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ANALYSIS OF GENERIC STRUCTURE

OF RECOUNT TEXTS

(The Study of Fourth Semester Students of STAIN Salatiga


in the Academic Year of 2012/2013)

A GRADUATING PAPER

Submitted to the Board of Examiners as a partial fulfillment of the


requirements for the degree of SarjanaPendidikan Islam (S.Pd.I)
English Education Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty
State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga

By:
SYAIFUL AZHAR
113 07 131

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT


TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY
STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES (IAIN) SALATIGA
20115

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ii
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MOTTO

Keep on trying

Are surely, there is an easy after difficulty (QS. Al-Insyirah


6)

AKU ADA KARNA AKU BERKARYA

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DEDICATION

This thesis is whole heatedly dedicated to:


1. Allah SWT, I belive you never sleep. You are the great see and hear. You are the great God.

2. My beloved family, especially for the most great, beautiful and wonderful women all over the

world; MY MOTHER, “Faizah” and also MY FATHER “Shonhaji”, and my beloved my brother

“Qoyyimul Ikhsan”, sister “Alfiatul Karimah”, and grandmother “Mbah Sukaenah”, thanks for

your kindness, togetherness, and love, I love you so much.thanks for all sacrifices, patience, trust,

encouragement, support, finance, and pray.

3. My beloved girlfriend, Robi‟atul Awaliyah (MimiiQ) thanks for your helps, support, motivation,

spirit, love and attention to me in everything I have done, and all of experience, I love you so

much.

4. My best and beloved friends in life, especially Teguh, Pendel, Plolo, Kluwus, Kliwone, Danang,

Rifqy, Muna, Tuba, Zulfi, Tuba, White, Deny, Agung, Latep, Udin, Ari, Inas, Irsa, Sugeng, lucas,

Maya, Pak Jo, thanks for your support, help, kindness, experience, and togetherness. I would

always remember you all.

5. All of SMC (Alfonso dkk, Dedicato, E- lano, Awarness, Willpower, Zealouz, Cambioso, Extender,

Fidelio, cakrawangsa, and next future generations) “MUSIK CERMIN MANUSIA BERXPRESI,

SALAM MELODI”.

6. All my English department friends in the academic year 2007 especially E class, keep me in your

mind and heart.

ABSTRACT

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Azhar, Syaiful. 2013. “Analysis of Generic Structure of Recount Texts (The Study of Fourth Semester
Students of STAIN Salatiga in the Academic Year of 2012/2013)”. English and Education Department,
State Institute of Islamic Studies (STAIN) Salatiga. Advisor. Mustikasari, Rr. Dewi Wahyu.

The title of this thesis is ANALYSIS OF GENERIC STRUCTURE OF RECOUNT TEXTS.


His study is mainly aimed at describing the generic structure of recount texts made by the Fourth
Semester Students of STAIN Salatiga in the Academic Years of 2012/2013. The purposes of the thesis
are to analyze of generic structure of recount texts made by the fourth semester student of STAIN
Salatiga in the academic year 2012/2013, to find out the problem faced by the students in mastering the
generic structure of recount text, and find out the implications of the research for English educations
department.

The writer uses descriptive qualitative method by describing and analyze the data taken from 30
texts made by student. In conducting the study the writer uses documentation method for collecting
the data. The writer took 30 recount texts made by the student, the text were uploaded in blog staff
http://dewi20062012.staff.stainsalatiga.ac.id/. The writer classifying text passages recount text into a
generic structure to represent the extent to which students are able to understand the text according
to the generic structure of recount text.
After getting the result, the writer concludes that,the generic structure of student in writing recount
text, as show by the percentage. From 30 recount texts, Orientation 93%, event with one paragraph
40%, event with two paragraphs 36%, event with tri paragraphs 20%, event with four paragraphs
3.3%, and re-orientation 86%. The problem faced by the student in writing recount text is the
difficulties to faced orientation and re-orientation, there were two mistakes students in mastering
genetic structure of recount text. Firestly, mis-organizing the paraghrap, they didn‟t have Orientation
and Re-Orientation, as show in RT-07 and RT-25. Seccondly, mis organizing the paraghrap, they
didn‟t have Re-Orientation, as show in RT-19 and RT-27. And the implication of the result for
education is to be authentic material as teaching material in writing class.

Key Words: Genre, Recount Text, Generic Structure of Recount Text.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In the name of Allah, The Most Gracious, The Most Merciful, The Lord of the Universe.

Because of Him, the writer is able to finish this graduating paper as one of the requirements for the

degree of Sarjana Pendidikan in English Department of Education Faculty of State Islamic Study is

Institute (STAIN) of Salatiga. Peace and salutation always be given to our prophet Muhammad SAW

who has guided us from the darkness to the lightness.

However, this success would not be achieved without supports, guidance, advice, help and

encouragement from individuals and institution, and the writer somehow realizes this is an appropriate

moment for him to deepest gratitude to:

1. Dr. Imam Sutomo, M. Ag, the head of STAIN Salatiga.

2. Rr. Dewi Wahyu M, S.S., M. Pd., the Chair person of English educational faculty, and The

consultant who has educated, supported, directed and give the researchers advices, suggestions,

pray and recommendations for this thesis from beginning until the end.

3. All my whole lecturers in English Department of STAIN Salatiga, thanks for your supports,

guidance and helps.

4. My beloved, my mother and my father. Allah will give you more. I really love you so much.

5. My brothers, Fika and Qoyim. Thanks for all your support.

6. My beloved, my dearest, someone in my heart, Robi‟atul Awaliyah, thanks for all. I love you so

much.

7. My best and beloved friends and brothers, Teguh, Pendel, Plolo, Kluwus, Kliwone, Danang. Thanks

for all your support.

8. The big family of SMC thanks for all.

9. All my friends in GETAR, SSC, MAPALA.

10. All students of TBI 06, thanks for our memories.

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11. All my friends in English department.

12. All my friends in STAIN Salatiga.

13. Those who can‟t be mentioned one by one because of their support to the writer in realizing the

study.

Finally, the writer expects constructive critics and suggestions from readers, because this paper

is still far from perfect. This paper is expected to be able to provide useful information to the reader.

Salatiga, 16th September 2013

The writer

Syaiful Azhar

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE .................................................................................................................... i
DEKLARASI ........................................................................................................ ii
ATTENTIVE COUNSELOR ................................................................................ iii
MOTTO ................................................................................................................ iv
DEDICATION ...................................................................................................... v
ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................... vii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .................................................................................... viii
TABLE OF CONTENT ........................................................................................ x
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the Study........................................................ 1

B. Problem of Study ................................................................... 3

C. Objective of the Study ........................................................... 3

D. Limitation of The Problem .................................................... 3

E. Benefit of The Study .............................................................. 3

F. Clarification of Key Terms ................................................... 4

G. Thesis Organization .............................................................. 7

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


A. Previous Studies ..................................................................... 8

B. Discourse ............................................................................... 9

C. Discourse Analysis................................................................. 11

D. Text ....................................................................................... 12

E. Genre ..................................................................................... 13

F. Recount ................................................................................. 16

G. Generic Structure ................................................................... 20

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD


A. The General Description of STAIN Salatiga ......................... 22

B. Research Methodology .......................................................... 24

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C. Object of Research ................................................................. 24

D. Method of Data Collection..................................................... 24

1. Documentation ............................................................... 25

E. Method of Data Analysis

1. Categorizing ................................................................... 26

CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS


A. Data Analysis ........................................................................ 29

1. The Generic Structure of Student in Writing Recount Text

......................................................................................... 29

2. Identifying The Problem Faces by The Student in Mastering Generic

Stricture of Recount Text ............................................... 50

3. Implications of The Research for Education ................... 55

CHAPTER V CLOSURE
A. Conclusion ............................................................................ 56

B. Suggestion ............................................................................. 57

BIBLIOGRAPHY
CURICULUM VITAE
APPENDIX

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

In this chapter the writer tries to present the introduction of study. It the background of the

study, problems of the study, limitation of the problem, objectives of the study, benefits of the study,

clarification of key terms and paper organization.

A. Background of the Study

Writing is one of the four language skills: reading, writing, listening and speaking. Writing

and speaking are productive skill. That means they involve producing language rather than

receiving it (Mary Spratt, 2005: 26). Writing clear sentences requires you to learn the rules of

English grammar and mechanics such as the correct use of verbs and pronoun, as well as commas

and other marks of punctuation. It is also included in one of the existing syllabus.

English Education Department of STAIN Salatiga is one of the majors are taken into

account in STAIN Salatiga. In English Education Department, students acquire writing material

sequentially. For example, students can take a course in writing II if had graduated in writing I,

writing material in English Education Department, That student is required to understand and know

about the text or genre.

There are various ways to organize the sentences in a piece of writing. One of them is

recount text. According to Hyland, recount is a kind of genre that has social function to retell

event for the purpose of informing or entertaining ( Ken Hyland, 2004:29). In the recount text, the

sentences are usually organized according to time order or chronological order. One thing happens

and then another thing happens, and the events are told in the same order. Based on my experiences,

there are some problems found in field when giving writing materials to the students, especially the

recount text.

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Based on learning proses in English Education Department, there are many problems faced

by students when writing.The first problem is that the students‟ writing is not comprehensible.

Because the content of the composition is not relevant to the topic, the ideas are not clearly stated,

the ideas and sentences are not well organized. The second problem is that there are many errors in

structure, vocabulary, grammar, and spelling.

The existence of some problems in learning English, especially in writing recount text,

writer tried to determine the extent of students' understanding of text recount, with doing this

research. In this study more specific about the generic structure of the text contained in the recount.

By conducting this research, the writer hopes to determine the extent of student

understanding in drafting recount text. In this study more specific about the generic structure of the

text contained in the recount, called Analysis of Generic Structure of Recount Texts (The Study

of Fourth Semester Students of STAIN Salatiga in the Academic Years of

2012/2013).

B. Problems of Study

To specify the topic, the writer proposes the problems as follow:

1. How are the generic structures in the recount texts made by fourth semester student of

STAIN Salatiga in the academic years 2012/2013?

2. What problem are faces by the fourth semester students of STAIN Salatiga in the

academic years 2012/2013 in mastering generic structure of recount text?

3. What are the implications of the research for English education department?

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C. Objectives of the Study

1. To analyze of the generic structure of recount texts made by the fourth semester student of

STAIN Salatiga in the academic years 2012/2013.

2. To find out the problems faced by the students in mastering the generic structure of recount

text.

3. To find out the implications of the research for English education department.

D. Limitation of The Problem

The Writer limits the study only in analyzing of generic structure of recount text the case

study fourth semester student STAIN Salatiga in the academic years 2012/2013.

E. Benefits of the Study

This writer is expected to having some benefits especially for:

1. For the students

The students of STAIN Salatiga can improve their ability in writing text especially in recount

text. Furthermore, they can transfer what they know cognitively about language features of

recount text especially in generic structure.

2. For the teacher

This result of the study helps the teacher to find out their student‟s weaknesses in writing and

understanding recount text.

3. For the writer

The writer can increase his knowledge about generic structure in recount text.

4. For the readers

It can enlarge the readers‟ knowledge about text or genre, especially recount text.

F. Clarification of Key Terms

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1. Genre

Genre is used to refer to particular text-types, not to traditional varieties of

literature. It is a type or kind of text, defined in terms of its social purposes; also the level of

context dealing with social purpose (Rudi Hartono, 2005: 4). The meaning of the genres

intended is that students are able to understand the concept and they would be able to identify

a kind of texts that students will have to write.

2. Text

Human being lives in a world of words. When these words are put together to

communicate a meaning, a piece of text is created. When speaking or writing to communicate

a message, there are constructing a text. When reading, listening or view a piece of text, there

are interpreting its meaning (Mark Andersons and Kathy Andersons, 2003: 1).

In general, text is an article which often read. It is the language unity that expresses

the meaning contextually. The limitation of the text is that the text is not measure the

number of sentence or page, but the text is measured from the meaning expressed and context.

Thus, the quality of the text is not measured from the quantity of the sentences (Tri Wiratno,

2003: 3-4).

3. Recount Text

Recount is a kind of genre that has social function to retell event for the purpose

of informing or entertaining. The tense that used in recount text is past tense. Social purpose

of recount is to reconstruct past experiences by retelling events in original sequence. We can

look at the sample of recount in personal letters, police report, insurance claims, and incident

reports (Ken Hyland, 2004; 29).

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Recount text is based on the life experience and foreign language. Recounts are used in

most subjects to show memory of series of events as in accounts of Science excursion,

everyday life in another time or culture.

4. Generic Structure

The common grammatical features of recount text (Ken Hyland, 2004; 135) are:

a. Orientation: provides the setting and produces participants. It provides information about

whom, where, and when.

b. Record of Events: tell what happened, present event in temporal sequence. It is usually

recounted in chronological order. Personal comments and/ or evaluative remarks, which are

interspersed throughout the record of events.

c. Re-orientation: optional-closure of events. It is rounds off the sequence of events.

5. Language Feature of Recount Text

According to Mark Anderson and Kathy Anderson (1998:49) the language features

usually found in a recount text are:

a. Proper noun and pronouns to identify those involved in the text

b. Action verb

c. Descriptive word to give details about who, what, what, when, where, and how.

d. The use of the past tense to retell the events.

e. Conjunction and time connectives.

f. Adverb and adverbial phrase.

g. Words that show the order the events.

G. Thesis Organization

The thesis organizations of the study are as follow:

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Chapter I is Introduction it consists of the background of the study, problems of the study,

objectives of the study, limitation of the problem, benefits of the study, clarification of key terms

and thesis organization.

Chapter II is about the review of related literature. It consists of previous research,

definition of discourse, discourse analysis, definition of text, and genre, recount text and generic

structure of recount text.

Chapter III is about the methodology of the research. It consists of the general description

of STAIN Salatiga, research methodology, and object of the researches, data and data source and

method of data collecting.

Chapter IV is finding of this research: it describes the generic structure of student in writing

recount text, the problem faces by the student in mastering generic stricture of recount text, and

implications o the research for education

Chapter V is about conclusion based on the analysis result. The writer also proposes some

suggestion to improve the teaching learning process in writing session.

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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

In this chapter the writer tries to present the related literature theories. It consists of the previous

research, definition of discourse, discourse analysis, definition of text and genre of text, recount text and

generic structure of recount text.

A. Previous Research

In this research the writer reviews some reports of related researches to enrich the data

about analysis recount text. The previous studies were from the students of English Education

Department in Central Java.

Firstly, Haryanto in his researched conducted the 2007. He was analyses about grammatical

error analysis in students‟ recount texts. Which were made by (Twelfth Year Students of SMA N 1

Slawi in the Academic Year of 2006/2007). He was study of English Department Faculty of

Languages and Arts in Semarang State University (UNNES). This final project primarily dealt with

grammatical error analysis. It described the grammatical errors on recount texts made by the

twelfth year students of SMA N 1 Slawi in the academic year of 2006/2007. It used the

qualitative approach of which the data were obtained from the students‟ recount text writing. These

writings were then analyzed. The grammatical errors were classified into seven groups. It could be

concluded that the possible causes of errors are overgeneralization, and interference.

Secondly, Nur Happy Indahsari in her researched conducted the 2010. She was analyses

about an analysis of participant and process in recount text made by the eighth grade students in

SMP ALHUDA Semarang in the academic year 2009/2010”. She was the study of English

Department, faculty of Language and Art Education, Institute of Teacher Training and Education

PGRI Semarang. This research was categorized as qualitative descriptive research. The analysis of

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the data in this research used descriptive analysis. The qualitative data can be composed directly to

make decision of the research. The population of this graduating paper, the writer takes all of the

eighth grade students of SMP ALHUDA Semarang in the Academic year 2009/2010. The writer

took 30 students for sample. In collecting data, the writer took writing test. The main purpose of

conducting the test was to measure students‟ ability in writing recount text.

In contrast to previous studies, there are similarities in methodology and object in the

research, which is recount text. Furthermore there are underlying differences in this study, if in the

previous studies describe the grammatical error analysis and an analysis of the participants and

processes recount text, in this research the writer analyzed the generic structure of recount text, so

the writer can continue the research because there is no similarity among those previous studies.

B. Discourse

Discourse is a dicipline to the investigation of the ralationship berween from and fungtion

in verbal communication (Renkema, 1993:1). Verbal comunication relate to spoken language, while

written language is appeared in the form of text. Therefore, discource is different from text.

Discource focused on process, while text focuses on language production. Text is all forms of

language not just the words printed on sheets of paper but also all kinds of expressions of

communication, speech, music, pictures, sound effects, images, and so on. Context includes all

situations and things that are beyond the text and influence the use of language, such as participants

in the language, situations where the text is produced. The discourse here, then interpreted as text

and context together.

Tarigan in Sumarlam (2008:7) states that discourse is a unit of language that the highest

or most comprehensive and largest on the sentence or clause with a high coherence and

cohesion and sustainable, has a real beginning and end, delivered orally or in writing.

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According to the definitions and statements above, it is clear that discourse is a linguistic

element that is relatively the most complex and most complete. Linguistic support unit includes

phonemes, morphemes, words, phrases, clauses, sentences, paragraphs, until the whole essay.

However, discourse is basically also an element of pragmatic language. Moreover, the use and

understanding of discourse in communication require different tools and it is quite a lot. Therefore,

the study of discourse becomes mandatory in the process of language learning. The goal is to equip

the language user in order to understand and use language properly and correctly. Each study

discourse will always associate the elements of the unit underneath the existing language, like

phonemes, morphemes, phrases, clauses, or sentences.

From the description and some definitions above, it can be concluded that discourse lies

higher than the level of sentence grammar on a scale of grammar and logical mind has regularity

(coherence) and also a link (cohesion) in its structure. Discourse is characterized by continuity of

information. The meaning of sustainability is defined as unity of meaning. Important elements in

the discourse is like a language unit, complete, address the sentence or clause, regular or compact,

sustainable, cohesion, oral or written, the beginning and end of the real.

C. Discourse analysis

Linguistic had focused its analysis on sentence until the beginning of decade 1950s. Then in

1952, a famous linguist in linguistic discipline, Harris published an article entitled “Discourse

Analysis” in Language magazine. He expressed a new opinion stating that the most complete unit

of language is discourse, not a sentence. That opinion had brought linguist started to analyze

language basic on discourse.

Discourse analysis is not only widely recognized as one of the vastest, but also the least

defined areas in linguistics. One reason for this statement is that our understanding to discourse

analysis is based on scholar from a number of academic disciplines that are actually very different

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from one to another. However, as the least defined areas in linguistics, the study of discourse

analysis is supposed to be the most important study of language.

According to Schiffrin (1994:20), there are three definitions of discourse which are

influenced by different paradigms where they reflect to different assumption between formalist,

functionalist, and formalist-functionalist dichotomy. Discourse is often defined in two ways: a

particular unit of language (above the sentence), and a particular focus (on language use). These

two definitions of discourse reflect the difference between formalism and functionalist paradigm.

And Schiffrin also suggests two prominent definitions, namely as a unit of language larger than a

sentence and as language use.

D. Text

When we study about genre, we must know about a text completely because genre ha very

close relation with a text. Generally, a text is something that we usually read. There is definition of

a text that the writer takes from Exploring How Text Works book; in order to support his study in

her book, (Derewianta, 1995:17) as quoted by (Himawati, 2009:20) stated that a text is any

meaningful stretch of language – oral or written.

Mean while, (Halliday, 2004:10) explained that text is not group of words hut as a semantic

unit. From the quotation above, it is clear that in defining about text we must also regard to the

group of word meanings in one text

Human being lives in a world of words. When these words are put together to

communicate a meaning, a piece of text is created. When speak ing or writing to communicate a

message, there are constructing a text. When reading, listening or view a piece of text, there are

interpreting its meaning (Mark Andersons and Kathy Andersons, 2003; 1)

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In general, text is an article which often read. It is the language unity that expresses the

meaning contextually. The limitation of the text is that the text is not measure the number of

sentence or page, but the text is measured from the meaning expressed and context. Thus, the

quality of the text is not measured from the quantity of the sentences (Tri Wiratno, 2003; 3-4).

According to Hartono, text is a unit of meaning which is coherent and appropriate for its

context (Rudi Hartono, 2005; 4).Human beings are different from other creatures that live in a

world of words. When these words are put together to communicate a meaning, a piece of text is

created. They will think to express their expressions; it is mean human need to express their own in

many ways that can be understood by others. Human can use a text as one of the ways to express

their own. It means that when the writer uses language to write, he is creating and constructing a

text. When the reader reads a text, he is interpreting texts. Moreover, creating and interpreting

text also occur when they are talking and listening.

E. Genre

“Genre is used to refer to particular text-types, not to traditional varieties of literature.

It is a type or kind of text, defined in terms of its social purposes; also the level of context

dealing with social purpose” (Rudi Hartono, 2005; 6). The meaning of the genres intended is that

students are able to understand the concept and they would be able to identify a kind of texts that

students will have to write.

Know as theory of genre about forward, methods and suggestion about the teaching of

writing. One of its main concerns is to discover and describe the major characteristic of kinds of

writing.

Genre are kind of text that each of them has communicative purpose, text structure and

characteristics of linguistic. Language is social phenomena and that to use language – to speak or

write is to be engaged in an entirely social activities (Smith: 1990) as quoted by (Himawati,

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2009:21). It means that anything about language is the kind of words. We use sentences, we

construct ways, we interact with language has social reason and social effect.

There are fifteen types of genre text, (Rudi Hartono, 2005; 6) they are:

1. Recount is a kind of genre used to retell events for the purpose of informing or

entertaining.

2. Narrative is a kind of genre used to amuse, to entertain and to deal with actual or various

experiences in different ways.

3. News story is a factual text which informs reader‟s events of the day which are considered

newsworthy or important.

4. Anecdote is a kind of genre used to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing

incident.

5. Spoof is a kind of genre used to retell an event with a humorous twist.

6. Procedure is a kind of genre used to describe how something is accomplished through a

sequence of actions or steps.

7. Explanation is a kind of genre used to explain the processes involved in the formation or

workings of natural or socio-cultural phenomena.

8. Report is a kind of genre used to describe the way things are, with reference to arrange or

natural, manmade and social phenomena in our environment.

9. Analytical exposition is a kind of genre used to persuade the reader or listener to take action on

some matter.

10. Discussion is a kind of genre used to present (at least) two points of view about an issue.

11. D e s c r i p t i o n is a kind of genre used to describe a particular person, place or thing.

12. Review is a kind of genre used to critique an art work or event for a public audience.

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13. Commentary is a kind of genre used to explain the processes involved in the information

(evolution) of a social-cultural phenomenon, as though a natural phenomenon.

14. Hortatory exposition is a kind of genre used to persuade the reader or listener that something

should or should not be the case.

F. Recount

Recount is typically tells entertain by dealing with a sequence of events that establishes a

relationship between a writer/reader and speaker/listener. Recount is a kind of genre that has

social function to retell event for the purpose of informing or entertaining. The tense that used in

recount text is past tense. Social purpose of recount is to reconstruct past experiences by retelling

events in original sequence. We can look at the sample of recount in personal letters, police report,

insurance claims, and incident reports (Ken Hyland, 2004; 29).

Recount text based on the life experiences and familiar language. Recounts are used in most

subjects to show memory of series of events as in accounts of Science excursion, everyday life in

another time or culture. Personal letters to friends are often recounts of experience.

1. The Social Function of Recount Text

Recount text has some social functions, which are:

a. To retell something happened.

Recount retells past event. Recount begins by telling the reader who was involved,

what happened, where this even took place and when it happened.

1) To inform something to the readers.

It informs to the reader about what happened, where this even took place and

when it happened.

2) To entertain.

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Sometimes, recount retells a funny experience. It has a function to entertain the

reader.

2. The Language Feature of Recount Text

The language features of recount text are:

a. Focus on individual participant/a group participant.

Recount text focus on what an individual or a group of people were doing. It can be

written in the first or the third person. Fist person, is happening to the person writing the

recount. Example: I went to the park. The third person, an observer is telling it. Example:

Vera went to the park; she saw a pond near that park.

b. Using past tense

Past tense is the form a verb used to describe actions in the past. Many linguistics

explain by the own term but most of them have the same content.

c. Simple Past

The simple past indicates that the activity or situation began and ended at a

particular time in the past.

For example:

I walked to school yesterday.

If a sentence contains when and has the simple past tense in both clauses, the action

in the „when clause‟ happen first.

For example:

I stood under a tree when it began rain.

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d. Past Progressive

The progressive indicates that the activity was in progress in the past.

For example:

I was studying at eight o’clock last night.

Sometimes the past progressive is used in both parts of a sentence when two actions

are in progress simultaneously.

For example:

While I was studying in one room my house, my brother was having a party in other

room.

e. Past Perfect

The past perfect expresses an activity that was completed before another activity or

time in the past.

For example:

My parents had already eaten by the time I got home.

If before or either is used in sentence, the past perfect is not necessary because the

time relationship is already clear. The simple past may be use.

For example:

After the guests had left, I went to bed.

f. Past Perfect Progressive

The past perfect progressive emphasizes the duration of an activity that was in

progress before another activity or time in the past.

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For example:

The police had been looking for the criminal for two years before they caught him.

This tense also may express an activity in progress recent t another time or activity

in the past.

For example:

When Agung got home, his hair was still wet because he had been swimming.

g. Using Material (action) Process

Material Processes are processes of material doing. They express the notion that

some entity physically does something-which may be done to some other entity.

h. Focus on temporal sequence of events (temporal conjunction)

Conjunction is a connective. It is a part of speech (or word class) that serves to

connect words, phrases, clause or sentence.

Example: Last year, on the weekend, then, etc

G. Generic structure

Recount text has several elements, one of which is the generic structure. In making the

recount text should match the existing generic structure, because this is an early grounding in

making text recount According to Derewianka (1990) as stated by Miranti (2008:16) generic

recount text structure is as follows:

1. Orientation

xxvii
The orientation provides all the necessary background information to enable the

audience to make sense of the text. To ensure that the orientation is detailed and thorough, use

the words (who, what, when, where, and why). The writer or speaker needs to gives information

about what happened, who or what was involved, when and where the events occurred and

why. An awareness of audience and purpose will assist the author in selecting the amount of

detailed needed.

2. Series of events

In series of events the writer writes the events chronologically. It begins from the first

event, followed by the second event to the last event. The sum of events depend on the

creativity of the writer.

Events should be selected carefully to add to the audience‟s understanding of the topic.

Students should be prepared to discard events and details that are unimportant or uninteresting.

A recount, in most cases, is more than a „shopping list‟ of every possible detail. Students should

be guided to select only those events that are relevant and that can be expanded through the

inclusion of specific details.

3. Re-orientation (optional)

The final section concludes the recount by summarizing outcomes or results, evaluating

the topic‟s importance or offering personal comment or opinion. It can also look to the future

by speculating about what might happen next. But, not all of recount closed by re-orientation. It

is optional.

xxviii
CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHOD

In this chapter the writer tries to present the methodology of the research. It consists of the

general description of STAIN Salatiga, research methodology, and object of the researches, data and

data source and method of data collecting.

A. The General Description of STAIN Salatiga

STAIN Salatiga is the State Institute of Islamic Student located in Salatiga, the air cool and

very conducive to learning. STAIN Salatiga integrate the development dimension of spirituality,

intellect, and professionalism, providing quality assurance process and output educators. STAIN

Salatiga graduates can enter the workforce and science with high competence and character as well

as the moral good.

STAIN Salatiga has two campuses. Campus I on Jl. Tentara Pelajar No.2 Salatiga and

Campus II on Jl. Nakul Sadewa V No. 9 Salatiga. Lecturer in academically qualified STAIN

Salatiga: 4 Professor, Doctor of 11 people, 47 people were S3 and Masters 50. Employees in stain

salatiga there were 54, 8 SMA graduates, master of 6 people, DIII of 4 people, and 36 S1.

Salatiga stain has two majors. Firstly, the Department of Tarbiyah serve to organize

academic and professional education, whose goal is to establish Islamic Education Degree, who have

expertise in the field of education and teaching of Islam with special expertise in the field of Islamic

education studies, Arabic, and English, and be entitled to be a teacher or teaching in their field of

study.

Secondly, Shariah Department serves to organize academic and professional education,

which aims to establish Islamic Law degree, who have expertise in the field of Islamic law and

positive law with particular expertise in the areas of al - ahwal al - Syakhshiyah ( religious court ).

xxix
In the Department of Shariah also D - III program, with a concentration in Finance and

Islamic Banking professional education aims to form an expert associate that has expertise in both

management and financial accounting in financial institutions and banks. He earned a bachelor's

degree is A.Md.

STAIN Salatiga this year opened four courses ( Prodi ) is new; Raudhatul Atfal Teacher

Education ( PGRA ), Islamic Broadcasting Communications ( IBC ), the Islamic Cultural History (

SKI ), and Science Quran and Tafsir ( IAT ). Prodi PGRA an opportunity for RA or kindergarten

teachers under the Ministry of Religious and Islamic activists such as early childhood education, KB

( KB ), and managers and teachers TKQ - TPQ .

For KPI is projected to generate a reliable extension of Islam and dynamic, public relations,

and entrepreneur in the field of information. The SKI, It is expected that graduates become experts

in the field of history and social science, history philologist or society activists. While the IAT is

projected to generate activists and researchers Tafsir al- Qur‟an.

Master Program (S - 2) Education Department State Institute of Islamc Studies (STAIN)

Salatiga established as an attempt to respond to the development of an aging society requires

educated workers are oriented to professionals in the fields of science and Islam and teaching.

Development of society who are in the process of globalization of information and international

relations - West - East , demanding an increase in the role of science and professionals in the field to

Islamization and teaching both quantitatively and qualitatively .

B. Research Methodology

This research is a qualitative research and also called descriptive research. The writer chose

this method because it is compatible with this research where the data are in form of words.

xxx
Qualitative writers have adopted a hermeneutic perspective on the text-that is, the

perspective which views the text as interpretation can never be judged to be true or false. Text is

only one among many possible interpretations (Patton 2002:114). It does not present the data and

the result in the form of statistics but it present in the form of description. This research was present

a descript analysis of generic structure of recount text the study of fourth semester student of STAIN

Salatiga in the academic year of 2012/2013.

C. Object of Research

The research object is the recount texts which were made by the fourth semester students of

STAIN Salatiga in the academic year 2012/2013. To be specific in analyzing the data in the

researches, the writer takes 30 texts.

D. Method of Data Collection

Collecting a need data is one of the most important steps in a research. For this reason, a

writer should be able to determine an appropriate technique to collecting a data. There are several

techniques to collect the data including observation, questioner, interview and documentation study

(2004: 70) in this case, the writer uses documentation study as the way to collecting data.

1. Documentation

According to Arikunto (2002; 206) „mencari data mengenai hal-hal atau variable yang

berupa catatan, transkip, buku, surat kantor, majalah, prasasti, notulen, rapat, agenda dan

sebagainya’. In this study uses the data took the text made by students, which is documented

and made as research material.

Documentations study is technique of data collection witch indirectly aimed to subject

of research. While documentation is a record of events in the past in form of hand writing, or

even literature work (sugiyono, 2006; 329)

xxxi
The data for a qualitative study most often are notes jotted down in the field or during

an interview from which the original comments, observations, and feelings are reconstructed or

text transcribed from audiotapes. “The basic data are these observations and conversations, the

actual words of people repro diced to the best of my ability from the field notes” (Diamond

1992:7). Many field research projects have slowed to a halt because a novice writer becomes

overwhelmed by the quantity of information that has been collected.

Documentation is critical to qualitative research for several reasons: It is essential for

keeping track of what will be a rapidly growing volume of notes, tapes, and documents; it

provides a way of developing and outlining the analytic process; and it encourages ongoing

conceptualizing and strategizing about the text. Miles and Huberman (1994:53) provide a good

example of a contact summary form that was used to keep track of observational sessions in a

qualitative study.The data in this research were drawn the text recount of four students writing

examination. The writer takes 30 as the data of this study. In his case, the writer decided to text

recount made fourth semester student of STAIN Salatiga in the academic years of 2012/2013

was upload in blog staff http://dewi20062012.staff.stainsalatiga.ac.id/.

E. Method of Data Analysis

1. catagorizing

in this activity the writer categorize text based on the type of generic structure of

recount text. After stage documentation, the writer classifying text passages recount text into a

generic structure to represent the extent to which students are able to understand the text

according to the generic structure of recount text. It to find out the student mistage in mastering

generic structure in writing recount text

Here the example of recount text:

Work Group (RT-01)

xxxii
Writen by: Al Haitami Ahkam

On Thursday, Darus, Mega and I gathered on campus. We were on group of writing III

courses. Once gathered, we started to discuss the task to open premier skills website which

ordered by lecture

On the website, we got new knowledge about learning method. It was very interesting.

We could learn while playing the games. And that didn’t make me bored. I saw the video as a

distraction at time of learning also. Although the procedure was a bit complicated, but it was

very beneficial for us. We were happy to learn and try what was on the website.

After we finished our assignment, we talked about what we got from the website. And

then we went home

Here is categorizing the recount text:

Generic
No Code Recount Text
Structure

1 RT-01-1 On Thursday, Darus, Mega and I


gathered on campus. We were on group of
writing III courses. Once gathered, we Orientation
started to discuss the task to open premier
skills website which ordered by lecture

2 RT-01-2 On the website, we got new


knowledge about learning method. It was
very interesting. We could learn while
playing the games. And that didn‟t make me
bored. I saw the video as a distraction at Event
time of learning also. Although the
procedure was a bit complicated, but it was
very beneficial for us. We were happy to
learn and try what was on the website.

xxxiii
3 RT-01-3 After we finished our assignment,
we talked about what we got from the Re-orientation
website. And then we went home

xxxiv
CHAPTER IV

DATA ANALYSIS

This chapter presents the result of the research to answer the problem statement in this research;

the generic structure of student in writing recount text, the problem faces by the student in mastering

generic stricture of recount text, and implications o the research for education. The completed

discussions are described below:

A. Data analysis

After the data are collecting, the writer red and learn the recount text one bay one than the

writer analyze the text based on identification, identifying the problem faced by the student in

writing recount text.

The communicative purpose of recount is to retell events for the purposes of informing or

entertaining. In order to achieve this communicative purpose, some purposes are employed, to

orient the readers in respect to place, time and people in the text, to present a series of events

about given field. In this study, all recount texts belong to personal recount texts which the

purposes are to retell events that the writer has been personally involved in. From 30 recount

texts, the students could write personal recounts texts of which their communicative

purposes are to retell their past experience.

1. The Generic Structure of Student in Writing Recount Text

To find the first objective of my study, I analyzed the generic structure from 30

students' works. Here, I analyzed whether the students wrote generic structure stages

completely or not. The stages analysis could be seen in this table below:

Table 1

Generic structure analysis

xxxv
No Code Orientation Number of Event Re-Orientation

1 RT-01 Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3

2 RT-02 Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2, and 3 Paragraph 4

3 RT-03 Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3

4 RT-04 Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2, and 3 Paragraph 4

5 RT-05 Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3

6 RT-06 Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2, and 3 Paragraph 4

7 RT-07 - Paragraph 1, and 2 -

8 RT-08 Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2, 3, and 4 Paragraph 5

9 RT-09 Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3

10 RT-10 Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3

11 RT-11 Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2, and 3 Paragraph 4

12 RT-12 Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3

13 RT-13 Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2, and 3 Paragraph 4

14 RT-14 Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3

15 RT-15 Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3

16 RT-16 Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3

xxxvi
17 RT-17 Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2, and 3 Paragraph 5

18 RT-18 Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2, 3, and 4 Paragraph 5

19 RT-19 Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2, and 3 -

20 RT-20 Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2, 3, and 4 Paragraph 5

21 RT-21 Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2, 3, and 4 Paragraph 5

22 RT-22 Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2, and 3 Paragraph 4

23 RT-23 Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2, and 3 Paragraph 4

24 RT-24 Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3

25 RT-25 - Paragraph 1, 2 and 3 -

26 RT-26 Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2, and 3 Paragraph 4

27 RT-27 Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2, 3, and 4 -

28 RT-28 Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3

29 RT-29 Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2, 3, 4, and 5 Paragraph 6

30 RT-30 Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3

PRESENTASE 93% 100% 86%

a. Interpretation of Orientation Analysis

Table 2

Orientation analysis

xxxvii
No Code Orientation in number Total in percentage

1 RT-01 1 3.3%

2 RT-02 1 3.3%

3 RT-03 1 3.3%

4 RT-04 1 3.3%

5 RT-05 1 3.3%

6 RT-06 1 3.3%

7 RT-07 - -

8 RT-08 1 3.3%

9 RT-09 1 3.3%

10 RT-10 1 3.3%

11 RT-11 1 3.3%

12 RT-12 1 3.3%

13 RT-13 1 3.3%

14 RT-14 1 3.3%

15 RT-15 1 3.3%

16 RT-16 1 3.3%

xxxviii
17 RT-17 1 3.3%

18 RT-18 1 3.3%

19 RT-19 1 3.3%

20 RT-20 1 3.3%

21 RT-21 1 3.3%

22 RT-22 1 3.3%

23 RT-23 1 3.3%

24 RT-24 1 3.3%

25 RT-25 - -

26 RT-26 1 3.3%

27 RT-27 1 3.3%

28 RT-28 1 3.3%

29 RT-29 1 3.3%

30 RT-30 1 3.3%

TOTAL 28 93%

Based on the result table above, the orientation analysis result of students' works on

recount writing was 93%. It means that they almost know that at the beginning of a recount

xxxix
they should provide an introduction by introducing the participants and setting of the past

experience. It can be seen from the example below:

Table 3

Example text orientation

Code Paragraph

On Thursday, Darus, Mega and I gathered on campus.


RT-01-1 We were on group of writing III courses. Once gathered, we

started to discuss the task to open premier skills website

which ordered by lecture.

Based on the result table above, these sentences refer to a background of

information about who, what, when, and where the past experiences happened. The "who"

is clearly written in this sentence that "Darus, Mega and I ". It tells about was involved in

the text. Then, the words " we started to discuss the task to open premier skills website

which ordered by lecture " tell about what the text is. The word “On Thursday “ tells about

when it happened. And the last the word “on campus " tells about where it happened.

Table 4

Example text orientation

Code Paragraph

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In subject writing 3, I have a new study group. Consist

of Syafi‟I, Tyas, and I. we had assignments from writing 3‟s

RT-03-1 lecturer, Ms. Dewi. Our presentation about descriptive text

and we should made a recount text about our activities after

we opened a website.

Based on the result table above, these sentences refer to a background of

information about who, what, when, and where the past experiences happened. The "who"

is clearly written in this sentence that " Consist of Syafi’I, Tyas, and I ". It tells about was

involved in the text. Then, the words “we had assignments from writing 3’s lecturer, Ms.

Dewi. Our presentation about descriptive text and we should made a recount text about our

activities after we opened a website “tell about what the text is. The word “In subject

writing 3" tells about when it happened. But, in these sentences not have information about

where it happened.

Table 5

Example text orientation

Code Paragraph

On Monday, April 15. I met with my group, Durotun

RT-04-1 and Dian. We met in news board of STAIN Salatiga. Then,

we discussed to play Premier Skill English on the internet.

xli
Based on the result table above, these sentences refer to a background of

information about who, what, when, and where the past experiences happened. The "who"

is clearly written in this sentence that " I met with my group, Durotun and Dian ". It tells

about was involved in the text. Then, the words " we discussed to play Premier Skill

English on the internet " tell about what the text is. The word " On Monday, April 15 " tells

about when it happened. And the last the word " We met in news board of STAIN Salatiga "

tells about where it happened.

Table 6

Example text orientation

Code Paragraph

On Monday, april 15th 2013, I met with team to

discussed our assignment to make a recount text about

RT-05-1 premier skill. We met in front of news board of STAIN

Salatiga. I came late because I was busy to keep my son. So

my friends,doni and durotun have waiting me until I came

Based on the result table above, these sentences refer to a background of

information about who, what, when, and where the past experiences happened. The "who"

is clearly written in this sentence that " I met with team ". It tells about was involved in the

text. Then, the words " to discussed our assignment to make a recount text about premier

skill." tell about what the text is. The word " On Monday, april 15th 2013" tells about when

xlii
it happened. And the last the word " We met in front of news board of STAIN Salatiga "

tells about where it happened.

Table 7

Example text orientation

Code Paragraph

On 12th of april my group discuss the schedule for

RT-06-1 meeting together to discuss about recount text. I met my

partner in front of the whole climbing.

Based on the result table above, these sentences refer to a background of

information about who, what, when, and where the past experiences happened. The "who"

is clearly written in this sentence that " I met with team ". It tells about was involved in the

text. Then, the words " my group discuss the schedule for meeting together to discuss about

recount text " tell about what the text is. The word " On 12th of april " tells about when it

happened. And the last the word " in front of the whole climbing " tells about where it

happened.

b. Interpretation of Event Analysis

1) Text With 1 Paragraph Event

Table 8

Text with 1 paragraph event

xliii
No Code Event in number Total in percentage

1 RT-01 1 3.3%

2 RT-03 1 3.3%

3 RT-05 1 3.3%

4 RT-09 1 3.3%

5 RT-10 1 3.3%

6 RT-12 1 3.3%

7 RT-14 1 3.3%

8 RT-15 1 3.3%

9 RT-16 1 3.3%

10 RT-24 1 3.3%

11 RT-28 1 3.3%

12 RT-30 1 3.3%

TOTAL 12 40%

Based on the result table above, the records of events with 1 paragraph result was

40%. It means that 12 student just write 1 paragraph series of events. It refers to the one of

language features of recount in which the use of words that showed order in which the

events in the text happened just with one paragraph. I provide some examples below:

xliv
Table 9

Example Text with 1 paragraph event

Code Paragraph

After I had a short conversation with them I decided

to turn on my computer and opened the web which was

given from our lecturer. There was four interesting games

for us to play but I chose one for my self and I thought it was

the easiest one. I chose Match the Kit. The game was the
RT-10-2
way how to described one by one what the player wear by its

color. I thought it was easy but it was not. I kept trying and

tried after two or three times of playing I was lost finally I

won. I was very happy. After that I saw the time and it was

almost took me to miss Thabitha‟s class and needed to leave.

From the website, we chose different games for each

other. I chose a game named „Beat The Keeper‟. There were

3 levels on the game: easy, medium and hard. I have for

about 90 seconds to finish the game. In my first played, I

tried to play the easy level and I got score 9. Then I


RT-14-2
continued to the medium level and I got score 7 and the last I

played the hard level and I got score 8. It was interesting

game, so I played it over and over again. The game wasn‟t

only giving a pleasure but also helped me to increase my

english skill.

xlv
In the first meeting, we discussed about spoof text

because on Wednesday, 3 april 2013 it was time to present

uor maretial. We looked fo some books about material in the

RT-15-2 library and also brouse in the Internet. We browsed premier

skill and play game in this site. After we got some materials,

we started to make the presentation. We shared about our

discussion because it was time to go home.

Actually I was so confused how to explain

Mathematics‟ lesson. Why? Because he could not count fast,

for the example was 100 : 5 = ?, he just gave smile at me and

did not say anything. Finally I found the funny trick, I made

(100 : 5) as a story, the story was „. . . . . I saw 100 aliens in

RT-24-2 the sky, they were flying when I walked around my house at

midnight. Their shadows, planes and voice were to be closer

to me. I shouted loudly so that they went to the moon. I

thought they were clever, the leader divided aliens into five

groups. With the unique voice, he said “How many aliens in

each group while I asked you to be five groups?

The examples above, there are some sentences written to show event. In series

of events the writer writes the events chronologically. Records of the story tell what

are in the story use one paragraph.

2) Text With 2 Paragraphs Event

xlvi
Table 10

Text with 2 paragraphs event

No Code Event in number Total in percentage

1 RT-02 2 3.3%

2 RT-04 2 3.3%

3 RT-06 2 3.3%

4 RT-07 2 3.3%

5 RT-11 2 3.3%

6 RT-13 2 3.3%

7 RT-17 2 3.3%

8 RT-19 2 3.3%

9 RT-22 2 3.3%

10 RT-23 2 3.3%

11 RT-26 2 3.3%

TOTAL 11 36%

Based on the result table above, the records of events with 2 paragraph result was

36%. It means that 11 student write 2 paragraph series of events. It refers to the events in

the text happened with two paragraph. I provide some examples below:

xlvii
Table 11

Example text event with 2 paragraphs

RT-13

Code Paragraph

RT-13-2 On friday after writing class me and my friend agreed


to stay at class for discussing our next assignment there are
presentation of spoof text and recount text. on that time was
very uncomfortable moment because we had to hurry on
discussing the rain would fall. we wanted back home as soon
as posible. before back home we agreed to meet again on
monday.

RT-13-3 although we never met before, we have been ontime


on our next discussion. monday before dhuhur prayer we
searched premier skill english learning together. it was
comfortable media for studying english not only for adult but
also for beginner and child. they could enjoy their subject
matter and interesting of studying english.As a theacer we
could look for a new media of learning that suitable for our
student for different level. It was like learning by doing
student should remember and had a deep understand with the
material.

Table 12

Example text event with 2 paragraphs

RT-19

Code Paragraph

RT-19-2 After lunch, we continued to make writing


assignment together. At the time heavy rain, I and made
assignment in the front of auditorium STAIN. There, I

xlviii
borrowed my friend‟s laptop to open
premiskills.britishcruncil.org and tried to play many games
fun in this website with Fatim. I tried to open many games,
sometimes I can play some games but there is a game that I
didn‟t understand how to played it.

RT-19-3 I and Fatim played many games in the website.


Besides that I also tried browsing to other materials. Fatim
can not continue our discussion because she would did other
activities. Then I continued discussion with other friends like
Eki, Fiza, Dewi, Muji, and Umi.

Table 13

Example text event with 2 paragraphs

RT-23

Code Paragraph

RT-23-2 First, we shared about what is recount text, the


general structure of it and others. This was second time we
met, but they are like old friends to me.

RT-23-3 After we felt tired we took a rest just a moment. We


search something in Google. Then we played game to make
situation fresher.

3) Text With 3 Paragraph Event

Table 14

Text with 3 paragraph event

xlix
No Code Event in number Total in percentage

1 RT-08 3 3.3%

2 RT-18 3 3.3%

3 RT-20 3 3.3%

4 RT-21 3 3.3%

5 RT-25 3 3.3%

6 RT-27 3 3.3%

TOTAL 6 20%

Based on the result table above, the records of events with 3 paragraph result was

20%. It means that 6 student write 3 paragraph series of events. It refers to the events in the

text happened with 3 paragraph. I provide some examples below:

Table 15

Example text event with 3 paragraphs

RT-20

Code Paragraph

RT-20-2 First, I and my group open the web and reading the
web. There game and some causes of programs. I and my
group open one of the programs. Then I was playing the
game, we shared our felling when we play it. We discuss
about the arrangement of the game. We finished the game and

l
cast about the next programs.

RT-20-3 Second, I and my group discuss about make a good


recount text. We learned how to make recount from web. We
shared the experience and narrated each other experience to
make a recount text. From the experience, I can get idea how
to make a good recount text. Then we make a recount text
together.

RT-20-4 After we finish the assignment, we were playing


game agent. I was very happy because I can share to my
group about the problem to recount text. Then I can know
better our member my group.

Table 16

Example text event with 3 paragraphs

RT-27

Code Paragraph

RT-27-2 On April 2nd our group met for the first time.
Actually that was hard to met each other because we had full
schedule everyday. We could meet after had lecture at noon
and we met without Aisah because she was sick. We started
with search for the material such as game in internet.

RT-27-3 We met again on Tuesday for prepared the


presentation next day. On April 3rd we had writing class and
would present our presentation. After that we browsed about
premier skills web and played game, when I played it I was so
poor because I failed

RT-27-4 On April 10th we met again to discuss about recount


text and we made some paragraph to tell our experience. We
peer to peer each other of our assignment

li
4) Text With 4Paragraph Event

Table 17

Text with 4 paragraph event

No Code Event in number Total in percentage

1 RT-29 4 3.3%

TOTAL 1 3.3%

Based on the result table above, the records of events with 4 paragraph result was

3.3%. It means that 1 student write 4 paragraph series of events. It refers to the events in the

text happened with 4 paragraph. I provide the paragraph below:

Table 18

Example text event with 4 paragraphs

RT-29

Code Paragraph

RT-29-2 First, we opened www.britishcouncil.org from


STAIN‟s hot spot area and we got good speed. We speed
along at one megabyte a second, it was only in my
imagination.

lii
RT-29-3 We did not make any conversation at first meeting.
Eventhough, I thought we had tried to be friendly. We knew
each other character of the member of the group after the first
meeting.

RT-29-4 www.britishcouncil.org was good place to learning


english language. We could read, article, play games, listen
potcast, watch video, and learn grammer. We need good
connection to do it.

RT-29-5 enjoyed working in a group. Actually one person


made one report, so I thought we just learning together, and I
more comfortable to work alone than in a group. My habit is
not changed because we just
openedwww.britishcouncil.org together.

c. Interpretation of Re-orientations Analysis

Table 19

Re-Orientation analysis

No Code Re-Orientation in number Total in percentage

1 RT-01 1 3.3%

2 RT-02 1 3.3%

3 RT-03 1 3.3%

4 RT-04 1 3.3%

5 RT-05 1 3.3%

liii
6 RT-06 1 3.3%

7 RT-07 - -

8 RT-08 1 3.3%

9 RT-09 1 3.3%

10 RT-10 1 3.3%

11 RT-11 1 3.3%

12 RT-12 1 3.3%

13 RT-13 1 3.3%

14 RT-14 1 3.3%

15 RT-15 1 3.3%

16 RT-16 1 3.3%

17 RT-17 1 3.3%

18 RT-18 1 3.3%

19 RT-19 - -

20 RT-20 1 3.3%

21 RT-21 1 3.3%

22 RT-22 1 3.3%

liv
23 RT-23 1 3.3%

24 RT-24 1 3.3%

25 RT-25 - -

26 RT-26 1 3.3%

27 RT-27 - -

28 RT-28 1 3.3%

29 RT-29 1 3.3%

30 RT-30 1 3.3%

TOTAL 26 86%

The last functional stage is re-orientation. Based on the result table above, Re-

orientation analysis results of the students' recount texts was 86%. It means that not all

students used re- orientation. Although it is an optional stage which the student may not use

it in their recount writing. From 24 texts, I provide some examples of reorientation taken

from some texts as follows:

Table 20

Example text orientation

Code Sentences

lv
After that, I told my little sister and my friends to visit

RT-16-3 this awesome site because it could help us to increase our

skills in English with a fun games that made us enjoy to learn.

Finally after I and my group finished the game, we

RT-17-4 planned to make a recount text then it would be submitted and

corrected next week peer to peer.

The last, we did peer to peer to check the generic


RT-20-5
structure and language feature of recount text.

Finally, our assignment finished. Our discussion was

RT-22-4 not boring and we enjoyed, because we got new experience

and knowledge.

Finally, we met again on monday 8 2013 to finish our

homework. We did our homework together then we corrected


RT-26-4
our paper. Finally I was really happy because our homework

has completed.

Based on the result table above, there are some sentences written to show re-

orientation which is used like conclusion that might include a personal comment or closure

of events, but it was optional not always necessary.

2. Identifying The Problem Faces by The Student in Mastering Generic Stricture of Recount

Text

In this sense, the writer tries to identify the problem faced by the students in

mastering generic structure in writing recount text thoroughly the mistakes that have had in

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their text. Based on the analysis resultsThere are two mistakes that were made in accordance

with the student does not theory. They are follows:

a. Mis organizing the paraghrap don‟t have Orientation and Re-Orientation

Table 21

(RT-07)

Generic
No Code Recount Text
Structure

1 RT-07-1 Presentation is the one of way to


improve the student teaching skills. Before we
present our presentation, we was discussed our
project about descriptive. When we were Event 1
discussing our project, the day was rain. So we
decided to discussed it in the class.

2 RT-07-2 In the class we started to looking for


the presentation‟s media. Of course we needed
the notebook and wireless connection to search
media at “premiereskill” site, but the
connection was not connected because the
rainy day. Ms Tyas borrowed the modem of
her friend. We got it. We continued to open
premiere skill site. In that site there were some Event 2
application for example; games, vocabulary,
grammar and the other. We tried the games,
we almost tried all the games. The games was
very good and fun. We enjoyed it until we
were laughing. We tried one by one, until the
day was afternoon, so we enough our
discussion.

Based on the RT-07analysis result, can be found that this text has inappropriate

recount text organization. It just consists of 2 events. In this text doesn't inform clearly about

detailed and thorough (who, what, when, where, and why), The writer has ben started text to

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tell what happened. And the writer didn‟t make a completely event and there was not a re-

orientation. But on the underlined sentence could indicate a re-orientation in the text.

Table 22

(RT-25)

Generic
No Code Recount Text
Structure

1 RT-25-1 First time, I got togethere with my group


of writing 3 on Friday, April 05 2013. It was
amazing because we have to different schedule
to get free time to discuss about the assignment. Event 1
It was the first time for us know about
premiereskills. We discussed what the premiere
skills and then brows webs.

2 RT-25-2 In that time the connection was fast but


we confious to decide the goals of the web,
many miss understanding happened between us
to understand what the premiere skills and what
must we do after that. After that shared we Event 2
shared our opinion about the web pages, we
attention when one of us tells their opinion. Then
we discuss the conclusion and the upcoming
target

3 RT-25-3 In the limited time we also discussed


when we can meet again because we have Event 3
assignments.

Based on the RT-25analysis result, can be found that this text has inappropriate

recount text organization. It consists of 3 record of event. The writer doesn't inform clearly

about detailed and thorough (who, what, when, where, and why). The writer just inform

about what he had experienced. In this text the writer didn‟t make a completely text with a

re-orientation.

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b. Mis organizing the paraghrap don‟t have Re-Orientation

Table 23

(RT-19)

Generic
No Code Recount Text
Structure

1 RT-19-1 Two days ago I met with my friends in


the campus. We did many activities in the
campus included to make writing assignment.
In this afternoon about 12.00 o‟clock, I, Fatim, Orientation
Eki, Fiza, Dewi, Umi, and Muji had lunch
together in Soto shop (food stall) near with
campus. We told many things there.

2 RT-19-2 After lunch, we continued to make


writing assignment together. At the time heavy
rain, I and made assignment in the front of
auditorium STAIN. There, I borrowed my
friend‟s laptop to open
premiskills.britishcruncil.org and tried to play Event 1
many games fun in this website with Fatim. I
tried to open many games, sometimes I can
play some games but there is a game that I
didn‟t understand how to played it..

3 RT-19-3 I and Fatim played many games in the


website. Besides that I also tried browsing to
other materials. Fatim can not continue our
discussion because she would did other Event 2
activities. Then I continued discussion with
other friends like Eki, Fiza, Dewi, Muji, and
Umi.

Based on the RT-19 analysis result, can be found that this text has inappropriate

recount text organization. It consists of orientation and 2 record of event. There is no

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reorientation in the text. Can be concluded the writer doesn‟t conclude or summarize all the

stories in writing.

Table 24

(RT-27)

Generic
No Code Recount Text
Structure

1 RT-27-1 In this fourth semester, I have writing


four lecture. It was different from writing one
and two before. We had presentation in every
meeting which was the presentation taught by
teaching method. The lecturer gave us the Orientation
material and made a group consist three until
four students. My team work were Sari, Aisah,
and I who got spoof text.

2 RT-27-2 On April 2nd our group met for the


first time. Actually that was hard to met each
other because we had full schedule everyday.
We could meet after had lecture at noon and Event 1
we met without Aisah because she was sick.
We started with search for the material such as
game in internet.

3 RT-27-3 We met again on Tuesday for prepared


the presentation next day. On April 3rd we had
writing class and would present our
presentation. After that we browsed about Event 2
premier skills web and played game, when I
played it I was so poor because I failed

4 RT-27-4 On April 10th we met again to discuss


about recount text and we made some
paragraph to tell our experience. We peer to Event 3
peer each other of our assignment

lx
Based on the RT-27 analysis result it can be found that this text has inappropriate

recount text organization. It consists of orientation and 3 record of event at the text there are

3 event forceps‟s at devout, but writer withholds re-orientation who tells about summarizing

outcomes or results, evaluating the topic‟s importance or offering personal comment or

opinion.

3. Implications of The Research for Education

From the analysis conducted, do not all the students know about the generic

Structure of recount text. There are four text that the students are mastering the generic

structure not comply with the theory. Furthermore, the implications of this study can be used as

teaching material in writing class learning, better for text appropriate or not appropriate with the

theory.

lxi
CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

After analyzed the data from the fourth semester student years of stain salatiga, the writer

draws conclusion based on the analysis result. The writer also proposes some suggestion to improve

the teaching learning process in writing session.

A. Conclusion

Based on the analyzed data the writer infers conclusion as follows:

1. The Generic Structure of Student in Writing Recount Text, as show by the percentage.

Orientation 93%, event with one paragraph 40%, event with two paragraphs 36%, event

with tri paragraphs 20%, event with four paragraphs 3.3%, and re-orientation 86%.

2. The problem faced by the student in writing recount text are the difficulties to faced

orientation and re-orientation, there are two mistakes students in mastering genetic structure

of recount text. Firstly, Mis organizing the paraghrap don‟t have orientation and re-

orientation, as show in RT-07 and RT-25. Secondly, Mis organizing the paraghrap don‟t

have re-orientation, as show in RT-19 and RT-27.

3. Implication of the research for education to additional teaching material in writing class.

B. Suggestion

Based on the conclusion above, the writer proposes the following suggestion to the

teacher, student and the other writers who are interested in studying writing recount text as

follow:

1. To the Teachers

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The teacher can make this research as additional teaching material in writing class.

2. To the Students

a. They have to study more in writing recount text.

b. They have to face the generic structure of recount text correctly and studies more improve

ability in writing recount text.

3. To other Writers

Research based on analysis of generic structure of recount text, so that this research

paper can be useful as starting point to investigate the topic more completely.

lxiii
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