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SCORM 2004 AND PROPER USE OF THE DIDACTICAL OBJECTIVES

Dragoş BĂRBIERU, Cătălin RADU, Daniel BELIGAN
“Carol I” National Defense University, Bucharest, Romania
dragos.barbieru@adlunap.ro, karadu@gmail.com, daniel.beligan@adlunap.ro

Abstract: SCORM 2004 has a concept of "system global objectives" for which the status is maintained
across attempts and across SCORM 2004 packages. In practice this feature is often perverted to
provide a kind of variable to allow communication between activities. It’s easy to use this concept to
fulfil the imposed didactical objectives.

Keywords: e-learning, SCORM, sequencing activity, didactical objective

The main element set for the digital courses’ fulfilment consists in students’ achievement of
the educational objectives into a SCORM 1.3 standardized course and the main issue is to implement
the mechanisms offered by SCORM standard. This standard is purely technical.

We aim to analyze the educational objectives sequences by pedagogical objectives perspective
proposed by the teacher for every SCO. One of the most often seen requests is for a digital course to
be assessed into a certain order for the student to achieve knowledge conforming to teacher’s well-
defined succession. This is easily accomplished in SCORM 1.2 by tag’s: adlcp:prerequisites help and
below we exemplify it:

<item identifier='Capitolul 1'>
<item identifier='lectia1' identifierref='R_lectia1'>
<item identifier='lectia2' identifierref='R_lectia2'>
<item identifier='lectia3' identifierref='R_lectia3'>
<adlcp:prerequisites type='aicc_script'> lectia1&lectia2</adlcp:prerequisites>
</item>
</item>

Figure no. 1. The use of adlcp:prerequisites tag

To follow the Lesson 3content, firstly, the student must pass through Lesson 1 and Lesson 2.
The SCORM standard evolution made this tag obsolete. In Figure no. 2, we present a classical
example of a course’s structure, where every lesson is a SCO and has a corresponding didactical
objective. There are to be associated as many didactical objectives are needed and these are
established by the teacher.

The global objectives can be accessed from every SCO.0</imsss:minNormalizedMeasure> <imsss:mapInfo targetObjectiveID="scorm. a lesson can’t be accessed if there weren’t accomplished the previous lessons’ objectives. We can presume that Lesson’s 1 objective is for the student to entirely pass through Lesson 1 and this can be mapped by a button set at the lessons’ finish to transmit to the e-learning platform that the student ended and fulfilled the objective. II Chap. Every lesson can have local and global objectives. every pedagogical objective must be mapped into an action. we must define a new objective to validate if Objective 1 was or wasn’t accomplished.obiectiv1" readSatisfiedStatus="false" readNormalizedMeasure="false" writeSatisfiedStatus="true" writeNormalizedMeasure="false"></imsss:mapInfo> </imsss:primaryObjective> </imsss:objectives> <imsss:deliveryControls completionSetByContent="true" objectiveSetByContent="true"></imsss:deliveryControls> </imsss:sequencing> Figure no. <imsss:sequencing> <imsss:objectives> <imsss:primaryObjective objectiveID="obiectiv1" satisfiedByMeasure="false"> <imsss:minNormalizedMeasure>1. The Objective 1 mapping as global objective with writeSatisfiedStatus true tag Into the Lesson 2 framework apart from the standard objectives. Obviously. 2. can be specified different objectives strictly related with lesson’s accomplishment time. the results of a test comprised into the lesson or another actions proposed by the teacher used to surely identify the student assumed or didn’t assumed the knowledge fulfilling lesson’s objectives. Into the . Chap. 3. The possibility to access (read) Lesson 2 supposes for the objective 1 to be accomplished therefore is necessary that the objective 1 to be a global one to be able to access it from inside of Lesson 2. A course organization on chapters and lessons The ongoing order settled for this course is sequential and. to clearly identify if the objective was or wasn’t fulfilled. I Lesson 1 Objective 1 Lesson 2 Objective 2 Lesson 3 Objective 3 Lesson n Objective n Chap. Generally. therefore. n Figure no. in our situation Objective 2.

The definition of obiectiv_back Objective and Objective 2 . if true Lesson 2 activate Lesson 2 Local Objectives objective 2 .0</imsss:minNormalizedMeasure> <imsss:mapInfo targetObjectiveID="scorm. will have “disable” status.obiectiv1" readSatisfiedStatus="true" readNormalizedMeasure="false" writeSatisfiedStatus="false" writeNormalizedMeasure="false"></imsss:mapInfo></imsss:primaryObjective> <imsss:objective objectiveID="obiectiv2" satisfiedByMeasure="false"> <imsss:minNormalizedMeasure>1. Objective 2 write objective back to global objective 2 objectives write Figure no.xml file and a sequence of it is illustrated in Figure no. Objective 1 write Global objectives to global Local Objectives write objectives objective 1 . To this objective is associated a “pre”-type rule that activates or not activates Lesson 2. . 4. A simplified scheme is presented into Figure no. 4. Objective back objective 1 read objective 1 read from global objectives.obiectiv2" readSatisfiedStatus="false" readNormalizedMeasure="false" writeSatisfiedStatus="true" writeNormalizedMeasure="false"></imsss:mapInfo></imsss:objective> </imsss:objectives> <imsss:deliveryControls completionSetByContent="true" bjectiveSetByContent="true"></imsss:deliveryControls></imsss:sequencing> Figure no. 5. where we defined 2 objectives.sequencing rules we add a checking rule before entering into the Lesson 2.0</imsss:minNormalizedMeasure> <imsss:mapInfo targetObjectiveID="scorm.the obiectiv_back objective reads from the global objectives if there is or there isn’t satisfied Objective 1. Lesson 1 . <imsss:sequencing><imsss:sequencingRules> <imsss:preConditionRule> <imsss:ruleConditions conditionCombination="any"> <imsss:ruleCondition operator="not" condition="satisfied" referencedObjective="obiectiv_back"></imsss:ruleCondition> <imsss:ruleCondition operator="not" condition="objectiveStatusKnown" referencedObjective="obiectiv_back"></imsss:ruleCondition></imsss:ruleConditions> <imsss:ruleAction action="disabled"></imsss:ruleAction></imsss:preConditionRule> </imsss:sequencingRules> <imsss:objectives> <imsss:primaryObjective objectiveID="obiectiv_back" satisfiedByMeasure="false"> <imsss:minNormalizedMeasure>1.Objective 2 is associated to Lesson 2 and this is mapped into the global objectives where will be written its status. The mapping of lessons’ objectives as global objectives The activities sequencing is found in imsmanifest. 5. respectively obiectiv_back objective and objective 2 with the following role: . This type of rule is called “pre” and if this action isn’t satisfied the Lesson 2 won’t be activated.

GetErrorString and GetDiagnostic.0.GetErrorString(errorNumber). − the data’s persistence is assessed with Commit function (“ ”) : bool and returns a bool-type value. It has the role to set a CMI parameter in the LMS platform database.objectives. alert("Error . − setting/writing parameters’ values for CMI patterns. value) { var result.Could not store a value in the LMS. The API functions of SCORM standard are: − initialization. 6. If an objective is fulfilled. Terminate function (“ ”) that returns a bool-type value and roles to close the terminate the communication between LMS platform and the learning objective< − getting and reading parameters of CMI pattern. the GetValue function (element: CMI) : string – has as entrance parameter a CMI-type element and returns a value as series of characters- type. Set Value function (element: CMI) : string – has as entrance parameter a CMI-type element and returns a value as series of characters-type.} result = API.objectives. Initialize function (“ ”) that returns a bool-type value and roles to initialize the communication between LMS platform and the learning objective. The API SCORM functions’ appealing to write the objectives’ status The SCORM standard use offers many facilities to the students and is a strong instrument in teacher’s hand to create a personalized learning for each student. return. "completed").adlnet.GetLastError().gov/Technologies/scorm/SCORMSDocuments/2004%204th%20Edition/Documentation. "passed").3. ScormProcessSetValue("cmi. 6).scorm. var diagnostic = API. } Figure no.completion_status". − The exception and errors treatment is done appealing to three functions: GetLastError. The ScrieObiectiv javascript function appeals to ScormProcessSetValue function and write into LMS platform database the Objective 0 status. − termination. References [1] http://www.success_status". value).0.\n\nYour results may not be recorded. var errorString = API. }} function ScrieObiectiv() { ScormProcessSetValue("cmi.SetValue(element.aspx . if (result == SCORM_FALSE){ var errorNumber = API. this must be signalled to LMS platform with the help of API functions from SCORM 1. var errorDescription = "Number: " + errorNumber + "\nDescription: " + errorString + "\nDiagnostic: " + diagnostic. function ScormProcessSetValue(element.GetDiagnostic(errorNumber).\n\n" + errorDescription).com/scorm-explained/technical-scorm/golf-examples/ [2] http://www. if (initialized == false || terminateCalled == true){return. in this case obiectiv_back (Figure no.