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Evolution and Character of Urban Open Spaces

and Green Networks


Seminar Report

Submitted to

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

By

Sweta B
(Roll No. 17AR60R46)

DEPT. OF ARCHITECTURE & REGIONAL PLANNING


INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
KHARAGPUR
September - 2017
Seminar Report

1 Background

1.1 Relevance of the Study

1.2 Aim

1.3 Objectives

1.4 Scope of work

2 Urban Open Spaces

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Evolution of Urban Open Spaces

2.3 Typology and Character of Urban Open Spaces

2.4 Characteristics of Urban Open Spaces

3 Urban Green Networks

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Components of Green Networks

3.3 Role of Green Networks

3.4 Classification of Landscapes based on Structural Characteristics

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3.5 Assessment and Planning of Green Networks

3.6 Case Study of Melbourne City, Victoria

3.7 Case Study of Black Creek Ravine, York University Campus, Toronto

4 Conclusion

5 Bibliography

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List of Tables

Table 1 Development of Open Areas through History .............................................................. 7


Table 2 Typology of Urban Open Spaces ................................................................................ 11
Table 3 Benefits of Green Networks ....................................................................................... 16
Table 4 Assessment Criteria .................................................................................................... 19
Table 5 Point Distribution of Assessment Criteria .................................................................. 20

List of Figures

Figure 1 Classification of Open Spaces in Urban Areas ...................................................... 7


Figure 2 Open Space as Transport Facility .............................................................................. 12
Figure 3 Open Space as Plaza .................................................................................................. 12
Figure 4 Food Producing Open Space ..................................................................................... 13
Figure 5 Garden as Open Space ............................................................................................... 13
Figure 6 Incidental Open Space ............................................................................................... 13
Figure 7 Activity and Usage .................................................................................................... 14
Figure 8 Sociabilty ................................................................................................................... 14
Figure 9 Image and Comfort .................................................................................................... 14
Figure 10 Access and Relation ................................................................................................ 14
Figure 11 Dimensions of Urban Open Spaces ......................................................................... 15
Figure 12 Network at Neighbourhood Level ........................................................................... 18
Figure 13 Green Network Connectivity................................................................................... 21
Figure 14 Black Creek Ravine Open Space Network .............................................................. 22
Figure 16 Public Square as Activity Node ............................................................................... 23
Figure 15 View of the Public Parkland .................................................................................... 23
Figure 17 Greenway through the Ravine ................................................................................. 23
Figure 18 A Private Courtyard Space ...................................................................................... 23
Figure 19 Melbourne City Open Spaces and Gap Analysis .................................................... 23
Figure 20 Proposed Additional Major Open Spaces................................................................ 23
Figure 21 Proposed Additional Minor Open Spaces ............................................................... 23

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1. BACKGROUND

1.1 RELEVANCE OF STUDY

The Open Spaces in a landscape environment form an integral part of the urban scenario
along with the more popular entities of residences, shops, factories, hospitals, theatres and
roads. They impart a good significance and are a crucial aspect in the form of both functional
and aesthetic purposes.

In a normal everyday scene, more emphasis is being put into developing and improvising
upon the design of the solid entities that occupy space whereas when it comes to the open
spaces in this very context, not much attention is being paid to realize the sense of completion
that it lends.

At this break neck pace of urbanization, these open space entities have been neglected for
long and from this arises a need to study its processes and functioning. The plausible role of
the open spaces in establishing a much needed ecological link between the different habitat
systems and acting as a substitute is the main focus behind this study.

1.2 AIM

To clearly delineate upon the different facets of the open spaces in the context of urban
spaces and elucidate the various social, ecological, economic, aesthetic and urban functions
that these open and public spaces have, that make it a favourable component in design and
planning.

1.3 OBJECTIVES

To study the .configuration and functional aspects of open spaces and remark upon the
relative overemphasis put upon structural entities such as buildings.

To study the different inherent characteristics of open spaces marked by their evolution
pattern and to study their contemporary effects.

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To study the aspect of greenway planning while remarking upon the procedural aspects
involved in its selection.

1.4 SCOPE OF WORK

The study is limited to socio ecological aspects with regard to the present and
future concerns

The applicability and implementation of strategies with regard to individualistic


concerns and economic viability is beyond the scope of this study.

2. URBAN OPEN SPACES

2.1 INTRODUCTION

Urban open spaces, for an extended period of time have carried a huge relevance and
importance in the form of acting as crucial points that signify cultural, social and economic
life and its evolution.

An open urban space can be defined as any urban ground area that has no roofing and is
irrespective of its accessibility to the public. These open spaces are all around us in the form
of recreational parks, playgrounds, stadiums, walkways, coastal areas, gardens and
cemeteries.

An insight into the older times would lead us to believe that these open spaces were the
central from of origination for all its allied entities and it represented the origination or
evolution of the different structural and social roles that all the surrounding elements played.
Its role has gathered greater significance now due to the artificial factors that have been
serving to put the entire string that holds the ecology together, in jeopardy.

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Figure 1 Classification of Open Spaces in Urban Areas

2.2 EVOLUTION

An elaboration of the comparative table depicting the urban history will prove that the open
spaces have always assumed a crucial role in the greater scheme of things regarding the urban
landscape layout.

Table 1 Development of Open Areas through History

PERIOD MAIN FUNCTIONS OF OPEN STRUCTURE RELATIONSHIP RELATIONSHIP


OPEN PUBLIC AREAS OF OPEN BETWEEN BETWEEN THE
PUBLIC PUBLIC OPEN AND CITY AND ITS
AREAS AREAS CONSTRUCTED SURROUNDINGS
URBAN AREAS

GREEK Agora ( • Social • Amorphic • No determined • Close


main city • Legal structure • Related ( on a
square) • Administrative • Agora ( core ) is daily basis)
• Trade the only
• Religious determinant of
• Cultural the urban fabric
in which the city
opens up

Streets • Passage

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PERIOD MAIN FUNCTIONS OF STRUCTURE RELATIONSHIP RELATIONSHIP


OPEN OPEN PUBLIC OF OPEN BETWEEN OPEN BETWEEN THE
PUBLIC AREAS PUBLIC AND CITY AND ITS
AREAS AREAS CONSTRUCTED SURROUNDINGS
URBAN AREAS

ROMAN Forum • Social • Regular • Structurally • Close


( main • Legal quadrant determined • Related ( on a
city • Administrative forms • Open areas daily basis)
square) • Trade • In the ( forum and
• Religious middle of streets)
• Cultural the determine the
settlement urban fabric
at the
intersection
of the main
streets
Streets • Passage • Regular
• Trading

MIDDLE AGES Square • Social • Organic • Open surfaces • Close


( early and • Legal • Regular depending on • Related ( on a
late • Administrative (planned) dominant daily basis)
middle • Religious structure
ages ) • Cultural • Together with
dominant
Markets • Trade structure
(late • Social determining the
middle • Legal urban fabric
ages ) • Administrative
• Cultural
• Performances

RENAISSANCE Square • Trade • Regular • Structurally • Less close


• Social (planned) determined
• Legal • Open areas
• Administrative ( square and
• Cultural streets )
• Performances terminate the
• Military urban fabric

Street • Passage

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PERIOD MAIN OPEN FUNCTIONS OF STRUCTURE RELATIONSHIP RELATIONSHIP


PUBLIC OPEN PUBLIC OF OPEN BETWEEN OPEN BETWEEN THE
AREAS AREAS PUBLIC AREAS AND CITY AND ITS
CONSTRUCTED SURROUNDINGS
URBAN AREAS

BAROQUE Avenue , • Trade • Regular • Structurally • Distant


Boulevard , • Social (planned) determined
Street • Open areas
( avenues,
Square • Transport boulevards,
route node streets, smaller
• Presentation squares and
• Performances parks )
• Military role determine the
• Less important urban fabric
social role

Park • Social
• Recreation
• Spending time
in greenery

NINETEENT Boulevards • Trade • Planned • Together • Distant


H CENTURY • Social ( regular of defining urban
organic form) fabric
Square • Social

Park • Social
• Recreation
• Spending time
in greenery

TWENTIETH Park • Social • Planned • Together • Distant


CENTURY • Recreational ( regular of defining urban
• Residing in organic form) fabric
greenery
• Children’s
game

Square • Social
• Trade
• Performances
(less often)
• Cultural (less
often )

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PERIOD MAIN OPEN FUNCTIONS STRUCTURE RELATIONSHIP RELATIONSHIP


PUBLIC OF OPEN OF OPEN BETWEEN BETWEEN THE CITY
AREAS PUBLIC PUBLIC OPEN AND AND ITS
AREAS AREAS CONSTRUCTE SURROUNDINGS
D URBAN
AREAS
TWENTIETH Children’s • Children’s • Planned • Together • Distant
CENTURY playground game ( regular of defining urban
organic fabric
Sporting and • Sport form)
recreational • Recreation
areas

Walkway • Social • Planned • Together • Distant


• Recreation ( regular of defining urban
al organic fabric
• Walks form)

Foreshore • Social
zone • Recreation
al
• Children’s
game
Protective • Protection
greenery

Cemetery • Burial
spaces

2.3 TYPOLOGY AND CHARACTER OF URBAN OPEN SPACES

The typology chart categorized in the areas of form, scale and function depicts the interplay
of these different categories and the product of variations among them. The comparison of
the different elements and their variations with different elements can be made here. The
different forms of open spaces that are depicted here are those of – Transport facilities,
Streets, Plazas, Recreational Space, Incidental Space, Parks and gardens and Food Production
sites. These different categories are compared in the scale factors of City, Intermediate and
Residence.

City scale refers to open spaces that are symbolic of institutions that have urban appeal and
depictive of urban city life.

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The Intermediate scale refersto spaces that are a constricted area which commonly represents
districts and neighborhood.
The Residence scale refers to the smallest localized areas such as individual houses.

Table 2 Typology of Urban Open Spaces

SCALE
City Intermediate Residence
Harbors, Airport
Transit Stations, Drvieways, Parking
Transport Facilities and Train Station
City Gate Areas Areas
Parking
Pedestrian Alleys,
Streets Central Boulevards Street Space
Paths
Smaller
Large Formal
Plazas Neighbourhood Interior Courtyards
Plazas
Plazas
Stadiums, Green Sports Facilities, Houseyard
Recreational Space
Belts, Beaches Playgrounds Playspace
Natural Features
Empty lots and Marginalized Space
Incidental Space and Semi-Wild
Transit Borders between Buildings
Areas
Institutional
Major Formal Parks
Parks and Gardens Gardens, Small Household Gardens
and Garden Spaces
Parks, Cemeteries
Orchards, Grazing Commons, Kitchen gardens,
Food Production
Agricultural fields Community gardens Small Horticulture

The topology categorization also utilizes the terms such as Grey Space and Green Space to
provide a clearer picture. The Green Space are areas of vegetation and greenery while the
grey spaces are more of urban buildings such as market place and transit spaces.

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GENERAL OBSERVATIONS:

Transport Facilities:
A major field that sees a large scale utilization of the open
spaces is the transportation facilities sector in which goods and
material are transferred from one place to another via different
modes of transport through these open spaces.
Streets :
City level-These streets are constructed to rightly mirror the
feel of the city life with apt representations of various political
Figure 2 Open Space as
and historical entities. A good deal of planning and design goes
Transport Facility
into these streets.
Intermediate level- This is seen more as a grey space that holds equal representations of
both the city level roads and the normal residential constructions.
Residence level- These are categorized into two major divisions off Alley ways and
pedestrian pathways wherein the former acts a means of transition from the local residence
area to the major streets while the latter is seen as a functional requirement for daily commute
and carries a more social appeal
Plazas:
Plazas can be defined as well
developed open spaces by the
municipal authorities to serves as a
grounds for congregations and also
venues for any marketing activities
and fairs of all kinds. They
Figure 3 Open Space as Plaza
generally host a diverse series of
activities and find significance as an urban market space.
Recreational Space:
Usage of open spaces as grounds for recreational activities is a more common practice which
was widely practiced as it provided the much required respite from the quotidian concerns
and also functioned as a gathering space.

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Incidental Space:
Incidental space is seen as more of a unused
open space that finds no immediate use and
has no planned activities prescribed. This
space is also called as marginalized space or
amenity space as it is found on the margins.
Parks and Gardens:
The construction of parks was intended to
bring about an aesthetic appeal to the Figure 4 Food Producing Open Space
surrounding landscapes that were populated by
buildings and structures, This development of
gardens is also seen as a matter of opulence
wherein the elitists took it up seriously to bring
about an appealing nature to their residences.
Food Production:
A major utilization of the open spaced lands
came in the form of food production areas. The Figure 5 Garden as Open Space
urban times have seen both small scale and
large scale food production in well maintained
spaces that eventually proved to be financially
viable sources.Even the earlier times witnessed
a similar practice but on a much larger scale
and diverse crop utilization.

Figure 6 Incidental Open Space

2.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN OPEN SPACES

The urban open spaces are of grave importance for creating an interactive atmosphere among
people from different spheres of life. They generally are in the presence of various activities
and spirits of people. The characteristics may differ based on the socio-economic factors that
are being followed in the period of their time.

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Dimensions of Public Open Spaces:

Sociability – In an any community it is important that there is some interaction among


people, the urban open spaces creates a window or a chance for the people of the society to
interact and meet.

Activity and Usage – The urban open spaces


have the ability to attract groups of different
people and various individuals through
different hours and seasons which is one the
most crucial factors in public space dynamics.
For this dimension, the assessment is the level

Figure 7 Activity and Usage and the amount of people who even refer to

these places and people taking part in the


activities in urban open spaces.

Figure 8 Sociabilty

Access and relation- Relations are most Figure 10 Access and Relation
generally relevant to social connections,
circulation quality and having access to the
spaces and places which Tibbald refers to
as visual and physical access which in turn
affects the security and performance of the
space.

Figure 9 Image and Comfort

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Figure 11 Dimensions of Urban Open Spaces

Image and Comfort- Image depends on the quality of physical space in an organization and
the mental comfort level of any space. Sustainability, being disparate and visual pleasure of
the space is operational in making people attract to a particular place and their individual
mental comfort. This feature letspeople select it for stopping, walking and living clustered
life.

3. URBAN GREEN NETWORKS

3.1INTRODUCTION

In a broader perspective , green networks are those spaces vividly relating to the connectivity
of open spaces. These network systems involve the linking together of natural, semi natural
and man-made open spaces to create a linkage system that could provide for functions and
opportunities of physical exercise, improved accessibility within and through the system
while serving the countryside with enriched biodiversity and improved quality of surrounding
environment. They assist in the improvement of opportunities for public recreation ,

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provision of alternate movement patterns through the surrounding radius and also enrich the
human experience through these spaces besides preserving natural ecological systems and
their functional values.

Appropriate design and planning of green network systems help create attractive scenes,
landmark opportunities for places thereby improving the perceived value of the areas and
providing a directed way through for future growth and development.

Green network systems play a crucial role in urban ecology by means of provision for
alternative approaches to address the ecological problems in urban areas. These spaces should
integrate multi functional activities especially in high dense settlements to maximize the
purpose of thee space. On the other hand , biodiversity becomes an indicator of
environmental quality.

Linking of these functional aspects with the ecological structure at the regional level enables
economic growth development, protection of biodiversity thereby accommodating present
and future needs of open spaces. For example a wildlife corridor system that could protect
regional diversity should be of primary importance in the planning process as it serves as the
skeletal framework of a regional greenway system. Such systems could further provide
recreational opportunities, help mitigate community development patterns, protect regional
character, and thereby health, safety, and welfare of the regional society. Thus this example
signifies the importance of such systems or mundane approach towards open space planning
that is done on a residual basis of undevelopable pockets.

Some of the potentially wide-reaching benefits derived from green networks are shown in the
table below

Table 3 Benefits of Green Networks

BENEFITS OF A GREEN DELIVERY OF BENIFITS


NETWORK

Improving the perceived Improving physical connections between places


quality, identity and Reinforcing landscape character and strengthening local
connectivity of places identity
Influencing how settlements should grow in the future
Stimulating the economy Providing attractive settings for business and residents

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Increasing perceived property values and employment


opportunities
Adapting places to better Managing surface water to prevent flooding
withstand the physical Providing shelter and protection from extreme weather
effects of climate change Countering the ‘Heat Island’ effect of urban areas
Mitigating environmental Reducing CO2 emissions through non-vehicular travel routes
impact through encouraging Supplying locally sourced timber, biomass or other bio-fuels to
sustainable lifestyles in replace fossil fuels
terms of resource Providing carbon storage and sequestration in vegetation
consumption and travel Reducing ‘food miles’ by providing local food growing
facilities
Providing recreational Reducing health problems through improved opportunities for
opportunities and promoting physical activity
healthier lifestyles Improving mental well-being by providing access to natural and
attractive green spaces
Providing opportunities for growing food and healthy eating
Maintaining and enhancing Linking existing habitats or natural features
bio-diversity Providing habitats and wildlife corridors for species movement

Improving the wider Shelter planting for buildings and open spaces from the wind
environmental performance Improving air quality through filtration of pollutants by trees
of places in terms of micro-
and other vegetation
climate, recycling and
reducing air and noise Providing for green waste recycling through composting
pollution Providing green structures such as living walls, mass planting
or mounding to attenuate noise

Providing educational Providing engagement with nature to promote horticultural


opportunities skills
Creating opportunities for community participation/
volunteering

Improving community Providing improved connections between places


cohesion Creating space for interaction and social events

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Managing surface water run- Providing above ground and inter-connected routes for water
off Creating areas for flood attenuation or water storage
Slowing water flow and improving bio-diversity value of water
bodies

3.2 COMPONENTS OF GREEN NETWORKS

The Green Networks are characterized by a set of components as discussed below:


Patches - These are irregular land areas that have no form and include areas like natural
woodlands, grasslands and wetlands. In the more urbanized scene, these patches can be found
in the form of parks, cemeteries and gardens.
Nodes and Links - These are the entities that serve as a means of connection between these
scattered areas.
Matrices – Matrices are an array of landscape elements that make up an ecology network and
are more prominent in urban landscapes in the form of road networks with trees.
Corridors - Corridors are linear spaces that serve to link the scattered patches and can be
categorized into riparian corridors, linear parks, tree lines
and parkways.

3.3 ROLE OF GREEN NETWORKS

To elaborate upon the role played by the green networks,


the following points can be made:
• Serves as a connection between fragmented
ecological bodies and helps develop and maintain
ecological balance.
• Serves as a means of transit network and even
supports the existing pathway networks by
functioning as areas where walkways can be
constructed.
• Serves as a convenient link between recreational
spaces in urban landscapes and thus provides a low
cost and low impact solution that has good viability. Figure 12 Network at Neighbourhood
Level

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3.4 CLASSIFICATION OF LANDSCAPES BASED ON STRUCTURAL


CHARACTERISTICS:
Scattered Patch Landscapes :Scattered patch landscapes are the ones that show a
discontinuous nature of appearance over an extended area and are a representation of the
variables that determine how the local ecology is sustained. The examples include the
scattered oases in deserts, fields with scattered shrubbery and scattered school yards.
Network landscapes: These landscapes are mainly identified by their characteristic of
having a linkage structure wherein the variables such as their width, mesh size and node size
determine its nature.
Interdigitatedlandscapes:An interlock as like the fingers of both the hands is what defines a
interdigitated structure and is characteristic of having a common boundary about the
culmination part.
Check board landscapes: Check board landscapes derive their name from the check board
used to play chess as it has a similar resemblance in the sense that there are alternate blocks
of two or more landscape elements with a fairly regular alternating crop fields.

To summarize, the categorization of the landscapes based on their structural characteristics


delineates upon the differences in spatial configuration of the above mentioned entities and
explain the regulatory role played by these ecosystems on sustainable development of
environment.

3.5 ASSESSMENT AND PLANNING OF GREEN NETWORKS

Assessment of the open spaces involves the action of clearly studying the characteristics and
making a list of the present status conditions.

Table 4 Assessment Criteria

Classification Assessment
Size and shape Optimum size and configuration of existing or recreated patches
and corridors for an urban environment.
Connections to species- Completely isolated from species-rich areas.
rich areas Limited connectivity to species-rich areas.

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High connectivity for species movement.


Degree of edge Vegetation dominated with edge species.
Some evidence of interior species.
Optimal ratio of interior spaces to edge.
Habitat Structure No evidence of a unified arrangement of habitat areas with non-
existing buffer.
Some assemblance of habitat areas with limited buffer.
Optimal arrangement of remnant habitat patches and corridors
with sufficient buffer.

The existing open areas and the continuity of the designated area are legibly mapped and the
open land is then assessed based on the impact that the built area in the land might
have.Along with the built area, the landscape elements that make up the space are identified
and the categorization is done. The final outcome is then utilized to arrange the spaces on a
rank basis and also to provide a linkage while categorizing them as groups.

Table 5 Point Distribution of Assessment Criteria

Open space Connectivity criteria


character 1 2 3 4 Total
Hydrological -
systems
Planned green -
spaces
Transportation -
corridors
Geological -
formations
Urban forest lands -
Agricultural fields -

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Figure 13 Green Network Connectivity

Based on this analysis the further development planning is done as per the priority outcomes.
However this approach is not always practically viable.

3.66 CASE STUDY OF BLACK CREEK RAVINE, YORK UNIVERSITY, TORONTO

PROJECT BRIEF:

The Black Creek Ravine is one of the fundamental and character defining element of the
York University Campus and is aligned on the western edge.

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Figure 14 Black Creek Ravine Open Space Network

Objective:

To enhance existing open spaces, create new ones as per usage requirement and connect all
existing open space elements to arrive at a sustainable open space network , providing a
diversity of spaces for recreation, relaxation and natural functions.

Approach:

To add to a vibrant character , a study was conducted on the qualities of the campus precincts
so as to extend it into the site and thereby create a sense of place in terms of open spaces.

The proposal talks about planning potential future multi use trail connections and paths
through the site so as to minimize impact on the natural elements and resources.

DETAILS:

The proposed features include:

A new trail connection to bridge over the Black Creek to provide pedestrian and bicycle
access to the Black Creek Trail positioned on the west side of the Creek.

Giving away with any further proposals of developing buildings, roads or infrastructural in
the vicinity or within the Black Creek with concerns to protect its heritage character.

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An added layer of protection to this is given by the proposal and redevelopment of a public
parkland that could act as a buffer to development.

The Proposed Elements Include:

Public Parkland :

A public park was proposed at the western edge of the ravine to integrate with the existing
network of open spaces that extend towards the north and south of the precinct area with
connections to other amenities and recreational features.

Concerns of providing amenities without disturbing existing natural features are addressed by
a variety of means such as use of naturalized landscapes, low impact lighting, permeable
paving etc. Paths and trails from here could lead to the surrounding development, and
proposed multi use trail connection that further
links to the Black Creek trail. All the hard
landscape infrastructure is directed towards the
eastern portion of the park .

Squares :

These are proposed considering their


Figure 16 View of the Public Parkland
importance as focal points and as centres of
activity with in the site. They are focused on serving the local residents and university
community. The proposed first significant square adjoining the Pond road is a focal point as it
integrates the campus with the surrounding city. The second one on the southern part of Passy
Crescent, services locally for the surrounding
residential units.

Streets Paths and Greenways :

These elements act as connections between the


larger open spaces with pedestrian focused
infrastructure. The three major greenways include
the Pond Road, Sentinel Road and Assiniboine Figure 15 Public Square as Activity Node
Road as observed in Figure 15.

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Pond Road Greenway: Being one of the major


entrance to the campus it serves the
connectivity across the north end .

Sentinel Road: This serves as the connecting


corridor between the residential community on
the south with the campus on the north and
hence proposal for bicycle connectivity has
Figure 17 Greenway through the Ravine
been considered.

Assiniboine Road: This was identified as a greenway for east west access, with more intimate
experience in comparison to the others

Private Courtyards and Greens :

These are the smallest scale of open spaces in the network as they provide for the amenities
of the local residents and also contributing to the sense of openness within the precinct. They
provide opportunities for both soft and hard landscaped areas.

Figure 18 A Private Courtyard Space

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3.7 CASE STUDY OF MELBOURNE CITY, VICTORIA

The city of Melbourne, located in the traditional Kulin Nation ,in the state of Victoria is well
known for its culture of conducting events and activities of social and cultural significance
sign in
the public spaces. Around 1842, the major natural open spaces were set aside with a vision of
having a green belt of parks around the city. So, eventually these natural reserves became
synonymous with the character of the city. Today Melbourne is regarded as one of the
world's most livable cities. The city also has waterbodies flowing through such as the rivers
of Yarra, Maribyrnong, Moone Ponds Creek. However with growth in settlement,
modifications in the shape and alignment of natural reserves
reserves have occured due to landuse
changes, industrialization and needs of the population, resulting in degradation of natural
reserves and resources. Recognizing this situation the government of Melbourne has decided
on developing a strategy for the revival and
and development of the open space network of the
city.

PROJECT BRIEF:

Developed By:Thompson
Thompson Berrill
Landscape Design Pty Ltd, Environment &
Land Management Pty Ltd

Sites Identified: 153

Total Area: 555 hectares, ie 15% of


municipality area

Objective: To identify , locate and address


the maintenance of hierarchy of open
spaces and their even distribution so that

they are at walkable distances (ie; 500m Figure 19 Melbourne City Open Spaces and Gap
Analysis
for municipality andd neighbourhood level
open spaces and 300m for small and local open spaces) and easily accessible by the people.

To solve barrier issues caused by major roads and railways that hinder the walkable
wal character
of these spaces

Approach:

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• Identification and mapping of the role and character of each open space based on its size
and location.
• Understanding of the role of existing open spaces, their deficiencies and considerations of
future change through the 'Gap Analysis Diagram'. The Gap Analysis Diagram includes
locations where significant population growth is expected and where there is lack of
walkable access for the residents and workers ; aiming at addressing current and future gaps.
• Proposing revival strategies for existing open spaces , connecting networks and new open
spaces considering future needs.

DETAILS:

Open space per


resident:

2012 (55.4m2) ; 2026


(33.7m2)

Open space per head of


population (resident +
worker):
2012 (10.5m2) ; 2026
(7.2m2)
• The proposal
talks about
development and
addition of a diversity
of open spaces catering
to multiple uses.
Figure 20 Proposed Additional Major Open Spaces
• Majority of
the open spaces are located in the north and south east of the city and the growth in
population is predicted to be in the west and south with some growth in the northern part
of the city, thus creating a need for more open spaces in the west and south. This situation
also demands improvement in quantity, quality, diversity and natural
essence of open spaces.

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Figure 21 Proposed Additional Minor Open Spaces

• The strategy also considers climate change resulting in


extreme weather conditions. In relevance to open spaces it
directs to storms and rainfall that could result in floods and drought. Also the role of open
spaces in mitigating existing urban heat island effect was recognised.
• The strategy includes improvement in the design and function of existing open spaces

based on priority with concerns of including natural features, character and biodiversity.
• It also has proposals of setting aside land parcels based on assumed future requirements as
part of future planning, ie negotiations with the Victorian government during the early
planning stages for urban renewal areas.

Thus the strategy for Open Space Network in the city were spread over a 15 year time frame,
with detailed analysis and proposals precinct wise for which the city would work in
partnership with the Victorian Government and the development industry

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4. CONCLUSION

The concerns of protecting and enhancing natural resources and systems while linking the
urban area for recreational use through planning are studied. Also the efforts or possible
approaches to be made for the integration of urban areas into structural network as legally
recognized instruments of planning and enhancing the urban quality of life is of primary
focus.

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6 Bibliography
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Carys Swanwick, N. D. (2003). Nature, Role and Value of Green Space in Towns and Cities: An
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Farzad Soltanian, A. M. (2015). Study of characteristics of urban public open spaces based on
social interaction. European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences, 4(3), 553-
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Francis, M. (n.d.). Urban Open Spaces. In G. T. Ervin H. Zube, Advances in Environment,


Behaviour and Design. NewYork and London: Plenum Press.

Garner, J. F. (1981). Planning for Systems of Open Space. The Town Planning Review, 253-256.

Haifeng Li, W. C. (2015). Planning of Green Space Ecological Network in Urban Areas:An
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Hrdalo, I. (2013). Green Systems in the Evolution of the Open Space of Selected Mediterranean
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John Linehan, M. G., & Finn, J. (1995). Greenway planning: developing a landscape ecological
network approach. Landscape and Urban Planning, 179-193.

M Soubadra Devy, S. S. (2009, November). Reshaping Urban Green Spaces. Economic and
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Ozdemir, A. (2007). Urban Sustainability and Open Space Networks. Journal of Applied
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Parks and Open Spaces. (2017, September 1). Retrieved from City of Melbourne:
http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/community/parks-open-spaces/pages/open-space-
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Planning and Development. (2017, August 28). Retrieved from City of Toronto:
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SG Overview of Development Planning Practice. (2017, August 12). Retrieved from


http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Built-Environment/planning/National-Planning-
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Thompson, C. W. (2002). Urban open space in the 21st century. Landscape and Urban Planning.

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