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Allantois

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Allantois

Diagram illustrating a chicken egg in its 9th day with


all extraembryonic membranes

Sectional plan of the gravid human uterus in the third and


fourth months of pregnancy

Details

Pronunciation /əˈlæntɔɪs/

Days 16

Precursor yolk sac


Gives rise to Umbilical cord

Identifiers

Latin Aallantois

MeSH D000482

TE E6.0.1.2.0.0.2

Anatomical terminology

[edit on Wikidata]

The allantois (plural allantoides or allantoises) is a hollow sac-like structure filled with clear fluid that
forms part of a developing amniote's conceptus (which consists of all embryonic and extra-
embryonic tissues). It helps the embryo exchange gases and handle liquid waste.
The allantois, along with the amnion and chorion (other extraembryonic membranes), identify
humans and other mammals as well as reptiles, dinosaurs, and birds as amniotes. Of
the vertebrates, only the anamniotes (fish and amphibians) lack this structure.

Contents
[hide]

 1Function
o 1.1In reptiles, birds, and monotremes
o 1.2In most marsupials
o 1.3In mammals
 2Clinical significance
 3Additional images
 4References
 5External links

Function[edit]
This sac-like structure, whose name is the New Latin equivalent of "sausage" (in reference to its
shape when first formed)[1] is primarily involved in nutritionand excretion, and is webbed with blood
vessels. The function of the allantois is to collect liquid waste from the embryo, as well as to
exchange gases used by the embryo.
In reptiles, birds, and monotremes[edit]
The structure first evolved in reptiles and birds as a reservoir for nitrogenous waste, and also as a
means for oxygenation of the embryo. Oxygen is absorbed by the allantois through the egg shell.
In most marsupials[edit]
In most marsupials, the allantois is avascular, having no blood vessels, but still serves the purpose
of storing nitrogenous (NH3) waste. Also, most marsupial allantoises do not fuse with the chorion. An
exception is the allantois of the bandicoot, which has a vasculature, and fuses with the chorion.
In mammals[edit]
In mammals (excluding monotremes), the allantois is part of and forms an axis for the development
of the umbilical cord.

 The mouse allantois consists of mesodermal tissue, which undergoes vasculogenesis to form
the mature umbilical artery and vein.[2]
 The human allantois is an endodermal evagination of the developing hindgut which becomes
surrounded by themesodermal connecting stalk. The connecting stalk forms the umbilical
vasculature[citation needed]. The allantois becomes the urachus which connects the fetal bladder to the
yolk sac. The urachus removes nitrogenous waste from the fetal bladder.[3] The allantois
is vestigial and may regress, yet the homologous blood vessels persist as the umbilical arteries
and veins connecting the embryo with the placenta.[4]

Clinical significance[edit]
During the third week of development, the allantois protrudes into the area of the urogenital sinus.
Between the 5th and 7th week of development, the allantois will become the urachus, a duct
between the bladder and the yolk sac. A patent allantois can result in urachal cyst.

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