Hg (Sulzer CT) Capacity Factor Cs. m . ft/s HETP.16 0.45 0.00 Capacity Factor Cs.20 0.06 0.18 0.Y Efficiency o/p Xylene System.55 0.05 0. 100 mm Hg (FRI) & Chloro/Ethyl Benzene. inches 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 0.50 0.25 0.35 0. Mellapak Plus 252.40 0.80 M252Y (FRI) Optiflow (FRI) M252Y (WT) 0.15 0.12 0.60 0.75 0.10 0.25 0.02 0.Sulzer Chemtech Figure 3.45 0.70 HETP.08 0.14 0.55 0.60 M250Y (FRI) M250Y (WT) 0.04 0.30 0.50 0.30 0.40 0.00 32 30 28 26 0.10 0.35 0.

75 0.Y VKG 5.40 0.3 mm (Midbed 45-52%C6) M252. m/s 0.15 0.70 0.3 mm (Midbed 83-91%C6) M250. ft/s HETP.67 m) Bed Depth C6/C7 System.40 Capacity Factor Cs.65 0.60 0.06 0.Y 1988 TDP (midbed 90-96%C6) 0. Mellapak Plus 252.30 0.12 0.Y 1988 TDP (midbed 40-66%C6) M250. inches 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 0.25 0. 5 psia (0.80 0.20 0.00 0.35 0.Y Efficiency 12 foot (3.30 0.04 0. m .34 bar) Capacity Factor Cs.10 0.25 0.Sulzer Chemtech Figure 4.02 0.05 0.3 mm (Midbed 16-38%C6) M252.55 0.10 0.45 0.Y VKG 5.35 0.08 0.45 HETP.50 0.Y VKG 5.00 32 30 28 26 M252.

10 0.45 0. m .05 0. 24 psia (1.Y Efficiency 12 foot (3.Y 1988 TDP (midbed 61-79%C6) M250.04 0.00 0.45 0.60 0.02 0.25 0.75 HETP. ft/s HETP.50 0.00 32 30 28 26 M252.55 0.40 Capacity Factor Cs.12 0. inches 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 0.35 0.70 0.Y 1988 TDP (midbed 44-53%C6) M250.30 0.25 0.Y 1988 TDP (dc-reflux) 0.20 0.35 0. m/s 0.67 m) Bed Depth C6/C7 System.65 0.08 0.Sulzer Chemtech Figure 5. Mellapak Plus 252.15 0.06 0.10 0.40 0.7 mm (Midbed 34-58%C6) M250.30 0.80 0.65 bar) Capacity Factor Cs.Y VKG 6.

inches 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 0.04 0.08 0.35 0.50 0.65 0.25 0. ft/s HETP.30 0.Sulzer Chemtech Figure 6.40 0.06 0.35 0.00 0.60 0.50 0.Y Efficiency Effect of Pressure on HETP Capacity Factor Cs.10 0.18 0.80 0.05 0.12 0.14 0. m/s 0. m .65 bar) C6/C7 75 mm Hg CB/EB 0.10 0.20 0.45 0.45 0.70 HETP.25 0. Mellapak Plus 252.16 0.15 0.00 32 30 28 26 100 mm Hg xylene 5 psia (0.34 bar) C6/C7 24 psia (1.75 0.55 Capacity Factor Cs.55 0.02 0.30 0.40 0.60 0.

15% above Optiflow • Maximum useful capacity 5 psia (0.35-0.Y • Maximum useful capacity 24 psia (1.Y HETP 14 -16 inches (0.Y .Y.Y & Optiflow • Maximum useful capacity 100 mm Hg: 40% above M250.34 bar): 25% above M250.4 m) as good or better than M250.65 bar): 18% above M250.Sulzer Chemtech Efficiency Conclusions • M252.

100 mm Hg Total Reflux 10.Y 1988 TDP Optiflow VEP Sulpak Pressure Drop.Y Pressure Drop 12 foot (3. in H2O/ft 1. ft/s .00 Capacity Factor Cs.67 m) Bed Depth o/p Xylene System.Sulzer Chemtech Figure 7.167 = mbar/m 0. Mellapak Plus 252.10 1.Y M250.000 M252.010 0.100 in H2O/ft x 8.000 0.01 0.

in H2O/ft 0.167 = mbar/m 0.000 Top Bottom Overall-Measured Overall-Calculated Sulpak M250.Sulzer Chemtech Figure 8.01 0.00 Capacity Factor Cs. ft/s .000 Pressure Drop. Mellapak Plus 252. 24 psia (1.010 in H2O/ft x 8.65 bar) Total Reflux 10.10 1.Y 1988 TDP 1.001 0.100 0.67 m) Bed Depth C6/C7 System.Y Pressure Drop 12 foot (3.

10 Capacity Factor Cs. ft/s 1.000 M252.100 in H2O/stage x 2.Y Pressure Drop/Stage 12 foot (3. 100 mm Hg Total Reflux 100.00 .01 0.67 m) Bed Depth o/p Xylene System.010 0.Y M250.3048 = m/s 0.Sulzer Chemtech Figure 9.5 = mbar/stage ft/s x 0.Y 1988 TDP Optiflow VEP 10. Mellapak Plus 252.000 Inch H2O/stage 1.000 0.

Y pressure drop less than M250. .Sulzer Chemtech Pressure Drop Conclusions • M252.R.I.Y • Good agreement with Sulpak predictions • Lowest pressure drop per stage measured in 100 mm Hg xylene at F.

Y Mellapak 750.4 0.Y 0.3 0.5 3 gas load F-factor [Pa ] gas load F-factor [Pa ] pressure drop 10 10 pressure drop ∆p [mbar/m] ∆p [mbar/m] 1 1 MellapakPlus 752.5 3 gas load F-factor [Pa ] gas load F-factor [Pa ] 100 mbar 960 mbar .5 0.1 4 0 1 2 0.1 0 4 HETP [m] 0 1 2 0.Sulzer Chemtech Other MellapakPlus Data separation efficiency 0.4 0.Y 0.5 separation efficiency HETP [m] 0.5 MellapakPlus 752.2 0.2 0.Y Mellapak 750.1 0 1 2 3 0.Y Mellapak 500.Y Mellapak 500.3 0.1 0 0 1 2 3 0.

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