You are on page 1of 360

A H A N D BOOK
OF

C RHI S T I A N
S YM BO LS
AN

S T O R I ES OF THE SAI NTS

as Ell nstt atzh in a r t

BY

CL A R A E R S KI N E CL E M E N T

E D IT E D BY

KA T H E R I N E E . CO N WA Y

F I FT H E D I T I O N

B OST ON AN D N E W Y OR K

H O U G H T O N , M I FF L I N A N D C O M PA N Y
E b: m aca w: 18 1 m“ , «
ra m m ing:
1 895

E ch i cate n

BY PE R M I S S I O N

AND WI T H P R O F OU N D RE S P E CT

T O

H IS GR AC E

TH E M OST R E VE R E N D JO H N J.W I LLI A M S

A R C HB I S H O P OF B OST ON

B Y TH E A U T H OR

P R E F A CE .

TH E t i t l e o f t h e pr e s e n t w o r k s uffi c i e n t l y i n d i c a t e s i t s ge n e ra l
s c op e a n d p u rp o s e . I t h a s b e e n u n d e r t a k e n t o s a t i s fy a wa n t
o ft e n fe l t p e r s o n a ll y by t h e w r i t e r a n d o f t e n e x p r e ss e d t o h e r by
o th e r s T h o s e w h o go a b r o a d a n d t ra v e l i n C h r i sti a n l a n d sm e e t
.

at e ve ry s e t p , th r o u gh t o w n o u n t ry i n t h e b r o a d l i g h t o f
an d c ,

da y a n d i n t h e m yst e ri o u s gl oo m o f s a c r e d p l a c e s sy m b oli c ,

f o r m s w h i c h a r e k n o w n i n a ge n e r a l w a y t o r e p r e s e n t t h e m ys
t e r i e s a n d fa c ts o f t h e C h r i st i a n fa i th b u t w h i c h f a i l t o r e c a ll
,

th e m t o t h e u n i n i t i a t e d b e h o l d e r i n a n y th i n g l i k e a d i st i n c t a n d
a c c u r a t e m a nn e r C h u r c h e s a r e d e d i c a t e d t o s a i n ts h i th e r t o u n
.

h e a r d o f ; a n d st r e e ts s o m e ti m e s l a rge c i t i e s b e a r th e i r n a m e s
, , .

Pi ct u re s e ve n o f s a i n ts b e st k n o wn a r e s e e n i n c h u r ch e s a n d
, , ,

a rt ga ll e r i e s c,o u p l e d wi t h i n c i d e n t s a n d s u rr o u n d i n gs th a t
fa i rl y be w i l d e r t h e m i nd .

N or n e e d on ero a d t o fe e l th u s p u zzl e d a n d p e r p l e x e d
g o a b .

Th e v e ry p i ctu r e s a n d p r i n ts c o p i e d fr o m t h e G re a t M a s t e r s
, ,

w h i c h a d o r n ou r o w n h o m e s a ff e ct u s s i m i l a rl y
,
I n t h e b ook s .

wh i c h l ie o n o u r t a b l e s i n t h e c o n t r i b u ti o n s o f t h e a r t c ri ti cs t o
,

o u r n e w s p a p e r s a n d m a ga z i n e s w e a r e c o n st a n t l l i h ti n o n
, y g g
r e fe r e n c e s t o n a m e s a n d fa cts o f w h i c h w e w a n t a m p l e r k n o wl

e dge . T h e y c o m e t o u s i n v e st e d w i th a h a l o o f s a n ct i ty a n d
m y s te ry, a n d w e l o n t o h a v e a t h a n d s o m e bo ok s i m l a n d
g p e ,

P R E F A CE .

a c ce s s i bl e ,
whi ch w i l l te l l us a ll a b ut o th e m ; an d t hi s i s j us t
o ur a i m fo l l o wi n g p a ge s
i n th e .

T h o u gh c o n t a i n i n g m u c h th a t b e l o n gs to h i st o ry p r op e r o ur ,

b ook d o e s n o t p r o fe ss t o b e i n a ll r e s p e cts a t r u e hi s t o r y o f

p e rs on s an d fa cts . I t s p u rp o s e i s r a th e r t o s h o w fo r t h the

c o n c e p t i o n o f th e m w h i c h i s e m b o di e d a n d i ll u st ra t e d i n a rt .

H i s t o r y a n d l e ge n d u n it e i n t h i s c o n c e p ti o n T h e a r t i st s i n d i

.

v i d u a l fa n c y m u s t a l s o b e a l l o w e d fo r I t w o ul d b e e x tre m e l y.

di ffic u l t t o i s o l a t e w h a t i s p u r e l y h i s t o r i c a l I t i s th u s i n a ll
r e c o r ds o f t h e p a s t T h e d i ffi c u l ty i s st i l l gre a t e r i n a ll r e l i gi o u s
.

n a rr a t i v e s s a v e o n l y t h e I n s p i re d Wr i ti ngs o n a c c o u n t o f t h e
, ,

m a r ve ll o u s w h i c h fo r m s a p a r t
,
o f th e m a n d w h i c h c a n b e ,

n e i th e r w h o ll y a c c e p t e d n o r w h o ll y re j e ct e d Wo n d e r s r e l a t e d .

i n t h e li v e s o f t h e s a i n ts w h i c h h a v e u n d o u b t e dl y a b a s i s i n
,

h i s t o r i c a l fa ct h a v e o ft e n c o m e d o w n t h e ye a r s e x a gge ra t e d
, ,

d i st o rt e d o r i n v e s t e d i n
,
s h o wy h u m a n c o l o r s — a s C a r d i n a l

,

N e wm a n w a rn s u s i n h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f T h e I n t e rn a l C h a r
a c t e r o f E c c l e s i as ti c a l M i ra c l e s e i th e r t h r o u gh t h e i n fir m i ty

,

o f c re d ul o u s o r o v e r z e a l o u s c h r o ni c l e rs o r th r o ugh t h e m a li c e o f
-

t h e e ne m i e s o f t h e C h u rch .

T h a t s o m e o f t h e m i ra c l e s a tt r i b u t e d t o t h e s a i n ts s h o u l d
h a v e be e n m e r e l y fa b l e d n e e d n o t s t a r t l e n or s c a n d a l i z e e v e n
,

t h e C a th o l i c r e a d e r n o r e x c i t e p r e j u di c e a ga i n s t t h e gre a t m a s s
,

w h i ch r e st o n e v i d e n c e a t l e a s t a s fir m a s th a t o n w h i c h w e a o

c e p t t h é r e c o r d s o f p r o fa n e h i st o r y ; fo r t o q u o t e a ga i n fr o m ,

t h e a b o v e n a m e d e m i n e n t a u th o ri ty
-
i t a s l i tt l e d e r oga te s fr o m
,

t h e s u p e r n a tu ra l gi ft r e s i d i n g i n t h e C h u rc h th a t m i ra c l e s s h o u l d

h a v e be e n fa b r i c a t e d o r e x a gge ra te d as i t p r e j u d i c e s h e r h o li n e ss
,

th a t w i th i n h e r p a l e goo d m e n a r e m i x e d w i th ba d .

A n a d d i ti o n a l d i ffi c u l ty a ris e s fr o m t h e fa c t th a t t h e o ri gi n a
to rs o f m a n y st ra n ge st o r i e s s uc h fo r e x a m pl e a s t h o s e w h i c h
, ,

o f n a rra t i o n . . O ur e lde r broth e rs . n o r d i d a n y o f th e s e s a v e o n l y . G e o rge h t e S o l d i e r — S a i n t. r i s t h i m s e lf i n st r u c t i n g t h e m u l t i t u d e by p a ra b l e s . T h e d i ffic u l ti e s o f t h e h i st o r i a n h o w e v e r onc e rn o f . d i s c i pl e s an d a d m i re rs . are no c o u r s We t e ll i n w o r d s t h e st o ry t ol d i n a r t a d d i n g o n l y a s . F or th i s th o d o f p op u l a r i n s t ru c ti o n we h a v e m e e ve n a di v i ne p r e c e d e n t Ch. etc . m u c h o f r e a l fa c t a s t h e m i n d n a t u r a l l d e s i r e s t o k n o w i n c on y n e c t i on w i t h t h e s u b e c t j I n h e r o e s o f t h e . . .s u p e r n a t u r a l a s w e l l a s o f t h e n a t u ra l o r de r . As to wh a t m u st b e se t d o wn n m i st a k a b l y l e ge n da ry i n as u . ” we fe e l . the m o st i gn o ra n t . w h i c h m e ri t e d a n d o ft e n w o n o p e n an d e x t ra o r d i n a ry r e c o m p e n s e s . ha s o ft e n . St . s i m p ly t o i n d i c a t e m o r e st r o n gl y s o m e m o ra l l e ss o n H e nc e . . th e y n e v e r a pp e a l e d t o t h e fa i t h o f t h e i r h e a re r s . ix a re r e l a t e d o f S t Ch ri st op h e r S t H i l a r i o n S t N i c h o l a s o f M y ra . . c h o s e l i k e t h e G r e e k s o f o l d th a t m yth i c a l f o rm . an d i s d e e p l y i n t e r e st i n g as i ll u st ra ti v e o f t h e r e l i gi o u s mi n d o f p a s t a ge s a ge s o f f a i t h . . an i n t r i n s i c b e a uty of its o wn . ta ke th e st o ri e s i n th e i r l i t e ra l se nse . . P R E F A CE . d e p e n de n t of its h e l p i ng to e l u c i d a t e t h e gr e a t w o rk s o f a r t i t . . an d s om e of t h e won d e r - ta le s w h i ch h a ve ga th e re d a b o u t t h e r e c o r ds o f S t G re go ry t h e Gre a t . . an d of on e blood . ac h i e ve m e n ts b u t e v e n f or t h e f o n d e x a gge ra ti o n s o f th e i r . so t o s p e a k a fa m i ly p ri d e n o t a l o n e f or th e i r a c t u a l . . m o re a r d e n t th a n o u r o wn .

.

P A GE L E GE N D S A N D S T OR I E S I L L US T R A T E D IN AR T 37 Q 0 O O 0 O O C O O O O O 0 O 0 O O . TABL E OF CON T E N T S .

.

. v a riously r e nd e re d i n a ccord a nc e w ith . . in t wo wa ys — to e x pr e ss a g e n e ra l fa ct o r s e nti m e nt or a s the . S Y M B OL I S M IN AR T . a n d t h e a i m of t h e a rtist wa s t o r e nd e r t h e truth b e d e si r e d to p r e s e nt without r e g a rd to t h e b e a uty o f t h e r e p r e s e nt a ti o n : b e a d h er e d t o t h e a ctu a l a n d ga v e n o p l a y . r t o i m a gin a tion or ae sth e ti cs B ut l a t e r . A U GU S T I N E c a ll s the re p r e se n “ t a t i on of a r t l i br i i d i ota r u m ( the s b o ok s of t h e a n d there is no doubt t h a t t h e first obj e ct o f Chris t i a n a r t wa s to t e a ch . t h e r e h a v e b e e n c e rt a in ch a r a ct e ristic figur e s a ttribut e s o r symbo l s . e n c e d by l e g e nds a n d doctrin e s i n t h e r q ch oic e o f subj e cts a n d th e s e h a v e b e e n . a n d e x p r e ssion w h e n righ t ly a ppr e hend e d T h e s e symbo l s a r e u s e d . p re s e nt l im its a ll o w b ut a n i m p e rfe ct a n d sup e rfi ci a l c onsid e ra tion of this subj e ct . wh ich h a v e m a de a p a rt o f t h e l a ngu a g e o f w h a t m a y b e c a ll e d C hris t i a n A r t T h e s e a r e m e a n ingless — o r wors e p e rh a ps a de . . i n its h istory th is a r t h a s b e e n i n fl u . — . ST . . a n d t h e r e fi n e m e nt o f t h e a rtist Bu t . e s p e ci a l a ttrib ut e or ch a r a ct e risti c of t h e p e rson r e p r e s e nt e d My . fro m i t s i nfa ncy to th e p res e nt tim e . b ut th e y a d d mu ch to t h e p o we r o f a r e pr e s e nt a tion to t h e d e pth of s e nti m e nt . formity to t h e e ye o f on e wh o und e rst a nds t h e m not . X ) t h e ch a r a ct e r t h e ae sth e ti c cultiv a tion .

. . e mploy e d i n th e pres e nt d a y a lthough not w i th th e c a reful d istin o . . symbol ic a l b ut is not sur e o f t h e sign i fic a tion of t h e col ors . i ni ti a l l e tters of t h e G re e k I no o fic Xp w r o c @ 6 0 53 W69 S um jp t h e ’ ’ . G EN E R A L S Y M B OL S . a n d th e s e ch a ra ct e rs a r e found i n m a ny a ncient inscri ptions a n d u p on works o f a rt . ve si c a p i s c i s . b ut t h e Virgin M a ry i s i nv e st e d wit h i t ( 1 ) w h e n s h e ho l ds the . w h e n r e p r e s e nt e d a s th e W om a n o f t h e A p oc a lyps e . A U R E O LE . tion i n th e e mp l oym e n t o f t h e v a riou s forms w h ich ch a ra cteri zed th e ir e a rl i e st u s e T h e color o f th e s e symbo l s in pa in t ing i s go l d e n . on gl a ss th e y a r e o f v a rious co l ors D id r o n bel iev e s th e s e t o b e . p ro p erl y to t h e p e rsons o f th e T rin ity . .th us fo r m ing t h e in iti a l a n a gr a m of th is title of J esus . h e a d . a n d most u ni v e rs a l of t h e C hristi a n symbo l s I t h a s sev e ra l sigui . . . . ” L a ti n tra nsl a tion of wh ich i s J e su s Christu s D e i fil i u s S a l v a tor “ . t e e n t h a n d sixt e e nth c e nturi e s th e y d is a p p e a re d T h e y a r e h o wever . . a u reole strict l y sp e a k ing b e l ongs only to t h e p e rsons o f th e G odh e a d . un ion of t h e n imbus a n d a ur e o l e T h e n i mb us b e l o ngs to a l l holy . . t h e a ure ol e e ncirc l e s t h e who l e body a n d the gl o ry is t h e . . . fic a t i o n s T h e G r e e k word for fi sh I X O Y E i s com p osed of t h e . T h e fish is a n e mb l e m of wa t e r a n d t h e s a c ra m e nt o f b a p tism . th e h e x a gon a l n i mb u s for a ll e gori c a l p e rson a g e s T h e s e symbo l s did not ' . in It a l i a n t h e m a n d o r l a (a l m o nd ) . . b ut this i s a d e gen e ra t ion from its origin a l d e sign a n d t h e u s e a ssign e d it in a n ci e nt tr a d ition s The glory a lso belongs e sp e . o r th a t w h ich r e p r e s e nts l ight . T H E FISH A fi sh most fre qu e ntly a do l p h in w a s t h e e a rl iest . T h e cruciform or . 1 . AND r e p re s e nt l ight o r brigh t N m an s . . . . . s h e i s r e pr e sent e d a s t he int e rc e ssor for h um a nity a t t h e l a s t j udg ment . . a pp e a r in Christi a n a r t u ntil t h e fi fth c e nt ury a n d d uring t h e fif . i n som e inst a nces i n m ini a t ur e s or . . T H E GL O R Y . t h e n i mbu s of s a ints a n d l e ss e r b e ings should b e circ u l a r A squ a r e n i mbu s i s u sed for . . . p ersons a n d s a ints as we l l a s to t h e r e p res e nt a tions o f d ivin ity T h e . S a viou r in h e r a rms ( 2) i n p i ctur e s o f t h e A ssum p tion ( 3) w h e n . c i a l l y to Go d a n d t h e Virgin T h e obl o ng a ure ol e is c a ll e d i n L a ti n . T h e a ure ol e h a s a lso b e e n used a s a symbo l o f t h e a p oth e osis of holy p ersons . .2 f. tri a ngul a r n imb us or t h e figu r e of a cross i n t h e n i mbus b e l ongs . a ll n e ss a n d a r e t h e symbols of sa nctity T h e n i mb us surro unds t h e . a r < g rag s s oz rsM I N AR T . p ersons still l i ving wh e n t h e r e p re s e nta tion wa s m a de .

T h e Gr e e k Cross (2) h a s ( 3 ( 4 f our equ a l br a nch e s . ( ) 1 is b e l i e v e d to b e l ik e th a t o n w hi ch Chri st su ff e r e d a n d i s t h e . A ccord ing t o t h e t ra dition o r l eg e n d of t h e T ru e Cross i t w a s c c . d e red on his v e stm e nts It i s a lso a ssign e d a s t h e cross o f the Ol d . th is e mbl e m on t h e tombs i n t h e c a t a combs a t R om e signifi e d t h e o ccup a tion of t h e p e rson b uri e d i n th e m . l a st is a l so c a ll e d S t A ntho n y s Cross b e c a us e th is s a int i s r e pr e . ” s e nted with a crutch i n the sh a p e of the T a n a n d i t i s e m b r o i “ . T e st a m e nt a n d t h e bra z e n s e rp e nt is r e p r e s e nt e d o n a po l e with thi s . T H E 0 3 0 8 8 h a s a d e e p e r m e a ning t h a n t h a t of oth e r symbo l s . cross e s : T h e L a t in or R om a n C ross . . . ’ . T h us i n . b ut a ctu a l ly to sh o w h i m T h e re a r e fo ur di ff e re nt l y fo rm e d . sp e ci a lly en . C ross ( 4 ) h a s b ut t hre e bra nch e s l ike th e l e tt e r T T hi s . 3 o f t h e voc a tion o f t h e Christi a n a postl e or fi sh e r o f m . ” e i n th e h a nds of M t e r an d e m in e n t ly — s ucce ssf u l % _ _ in W m e i - t is e mb l e m a ti c of Christi a ns g e n e r a lly th ey . o n e pl a c e d in t h e h a nd of a s a int . i t i s i n a c e rt a in s e ns e not m e r e l y t h e instrum e nt o f t h e su ffe rings o f Christ . . “ Tau ” . a lso t ypifi e d by t h e m ir a culous dra ugh t of fish e s (John But it i s not tru e th a t t h e fi sh i s a l wa ys a Christi a n emble m 3 a ccord ing to D i dr on it is n e v e r m e t a s su ch i n G re e k a r t a n d h e b e l iev e s th a t . S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T . l a st j u dgment . a rms l e ss th a n th a t of t h e w ho l e figur e . b e i n g l ik e n e d to fi sh i n t h e c a ll of t h e A postl e s (M a tt i v an d . . e a rly r e pr e s e nt a tion s o f t h e thre e p e rson s of th e G odh e a d the cross without t h e figur e wa s consi d e r e d not only to r e c a ll Christ to t h e m ind . T h e C ross o f S t A ndre w (3) i s a cross s a l ti e r o r a n X 3 a n d t h e E gyp ti a n or . Ch os r oe s b e l i e v e d th a t in p oss e ssin gth e cross of Christ h e possesse d t h e S a viour a n d s o i t wa s e nthron e d a t h is right h a nd . . T his cross i s i n t h e form of a m a n w ith th e a rm s e xtend e d 3 t h e d i s t a nc e from t h e h e a d to t h e shou l d e rs b e i n g l e ss th a n from t h e shou l d e rs t o t h e feet a n d t h e l e ngth o f t h e . e xist e nt w ith th e worl d a n d w ill a pp e a r at t h e . . but h i ms e l f su ff e rin g — 24 6i c r u x e st m a r tyr In C hristi a n i con o gr a p hy t h e cross holds a most i mport a nt pl a c e .

O N i s the symbol o f S a ta n a n d sin I t is re p re se nt e d . . n imbu s a bo ut the h e a d a n d is fre qu e nt l y l a rg e r th a n t h e o th e rs . . b ut h a s two hori zont a l b a rs T h e r e a r e n um ero us v a rieti e s of t h e . i s a lso a s ym bo l o f t h e E u ch a rist . by its sire u ntil i t com e s t o l ife on t h e t h s sym b ol i c a l o f th e r e s urr e ction I t is giv e n . 4 S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T . . t h e L a b a ru m o r t h e Cr o ss of Const a ntin e th i s being t h e form of t h e . 7 W h e n st a nding b e a ring t h e cross o r a b a nn e r w ith a n imbus a bout . cording t o E u s e bi us E N T O Y T Q N I KA ( Conqu er by . e yes ( R e v v T h e l a m b i s a l so a g e n e r a l symbo l o f mod e sty e . . . . . of Christ we re re p re s e nt e d by ins e rting in it a s m a ny c a rbuncl e s or rubi es th e r e b e ing o n e in t h e c e ntr e a n d o n e at e a ch e xtr e m ity . . . i s som e ti m e s r e pre s e nt e d w ith a cruciform n i mb us A ccording t o . T H E L AM B h as b e e n a n e mbl e m of t h e S a v iour from the e a rl i e st p e riod of C hristi a n a rt It w a s th e t ype of h i m i n th e O ld T est a . l e g e nd a ry cross w h ich h e s a w i n the sky a n d w h ich wa s inscrib e d a c . ca l it ie s T h e cross i s often i nt e rl a c e d or combin e d w ith t h e fi rst two . . . . “ F re qu e ntly wh e n t h e cross wa s m a d e o f gold or si l v e r t h e five wounds . T H E P EL IC A N wh o t e a rs o p e n h e r bre a st to fe e d h e r young with . to thos e t he a m ph ith e a tre a s th e symbo l o f th e ir d e a th 3 a n d is p l a ced a t t h e feet o f som e to d e not e th e ir coura ge a n d fo rt itud e u nder t h e su ff e rings o f m a rt r d o m . r ge a n d S t S y l v e st e r . . I n t h e l e g e nd o f S t M a rth a . Dor a t a n d v a rio us others w h ich p e rt a i n i n som e c a s e s to c e rt a in 10 . a n E a st e rn tr a d ition t h e cu b of t h e l ion is born d e a d a n d i s l ick e d . G r e e k a n d L a tin cross e s such a s the M a lt e s e Cross t h e Cross o f . h e r b l ood i s t h e e mb l e m of o u r redem ption through t h e su ff erings . l e tters of th e n a m e o f Christ in G r e e k T his m onogr a m i ts e l f i s c a ll e d . w h il e t h e t h irt e e n th t h e symbo l o f C hri st b e a rs t h e cross o r h a s a . . . . m ent a n d t h e n a m e giv e n h i m by S t Joh n t h e B a pti st ( J oh u i . . . h e rm i ts a s t h e e mblem o f s ol itud e . . . A gn u s D e i T h e T wel v e A p ost l es a r e r e p r e s e nt e d by a s m a ny l a mbs . . . other . . . . d t h e A p oc a lypti c L a mb h a s s e v e n horn s a n d s e v e n . T H E L I O N i s a noth e r symbo l of Christ t h e ” Lion of J ud a h an d . . \ i t y a n d innoc e n ce a s w h e n m a de t h e a ttrib ut e of S t A gnes . . ) { ‘ l h ’ e l a mb c a ll e . by C hri sti a n ity a s in t h e l e gends o f S t M a rga r e t S t . form T h e Pa tri a rch a l Cross is of t h e sa m e sh a p e a s t h e La tin Cro ss . . i th e h e a d it i s t h e L a mb of Go d a n d i s fre qu e nt l y inscri b e d E cce .

T H E D OV E i s t h e e mb l e m o f t h e s o u l w h e n r e p r e s e n t ed a s i ssu ing from t h e m outh of t h e dying . wa s borr o we d from p a ga n a r t w h e re it r e pr e s e nt e d the a p otheosis o f . a s th e symbol of m a rtyrdo m is a u t h or i z e d by S criptur e ( R e v vi i . u m ph a n t l y do wn u pon o ur first p a r e nts from t h e tr e e of our fa ll ” . T H E P E A C O C K i s s e e n on tombs s a rc op h a gi a n d a m o ng fun e r e a l . t h e fe et of t h e Virgin . . S Y M B OL I S M IN AR T . i s gi v e n to t h e A r ch a n ge l Ga bri e l a n d t o som e s a ints I t i s s e e n upon th e . “ ” s e nt e d by t h e o p e n mouth of a dra gon e m itting fl a m e s . e mb l e ms . T H E O L I V E a s t h e e mbl e m of pe a c e . . " T H E H I N D O R H AR T i s t h e e spe c ia l a ttribut e of E ust ae ] c 2 t : H u b e i t It w a s m a d e t h e symbol y ‘ ” ion e s ing e r of Isra e l (Ps a l m a n d i s a l so an e mbl e m o f sol itud e a n d h e rmit l ife . . a lso th e symbo l of t h e Holy ' Ghost a n d of spiritu a l ins p ir a t i on It symbol iz e s t he d ivine S pirit . a n d life . p rid e until mod e rn ti m e s . a n d t h e A nn u nci a t io n . T H E S E RP EN T a noth e r e mb l e m of sin i s som e ti m e s pl a c e d b e n e a th . 5 it r e p re s e nts a fl oo d a n d p e sti l e nc e T h e j a ws o f h e ll a r e r e pr e . a n e mb l em of p uri ty when given to t h e V i r gi n a n d c e rt a i n fe m a l e s a i nts . . p icture s of t h e Cru ci fixion t h e s e rp e nt l i e s d e a d a t t h e foot of th e cross or i f a l i v e l ook ing im p ot e ntly u p a t the s e cond A d a m upon . . a n d i s s e e n in p ictur e s o f th e B a p tism o f C hrist t h e . wh e n it h ov e rs o v e r holy m e n a s t h e e mb l e m of their h e a v e n sent . P e nt e cost . born e by t h e a nge l s wh o a nn o unc e t h e n a tivity . T H E U N I C OR N T his fa b ulous cre a tur e w a s s a i d t o b e a bl e to . It sym b o l iz e s t h e ch a ng e from l ife to immo rt a l ity I t . . T H E P ALM T h e u s e of t h e p a l m . e v a d e a l l p ursuers e xc e p t a v irgin of p e rf e ct purity i n h e a rt m ind . - inspir a tion . c a t e th e po we r of sin ov e r the e ntir e world In som e symbolic . . t i n a a n d is t h e e mb l e m of fe m a l e ch a stity . t h e tree of our s a lv a tion a s befor e a ccording to a r t he look e d tri . . tombs of m a rtyrs a n d i s someti m e s . . . It i s giv e n a s a n a ttrib ut e only t o t h e Virgin a n d S t J u s . a n e m p r e ss It w a s t h e b ird of Jun o b u t wa s not the symbo l o f . . som e ti m e s t win e d a r o u nd a glob e to i ndi . . .

c i a lly to p ictur e s o f t h e A nn unci a tion a n d to S t J os e p h w hos e rod wa s sa id . . H u n g a ry S t C e cil i a a n d S t D oroth e a a n d a typ e o f t h e Virgin . . qu e nt l y e m p l oy e d m e r e l y a s o r n a men ts . . T H E L A M P LA N T E R N O R T A P E R is most fr e qu e nt l y t h e symb o l of . . . . sent e d to t h e infa nt S a v iour o r i n h i s h a nd i t sign ifi e s r e d e m p . th a t t h e s a in t wa s of roy a l b l ood 3 i n t h e l a t t e r c a s e i t i s u su a ll y p l a ced a t t h e fe e t A m ong . T H E L I L Y w h e r e v e r s e e n h a s b u t o n e sign ific a ti o n w h ich i s . . . . . . . them by a ngels a s if from h e a v e n i t s e lf I t i s v e r y m uc h v a ried f i n form a n d siz e . t o h a v e p u t forth l i l i e s . R os e s a r e il l ustr a ti v e o f t h e l e g e nds of S t E liz a beth o f . F RU IT 0 R F L O W E R S a lthough f r a . . p i e ty B ut t h e l a m p a s t h e a ttribut e of S t Lu ci a sign i fi e s h e a v e n l y . their h a nds a n d c a rved on their to mbs I t is som e tim e s brough t t o . t ion . . T H E C R O W N wh e n on t h e h e a d o f t h e M a donn a m a k e s h e r t h e . o f a h o p e fu l futur e A n y fruit in t h e h a n d o f S t C a th e rin e i s a . h a v e und e r c e rt a i n circumst a nc e s d if . se e n on t h e h e a ds of fe m al e sa ints w h i l e th ose . ch a stity a n d p urity I t b e l ongs e s pe . . I t is p l a c e d in “ ” It b e longs to a l l t h e nobl e a rm y o f m a r tyrs . . a n e m b l e m o f t h e fa ll i n P a r a d is e i n m a ny p i ctur e s so wh e n p r e . “ ” sym bo l o f t h e fruit o f th e S p iri t . th e h e a d of a n u n w h en con s e cra t e d a s t h e Bri de of Christ F or th is re a son i t i s m ore frequ ently . T H E F L AM I N G H E A R T i s symb o l ic a l o f fe r v e n t p i e ty a n d s p iritu a l love . F I R E A N D F L AM E S a r e e mb l e ms o f z e a l a n d fe r vo r o f s o u l o r o f . W h e n th e a ttribut e o f a m a rtyr i t signifi e s . f e r e n t s ign i fic a t i o n s A s t h e a p pl e i s . : t h e Jews th e crown wa s t h e orn a m en t o f a bHde a n d to t h e pres e nt ti m e i t is p l a ced on . . . w isdom or S piri tu a l l igh t . “ ” as t h e R os e o f S h a ron A b ursting pom e gr a n a t e i s t h e symbol . Q u e e n of H e a v e n a n d R egin a A n ge l o r u m . 6 S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T . t h e su fferings of m a rtydom . th e vi ctory ov e r sin a n d d e a th o r d e notes .

.

. . . . ’ . a n d i ts s e ntim e nt i s p urity vi r gi n i t fl i fin oc e n c e fa ith j oy M . E A RS O F C OR N A N D B U N C HE S O F G RAP E S were symbo l s o f t h e b r e a d . S a vi ou r t h e t ru e vi n e . s y mbol of integri re pr e s e nted s ometim e s by si l v e r or t h e d i a mon d . . . o f th e S pirit or to t h e s e v e n ch u rch e s . the A p ostl e s t h e e a r o f M a l ch u s S t P e ter s sword t h e p ill a r a n d . e a ch p ierc e d with o n e wound 3 or by a h e a rt a l on e W ith five wo unds .d ivin e l o v e . In a n ci e nt a r t e a ch co l or h a d a mysti c se n s e or symbo l ism . i ndic a t e h u m i l ity a n d by the j udg e a s t h e . . . . . a r e s e e n i n pi c t ur e s of S t M ich a e l wh e n h e i s r e presented a s the I ntro . a n d its p roper use wa s a n i mport a n t consid e ra tion a n d c a re ful ly s t u d ied .8 S Y M B OL I S M IN AR T . . . . . . spong e t h e n a i l s t h e cross t h e th irt y p i e c e s of si l v e r t h e h a m m e r . . a n d w in e o f t h e H o l y E u ch a rist . i n g t h e s e a m l e ss g a rm e nt . i mmov a bl e ho p e a n d untiring p a tienc e It is a n a ttribut e of som e . a r e r e p r e s e nt e d by t h e h a nds a n d fe e t w ith a h e a rt i n t h e c e ntre . . T H E A N CHOR is on e of r l i e st Chri st i a n sym bo l s It i s s e e n the ea . . O p o s it e s e ns e i t p . d uctor of sou l s T h e y a r e a l so p l a c e d i n t h e h a nd wh ich symboliz e s . . II . S Y MB OL I S M OF CO L OR S . . a n d pincers t h e l a dd e r t h e l a nt e rn t h e box e s o f s p ic e for e mb a l m . i n the c a t a combs a n d o n v e ry a nci e n t ge m s It is t h e e mbl e m o f . col or of t h e ruby s p e a k s o f roy a l ty . . s a ints in ill ustra tion of th e ir l e g e nds a s i n t h e c as e o f S t C l e m e nt . . . ch a stity by rich . th ey a re const a ntly foun d i n ch urch e s T h e y a r e th e t wo swords of . . L ITT LE N A KE D B OD I E S a r e t h e symbo l s of t h e so u l s o f m e n a n d . T H E C A N DE L AB R UM wa s a n e mb l e m o f C hri st a n d h is C h urch t h e . cord t h e scourge t h e cro wn of th o rns t h e thre e d i c e t h e s p e a r t h e . t h e p urs e a n d t h e c ook T h e five wo unds . T H E S Y M B O LS O F T HE P A SS I O N A N D C R U C I F I X I O N a r e n u m e rous 3 a n d a lthough r a r e ly s e e n i n t h e c a t a combs a n d i n e a r l y sc ul p tur e . l igh t o f t h e wo rl d W i th s e v e n bra nch e s i t r e fe rs t o t h e s e v e n gi fts . G o d t h e F a th e r . . w h i l e t h e r e p r e s e nta tions of th e l a bors o f t h e v i n t a g e we re ty p ic a l o f thos e o f C hristi a ns in t h e v ine y a rd o f t h e L o rd T h e v i n e o r v in e l e a f wa s a n e mb l e m o f t h e . ( R e v i . . in represen t a tion s o f t h e A ssum p tion by wom e n a s the e m bl e m o f . fir e . W H IT E i s worn by t h e S a v iour a ft e r h i s r e s u rr e ction by the V irgi n . t he Hol y S p ir it cre a ti v e po we r a n d h e a t I n a n .

. colors of S a t a n purga tory a n d evil spirits R e d a n d w h it e roses a r e . . st a n c y a n d d e c e it . S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T . . bl u e m a ntle 3 S t J ohn a bl u e tun ic . . III . a ccus e d innoc e nc e . . V I O LE T O R A M E T H Y S T signifi e d p a ss ion an d su ff e ring o r lov e a n d . . . the e o f Go d . . . L a tin benediction i s gi ven w ith th e th ird a n d l ittle fi ng e rs c l os e d t h e . . P e n it e nts a s t h e I M a gdal éhE m tl ' t ruth . . . B L U E th a t o f t h e s a p ph ire sign i fi e d h e a v e n h e a v e n l y l ov e a n d . . Y e llo w h a s a ls o a d ingy h u e . th u m b a n d t h e o th e r t wo fi ng e rs r e m a ining op e n an d stra i gh t T h is . . such a s the u su a l dr e ss o f J ud a s a n d . S Y M B OL S OF GOD T H E F A T H E R . S a ta n In p ictur e s o f t h e T e m p t a tio n J e sus som e tim e s we a rs bl a ck . m arri a ge a n d f r u i t f u l n e s . T h 5i M a donn a w e a rs d R AY Is the co l o r o f p e n a nc e . issu ing fro m th e c l ouds T his h a n d wh e n e ntire l y open i s in t h e a c t . y e llo w . emblems of lov e a n d innoc e nc e or lov e a n d wisdo m a s i n t h e ga rl a nd . of S t Ceci l i a . h H B e for e t h e t we lft h c e nt ury th e re we re no p o rt ra its o f Go d t h e F a th er a n d t h e symbo l u s e d t o ind ic a t e h is p res e nc e wa s a h a nd . . . . . G R EEN t h e e m e r a l d t h e c o lor o f s p ring e x p r e ss e d ho p e a nd l . ” form more or less p e rfect l y th e monogra m of t h e S o n of Go d T he . th e n sign ifi e s j e a lo usy i n c on . . sented i n th e a c t of b e nediction 3 a n d t h e position show e d w hether i t \ belonged to E a st e rn or W estern or to G re e k or L a tin a r t — for t h e . . o f best o w ing a n d h a s ra ys from e a ch fi n ge r I t wa s g e n e ra lly r e pr e . . C hurch it is p e rform e d w ith t h e forefinger e ntire ly o p e n t h e middle . fing e r slightly b e nt t h e th u mb cross e d u pon t h e th ird fing e r a n d t h e . 9 symbolized blpq d wa r a n d R e d a n d bl a c k combin e d we re t h e . . . . “ bene d ictory gesture d i ff ers i n th e t wo ch urch e s In t h e G re e k . B L A C K w i th wh it e sign ifi e d h u mility mo urn ing a n d p urity of l ife . . truth const a ncy a n d fidelity C hris . little finge r bent T h is mov e ment a n d position of th e five finge rs . . A l on e i t s p o k e o f d a rk n e ss w ick e dn e ss a n d de a th a n d b e longed to . mourn i n g h u mil ity o r .

th e r e pr e sent a t ions of t h e F a th er a n d S on 3 b ut gra d u a l ly t h e F a th e r w a s m a d e old e r W h ile the pl a ce of honor t h e roy a l cro wn o n h is h e a d . i n ' th e Crucifixion w h e re i t is p l a c e d on the s um m it of t h e cross in th e . frequently s urrounded by th e cr u ciform n i mbus w hich i n th e e a rly . t h e symbol of th e “ a ppe a ra nc e of brightness wh i ch the pro p h e t 1 Ch ris t as G od . a n d gr a d u a l ly by th e end o f th e fou rt e e nth c e ntury a figur e a n d distin ct ch a r a ct e ristics r e p res e nt e d t h e fi rs t person of t h e Go d h e a d I n t h e b e gi nn ing there wa s l ittl e o r no d istin ction bet w e e n . . a n d Jesus being . . . bered th at n o p e rson a l r e present a tion of t h e F a ther should e ver be m a de N o mort a l m a n h a th s een or c a n s e e h i m . a n d w h e n J esus is represented a s re a sc e nding to h e a ven a fter h is de a th b e a ring t h e cross i n h is h a n d t h e righ t h a n d . t he tri pl e ti a ra wa s inde e d incr e a s e d by t h e a ddition of t w o m ore cro wn s a n d w h e n i n t h e g a rm e nts o f a k ing a n i mbus e ncircl e d . . I n a noth e r repr e s e nt a tion o f the h a nd of G o d it i s fi ll e d w ith l ittle n a ked figures w hos e h a nds a r e j oin e d a s if i n pra yer T h e s e . . i n pictures of th e B a ptis m o f Ch r is t 3 t h e A gony i n t h e G a rd e n . i n f e r i or t o t h e F a th e r . tions of G o d th a t m or e s a tisfa ctorily e mbody th a t m ent a l concep t ion w h ich c a n n e ver b e e mbod i e d t h e con cept ion o f G o d of J eho va h . cent uries wa s gi ven to G o d a lon e T h e h a nd i s most fr equently s e en . .10 S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T . bust . a n d th e glob e i n h is h a n d indi c a ted a su perior d ignity a n d consid e r 1 a t ion . F ro m th is tim e to th a t of t h e R en a iss a nce h o we ver t h e . t h e Word w a s t h e s p e e ch of G o d a n d wa s t h e fi tting r e present a tio n . s a n ce w ith M ich a el A ng e lo P e rugino a n d R a ph a el c a m e r e pre s e nt a . . a r e t h e soul s of th e righ t e o us w ho h a v e r e turned to G o d . e mblem or som e other g e om e tric a l fig u re inscribed w ith h is n a m e . . the F a th er h a s b e e n symbol ized by th e tri a ngl e w h ich i s h i s l ine a r . of th e F a th e r i s e xt e nd e d t o h i m a s i f in a m a nn e r to a ssist h i m t o “ ” rise . i s s a id to symbol iz e th e thr e e person s of t h e T rin ity by t h e op e n fi n ge r s a n d the tw o n a t ures of C hrist by th e clos e d T h e h a nd i s . . . repr e s e nt a tion s of G o d w e re b ut l itt l e more than thos e of a p o pe or ki ng . e qua l t o t h e Fa he t r as m a n . t he cro wn W ith t he ae sth e ti c g e n i u s a n d progr e ss of t h e R e n a is . T h e n e xt symbo l o f t h e F a th e r w a s a fa c e i n the clouds th e n a . . a n d su r rounded w ith r a ys of l ight T h is r a d i a ting c ircl e i s i tsel f a n . e mb l e m of eternit y S ometi mes a flood or bl a ze o f l igh t a lone is . . a c t of benedi ction . th e Cre a tor a n d A nci e nt of d a ys B ut a t l e ngth i t c a m e t o be re me m . of t h e F a th e r W hen e v e r h e h a d s p o k e n S inc e t h e sixteenth cent ury . . .

. . t e y ore torc es re v e rs e d F igures a r e s e e n r i s i n from tombs a n d . _ rom the w a ter S ho wing th a t th e d e a d sh a ll ris e from s e a a n d l a nd . . IV . s e nt e d by th e cl a ssi c figur e s of S o l a n d Lu n a w ith t h e ra ys a n d i . . t h e circle of E ternity . . fif fim w a ter po urs forth . F a th e r represented by h i s n a me i n H e bre w occupi e d t he centre of . t h e beginning of Christi a n a r t C hrist h a s been re p resented by por . 11 d e scrib e s (E ze k v ii i 2 ) 3 but th e tri a ngle bec a m e extrem e ly popul a r . it w a s s urround e d with v a rious symbols 3 a n d t h e a i m of t h e a rtists w ho p a inted th e m wa s to p ortr a y the myst e rio us de a th w h ich convulsed N a ture r a ised t h e d e a d . . . T h e y a r e t h e glory a ur e ol e or n i mbu s th e fi sh cross l a m b a n d . . t u rn s h e r b a c k a s if r e b e ll ious T h e Virgin a n d S t J ohn a r e e v e r . S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T . . t h e o n e on the right or pl a c e of honor th e ch urch holds a . . in o n e h a nd she holds a corn u copi a t h e symbol of a b und a n c e w h ile a s e rp e nt n urses at her bre a st . t r a its r a th e r t h a n sy m bols a n d i n such a m a nn e r a s to r e nd e r them . on a cco unt of t h e i de a s or t e a ch ing w hich i t embodied Here th e . . . E a rth a n d Oce a n a r e a l so symboliz e d In o n e a ncient i vory E a rt h . by r e ferring t o the leg e nds of K ing A h ga r u s a n d S t Veron i c a F rom . .T h e ch urch a n d th e syn a gog u e a r e t y pifi ed by fem a les . is h a lf nude a n d sits beside a tr e e . S Y M B OL S O F GO D T H E S ON . . T h is a bstrus e symbo l i s oft e n s e e n i n t h e decor a tions of th e ch urch e s o f t h e p re s e nt da y a n d u p on t h e v e stm e nts of bish op s . . . . god rid i n g on a dol ph in or hold ing a s u b ve r t e m . . H e I n 1 e 1 r or s s ur r o u n e wi t h clo uds w ith th eir right b a n 8 r a ised to t h e ch e e a n a n cient si n of sorro w A ga in . . b a nn er a n d g a zes u p a t t h e S a viour w hile on th e left t h e syn a gogu e . t h e tri a ngle w hi ch symbol iz e d t h e T rin ity a n d a ll wa s cont a ined i n . . a r e e mploy e d a s a ttrib utes of s a ints or t o d e not e th e ir ch a r a cteristi cs . l ion T h e tr a dition s of th e e a rl iest p ortra i ts of C hrist w ill b e foun d . qu i t e unmist a k a bl e I n t h e e a rl i e st repr e s e nt a tions of t h e Cruci fixion . T he u su a l symbol s of C hrist h a ve b e e n m e ntioned u n d e r th e h e a d of gen e ra l symbols 3 for th e y a r e c a p a bl e of v a rious s ign ific a t i on s a n d . th e e mbl e m of l ife nourish e d by th e e a rt h T he oc e a n is a s a ri ver .

. h i m sever e ly w ith rods s a i d . be a rs th e G ospel i n h is h a nd A ngels someti mes h ol d a crown a bove . th e he a d of Christ or h a ng fro m the cross i n a tti tudes of a n gu ish . a fem a l e figure crown e d with towers su pposed to r e p resent J erus a l e m . th e h i s t o r i c a l e a sil y exp l a i n the msel v e s I n m a ny a n ci ent c r u c i fixi o n s t h e . s o r i e s of the symbol i c a l repr e s e nt a tion s of th e C ruci fix ion .12 S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T . a n d me ye S ho w n a ked Go forth with a n d cov e r m e w i t h cloth ing ’ . F rom t h e s ixth century to t h e pres e nt ti m e t h e d o v e h a s b e e n . . . ‘ w i th g a rments ? Go n o w a n d c o v e r w ith c l oth ing t h e p ic t ur e i n wh ich I a p p e a r cruci fi e d ’ . a sk u l l symbo l iz e s A d a m . . ‘ . T h e priest n o t u nderst a n ding wh a t wa s m e n t too k no n otice . ill ustra tions of th e S cri pture sc e n es in wh i ch th e Ho l y S pirit i s m e n . S Y M B OL S OF TH E H O L Y G HO S T . a re often ra i sed to th e cheek i n t ok e n of a ffl iction a n d th e d isci pl e . . T h e presenc e of the F a ther i s sho wn by t h e h a nd be for e desc r ibed . t h e cons t a nt a n d u n i v e rs a l symbo l of t h e H oly G host I t a ppe a rs i n . w h ich hold s the crow n or i s i n t h e a c t of b l essing Oth er sy mbol s . . Byz a ntin e origin 3 a n d th e re is a legend w h ich i s gi ven a s a re a son for th is mod e of r e pres e n t a tion : “ A p ri e st w ho h a d exh ibited to t h e p eop l e a figur e o f C hrist only cinctured w ith a c l oth w a s v isited by a n a pp a rition wh i ch s a id A l l y e go co vered w ith v a ri ous r a i ment . pres e n t a t t h e cruci fi xion from e a rl iest to l a t est tim e T h e ir h a nds . H a v e I not tol d yo u to cover th e . V . h istori c a l scenes a n d i n oth ers wh ic h a r e p a rtly or w holly l egend a r y . figure of C hri s t is c l othed i n a rob e S om e h a d a dr a pery from t h e . h ips to th e k n e e s . a r e th e s e rpent twined a bout th e foot of th e cross . on t h e th ird d a y th e vision a ppe a red a g a in a n d h a ving scourg e d . T h e dove is oft e n present a t the N a tivi t y a n d t h e A nn unci a t ion : it i ss u e s fro m t h e rod of J os e p h th u s design a ting h i m to h e t h e spo us e . t h e p el ic a n te a r ing her br e a st t o feed h e r young a n e mble m of r e dem ption a l so of . T h e dra p e d figures a r e mostly i f n o t a l l of . th e s a cr a ment of t h e E u ch a rist . sym bols wh i sper in t heir e a rs T hes e a r e t h e m ost im port a n t a cces . . a . a n d som etimes t h e E v a ngelists a r e represented wri ting th e ir G ospels w h il e thei r w ing e d . ” t i o n e d from the “ moving u pon t h e fa c e of t h e w a ters to t h e D a y o f Pentecost T here a r e a lso m a ny repres e nt a tions of h i s a ppe a r a nc e i n . a n d . t h e s a cri fice of a h eifer ty p i fi e s th e J e wish ri tes .

s e ven pen it e nti a l ps a l ms . se v e n mysterio u s se a ls . . . 13 of the Vi rgin . a ting a ur e ol e a bo ut it T h e dov e is a lso o n e of t h e g e n e r a l symbo l s . I B OL I S M S YIV IN AR T . a r e frequ ently pl a ced w ith thr e e on e a ch sid e a n d one a t t h e top . i s a ccording to the fa ncy o f t h e a rtist o r t h e suppos e d r e qu ir e m e nts . s e v e n j oys a n d s e v e n sorro ws of th e Virgi n . wa ters . s e v e n d a ys i n th e w eek . ” v isit e d th e skies a n d form ed th e r e s e v e n h e a v e ns . s urrounded by s e v e n dov e s 3 th e y a r e of sno wy w h it e ness a n d h a ve . a s a young child h e w a s i n t h e a rm s o f the F a th e r . t h e Ho l y G host i s s e a t e d by t h e F a th e r a n d h a s a h oo k symb o l i zing w isdom He bl e ss e s . A noth er r e pr e se nt a tion i n tensely symboli c a l i s th a t of t h e S a viour . . . . . s e ven h e a ds of th e Dra gon . D a vid S t John th e E v a ngel ist S t J e rom e S t T e r e s a a n d oth e rs . th e crucifor m n i mbus . of the r e p res e nt a tion A mo n g t h e l e ge nd a ry p ictures in wh ich h e . n a t e ra ys o f l ight S pr e a ding o ut in e v e ry dire ction forming a ra d i . . th ey a r e e mbl e ms of t h e s e v e n gifts of t h e S pirit w it h wh ich C hrist w a s e ndo we d —w isdom u nd e rst a nding. D uring t h e ten t h century th e Holy G host w a s som e tim e s r e pr e s e nted a s a m a n . ( Kor an ii . s e v e n pl a nets . of a r t a n d a s such is e mbl e m a tic a l of p urity a n d innoc e nc e w h ich . wa s th us r e pr e s e nt e d i s th a t o f th e r e c e pt ion of C hrist in h e a v e n . . . . obs e rv e th a t during th e M iddle A g e s s e v e n wa s e ste e m e d a mystic n u mber T h e re w e re seven gifts of t h e Holy G host 3 s e v e n s a cra . e a rl i e st to t h e l a t e st y e a rs of l ife A s a litt l e ch ild h e flo a t e d on t h e . sign ifi c a tion wa s m a de m ost e mph a t i c by its u se a s t h e s a crifi c e . . h e a l so a ssists a t the coron a tion of th e . sho wing th a t th e ir inspira tion i s he a v e n sent — a mong these a r e - . ments . I n som e in st a n c e s th e t wo r e pre s e nt a tion s of th e H oly G h o st we r e co m bin e d by t h e figure of a m a n w ith a cl ov e on h is h e a d or h a nd S til l a nother symbo l i s th a t o f a dov e from wh ich e m a . . . . . . i t h o v e rs a bov e t h e h e a ds of hol y m e n a n d s a ints . . T hese dov e s . . b ut thi s r e pr e s e nt a tion wa s n e v e r rec e i v e d w ith a s m u ch fa vor a s th e oth er H e w a s m a de of e v e ry a g e from t h e . J e sus a s do e s t h e F a th e r . seven bra nch e s on the c a ndlesti c k of M oses . . s e v e n st a rs a n d s e ven symbo l ic tru m p e ts . sev e n ch urch e s o f A si a . V irgin . h is a ge . . counsel strength kno wl e dg e pi e ty a n d fe a r ( I s a . . . s e v e n l ibera l a rts . . sev e n de a d l y sins 3 s e v e n “ c a noni c a l hours E v e n M oh a m med s a ys i n t h e Kor a n th at G o d . S om e c a th e dra ls h a v e seven ch a p e ls a s th os e a t R h e i ms a n d Ch a rtr e s . a ft e r h is e a rthly m issio n wa s e nd e d . th u s form ing a k in d of a ur e ol e I t m a y not be out of p l a c e to .

VI I . R e p re s e nt a tions o f t hei n O n e w e re e m p l oy e d i n D i vin e T hr e e a r t from its e a rl i e st a ges I t w a s symbo l iz e d by t h e combin a tion o f . thre e tri a ngl e s thre e circl e s thr e e fi sh e s a n d m a ny oth e r re p re s e nt a . VI . . . tions mor e obscure in th e ir m e a n ings I n l a t e r a r t th e thre e pe rson s . A noth e r mod e r e pres e nts t h e F a th e r a n d S on w ith the dov e b e tw e e n th e m 3 i n t h e th irt e e nth a n d fourt e e nth c e nturi e s t h e dov e wa s oft e n s e en hovering b e tw e e n the first a n d s e cond p e rsons of t h e T rin ity . u l a r from t h e t we l fth t o t h e s e v e nt e e nth c e ntury I n th i s t h e F a th e r . 2 T H E C HE R U B I M represented w ith six w ings a n d u su a l ly st a n d . . A ccording to D i o n ysi us t h e A r e o p a gite th e re a r e t hre e di visions . bu t th e y a r e only fri ght fu l a n d . s e a t e d T h e r e is a d e vi c e c a ll e d t h e It a l i a n T rin ity wh ich wa s p o p . is t h e a ttri b ut e of c e r t a i n fe m a l e s a ints d e noting ch a stity a n d . . h e a ds or a h e a d with thr e e fa c e s . w ith its s p e ci a l a ttribut e th a t of t h e H oly G h o st b e ing t h e dov e . .14 S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T . S Y M B O L S O F A N GE L S . . Christ h a nging b e t we en h i s kn e e s . S Y M B OL S OF T H E T R I N I T Y . . . il l us t r a tive of th e “ w ords of t h e N ic e n e Cr e e d proc e e di n g fro m t h e F a th er a n d th e . p urity . monstrous . r e pr e s e nt a t ions wh e n t h e l oc a l ity i s h e a v e n t h e figur e s a r e a l wa ys . . i ng on wh e e l s a cc o rding to t h e d escription of E z e k i e l S om e ti m e s . of a ngels a n d th e s e e a c h d ivid e d into thr e e cl a ss e s o r choi rs m a k ing . n in e i n a l l I C O U N CI LL O RS o r G o n consi st ing o f . 1 T H E S E RAP H I M represented a s covered with ey e s . th e d o v e p roc e e ds dow nw a rd s from t h e l i p s o f t h e F a th er a n d t o uch e s t h e h e a d of t h e S o n or is . Je wi sh l a w A s be fore m e ntion e d it the . f or p urific a tion und e r . . . T h is r e p r e sent a ti o n b e l ongs to t h e L a tin Ch urch ” S on . w ith t h e t ips of t h e wings touch ing t h e l i ps of e a ch T h is r e p re se n . o f t h e T rinity h a v e b e en r e pr e s e nt e d by t hr e e h um a n figur e s e a ch . . h o l ds a cru cifi x by t h e e nds o f t h e tra nsv e rs e b e a m t h e fi gure of . m e re ly sitting on t h e cross S om e a tt e m pts h a v e b e e n m a de to . t a t i on i s c a l l e d t h e d o uble p roc e ss i on of t h e S pirit . e mbody th is mystery by t h e r e pres e n t a tion of a body w ith th re e . . . I n th ese . .

.

. b ut others bel ieve th a t th is w a s G a brie l . of C h a m uel a cu p a n d st a ff . A ngel s . or R e v e l a ti o n s . a rol l a n d book . of G a bri e l . Th e a ttributes of M i ch a e l a r e t h e s word a n d sc a les . ’ i n a sm u ch a s th ey w er e G od s m ess e nge rs a n d they a r e som e ti mes . . a n d t he . . . com plet e a rmor h old ing their swords w it h p oints u p w a rds a n d . or si x w ings a n d a r e u su a lly of a brigh t r e d or bl ue color P roperly . . I n e a rly a r t th ey were a l w a ys d ra ped . sword 3 a n d of Z a dk iel t h e s a crifi ci a l kn ife W hen r e presented merely . “ ” C heru b w h os e n a m e sign ifies to kno w shou l d be bl u e . 1 S e e t h e A n g e l s . ” T h e G ree k word for a ng e l sign i fi e s l it e ra lly a bring e r of tidings 3 th e refor e t h is t e rm though a ppl i e d to a ll h e a v e nly beings b e lo w t h e . . Godh e a d belongs most prop e rly to a rch a ngels a n d a ngel s w ho a r e . . P H I EL ( “ the be a uty of G o d th e gu a rd i a n of t h e tr e e of knowledge a n d t h e one w ho drov e A d a m a n d E ve fro m the G a rden . . brough t into com m uni c a tion w ith m a n k ind W h e n C hrist i s r e p . a n d a lth ough a l l colors a r e employed in th e dr a pery w h ite sh ould b e the pre v a iling one Win gs. o r B i sh o p s . . b ut oth ers bel i e v e th a t this w a s done by M ich a el . of R a ph a e l t h e st a ff a n d gou rd of the pilgri m . sons of N o a h t h e en emy of a l l wh o p urs ue v a in knowledge . should a l w a ys b e young b e a utiful perfe ct b ut so repre s e nted a s to . s e e m im mort a l r a th er th a n et e rn a l S inc e they a r e cre a ted beings . . . . “ resen t ed w ith w ings i n G re e k a r t i t i s a s the gr e a t a ngel of t h e . “ ” the S er a ph w hose n a m e sign i fies to l ove sh ould b e r e d . of Joph iel a fl a ming . . . . o f E den th e prot e ctor of thos e wh o se e k truth the pr e c e ptor of the . S e r a ph i m a n d Ch e rub im a r e symbolized by he a d s w ith two four . o f S t J o h n . wh i ch t h e T rin ity C hrist or t h e Virgi n is surrou nded by circl e s of . a s a rch a ngels a n d n ot i n their distin cti v e ch a r a cters they a r e i n . 9 A N G E L s — V a rio usly r e p r e s e nted a ccord ing to t h e p ur p os e for . . a gony in th e g a rd en . of th e S e ve n Ch u rc h e s . ADK I EL ( “ t h e righteou sn e ss of A ccord ing to som e a uthorities h e st a y e d the h a n d of A br a h a m from s a crifi cing Is a a c . . l r e presented w ith w ings A glory of a ng e ls i s a repre sent a t i on i n . ” w ill of Go d John the B a ptist a n d th e E v a ngelists a r e a ngels a l so . of U riel . t h e l ily . . . . som e tim e s w ith trum p e ts . f J O . T h e interior circl es t h e . a ngels r e presenting t h e di ffer e n t choirs .16 S Y M B OL I S M IN AR T . the wh o wr e st l e d w ith J a cob a n d a pp e a r e d to C hrist d uring h i s on e . 9 Z . wh ich th ey a r e sen t forth . i n t h e A po c a l y ps e . . .

. . . . a n d by th is . . . S M dell a P a ce O ur L a d y of P e a ce . . E gypt B a bylon a n d N i n e v e h a s we ll a s i n E tr u sc a n a r t . S a nt a M a ri a d e l b uon Consil io O ur L a dy o f Good C o uns e l . . . S M C ons o l a tric e d e l l a Consol a zione or d e l C onfort o O ur L a dy . S M . . of t h e S p a nish Order of M e rcy Wh e n p a inted for th e ir inst it utions . S M d e l Popolo O ur L a dy of th e Peopl e . . . . . . . S h e is known a n d fro m wh ich cert a in pictur e s a n d e ffig i e s a r e n a med . . . S Y M B OL I S M IN AR T . C S M R efugi u m P e cc a torum R efug e of S inn e rs . VI I I . . n e ss of the lov e S h e e ng e nders in t h e h e a rts of her fa ithful cli e nts . . By students s h e i s i n voked a s S M dell a S a pienz a Our L a dy of W isdom . S Y M B OL S O F TH E VI R GI N . . dell a S p era nz a O ur L a dy of Hop e . . . . . . . S M dell a Gr a zi a O ur L a dy of Gr a c e . 2 . A ga i n by th e p e o ple a s . . of c e les t i a l beings d id not origin a t e i n Christi a n a r t T hi s symbol . . . . m a tion in wh i ch s h e is h e ld a n d th e t e nd e rn e ss a s we l l a s s a cred . . . title N u e s t r a S e fior a d e l a M erc e d sh e is known a s t h e p a troness . S M d e ll a P e rs e v e r a nz a O ur L a dy of P e rs e v e r an c e . . S a nt a M a ri a d i M isericordi a O ur L a dy of M e rcy . S M dell a Vittori a O ur L a dy of Victory . . S M d e l S occorro Our L a dy o f S uccor or of t h e F ors a k e n . . 17 are seldom wa nti n g a n d t h e re pr e s e nt a tio n of th e m a s t h e a ttribut e . sh e fr e quently holds a b a dg e of th e order on a t a bl e t . . S h e i s invoked by women in t r a v a il a s S M del P a rto O ur L a dy of Good D e l i v e ry . . . . . of might m aj esty a n d d i vi n e be a uty i s found i n the r e m a ins o f . A mong t h e symbols of t h e Bless e d Virgin th e tit l e s by wh ich . . . S M A ux il i u m A ffl i c t o r u m . A s t h e protector of t h e a ffli ct e d sh e i s repr e sent e d w ith h e r r o b e so s p re a d o ut a s to cov e r the vot a ries w ho p ra y for h e r gr a cious a i d . . . . H e l p of th e A ffl i ct e d . . . . . . . In t h is ch a ra ct e r sh e h a s s e v e r a l ti tles s uch a s . . S M de buon C uor e O ur L a dy of G ood H e a rt . . . S M del Pi a nto d e l D olor e O ur L a dy of L a men t a tion o r S o rro w . a r e by no m e a ns th e l e a s t int e resting show i n g a s th e y do t h e e sti .

. . S M d e l R os a rio O ur L a dy of t h e R os a ry . . fount a in . When p a int e d for coll e g e s a n d institutions o f l e a rn ing sh e fr e . S M del C a rm ine O ur L a dy of M ount C a rm e l u nd e r w hi ch tit l e . S M d e B e lem O ur L a dy of B e th l e h e m . . S e e l e g e nd o f th e S a nt a . « qu e ntly holds a book . S M d e l Pi ll a r . . . . . . . C e rt a i n p ro p h e ts a r e som e ti mes re pre s e nt e d a s a tt e nd in g o n M a ry . . . . . S M d e ll a Lett e ra t h e M a don n a o f t h e L e tt e r w h ich illu stra t e s . S e e t h e R os a ry . T h is is h e r title a s prot e ctre ss of P is a w h e n . . t h e p a troness of th e J eronym it e s . . . S M del F iore O ur L a dy of t h e F lo we r . T her e a r e a lso m a ny titl e s d e ri ved from t h e circu m st a nc e s o f h e r l ife or fro m cert a in a cc e ssori e s of t h e repr e s e nt a tion a s . . p rotectress of F lorence . . . . S M d e l Libro wh en sh e h olds t h e boo k of Wisdom . T h is i s h e r titl e a s prot e ctr e ss of S a r a goss a . . . . a m a rble p ill a r a n d a pp e a r e d to S t J a m e s w h e n h e w a s pre a ch ing . S M dell a S tell a O ur L a dy of t h e S t a r when t h e st a r is e m b r o i . . . . S M d i Lor e tto O ur L a dy of Lor e tto . . T h is i s h e r titl e a s . w hen sh e h o l d s a ros e . S M de l l a C a ten a O ur L a dy of F ett e rs . M a ri a M a ggiore . . she i s th e p r otectr e ss of th e C a rm e lit e s . . . S M dell a S pi n a . . . . . W ith th is titl e sh e i s . i n S p a i n T h is l egend i s oft e n seen i n S p a nish p icture s a n d t h e . gird l e t o S t T hom a s . . dered on her m a ntl e a s a n a ttribute . . . . pill a r is preserv e d i n the c a th ed ra l of S a ra goss a . . .18 S I ZI I B OL I S M ’ I N AR T . . S M dell a C intol a O ur L a dy of t h e G irdl e w h e n sh e giv e s h e r . . . p e opl e of M essin a T h is is h er titl e a s p rotectre ss of th a t c ity . S M d e ll a R os a O ur L a dy o f th e R os e . . By prison e rs s h e i s c a l led . . C a sa . . . s h e holds th e crow n of thorns . . A ccord i n g to th e tr a di tion s h e desc e nded from h e a ven st a nding on . S M dell a L ibert a or Liber a tri c e O ur L a dy o f Lib e rty . . t h e l e gen d th a t s h e w rot e a l e tt e r A D 4 2 fro m J eru s a l e m to th e . S M dell a S cod e ll a w h e n w i th a cu p sh e d ips w a t e r from a . . . S M d e l Presepio O ur L a dy of the C ra dle wh en in a N a tivity . . . . M d ell a N e v e O ur L a dy of t h e S no w S e e l e g e nd o f S a nt a . .

. D a vid both proph e t a n d a nc e stor . C e rta in wom e n too a r e r e ga rd e d a s typ e s of M a ry a n d a r e o ft e n . . b u t in t h e h a nd . . F r e qu e ntly t h e figur e s of th e s e p roph e ts a r e o mitt e d a n d symbols . R uth bec a us e sh e wa s th e a nc e stre ss o f D a vid . ae or the M oth e r of Wisdom W h e n dov e s a r e n e a r h e r whi l e . symbol of h e r tri umph ov e r a w orld fa ll e n t h rough sin . . a s t h e o pp osit e of t h e m a teri a l T h us t h e dov e i s th e H oly S pirit . t r a t i ve of t h e p roph e cy I p sa c on t e r e t cap u t t u u m ( S h e sh a l l bruis e “ . . th e Inc a rn a tion T h e y a r e . o f th e m i ntroduced a s t h e burn ing bush for M os e s t h e d e wy fl e e c e . p i e n t i. E z e ki e l (E z e k x l i v . . A a ron whos e rod blossom e d m ir a culou sly . . for G ideon t h e rod for A a ron e t c . . . T H E P OM E G RA N A T E t h e e mb l e m of hop e is fr e qu e ntly gi v e n to . w ith p e culi a r s ign i fic a t i o n s . . sin in P a ra dis e w h ic h m a d e h is com ing n e c e ss a ry . . M oses b e c a us e h e beh e ld t h e burn i n g bush . . . . T h e r e a r e c e rt a in g e n e r a l symb o l s w hi ch a r e a ls o gi v e n t o M a ry . o f th e V irgin it design a t e s h e r a s t h e s e cond E ve . . T H E A PP LE w h e n i n t h e h a nd of t h e in f a nt S a viour sign ifi e s t h e . thy h e a d ' T H E G L O BE b e n e a th t h e Virgin a n d e nt w in e d by a s e rp e nt i s t h e . of t h e S p irit w h e n surround ing t h e V irgin m a k e h e r t h e M a t e r S a . w h il e th e s e ven doves w h i ch typify t h e gifts . s e a t e d a t h e r feet or oth e r wis e re p r e sent e d n e a r h e r a s . . B I RD S in a nci e n t p icture s figur e d t h e soul o r th e spiritu a l . . B a thsh e b a b e c a us e sh e s a t on t h e right h a nd of h e r s o n . . . “ ” A b ish a g wh o w a s t h e v irgi n wh o w a s bro ught to t h e k ing . l i a r m e a n ing wh e n p l a c e d b e n e a th t h e fe e t of t h e V irgin a n d is ill us . Is a i a h wh o proph e si e d th a t a v irgi n sh o u l d c on c e iv e a n d b e a r a s o n . . . D a ni e l (D a n i i . . t h e V irgin by t h e ch i l d J e sus . T H E S E RP EN T t h e g e n e r a l e mbl e m of S a t a n a n d sin h a s a p e c u . . . . G id e on w hos e fl e e c e wa s we t with d e w wh e n i t wa s dr y a ll a r o und . sh e r e a ds o r wo rk s th e y e x p r e ss h e r g e nt l e n e ss a n d t e nd e r n e ss . S Y M B OL I S M IN AR T 19 an d the infa nt J e sus T h e y a r e th o s e wh o h a v e r e fe rr e d e s p e ci a ll y t o . . hov e ring a bov e h er . J udith a n d E sth e r wh o we r e e mbl e m s of t h e Virgin i n h a ving . . . brough t d e l i v e ra n ce to Isr a el .

T H E LILY . T H E R O S E i s o n e e mb l e m o f l ov e a n d b e a uty a n d e s p e ci a ll y d e d i . . F L O W E RS were consecr a ted t o t h e V irgin 3 a n d F R U IT S sign i fy t h e “ fru its of the S pirit . ” L a stly there a r e m a ny symbols of th e Virgin d e ri v e d fro m t h e Ca n . first sign ifies p e a c e h o pe a n d a bun . . A pl a nt a tion or ga rd e n of ros e s is o ft e n r e p re s e nt e d . th e F ix e d S t a r 3 a n d S t e l l a M a t utin a t h e . . . t h e th i r d s p e a k s o f vict o ry . . j oy p e a c e a n d l ov e . m oon und e r h e r fe e t a n d on h e r h e a d . . i f closed or se a l e d it is a mysti c a l symbo l o f t h e V irgi n . T H E P OR T A C L AU S A o r C l os e d G a t e . ( C a nt i i . S tell a non E r r a tic a . . TH E B OOK i n t h e h a n d of M a ry i f O pen r e p re s e nts t h e boo k o f . xi .20 S Y AI B OL I S M I N AR T . O F D AV I D a r e a l l sy mbols borro we d from t h e C a ntic l e s . c a t e d to M a ry . t h e S t a r of J a cob . T H E S T A R i s often e mbroi d e r e d on h er v e i l or m a nt l e W h e n sh e . . T H E S T E M O F J E S S E i s r e p resented a s a gr e e n bra n ch t win e d wi th flo we r s (I s a . . . “ I a m t h e ros e of S h a ron a n d t h e l i l y o f t h e v a ll ey . ( E zek xl i v . . M a ris th e S ta r of the S e a 3 S tell a J a cobi . T H E O L I V E T HE C Y PR E SS A N D T H E . . ” a crown of t we l v e st a rs . Wi sdom . t i c l e s a n d t h e Li t a n ies of t h e Virgin a n d w hi ch b e long e s p e ci a l ly to h e r . . T H E S U N A N D M OO N r e fer to h e r a s t h e wom a n o f t h e A poc a lyps e A wom a n cloth e d w ith t h e s un h a ving th e . h a s a cro wn o f t we l v e st a rs i t i s illu stra ti v e o f th e descript ion in t h e R e vel a tion S h e i s a lso c a lled S tell a . . T H E E N C L O S E D G ARD EN (C a nt i v . w h ich w ill be furth e r ex pl a in e d . M orn ing S t a r . V I D T E MP LE O F S O L OMO N A N D T O W E R . d a nce 3 t h e s e con d p oin ts to h e a v e n a n d . T H E W ELL F OU N T A I N C IT Y o r D A . P A L M a r e a ll embl ems of t h e Virgin T h e . T e t a m or ph r .

The e xpl a n a tion of t h e s e v e n j oys a n d t h e s e v e n sorrow s of t h e Virgin a s we l l a s th a t of t h e mysteri e s of t h e R os a ry w ill be found . or book i n e a ch a ngl e . . flowing from b e n e a th hi m T h e ir next . o f th is b oo k . . T H E S E A LE D B OOK i n t h e h a nds of the Virgin a llud e s to the t ext . . bol of the E v a nge l ists wa s a Gre e k cross w ith a scroll . S Y M B OL S OF T H E E VA N GE L I S T S . IX . TH E C E D A R 0 F L EB A N O N by its h e ight its p e r fum e its h e a ling . . . . Symbol wa s th e fo u r fi e ry cr e a t u res o f E zek i el s vis ion (E zek i T h e se ’ . a n d D a ni e l . . S a viour w ith a l a mb or th e symbol i c A gnu s D e i wa s repr e s e nt e d on . . . . . ond symbo l wa s th at of t h e four ri vers w hich ris e i n (M i ) S t M k osa c ar P a r a dise S om etimes th e . T h e fou r be a st s of t h e A p oc a l yps e r e ce i v e d t h e sa m e e xpl a n a . b ut t h e e a rly Christi a ns expl a ined th e m a s e mbl e ms of t h e St M k ar E v a ngelists . . . r e senting th e a rch a n gels 3 a lso th e prophets Is a i a h J e remi a h E zek iel . ” In th a t book we r e a ll my m e mb e rs writt e n a n d a lso to t h e s e a led . . a cter of w itnesses u pon wh os e t e st i mony the t r u th of C hristi a nity . . . . w e r e interpre t ed by t h e Jews a s r e p . W h e n t h e E v a ng e lists a r e r e p r e s e nt e d tog e th e r it is i n th e ir ch a r . goodn ess a n d b e a uty of the Virgin . rests 3 w hen th e y a r e singl e th e y a r e usu a lly pre s e nt e d a s t e a ch e rs o r . . b ook d e scribed by Is a i a h (xx ix l l . by refe re nc e to th e m i n th e ir a l p h a b e tic a l o rd e r i n t h e n e xt di visio n . T H E M I RROR i s borro we d a s an e mb l e m fro m t h e b o o k o f Wi s dom (vi i 25 ) Sp e c ul ar si n e m a c ul d . . an e m in ence w it h t h e fo ur stre a m s symbol izing t h e E v a ngeli s t s . qu a liti e s a n d its incorru p t ible subst a nc e symboliz e s t h e gre a tn e ss . . e mblems o f th e writers o f t h e four G osp e ls T he s e c . p a trons The e a rl iest sym . . . S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T .

. for thre e re a son s . . (M s i 5 t h C t y ) S t L k . . u e p riest a n d God . a H e comm e nc e s h is e p i stl e w ith the m ission of S t J ohn t h e . d u a l a p p l ic a tion o f th e s e symbols th us I T h e C h e r ub wh ich most r e . . J e rome ex p l a ins t h e i n di vi St . th e priesth ood of C hrist a n d t h e ox is . r e ction a n d A scension o f J esus . i s a typ e o f the roy a l dig n it y of Christ w hich S. . .22 S YM B OL I S M IN AR T . a n d th e y . m ore o f the h u m a n than o f t h e d i vin e n a tur e o f o u r S a vio ur . . had b e co m e the distincti v e sy mbo l s o f th e s e insp ir e d w itn e sses . 3 T h e O x w a s gi v e n to S t Luk e b e c a us e b e esp e ci a lly s e ts forth . o a c. t ion a n d in t h e s e v e nth c e ntury th ey . M a rk m a k es so a pp a r e n t . “ ” O thers re g a rd e d th e s e b e a sts a s sh a d o wing forth t h e Inc a rn a tion P a ssion R e s u r . . symbo l i c a l of s a crifi c e . ” b T h e k ing o f b e a sts . to S t M a tth e w b e ca us e he spe a ks . . th us th e y a r e a n e mbl e m of t h e R e surre ction o f wh ich S t M a r k is . . as an e mb l e m o f t h e lofty flights o f h is ins p ir a tion . . en ur u e. . en ur o n o r t h e ro a r of t h e sir e . 3 s e mbl e s a h u m a n b e in g wa s gi ven 2 > . .0 A ccord ing to a n Ori e nt a l tra dition t h e . a n d a ft e r th r e e d a ys a r e m a d e a l i v e by t h e bre a th (M i 1 1 th C t y ) S t J h osa c . . young l ion s a r e born d e a d . . T h e se sy m bo li c c re a t ur e s w er e a l wa y s r e p re s e nt e d a s win ge d Th e . . . . 2 T h e Lion sym bol iz e s S t M a rk . t . 4 T h e E a gl e w a s gi v e n to S t J oh n . . c a lled th e h i stori a n . a r e a l so bel ie ved to repr e s e nt th e fo urfo l d ch a r a cter of Christ a s m an king h igh (M i A D St L k . osa c . . “ B a ptist T h e voi c e of o n e crying i n t h e w ild e rn e ss . .

.

the e mbl e m a n d a ttribut e b o th d isc a rded we h a v e t h e h um a n being only ho l d ing h is go sp e l —th a t i s h is v e rsion o f t h e doctrin e o f . . 1 S a c re d and L e ge n d a ry A rt . a n d d is t ingu ish e d fro m e a ch oth e r by t h e in scri pt ion of th e ir n a m e s a bov e them . on e furn ish e d a s e n St J h . S h e p h e rd w h il e h e bor e a l a m b i n h i s a rm s . . . r a r e l y r e pre s e nt e d by dov e s T h e n e x t a d . . P a t r e m omni p ot e nt e m c r e a t o r e m c m l i e t t e rrae 3 S t A ndre w — E t i n . a r e inscribed on th e ir scrolls a s follow s S t P e te r Cre do i n D e u m . o r i n pl a c e of shee p scrolls . . a N N O E g. symbol —t h e four b e a sts i n th e A p oc a ly p s e w ith o r w ithou t t h e . P a ra di se wh il e on o n e sid e six sh e e p l e a v e . ’ pos e d t h e A postles Cre e d of wh ich e a ch . t h e h um a n form T hen t h e h u m a n p e rson a g e s e a ch o f vener a bl e . A ccording to tr a d i tion t h e A postl e s b e . t e n c e or a rti cl e T h e se . ” 1 C hrist . e m i n e nce from w h ich flow t h e four ri vers o f . X . a n d e a c h . fore sep a r a ting co m . a ng e l w ings - T h e n th e comb in a tion of the e mblem a ti ca l a n i m a l w it h . . . . S Y M B O L S O F T H E A P O S T L ES . n umb e r l e a v e B e thl e h e m T h e y were v e ry . J e ru s a l e m a n d on th e oth e r sid e th e s a m e . . or inspired a sp e ct a s b e com e s t h e t e a ch e r a n d w i tn e ss . v a n c e wa s to r e p res e nt them a s m e n a n d a l l . . . b e a ring sh e e p . t or a g a in Jesu s a s t h e L a mb of G o d i s on a n . . . a ttribute m a rking h i s indiv idu a l voc a tion a n d ch a r a ct e r A n d l a stly . S t J a m e s . J e s u m Ch r i s t um F i l i um e j u s un i cu m D om in u m n o stru m . a ttended by t h e S cri pt u ra l e mbl e m no longer a n e mb l e m bu t a n .24 S Y M B OL I S M IN AR T . o n . The rl i e st p ure l y symbo l i c re p re s e nt a tion o f t h e T w e l v e ea A po st l e s wa s th a t of t we l v e sh e e p surrou nding C hrist t he good . . . . .

. . . S t John — P a ss us sub Pon tio P i l a t e c r uc i fixu s mort u us e t . . In . such c a ses S t P a ul b e a rs either o n e or t wo swords . S t S imon . S a n c t a m E c c l e s i a m Ca t h o l i c a m s a nctorum c o m m u . S t B a rtholom e w a kn i fe . . . A sc e n d i t a d c oe l o s se d e t a d d e xt e r a m . S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T . C a rn is r e s u r r e c t i o n e m 3 S t T h a ddeus — E t V it a m ae ter n a m F rom . th is A p ostl e 3 but th e e a gle wh ich is h is a ttrib ut e a s an E v a nge list . a Sp e a r . se p u l t u s 3 S t P h ilip . on clouds s urrounding th e S a viour a s th e y a r e . - . . .Descend it a d inferos t e rti a di e r e s u r r e xi t . a toru m 3 S t M a tth i a s . . . . . S t M a tth e w . . . . . S t M a tthi a s a l a n c e . . n i on e m . . 25 Maj or — Q u i concept us est de S pirit u S a n oto n a tu s ex M a ri a Vir . suppos e d to be in h e a ven L a ter a r t h a s not only distingu ish e d e a ch . . a s follow S t Peter th e keys or a fi sh . a n d t h e ill us o . S ometi mes S t P a ul S t M a rk a n d S t Lu k e . resent t h e ch a ra cter o f e a ch in t h e fa c e a n d b e a ring . S t A ndre w t h e tr a nsverse cross wh i ch b e a rs h is n a m e . . . S t T h a ddeus a h a lb e rd o r l a n c e . . . S t T hom a s gen e r a lly a bui l d e r s ru l e 3 r a r e l y ’ . a m or t u i s . S t J a m e s M aj or th e pilgri m s st a ff ’ . . Th e A postles h a ve a lso b e e n r e pres e nted se a ted (F A g li ) ra n e c o. . R e m i s s i o n e m p e cc . s urmounted by a cross . . . o f the A postl e s by h is own a ttribute it h a s a lso a ttempted t o rep . . De i P a tris o m n i p o t e n t i s 3 S t T hom a s Inde v e n t u r u s est j udi c a re . S t S imon a s a w . . . gine . . wh ich w ill b e foun d i n th eir r e sp e ct iv e l e g e n d s The se a ttribut e s a r e . . . v i vc s e t m o r t u o s 3 S t B a rtholomew —Credo i n S pi r i t u m S a n ctu m . w h ich wa s t a ken fro m some circumst a nc e o f h is l ife or d e a th a n d . . S t John : th e ch a l ic e w ith t h e serpent is t h e p rop e r a ttri but e of . S t J a m e s M inor a c l ub . is sometim e s seen w h en h e is w ith th e A postl e s . . . . S t J a mes M inor . . . . . a r e r e presented w ith t h e A postles a n d some oth ers . t h e sixth century ev e ry one of the A postles h a d h is es p e ci a l a t t ribut e . . . a r e l e ft o ut a s t h e n u mber is a lw a ys t we lv e . S t Ph ilip a sm a l l cross on a st a ff or cr o si e r . S t M a tthe w a p urs e .

a n d i n h onor of th e s e v e ry fo und e rs a n d s a ints w e wonder a t a n d a r e . . . d isturbed by th e s e eming in a ppro p ri a t e n e ss of the re p resent a tions . h a s e ve r s e e n To th e m we a r e indebted for m a ny of the r a r e st . a n d oth er sc e nes from t h e l ife of t h e V irgin or the S a v io ur w e s e e . . . refer e sp e ci a lly to the r e p r e s e nt a tion of t h e p e rson a ges a n d t h e . e xpl a ins m u ch of i ts i mport a n d p urpos e . To a stud e n t or l ov e r of a r t th e re i s a w orl d of int e re st co nn e cted w ith t h e mon a sti c ord e rs w i th thei r found e rs th e ir a rtists th e ir . a dd e d a ft e rwa rd s . sh ou l d b e giv e n to th e s e symbols a n d h a b its A knowl edge of th em . . . th a t they h a ve i mp a rted som eth ing to h i m th a t w a s I l i a —som eth ing i nte n d ed for h i m a n d h eld in trust until h e . for w ho th a t h a s g a zed on the M a donn a d i S a n S isto o n t h e S piri t mov ing p ictures of A ngelico . T her e a r e cert a in gen e r a l symbo l s wh i ch h a v e a pe c u l i a r s ig n i fi ca nc e i n mon a stic pictures T H E N I M B U S is gi v e n on l y to a c a non ized s a int n ev e r to a be a t o . p ossession in th em . e n a bles o n e to d e cide for w h a t ord e r a p icture wa s intend e d a n d . S Y M B OL S OF T H E M O N A S TI C O R D E R S . som e times with wonderful e ffect . - t h e Blessed a n d m a ny m a ny oth ers does n ot feel that h e h a s a . som e tim e s t h e p icture is p a in t e d b e for e c a n o n iz a tion a n d t h e n imb us . gem s of p a inting I nt e nd e d for the seclusion of ch urch a n d Cl ois t er . Th at th e se th ings a r e so m a kes i t a n e c e ssity that som e a tten tion . pictures W h i l e they institut e d sch ools b uilt c a th edr a ls a n d fou nded . lib sp i t a l s th e y w e r e th e most m u n i fic e n t p a trons of a r t t h e world .26 S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T . in their proper pl a c e s bu t w h ich s e e m in congruo us w hen these pi c . o f t h e l e ge nds w hich d e velop t h e ch a ra cteri stics dra wn fr o m t r a t i on th e S cri pt ure history en a bles th e a rtist to a ccomplish th is obj ect . . ' c a m e to cl a i m h is o w n I T h e re a r e cert a i n pecul i a riti es in w h a t m a y be c a lled mon a stic pictures w h ic h were most fitting w hen th ese were . . XI . pecul i a r h a bi ts a n d symbol s of t h e d i ff er e nt orders for w h ich t h e pi c t ures w e re p a inted F or inst a n ce i n p ictures of the A nn unci a tion . . . t h e y n o w be l o n g t o a l l t h e w or l d . tures a ppe a r i n t h e g a lleri es of a r t or on t h e w a lls of p a l a ces I . t h e found e rs of ord e rs a n d institutions i n their distincti ve dress 3 a n d u nti l w e consid e r th a t t h e pi ctures w er e p a inted for these orders . .

T H E CR U CI E I K i n t h e h a nd sign ifi e s a p r e a ch e r . s y mbol of the rule of h is order a n d i s oft e n inscri b e d w ith t h e first . giv e n to S t Pl a cid a s S t Bon ifa ce a n d S t Thomas a B e ck e t of t h e . . 1 Th e O r d e r of S t F ra n c i s . legends l ike th a t of S t A n thony of P a du a w h ich rel a t e s th a t th e . « n e c t e d w ith th e mon a stic orders . 27 TH E I N F A N T C H R I S T is oft e n pl a ced in th e a rms of a s a int . T H E P A L M i s not a genera l sy mbo l for t he m on a sti c s a ints but i s . . M a dd a len a d e P a zzi’ . som e picture s of the Virgin sh e bends down a n d pl a ces th e ch ild i n . . T H E F L AM I NG H E AR T is an e mblem of d ivine l ov e It i s given . . t itles of h is w orks T h e open book in th e h a nd of a founder is t h e . . tion s of v ision s w h ich these s a ints h a ve h a d or have a risen fro m . . to S t A ugusti n e T h e he a rt crowned w ith thorns b e lo n gs to S t . sente n c e o f t h e r u le . sometimes gi ven to S t M a ri a M a dd a len a de P a zzi . . . . properly to S t C a th erin e of S ien a a n d S t F r a nci s a lone but a r e . . but a ccomp a nied by the pen or ink horn it ind ic a t es th a t th e s a int - . F r a ncis d e S a les Th e he a rt inscribed w ith I H S is given t o . i t i s a l so a n e mblem of pen a n c e a n d fa ith . . T H E B OO K i n th e h a n d h a s the gen e ra l sign ific a t ion of t h e Gospel . T H E S T A N DARD surmounted by t h e cross b e lo n gs esp e ci a lly to . s a ints of roy a l blood frequ e ntly we a r the d i a dem outside t h e veil . such a s w ere m ission a ri e s a n d a post l e s a n d c a rried t h e Gosp e l to . . . h e a then n a tion s It i s a lso a n a ttrib ut e of t h e wa rrior s a ints con . . . . T H E C RO W N o r T H O R N S on the h e a d or in t h e h a nds i s t h e symbol of su ff ering for C hrist s s a k e ’ . a n d fem a l e . . . . . . the G ospel . w a s an a uthor a n d t h e book i s someti mes lettered w i th th e proper . T H E S TI G MA T A or S im il itud e of the W o unds of C hrist b e long . ’ . S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T . S a v iour c a m e in th is form a n d stood on h is boo k while h e p r e a che d . . t a i n e d their r a nk until d e a th they w e a r the crown . T H E C R OW N at th e feet of s a in t s indic a tes that t h ey w ere of roy a l birth or resign ed their k ingdoms for th e mon a st e ry If th ey r e . Jesu it s a in t s to S t T e re s a S t Bridget of S w e de n a n d S t M a ri a . or i n . A S E RAP H d isting u ishes th e s a ints of th e S er a ph i c Order 1 . the a rms of holy m e n a n d w om e n T hese a r e genera lly repres e nt a . .

T h e h a bits a n d speci a l symbols of d i ff eren t or d ers a r e i m port a nt . b e longs to S t N i chol a s of T ol enti n o T h e l ily a lso belongs to s uc h . . . T H E C ARD I N A L S H A T is gi ven to S t Bon a v e n tur e H e is dis ’ . T h e st a ff w ithou t t h e m i tr e i s pro p e r only to a bbesses . . of th e D ominic a ns a n d bu t fe w others . F irst th e B e n e d i c t i n e s w ith S t Bened i ct a s t he ir gen e ra l p a tri a rch . . . . W I LD B EAS T S a t t h e fe et of a s a in t signi fy t h a t h e cle a re d a w ilderness or founded a con ven t in a sol itud e . . t i n gu i s h e d fro m S t J erom e by th e F r a n ci sc a n girdl e . W A L K I NG O N T HE S E A r e pr e s e nts a m ir a cl e a ttri b uted to t h e s a int wh o is so p a inted . b ut ch a in e d to a rock or l e d b y a ch a in i t is h e resy v a nqu ished . . . . . . T H E D OV E is th e e mbl e m o f t h e d ir e ct i nsp ira tion o f t h e Ho l y G host . T H E H I N D O R S T A G is the e mbl em of sol itud e . b a cy l ike S t C a sim ir a n d others T h e crucifi x tw in e d w ith l ili e s . T H E C AMA L D O LE S I founded by S t R om u a ldo . . T H E F I S H a s t h e e mbl e m of b a p tism b e longs to some e a rly . e mbr a ce . . . l epers a t th e fe e t of a s a int sign i fy b e n e fic e n c e. R O S E S a r e sign ifi c a n t of t h e n a m e of t h e s a int o r a r e conn e ct e d . T H E L I L Y i s a n e mbl e m of p urity a n d ch a stity a n d of v e ry g e n e ra l . B e n e dictin e s . b ut i t belongs e speci a lly to S t Cl a r a S t A nthony of P a du a . . . S L A V E s WIT H B ROK EN C H A I N S a s w e ll a s begg a rs ch i l dr e n a n d . . . T H E S U N on th e bre a st is t h e symbo l of t h e l igh t of w isdom . . . . . T H E V A L L O M B R O S I A N S fo und e d by S t Joh n G u a l b e r to . . T H E S CO U R GE is the sym bol of self i n fli c t e d pen a n c e - . S t C a th erin e of S ien a a s w ell a s to thos e w h o m a de vows of celi . H ung a ry a n d S t Doro t h e a . to S t A ngel us a n d S t A l bert of t h e C a r m e l it e s. . T H E L AM B is prop e r t o S t F ra ncis a s th e sym bo l of m e e k n ess . . . a s de voted themsel ves especi a lly t o the Blessed Virgin . T H E D RA G O N a t th e fe e t i s sin conq uere d .28 S Y AI B OL I S M I N AR T . T H E S T AR o v e r th e h e a d or br e a st e xpre ss e s th e d iv in e a tt e sta t ion to t h e s a nct ity of t h e s a i n t . w ith some circu mst a n c e in th e ir l iv e s a s w ith S t E l iz a bet h of . an d to S t P eter M a rtyr. . . u se . . . m ission a ries a n d to such a s con verted t h e h e a th en . T H E M IT R E A N D P AS T ORA L S T A F F b e long to a bbots a n d b is ho p s .

. . T H E O L I V E T A N I w h it e . T H E C AR T H U S I A N S w h i t e . . S t G iles of L a ngu e doc . wh o l iv e d b e for e t h e y e a r 1 020 . . . . . b ury 3 S t Wa lpurg i s of E ichst a dt . . . T h e color of the h a bit i s n o t e sp e ci a lly d e t e rm in e d in t h e B e n e d ietine R ul e In th e e a rly picture s of S t B e n e dict h e we a rs bl a ck . . . at S a n S everin o the l ife of . . a t Pa d ua . i n 1 2 1 9 a n d a r e i mport a nt in t h e h istory of a r t A mong th e fin e st . ch urch a n d cloist e rs cont a in m a ny works of a r t a n d a mong the m . . ed ifices of the B e n e dictin e s m a y be m e ntioned t h e B a silic a of S a n P a ol o (fuori l e m ura ) at R om e S a n S everino at N a pl e s S a n G iustin a . . T H E C I S T E R CI A N S w h it e T h e ir h a bit is l ong a n d l oo s e w ith v e ry . S t B e nn e tt . S t D unst a n of C a nt e r . . . th e st a tu e s i n m a rbl e of t h e m ost note d m emb e rs a n d b e n e fa ctors of t h e comm u n ity Th e c a v e a t S ub i a co t h e S a cro S p e co i s of gr e a t . . wid e s l e ev e s . . a w h it e h a bit T h e bl a ck h a b it i s gi v e n to S t S chol a stic a a n d t h e . . . b ut i n som e p ictures p a int e d for t h e refor m e d Ben e dictin e s h e is i n . . . S t B a von of G h e nt . fo u s e of T ol e do . T H E C I S T E R CI A N S founded by S t Bern a rd of C l a irv a ux . T H E V A L L O M B R OS I A N S gra y or a sh color . . p upils o f S t Ben e di ct S t M a urus a n d S t Pl a cid a s a n d to S t . T H E C L U N I A CS found e d by S t Peter of Clu gny . - . t h e mon a stery of B a mb e rg i n G e rm a ny S t M a u r M a r . . . These ord e rs furnished t h e e a r l i e st a rtists a n d a rch it e cts of E ur op e . . S t Ild e . Bishop of D urh a m 3 S t B en e dict of A n i a n . a n d some oth e r l e ss i m p ort a nt br a nch e s w h i ch are gov e rn e d by t h e R ul e of S t B e ned ict . . . . t h e M a donn a d i S a n S isto wa s p a i n t e d . S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T . . . . . . 29 TH E C A RT H U S I A N S found e d by S t Bru n o . . a lso to S t Bonifa c e the A post l e of Ge rm a ny . P erugino p a inted the A ssum p tion T a dd e o G a ddi p a int e d m a n y . T h e monastery of M ont e C a ssino wa s found e d by S t B e n e dict Its . moutier a n d F o n t e vr a u l d i n F ra n c e F or t h e ir con vent a t Pi a c e n z a . . T H E C AMA L DO LE S I a n d th e ir fo und e r w e a r wh it e . . . for th a t a t Gr e t t a F err a t a . a n d to ne a rly a l l B e n e di ctin e s . . . F o r t h e Va l l o m h r o si a n s . t h e l ife of S t N ilu s by Domen ich ino . S t Benedi ct by A nton i o 10 Z ing a ro . . T H E O L I V E T A N I found e d by S t B e rn a rdo P t o l o m e i 3 . . F l a vi a . int e r e st a n d p a i nted w ith v e ry a n ci e nt frescos T h ey w ere don e . T H E CL UN I A c s bl a ck .

' G h irl a nd aj o a n d A ndre a d e l S a rto p a inted some of th e ir fi nest pi ctures T he C e rtosa d i P a vi a i s u n e qu a ll e d i n m a ny po ints a n d . . b u ilt by M ich a e l A ng e lo Z urb a r a n a n d Ca r d u c h o p a int e d for t h e . « d ietin e found a tions a n d t h e wo rd “ a bb e y . p rin cip a l person a ges i n t h e picture s of t h e ord e r S t Joseph a n d a l l . of H i ppo as t h e ir ge n e ra l p a tri a rch fo und e r T h e y e mbr a c e an d . S a nt a M a ri a i n Orga no a t V e ron a b e long to t he O l i ve t a n i w h ose . a t P a ris . . . . . M a ry a s th e ir p a tri a rch a n d p a tron s a int T h e h a bit of t h e A ngus . a n d th e e a rliest m a r tyrs a n d bishops th ough common to a l l orders a r e e speci a lly h onore d . p ictur e s for the C a m a ldo l e si . . T H E O RD E R O F M E R C Y foun d e d by S t P e t e r N ol a s c o . T h e se o rd e rs re v e r e nc e S t A ug usti n e . ” b e longs e s p e ci a l ly t o th is o rd e r . . . h a s w orks of Lu in i Borgognon e a n d m a ny other fa mo us m a sters . o f T olentino T h e most i m p o r t a nt ch urch e s of t h e A gostin i in I t a l y . . . of S t A ug usti n e . . t h e e v e nts of h is life a r e a lso fa vorit e subj ects . Th e C isterci a ns h a v e m a ny p icture s o f t h e Bl e ss e d Virgin a s . . o f th e ir found e r wh ich h a s i n a l l t wo h undr e d a n d n in e ty figur e s . T H E S E RV I fo und e d by S t Ph ilip B e n i z i 3 . ’ a r e t h e S a nt A gostino a t P a vi a w h i ch con t a ins t h e m a gn ifi c e nt shrin e . t i n i a n s is bl a c k S t A ugu stin e a n d h i s moth e r S t M on ic a a r e t h e . T h e A ugustin i a ns r e v e r e nc e S t Joseph th e h usb a n d of t h e Virgin . . . by t h e A u gustini a ns T h e pri miti v e h e rm its S t A nthony a n d S t . . a n d for d ifl e r e n t B e n e dictin e o r d e rs. .30 S Y M B OL I S M IN AR T . . . work e d in m a rbl e T h e prin ci p a l e vents of t h e l ife o f S t A u gustin e . TH E A U G U S T IN E S . or a m od i fica ti o n of th e R l u e . . . . 1 . a rti sts e xc e ll e d i n T a rsi a or Int a rsi a t ura a b e a u tiful sty l e of i n . P a ul a l so re ceiv e m u ch v e n e ra tion . . S p a n ish C a rth usi a ns a n d L e S u e ur t h e l ife o f S t Bruno for t ho se . T h e b e a utif u l ch urch o f S a n L o r e nzo i n Cr e mon a a n d th at o f . T H E B R I G ITTI N E S fo unded by S t Bridget o f S weden . l a id work I n E n gl a nd m a ny of t h e fi ne st c a th e dra ls we r e B e n e . 1 S om e o th e r o r d e rs of m en an d w om en fo ll o w t h e R l u e . T h is i s a C a rth usi a n m on a stery a s i s a lso t h e C e rtosa a t R om e . . they e s p e ci a ll y h o n o r h e r a n d d e d ic a t e th e ir ch urch e s u nd e r h e r p a tron a ge . b ut th e ir ch i e f s a i nt is N ich o l a s . . .

.

T h e D om in ic a ns a l w a ys w e a r shoes T h e ir tra dition s t e a ch th a t . . . . . ov e r th is a w h it e sc a pul a r w h i ch h a ngs to t h e feet from t h e . T he se c a l l e d t h e Pr e a ch i n g F ri a rs a n d h a v e S t Domin ic k a t a re . . h a s bronzes of Don a tel lo a n d A ndre a R iccio . . most renown e d in t h e ord e r for m ira cl e s . TH E D OM I N IC A N S . . . . over a l l a bl a c k . . . . . . . 2 S t Cl a ra M a dre S e r a fic a firs t F r a ncisc a n n u n a n d fo undr e ss . . . . . . . th i s h a bi t w a s a dop t e d i n a ccord a nce with t h e d ire ction s o f t h e Bless e d Virgin T h e w h ite symbol iz e s puri ty . . edi fic e s T h e S t A nton io d i P a dov a is fill e d w ith a r t tre a s ure s I t . . 4 S t A ntony o f P a du a wh o i s n e xt to S t F ra ncis t h e s a int . . . d e Ca n t a l i c i o a n d a h ost of oth e rs . m ost s p l endid a rtists a n d p a tr o ns of a r t T h e shrin e o f S t D o m in ic k . . . T hen follo w S t M a rg a ret of Co r t o n a S t R o s a d i Vit e rb o S t F e l ix . . pictur e s by m a ny o f the gre a t p a inters of U p p e r I t a ly a n d m a rbl e s of Lomb a rdi S a n . - . . . S t C a therin e of S ien a . . p icture s for th is ord e r i n S p a in . . a n d . T h e p a r e nt con v e nt a n d ch urch at A ssisi w a s th ree h u ndred y e a rs i n th e h a nds of t h e gr e a t e st a rtists of I t a ly R a ph a el Pint uricch io . . girdle . 5 S t Be r n a rd ino of S i e n a th e ir gr e a t p r e a ch e r a n d r e form e r . S t Peter M a rtyr . ord er . sovino a n d S a m mich e l e M urillo p a int e d m a ny o f h is wo nd e rfu l . St . . . . . tion a n d pen a nce T h ei r four prin ci p a l s a ints a r e S t D om in ick . S t T hom a s A qu in a s t h e A ng e l ic Doctor . 32 S YM B OL I S M IN AR T . . T he Dom in ic a ns h a v e e mbra c e d som e of t h e . n eck both before a n d b e h ind l ik e a long a pron . 1 F ra n cis P a dre S e ra fic o p a tri a rch a n d found e r . 3 S t Bon a v e nt u ra i 1 D ottor e S e r a fic o t h e gr e a t p r e l a t e o f t h e . . G iotto T a ddeo a n d A ng e lo G a ddi G i o t t i n o L uc a dell a R obbi a a n d . . . 7 S t Louis Bishop of T ou l ou s e . t h eir h e a d T hey w e a r a w h it e wooll e n h a bit fa st e n e d w ith a w hit e . . Benedetto d a M a i a no a l l contrib ut e d to the d e cora tion of F ra ncisc a n . . . . . 6 S t Lou is K ing of F ra n ce . . the bl a c k m o r t i fic a . . . . . o f t h e P ov e r e Donne or Poor Cl a r e s . T he ch urch e s of th e F ra n cisc a ns h a v e b e e n m a g nifi c e nt l y a dorn e d . 8 S t E liz a b e th of Hung a ry . clo a k w ith a h ood T h e sc a p ul a r of t h e l a y brothers i s bl a ck . .

- ” ch urch 3 a n d h e r e sl e eps A ngelico d a F iesol e I l Be a t o a n d Leo X . Ch a pel of N i cho l a s V i n t h e V a tic a n . . . . conv e nt w hen tw e nty y e a rs old a n d p a ss e d t h e r e m a inder of h is long . F r a A ngel ico a n d F r a B a rtolomeo T h e first of th ese entered thi s . T a dd e o G a ddi a n d S i mon e M e m m i 3 t h e S trozzi Ch a pel by A ndr e a . . a n d th e frescos of R a zzi F o r th is order Leon a rdo d a Vinci p a inted . . a n d M a so l in o A s a n ord e r th e C a rm e l it e s a r e not i mport a nt i n . l i fe i n p a inting th e spiri t u a l conceptions of h i s devo u t a n d gen t l e m ind H e bel i e ved t h a t G o d gra nted h i m h is ben e dic t ion on h is . T h eir . A t S ien a the Domi ni c a ns h a v e t h e M a donn a by G u ido d a S i e n a . h is L a st S upper a n d T iti a n h is S a n P i e tro M a rtir e . . . . . S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T . . . a o ut e d t h e shri ne b ut th e ch urch h a s be e n r e built i n modern style . l a bors 3 a n d so i mpr e ss e d wa s h e w it h th e r e l igious i mport a nc e o f th em th a t h e i s s a id to h a ve p a int e d m u ch u p on h is bended kne e s . . . c a lled B a ccio dell a Port a a n d I l F ra te . Or c a gn a 3 a n d h e r e is the M a donn a a n d Ch i l d by Ci m a b u e . 33 is i n t h e church of h is order a t Bo l ogn a It i s c a l l e d i n I t a ly t h e . T heir ch urch e s w ere bu ilt w ithou t a isl e s h a ving a n a v e only i n . . A r e a d i S a n Domen ico N i ccolo P is a no b uil t the ch urch a n d e xe . . is filled w ith b e a utiful p i ctures a n d h e re is M ich a el A ngelo s statu e . ever since t h e t im e of th a t proph et T h e m embers w e a r a brown . . F r a B a rtolomeo i s a lso . A t R om e t h e S a nt a M a ri a S opra M inerv a is t heir most i mport a n t . most i nteresting church is the C a rmin i a t F lorence in w h ich i s th e . . B r a n c a c c i Ch a pel w h i ch wa s p a in t ed by M a s a ccio F il ippino Lippi . I n F lorence is the con vent of S t M a rk in w h ich l i v e d a n d p a inted . th i s form of edifi ce w a s ve ry a dv a n t a geou s a lso for t h e setting forth of t h e ir p i ctur e s . This ord e r cl a i ms th e prophet E lij a h a s its fo u n der a n d a l so that . o w n con vent i n th e ch urch of S a nt a M a ri a N ovell a a n d in t h e . ’ of Chri st . TH E C ARM EL IT E S . h e a rd in e very p a rt . i n t h is ch urc h i s t h e Ch a p e l D e i S p a gn uol i p a inted by . . order that th e pre a ch ing w h ich w a s th eir esp e ci a l duty m ight b e . . w it h C a rdin a l Ho w a rd C a rd in a l Bembo a n d D u r a n d u s Th is ch urch . t un i c w it h a wh ite m a ntle a n d a r e a lso c a lled Wh ite F ri a rs . M t C a rmel h a s bee n inh a bited by a direct su ccession of h ermits . as if perform ing an a c t of d e votion H is princi p a l w orks a r e i n h is . A t F loren c e th e D om ini c a ns h a ve the S a nt a M a ri a N ovell a . .

. a s for inst a nce wh en t h e Vi rgin . so m etimes h is en tire fa mily a r e seen i n t h e picture a n d a r e f r e . T her e l a rge n umbers of w h a t a r e known a s voti v e p i ctures a re . ca p . XI I . ch urches . . 34 S Y AI B OL I S M IN AR T . T h e figure of a bish o p kneel ing w h ile a l l oth ers st a nd s ign ifies th a t . quently represented a s grou ped a bou t t h e M a donn a a n d C h ild In . a recovery or esc a p e from sickness or a ccident T h e donor a n d . st a tu es . bl essing or to a vert som e a n ticip a t e d d a nger M a ny com memor a t e . g n i fic e n c e of its e dific e s . . . . . . A N A CH R O N I S M S . b u t i t w a s spent i n brill i a n t d ecor a tions of gold a n d S il ver r a re m a rbl es a n d even j e wels ra ther th an i n pictures a n d . . bishop m a r tyrs a n d p a trons wh o a r e th u s represented - . a bl e for a p ictur e th a t th e y a r e oft e n re p resent e d in the pri estly vest m e n ts a s i n t h e c a se o f S t Ign a ti u s Loyol a a n d S t F ra ncis Xa vi er . e a rly a r t the donor or vot a ry wa s represent e d a s v ery d im inuti v e . It ly a — a l l belong to t h is ord e r w hich is r e m a r k a b l e for the m a . . ETC . . . . . T hes e monk s c l a i m S t J erome a s th eir found e r a n d a dorn th e ir . . T h e Jesuits d id n ot a ppe a r to v a l ue a r t a s h i g hly a s m a ny o f th e o ld e r orders T hey l a v ish ed l a rg e su ms of m oney on their . T he mmb e rs of th i s order a r e n ot e a si l y di st ingu i sh ed i n a r t e . TH E J E R O N Y M I T ES . . to express hu mil ity . TH E J ES UI T S . e difi ces l a rgely wi th pict u res of th a t s a int a n d sc e n e s from h is li fe . I n m a ny works of a r t there is a n a ppa rent a n a ch ron ism i n t h e cho ic e of t h e person s repr e s e nted . . . h e i s th e person who presents the pi cture . . T h e E scuri a l a n d the mon a stery of S t J ust i n S p a i n . w h ich a r e p a i n t ed i n fulfil m e n t of a vow i n g r a titude for som e sign a l . o f Belem i n Portug a l . the mon a s tery . bu t i n l a ter times th ey a pp e a r of a n a tur a l si ze . . . of their order a t A ntw e rp . a n d yet th ey w ere ( a fter som e roy a l p e rson a ges ) th e ch ief p a tron s of R ubens a n d V a n Dyc k w h o decora t e d t h e splend id ch urch . T hey we a r the bl a ck frock b utton ed to t h e ch in w h ich is so u nfa vor . VOT I V E P I CT UR E S . . wh en h e st a n d s it i s d i fficul t t o determ ine w ho h e m a y be for there a r e h undreds o f . or in c a ssoc k a n d surpl i ce a s i n t he c a se of S t A loysi us a n d S t . S t a n is l a u s Ko s tk a I f the h e a d i s cover e d it is by a sq u a re bl a c k . a n d th a t of S t S igismond n e a r Cremon a in . .

S ome of th ese or other like re a sons w h ich were good . e r a t i o n s d e term ined th e a rtist i n h i s a ssoci a tion of persons C ert a i n . . t h e S criptures to th e in f a nt Chri st w hil e an a ngel turns t h e le a ves . . . s a ints a r e brought together bec a us e th e y a r e j oint p a tron s of t h e . ” belong no mor e to e a rth When thus considered there a ppe a rs no . s a ints a r e so m uch more frequ e ntly represented th a n others as to occ a sion surpris e a n d r e m a rk T h is m a y b e e x p l a in e d in p a rt by . a n d S t Cornel ius . . c a reless gl a n ce a pp e a rs to b e th e result of ignor a nce or b a d t a ste i s . . i ncongruity i n these re pre sent a tions of w h ic h th e Correggio a t P a rm a . . is a good ill ustra tion In it S t Jerom e pr e sents h is tra nsl a tion of . S tephen a n d . the sick wh o su ff ered fro m th e pl a gue a n d t h e l a st being a pro . a n d t h e represent a tions of Greek poe t s a n d ph ilosoph ers i n e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a r t a r e expl a ined by t h e fa ct th at every th ing w a s reg a rded . . or they rest tog e th er i n de a th a s S t . pl a ce for w h i c h they w ere p a inted a s i n t h e V en e ti a n picture s of . . . . m e a n ing A n d if t h e person s represented a r e not l iving they kno w . rel igio us pi ctures ch ronology shoul d be e ntirel y fo rg ott en for tim e . . . . to represent physic a l fa cts b ut a r e d e votion a l i n their ch a r a cter a n d . S Y M B OL I S I I I IN AR T . 35 is surround e d by thos e who l ived e ith e r c e nturi e s b e for e or a ft er h er self I t m ust be borne in m ind th a t s uch pi ctur e s were not i ntended . . . . t h e c a se wi th S t R och a n d S t S e b a s t i a n . S t L a u rence . t ector a g a inst it Or th ey w e re fri e nds on e a rth a s S t Cypri a n . no more of ti me 3 for th e m i t no l ong e r e x ists a n d th a t w hi ch a t a . ing i n many pictur e s strictly i n a ccord a n ce w ith w h a t m igh t b e termed propriety T h e S ibyls d a ncing a ro un d t h e cra dle of J e sus . . a n d su fficient to th e m inds of a rtists a n d their p a trons a l wa ys ex . A ga in th ey a r e con . f e c t l y understood i n t h e a g e to wh ich th e y b e longed A ga in som e . i n fa ct a spiritu a l conc e p tion of t h e com m un ion of s a ints w ho . Ch urch A l l thos e w ho preceded h i m foresh a do wed h i m a n d pr o p h e . pl a ined t h e a pp a r e nt i nconsistencies of these pictures a n d w ere per . S t M a rk S t G eorg e a n d S t C a th e rin e . . n e c t e d by the s a m e a t t ributes or si mil a r ev e nts i n their li v e s a s is . a n d M a ry M a gd a l e n e k iss e s t h e fe e t of Jesus N either is the group . wa s not though t of in their a rr a ngem e nt a n d m a ny other c o n s i d . “ . i n but a singl e a spect — th a t is in its rel a tion to Chri st a n d h is . sied of hi s com ing T herefore these G reeks som etim e s be a r scrolls . . . . inscribed w ith senten ces from t h e ir writings w h ich a r e interpreted a s rel a ting to th e S a vio ur I n th e ex a min a tion of l a rge n umbers of . . . th e first h a ving tended .

. th e re is some r e a son for its a rra nge men t w h ich if understood a n d . B a d ge of th e Od r e r of Me rc y . . . . . . . a lofty d esire to t e a ch gr a nd a n d ho l y truth s a s we ll a s to gi v e ple a sure a n d d e light the e ye . . . sentiment a n d show s that w h a t seem s a t fi rst to b e t h e result of . helps to d iscern its int e n tion a n d . . . . . i nd ic a te that the soci e ty for w h i ch i t was p a in ted red e e m e d prison ers . . . . . . . a F renchm a n S t D e n is etc 3 or a s in a n ex isting p icture S t Peter . . Christoph e r S t Cosmo S t D a m i a n S t R och S t N ichol a s . . . . . . . . a N e a pol it a n S t J a n u a r i u s 3 . introduc e S t D on a to a n d S t R o m ulo . I n p a rti cul a r schools of art th is frequ e n t re pre s e nt a t ion of c e r t a in person a ges is gov e rned by th e loc a l ity i n wh i ch th ey w e re p a inted . . . . . . T h u s it is a p p a r e nt th at it i s for t h e a dv a n t a g e of t h e c a reful observer to consid e r th a t how e v e r biz a rre a picture m a y a ppe a r . . deep a n d e a rn e st thought o f del ic a t e a n d poetic conc e ptions a n d . S t C a therine S t Cecili a S t B a rb a r a S t M a rga r e t a n d S t U rs u l a . ch a nc e or a n ignora nc e of th e fitn e ss of th ings is i n truth th a t of . St . .36 S Y M B OL I S M I N AR T . the fa ct th a t som e sa ints w ere un i v e rs a l p a trons h onore d t h ro ugh out Chri stendom w h ile t h e venera tion for others w a s confin ed to S peci a l . . S inful. a ppreci a ted a dds me a n ing to it . . . l oc a lities or to cert a in orders S t Joseph S t G eorge S t S eb a s ti a n . ra nsomed sl a ves l a bor e d for t h e p oor a n d convert e d t h e fa llen a n d . S t L e on a rd S t M a rth a a n d S t M a ry M a gd a l e n e a r e un ited t o . or that for wh ic h they w er e intended A F lore nt ine a rt ist w ould . . a r e of the former cl a ss . . .

to go to E dess a to cur e th e k ing of a s e rious dis e a s e . T hi s . m ission at J e rus a l e m b ut p ro m i s e d th at a ft e r h is a sc e nsion he w ou l d . A h ga r u s w rit e s to C hrist a n d ch a rges A n a n i a s wh o wa s not on l y a . w h ic h h e h a s h e a rd i n P a l estin e I n t h e h op e of obt a in ing r e l i e f . . good tra ve l l e r b ut a s k ilfu l p a int e r t h a t i f Christ shou l d not b e a b l e . to a l l wh o were w ith h i m T his a cco u n t end s h e r e 3 b u t u p to th e . tent h c e ntury ther e w e r e a v a ri e ty of a dd itions m a de to it u nt i l . ” A n a n i a s h is F ootm a n to J e rus a lem inv iting H i m to E d e ss a . sen d a d iscipl e wh o would cur e t h e king a n d gi ve life to h i m a n d . . a L e tter written by K ing A h g a r u s to J e s us a n d s e nt to H i m by. A h ga r u s K i n g. . . A na n ia s . I t a dds : . Christ a n d A h ga r us b e gins w ith A Copy of . c a th e dr a l of Como a n d . is th e a postl e a n d p a tron s a int of th a t p or t ion of It a ly . Bish op of Como in t h e . . su ffe ring from t h e t wofol d infliction of gout a n d le p rosy w i thdre w . . . lett e r op e n s w ith gr e etings to the S a v io ur a n d goes on to urge h i m . a j ourn e y to E gypt t e ll s h i m o f t h e wonderful cur e s by Christ o f . St . . “ “ ” b i u s a n d c a lled . t o co m e h e shou l d at a l l e v e nts s e nd h i m hi s p ortr a it . L E GE N D S AND S T OR I E S W H I C H H A V E B E E N I LL U S T R ATED I N AR T . tim e of L e e I H e is r e pre s e nted in th e . . J e sus returned a n a n s we r th a t h e could not go a s h e m ust ful fil h i s . “ t hen i t h a d a ssum ed the follo w ing form A h ga r u s K ing of E dess a . A bb o n d i o wa s born a t T h e ss a l on i c a H e wa s t h e fourt h . from the sight of m en A n a n i a s on e of his serv a nts r e turn ing fro m . “ ” M y city i s inde e d sm a ll b ut n e a t a n d l a rg e e nough for u s both . . . The a pocryph a l gosp e l s p o k e n of by E n s e .

g a tes a n d h ides th e h oly cloth i n a h e a p of fre shly m a de bri cks . . . . for the crowd he m oun ts a roc k n e t fa r o ff T h e nc e h e fi x e s h is . h im a n d a lso kno ws i n spirit t h e cont e nts of t h e l e tt e r sends . . recei ved a secon d i m p re ss of the di vine i m a ge A n d a s no fire i s . fa ct t h e R om a n o n e sti ll exists in th e ch u rch of S a n S ilvestro B ut . . ” i s i m med i a t e ly h e a led T h is l a st l e g e nd w a s e dit e d by t h e E m . fi rst goes to t h e hous e of a J e w i n E dess a d e term ined to d o som e . h is longing m a y be s a ti sfi ed a n d h is d ise a s e c ured On the w a y . a ft e r h is a scen sion T h a dd e us should t a k e i t to A h ga r u s in order to fu l fil t h e prom is e wh ich J e sus h a d m a d e T h is wa s done . T h a dd e us e nt e rs t h e room h e l i fts u p t h e p icture . . b ut T h a dd e us . . A n a n i a s p a sses by t he city o f H iera pol is b ut re m a ins outside t h e . . . . a n d so gre a t a . w a ter a n d h a ving w a sh e d h is fa ce h e w ip e s i t on a cloth on w h ich . p k in w a s a t C onst a ntinople 3 two oth e rs a t R om e a n d G e no a w h ile a . t h e sick un til A h ga r u s h e a r s o f h im a n d s e nds for h im h o p ing th a t . . . t h e m ulti tude in t h e o pe n a i r A s h e i s not a ble t o a ppro a ch h i m . . by h is d i vin e power th e re re m a in s a perf ect portra i t of h i s fe a t ures . d iscovera ble ex cept th e light that proceeds from th e p icture t h e . h e i s th e d isciple wh om C hrist h a d p romis e d h i m sho ul d com e A s . .38 L E GE N DS AND S T OR I E S fi nds Christ a s h e i s i n t h e a c t of p e rform ing m ira c l e s a n d t e a ch ing . . . . T hom a s to bring h im to h im writ e s h is a nsw e r to A h ga r u s a n d gi ves . inh a bit a nts ke e p t h e bri ck a s a s a cr e d tre a s ure a n d l et A n a n i a s go . rem a in e d in its first city but h a d furn ish e d i m a ges to other c it ies In . e y e s u pon C hrist a n d b e gins to t a k e h i s l ikeness . w a y to C a l v a ry w i ped h is fa ce o n a p iec e of l in e n on wh ich t h e i mpre ss . . i t to h im B ut seeing th at A n a ni a s still l inge rs J e sus c a lls for . . o n h is w a y He gi v . m ira cles w h ich sh a ll a ttr a ct t h e a ttention of t h e k ing A n d h e h e a l s . for by a m y sterio us v irtu e a bric k th a t l a y n e a r th e cloth h a s . o wns t h e supern a tura l ch a r a ct e r of th e obj ect h idden a mo n g t h e bri cks T hey find n ot only t h e m ira culou s cloth but more still . . A t m idnight t h e inh a bit a nts of H i e ra polis percei v e that th is he a p o f bricks is surrounded w ith fire T hey d iscover A n a ni a s a n d h e . e s K ing A h g a r u s t h e l e tt e r a n d th e cloth w ho . fa ls e copy h a d b e en sent to t h e K ing of Persi a T h e bri ck too h a d . e r o r Const a nti n e Porph rog e n i tu s a n d in h is time th e origin a l n a p y . Jesus wh o s e es . Const a ntine h a s gi v e n a th ird versi on w h i ch i s th a t Christ on t h e . o f h is co unten a n ce w a s l e ft a n d g a v e it to T hom a s comm a ndi ng th a t . . . . . th is h e gi ves to A n a n i a s ch a rging h i m to tak e it to A h ga r u s so th a t . .

.

. . . . . A dri a n to sup e ri ntend t h e e x e cu tion of t h e s e nt e nc e W h e n h e sa w . honora bl e b uri a l to t h e r e m a ins S t A del a id e is repres e nt e d w ith a . . . 9 99 . . . . i n gly v irt uous a n d b e a utiful T h e i mp e ri a l ed ict wa s torn down by . suddenly converte d a n d s e a ting h i msel f i n th e ir m idst e xcl a im e d . . C hristi a n a n d convert e d h e r fa th e r wh o w a s D u k e of B e rga mo a n d . . F r St ’ . G r a t a w ho together w ith S t A l e x a nder the m a rtyr a r e s a ints b e . G a l e r i u s M a xi m i a n H e wa s l e ss th a n th i rty y e a rs old a n d w a s . . D . . . D e ce m b e r 1 6. d e a th of h er p a r e nts G ra t a govern e d Berg a mo a n d found e d t hre e . . o f F r a nc e F l a nd e rs a n d Ge rm a ny h e wa s the p a tron s a int of sol . ch urch e s a n d a hospit a l w h e re s h e h e rself m in istered to the si ck . o f A l e x a nd e r . . L u p o fo und e d th e c a th edra l at B e rg a mo A f ter t h e . . . o f S t Gra t a S t . . F l e mish br e we rs H e w a s a nobl e R om a n son o f P rob us A t t h e . . . m a rri e d to N a t a li a wh o w a s a C hristi a n s e cre tly S h e w as e xce e d .40 L E GE N DS A ND S T OR I E S A p a rt of he r re l ics a re p re s e rv e d in a shrin e i n H a nov e r . t h e m a nn e r in w h ich t h e C hristi a ns su ff er e d for th e ir fa ith h e wa s . - ti a ns w e re s e ntenc e d to t h e torture at o n e time I t fel l by lot to . St A d e l a i d e w a s t h e w ife of S t L u po a n d t h e m oth e r of S t . a n d going to h i m encou ra ged h i m to su ff er for C hrist A dri an wa s . . of t h a t city S t G ra t a a ft e r t h e d e a th of h e r h u sb a n d beca m e a . . consid e r e d n e xt to S t G eorg e in N orthern E urop e I n the N orth . A dri e n 3 I t a l S a nt A dri a no) w a s a m il it a ry s a int a n d for a g e s wa s ’ . . . . . l onging e s p e ci a lly to Berg a mo t h e l a st two b e ing the p a tron sa ints . . Ay . soon condemned to d ie . . . . . . . “ ” Consid e r m e a lso a s o n e of ye 3 for I too w il l b e a C hristi a n He . a n d t h e n igh t before h is execu tion b e bri be d . h is j a i l e r to pe rm it h i m t o visit N a t a l i a S h e h e a ring th a t h e r . S t G e orge w h ich so infu ri a ted t h e e m p eror th a t th irt y four C hri s . cro wn a n d a long v e il S t L upo w ith a roy a l crown S t A l e x a nd e r . . of B ithyni a (A D h e s e rv e d i n t h e gu a rd s of th e E m peror . ” ' S t A d r i a n ( Gr A Sp t a vo s 3 L a t S A dri a nn e . . T hrough th e infl u e n ce . S t A l e x a nd e r wa s a so l di e r of t h e T heb a n L e gion a n d wa s beh e a d ed . g . d i e rs a n d p r o t e ctor a g a in st the pl a u e H e is a l so th e p a tron o f . . ti m e of th e tent h p e rs e cution of t h e C hri sti a ns a t N i c o m e d i a a city . . outsid e B e rga mo Gra t a wra pp e d th e h e a d i n a n a pk in a n d g a v e . a s a R oman wa rrior w ith a p a l m a n d S t G ra t a a s c a rrying t h e h e a d . h e r moth e r S t A del a id e to t h e s a m e fa ith . A . wa s i mm e di a t e ly im prison e d N a t a l i a h e a ring th is wa s fu l l of j oy . . . . . .

. they e nt e r e d t h e pre s e nc e of Go d A n a nvil is t h e a ttribute of . should b e adm itted to t h e prison S h e th en cut o ff h e r b e a u t ifu l . . . . A dri a n wa s sco u rg e d a n d tortur e d a n d sent b a ck to prison Th e . . i n F l a nders A fter this t h e e mperor thre a t e n e d to m a rry N a t a l i a to . . E n trop i a A t l ength N a rcissus a holy m a n fl e e ing from p e rs e cution . A dri a n a n d i s re p r e s e nt e d at h is fe e t or in hi s h a nd . n e xt da y h is l i mbs wer e stru ck o ff on an a nvil a n d h e wa s b e h e a ded . . . S t A f r a wa s t h e d a ught e r of S t H il a ri a a n d i s t h e p a tro n e ss . since Const a ntinople There is a tra dition th a t in the n inth c e ntu ry . . . . I L L US T R A T E D I N AR T . . h a d thr e e m a id e n s a s d issol ut e a s h e r se l fi— Dign a E unom i a a n d . . b e for e the l a st blo w K issing h i m sh e took on e of h is b a n ds w h ich . . a tribune of t h e a rmy S h e fl e d to A r ge p oli s ne a r Byz a nti u m a n d . . 41 h usb a nd h a d l e ft h is p rison wa s i n gre a t sorrow a n d t e a ring h e r g a r . i n visions a n d a sk e d h e r to f ollo w h im w h ich s h e soon d id 3 a n d . a n d e mbr a c e d h im a n d r e turn e d to p rison w ith h i m . t yr a nts h e a ring o f t h e devotion of N a t a l i a ordered tha t n o wom a n . s h e wr a pp e d i n l in e n w ith spic e s a n d p e rfum e s a n d pl a c e d it at th e . ” I m a y bid thee fa r e w e l l b e fo re I d i e J oyf u l l y sh e opened t h e door . Henry I I (S t H e nry ) girded i t on h ims e lf w h e n p re p a ring to go . . . . found h i m torn a n d b l e e ding S h e too k h i m in her a rm s a n d s a i d . . ” fe a r of de a th hath den ied h is G o d B ut A dri a n w ho h a d now come . was l ong kept a s a rel i c a t Wa lb e ck i n S a xony 3 but t h e E mp e ror . . . . . of A ugsburg S h e wa s for a long ti m e a co urt e s a n i n th a t city a n d . a g a inst t h e T urks a n d Hung a ri a ns A D 29 0 . N a t a li a s u p p ort e d h i m i n h is su ff e rings a n d he e xpi re d in h e r a rms . - Oh bless Go d that I a m not un wort hy of th e e ! Op e n th e door that . . T h e n e xt d a y . p a ss e d h e r l ife n e a r t h e tomb of A dr i a n H e often a pp e a re d to h e r . h ead of h e r b e d Hi s body wa s t a k e n by Christi a ns to Byz a nti um . wh en she di e d A drian w ith rej oicing a ng e ls m et h e r a n d t og e th e r . . he a ring these words s a id O tho u nobl e a n d strong hearted wom a n . . “ 0 light of m ine e y e s and h usb a nd o f m in e h e a rt ! Bl e ssed a rt ” thou w ho a r t c a l l ed t o su ff e r for Christ s s a k e ! . . . i t wa s removed t o t h e conv e nt w h ich b e a rs h is n a m e a t Gra mmont . . . T h us she s o ’ strength e n e d h is h e a rt that h e wa s a b l e to e nd ur e to t h e e n d Th e . h a ir and dress e d a s a m a n a n d so g a in e d a dmission to A dri a n S h e . “ ments thr e w h e rs e lf down s a y ing A l a s ! m isera b l e th a t I a m ! I . . . H i s sword . . h a v e not d e s e rv e d to be t h e w ife of a m a rtyr N ow w il l m e n point at m e a n d sa y B e h old t h e w ife of t h e cow a rd a n d a p ost a t e w ho for .

. n oble fa mily S h e w a s con verte d by th e work s of S a n F a usti no . . a sh a med of her li fe of sin He told h e r of C hrist a n d a t len gth sh e. to esc a pe a n d o f b e ing h e rself a C hristi a n T h e j udge G a i n s wh o . b ut s h e r e m a ined fi xed - . . w e r e e x e cuted for th e ir fa ith a n d s u ffe red w it h const a ncy A ugust 5 . h o w o n e so v i l e co ul d ex pect t o b e r e c e i ved by J e sus T o w h ich she . a n d desiri n g to m a k e i t a ppe a r th a t h e d id th is b e c a u se Ph il ip w a s a Christi a n a n d n o t for h is own a d v a ncement b e instituted . . to h i s w ishes F r o n d is i a a ttempted t o influ e nc e A ga th a by e very . . h a d known o f h er former l ife w a s a m a zed a t h er m odesty a n d t h e . . . d i s i a w ho w a s a cou rtes a n w i th n ine d a ught e r s a l l a s w icked a s . S t A ga th a . . a n d S a n G iov it a ( F a ustin us a n d Jo vit a ) a n d su ff ered m a r t yrdom . . . spirit to h e a v e n S hortly a ft e r h e r moth e r a n d the thre e m a idens . ” w a sh ed h is feet w ith h e r t e a rs w ill not rej ect me S h e wa s b urn ed . gre a t pers e cutions of th e C hristi a ns through out h i s em pire He . beso ught h i m to a llow her to be b a ptized He kno w ing th a t Christ . M a lt a a n d C a t a ni a a lso protectress a ga i n st fire a n d a l l d ise a ses of . n e verth e l e ss H e w ho di d not rej ect M a ry M a gd a l ene w hen sh e . . . T hrough h er influence her moth e r a n d the th re e m a id e ns w e re a lso conv e r ted A fra w a s s e ized a n d a ccu sed of h a ving a ssisted N a rcissu s . . “ r e pl i e d It i s tru e I a m u n worth y to be a r th e n a m e of Christi a n . . fl a ttery a n d prom is e s w ith out success H e th en g a ve h er to F ron . of forgiveness By h e r a i d N a rcissu s esc a ped to h is n a ti v e S p a in . . . A g a t a 3 Ge r D i e Heilige A ga th a ) v i rgin a n d m a rtyr 3 p a tron ess of . . ( L a t S a nct a A ga th a 3 F r S t e A g a th e 3 I t a l S a nt a . . m e a ns i n h e r p o we r fo r th irty thre e d a ys . . fi rmn e ss w ith w h ich s h e a cknowl e dg e d h er n e w fa ith a n d a sk e d h er . . . w a s a priest sh e w a s ov e rcome w ith fe a r a n d for th e fi rst t i me w a s . . a n d a s sh e pr a y e d i n th e m idst of t h e fire a ngel s bore h er . . orn a ments of Bre sci a . m a d e Qu i n t ia n u s k ing of S icily H ere a t C a t a n i a d wel t A ga th a . po ssibl e a n d promised h er gre a t rich es i f s h e wo uld s ubd u e A ga th a . . S t A f r a p a tron e ss o f Br e sci a is su p po sed to h a v e be e n o f . t h e br e a st Th e E mperor Deci us stra ngled h is predecessor Ph ili p 3 . . . . . a li ve . a m a id e n of gre a t be a uty w h o m Qu i n t i a n u s tem pted w ith p resents . . w ith Ca l o c e r u s T h e ch urch ded ic a t e d to h e r is o n e of t h e fi n e st . A D 3 04 .42 L E GE N DS AN D S T OR I E S ca me h ou s e not know ing h e r ch a ra cter When sh e found h e to he r . d id not rej e ct e ven th e gre a test sinners b a p tized h er a n d a ss ured her . . .

sh e r epl ied He ” “ . i f t ho u shou ldst te a r me w ith scourges th e Holy S pirit w ith in m e w ould render . a s l a mbs . w hom I confess a n d adore w ith m y h eart a n d w ith m y lips h a t h . “ ” th e door op e n T h e n o n e said to t h e m a iden . . “ p a l a ce crying . w h ich pr a yer w a s he a rd for i mmedi a tely s h e di ed T h e Christi a ns . “ Wh o h a t h h e a l ed th e e ? a sked h e . A ris e a n d fl y . N ea r . I L L US T R A T E D I N AR T . and a n a nge l b ut A gath a d id not k no w th e m 3 a n d t h e l ight w hic h . for her a ga in a n d w a s a ston ished a t t h e wonderfu l cure of her . ” of thi s C hristi a n d a ms e l 3 a n d they threatened to b urn Qu i n t i a n u s i f h e d id not desist S o h e ordered her to be t a ken fro m t h e fl a mes . t i a n u s ordered h er to be b urned . fa ith i n J e sus A t t h e e n d o f th a t tim e an d he r . emb a l med h e r body a n d pl a ced i t i n a tomb of p orphyry . to C a t a ni a is a volc a no w hich the peopl e c a ll M ongibello ( M t E tn a ) . . would qu e nch i t w ith th eir d e ws from h e a ven . . “ m ove h e r by thre a ts . a v a s e of ointment a n d a yo uth w it h a torch . . . t i a n u s i n fury com m a nd e d h er to b e brought a n d a tt e mpt e d t o . wound s . but she s a id I f tho u shouldst thro w me. a n d h e r bosom to b e torn w i th she a rs A fter th a t sh e w a s thrown . . I w il l not fly . ” th a n the h e a rt of th is d a msel be subdued to thy w ill T he n Q uin . a n d sh e wa s born e a g a i n to prison scorched a n d in gre a t a gony . a n d a bout a ye a r a fter the de a th of A g a th a thi s m o unt a in O pe n ed a n d s e nt forth str e a ms of fir e W h e n t h e fir e h a d a lmost r e a ch e d . i f tho u sho uldst k in dl e a fir e to consu me m e the a n gels . ” for my flight tortur e s and de a th . into a d a rk dungeon A t m idnight there c a m e a n aged m a n be a ring . and a s sh e w a s thrown i n t h e fire a gre a t e a rt hqu a k e shook t h e city a n d th e people r a n to t h e . . . 43 in her p urity .T hen Q ui n . ” sent hi s a postle a n d he a led m e a n d deli vere d m e . . . Pe t er h e a l e d a l l h e r w o u nds w ith celesti a l oi nt m e nt a n d v a n ish e d . to th e w ild be a sts th e po wer of Christ would r e nder th em we a k . “ B ut s h e replied G o d forbid th a t I sh ould fly from my crown o f . filled t h e d unge on so frightened th e gu a rds tha t they fl e d l e a v ing . T hi s has f a ll e n u pon us b e c a use of t h e su ff erings . from h er sight T h e r a ge of Qu i n t i a n u s not being s a t isfied h e sent . b e com e l ike liqu i d le a d a n d th e rocks d issol ve a n d fl o w l ik e w a ter . . . . T he n S t . F r on d i s i a s a id to Qu i n t i a n u s “ S o on e r sh a ll that sword a t thy side . . H ere she entre a ted G o d to rele a se h er a n d t a k e h er to h e a ven . I t wa s S t Pet e r . . ” t h y t ortures h a rmless Th en t h e tyra nt ord e red her to be b e a ten . . m a rtyrdom a n d b e th e occ a s ion that my k e e p e rs sho uld su ff er . .

. . . F r S t e A gn é s) S t A gnes wa s a R om a n m a id e n o f gre a t . . tin e a n ora tory w h e re in s h e pl a ced t h e rem a ins of Bon ifa c e a n d s h e . w a s a Christi a n h e w a s gl a d 3 for there wa s a n ed ict a g a inst the Chris . W hen th e pre . . . b ut sh e replied a s before th a t s h e p referr e d h e r b e troth e d to th e son of . fe e t qu estioned h i s son h e told h is fa th e r of h is l ov e for A gn e s a n d . th e h e a then sa w th is m ira cle th e y w er e a l l converted a n d b a ptiz e d . . . ' ” S t A gl e e . ” of unre qu ited love a n d ou r a r t c a n a v a il noth ing . sh e loved m e a n ing J esus T h e young m a n kn e w not to w hom s h e . A y A o us ) wa s a G r e ek by b irth a n d l i ved w ith . h is request s a ying th a t s h e wa s a lre a dy a ffi a nced to a h usb a nd w ho m . a n d h is j e a lousy a n d d is a ppo int e d lov e m a de h i m sick . referred . . the pre fect W hen h e h a d i nq uired h e r me a n ing a n d found th a t s h e . I t i s cu t o u t o f t h e rock a n d t h e w a lls a r e fr e sco e d T ra dition . pl a cing it on a l a nce bore i t in p rocession tow a r ds the fir e a n d . b e a uty a n d a C hristi a n fro m h er i nfa ncy S h e w a s not mor e th a n . I t a l S a n t A gn e s e . . . . . a ss e rts th a t t h e ground onc e be l o n ged to t h e fa m ily of t h e s a int . . . ti a ns a n d he fel t she wa s i n his power H e th e n told her th a t s i n c e . . T h e re i s i n M a lt a a s ubt e rr a n e a n ch a pe l d e dic a ted to S t A g a th a . . a n d so l oved h e r th a t h e sought h er for h is w ife B ut s h e refused . . S t A g n e s (L a t S a n ct a A gn us . from their sins a n d b e c a m e fo ll o we rs o f C h rist A gl a e s e nt Bon i fa c e . o f t h e l a st p e rsec ution of th e C hristi a n s th e y w e re both con v e rt e d . S t A g a th a is u su a lly repr e s e nt e d w ith a p a l m i n o n e h an d a n d a . . that u nl e ss sh e would b e h is w i fe h e m u st d ie T h e n S e m proni u s . Sp S a nt a ’ . . . . S pent th e rem a inder o f h e r l i fe i n pr a yers a n d p e n iten ce M a y 1 4 . . . . . . s h e wo uld h a v e no e a rt hly h u sb a nd s h e m ust becom e a V e sta l V i r gi n . I n th e tim e . . w ith gre a t t re a sure s to a ssist t h e m a rtyrs a n d to b ury th e ir r e m a ins . . th irteen ye a rs old wh e n the son of the pre fect S e mpron i us s a w h e r . h e r lover Bon ifa ce i n sin a n d l u x ury for m a ny y e a rs . In ez . . . I n h is ze a l b e expos e d h i ms e lf a n d s u ff e r e d m a rtyrdom H is body . w hen they came to i t th e fir e wa s st a y e d a n d t h e ci ty s a ved Wh e n . “ a l most u nto d e a th T h e n t h e physic i a ns s a id . w a s brough t to A gl a e S h e bu ilt o n t h e we st e rn side of t h e A ven . T h is youth i s sic k . s a l ver i n the other o n wh ich i s t h e fe m a l e br e a st S ometimes t h e . she a rs a r e b e side h e r S h e we a rs a long v e il F ebru a ry 5 A D 25 1 . . Bon i fa ce died a bo ut 3 07 3 A gl a e fi fte e n ye a rs l a t e r . b egged o f A gnes a n d h er p a re nts th a t s h e should m a rry h is son . . .44 L E GE N DS AN D S T OR I E S the city t h e p e opl e to o k t h e ve il o f A ga th a fro m h e r tomb a n d .

. S o sh e was condem ned to be burned 3 b u t th e flames harmed h er not wh ile her executi oners were cons umed by them T hen they . that she m igh t not be dish onored she saw before her a sh ining white . . infamy to wh ich sh e was carried 3 and another of great i nterest b e yond the Porta Pia said to have been b uilt by Constantin e a t th e . n o saint w hose i m ages are older than t h ose of S t Agnes She is . Th en a n . . i n gener a l of young Ca t hol i c wom en There is one ch urch dedi ca t ed . . . . t o h er o n the Piazz a N avona o n th e spot where stood th e house of . . . ful o utrages The soldiers stripped o ff her garmen t s 3 b ut when sh e . . w ished to sa v e her 3 b u t the peopl e said S h e is a sorceress 3 let her . . . . . 45 B ut sh e re fused w ith scorn the worsh ip o f v ai n imag es a n d declared . sword Th i s h e d id 3 and gazing steadfastly towards hea v en sh e fell . . . for her pie t y from h er very infancy At n ine years of age sh e was . happy i n heaven S t Agnes is a fa v orite saint of th e R oman and . place of S t Agn es N ext to the E vangel ists and A p os t les th ere is . that sh e would serve n one b ut Jesus S emproni us then threatened [ . . . v ent at P r o c i n o of t h e D om in ican O rder S h e slept on th e gro und . m ost freq uently represen ted with a lamb January 21 A D 3 04 . great light The son of th e prefect thinking she m ust be subdued . garment w h ich she p u t on w ith j oy an d the room was fi lled w i th . “ ” cried out the m ore S h e i s a sorceress : she m ust die . ordered her to be taken to a house of infamy to s u ff er th e m ost fear . . Agnes m o v ed by h is su ff erings and the tears of h is friends praye d . . . ” d ie . executioner was com manded to ascend the pile a n d kill h er w ith th e . . . co v ering her whole person and those wh o s a w her were seized w ith . . . h er with th e m ost horri d death and p ut h er in chains and dragged . . . request of hi s daughter C onstan t ina to comm emora t e th e b urial . . prayed her h air was length en ed till it was as a cloak abou t h er . T h i s saint was remarkable . IL L US T R A T ED I N AR T . e a r e d to th em and forbade that th ey sho uld sorro w for one wh o was p . . placed i n a n unnery and at fi ft een was m ade pri oress of a new con . h er to th e al t ars of the gods B ut she remained firm T hen h e . . n o w came to h er B u t h e was struck blind an d fell i n convulsions . dead u p on th e pile S h e was b uried on the V ia N o m e n t a n a an d t he . for h is reco v ery a n d h e w as h ealed When S empron i us saw this h e . S t A gn e s o f M o n t e P u l c i a n o . Christians were accustomed to v isit her tomb to weep B u t sh e a p . fear S o they sh u t her i n a room 3 and when sh e prayed to C hrist . . S h e is one of the fou r grea t v irgin martyrs of th e L a t in C hurch .

a spring gush ed out a t h is fee t H e was beheaded H is burial place . . . . . . . p ut on h is long robe an d ga v e h imse l f to th e sold iers to save h is guest H e was condemned to death as h e wo u l d n either worshi p idols . e mbark ing to at t end a council at R om e A t t h e cath ed ral at Cr e . . on t h e h ill of execution h e prayed for water to q uench h is t h irst an d . of t he O rder of t he C armel ites He was m urdered at Ac re wh e n . . . . . h ospitali ty charity an d m a n y v i rtu es as well as for h i s great learn . . . so n arrow that th ey coul d n ot pass 3 b ut w hen the saint said a short prayer th e waters were d i vided and a l l went over dry sh od W he n . t omb of S t Agn es w ith t wo o f h e r n ieces wh o took th e veil on t h at . . - was forgo tt en b ut d iscl osed i n 7 9 3 by a m i racle A n angel com . l ia n and wen t to Ro m e Wh i l e s t ill a n idolater h e was n oted for h is . grea t ly belo v ed S t Cath erine of S i ena m ade a pilgri mage to the . ’ . . . baptized h im Whe n th e priest was pu rs ued to h i s ho use S t A lba n . . ’ sh ire H i s at t ributes are the sword and a fountai n springing at h is . . V ercell i and Patriarch o f Jerusal em He i s reverenced as th e found er . . . . the m at V erulam and b uilt a ch urch for t h em near wh ich a rose a . . u n t il sh e was obliged t o d im inish her au s t eri t ies on accoun t of h er h eal t h A t lengt h t h e people of M onte P ulcian o being desirous t hat . t hey had destroyed a lewd h ou se 3 of whi ch con v ent S t Agnes becam e . . . . .46 L EGEND S AN D S TOR IE S w i t h a ston e pillo w and l i ved o n bread a n d wate r for fi ft een years . for execu tio n I t was n ecessary to cross th e river Col n to reach t h e . . gave sh elter to a priest w h o was th e m eans of h i s con version an d . the superior S h e ha d the gifts o f m iracles and prophecy an d was . . . occasio n S h e i s grea t ly v e n erated i n T uscany April 20 A D 1 3 1 7 . . S t A l b a n wa s th e fi rst saint and martyr i n E ngland on wh ich . place wh ere h e was to s u ff er Th e crowd was great and the bridge . S t A l b e rt ( L a t S Al bertus 3 I t a l S an t Alberto ) was Bish op o f ’ . . . n or surrender t he priest He w as fi rst tort ured and t hen led out . - . ~ m a n d e d K ing O ffa i n a v ision that he sh ould fi nd t h e rem ains o f t h is saint an d secure to them th e v enerat ion of t h e people H e foun d . . Th is saint was a n ati v e of V erulam H e li ved i n t h e ti me o f Aure . sh e should re t urn to her na t i ve town bu ilt a con vent on a spot w here . . . great Ben edi ctine monastery and th e town of S t Al ban s in Her t ford . m ona is a v esse l i n w h ich tradition says S t Albert kneaded bre a d . . . . feet J une 2 2 A D 3 05 . . account th e Abbot of S t Alban s had precedence over all others . . . ing Wh e n the persec u tion o f D iocletia n in v aded Britain S t Alban .

.

. ” pray for R ome And th e people fell on the ir faces and another v oice . F r ’ . E uphem ian led t h e wa y . is ex t ended beneat h t hem C ard inal Wiseman wrote a charm ing . and as h e cam e n ear h om e t h ey told h i m . . . man and was made Archbish op of Can terb u ry in 1 006 S ix years . to pay a large ransom for h is l ife T h e place w here h e m e t h is dea t h . . . all h is li fe and pu t i t i n h is bosom N o w on a feas t day a s Pope . An d the pope took th e letter fro m t h e d ea d han d of Alex is an d read i t alo ud . . . . . . later th e D anes took th e c ity an d cathedral of Canterbury T h ey . t hat the beggar h ad d ied an d th ey ha d laid h i m on th e s t eps before . dress of a pilgri m w i t h a staff beside h im an d a letter i n h is hand . rushed o u t and thre w themsel v es on the dead body S even d ays th ey . . . . The father was o v erwhel med w ith grief T h e w ife and th e m oth er . and a great glory o f l igh t sh o n e from i t Then h e said Th is i s t h e . . S t A m b r o s e ( L a t S Am brosi us . ” said . . . . . . . . . n ow stan d s I t is said th at ten years aft er death h i s body was fo und . . w as at G reenwich and th e sam e as t hat on w h i ch th e parish ch urch . ch urch of S t Alexis Th e marble steps beneath wh ich h e l ived and . put the p eople to death and burn ed th e city S t A l p h e g e was ke p t . and a statue of t h e saint i n th e . I nnocen t was singing h igh mass t he E mperor Honori us presen t an d . Wh ere shall we seek hi m ? A nd the an swer was “ I n th e . I l a l S ant A m brogio . “ ” drama on th e story of S t Alex is en ti t led Th e H idden G em . Ge r D er Heilige Ambrosi us) . . J uly 2 4 A D 4 00 . . S t Am brose is one . w i t h h is c h a s u b l o full o f stones April 1 9 A D 1 01 2 . . watched beside i t and many sick and i nfirm were h ealed b y to uch ing . ’ b ury C a t hedral and enshrined near t h e h i g h al t ar H e i s represented . . . the h oly remains of Alex is He is th e patron of p ilgri m s and beg .48 L EGEND S A N D S T OR IES m ust die The n h e aske d for pe n and ink a n d wrote a n acco u nt o f . . . He was a m ost h oly . the door Wh en he un co v ered the face it was as the face of an angel . ” . seven months i n prison an d th en stoned to death because h e refused . S t Am b rose . . . . servan t of Go d w ho i s abou t to depart from th is l ife an d wh o shall . ’ gars an d on th e spot where stood h is fa t her s h o use is n o w th e . ser v a n t o f Go d of w h om th e v o ice spok e j ust . of th e F athers of t h e Ch u rch H e was bor n at Tre v es A D 3 4 0 . . . . h ouse of E uph em ian the patrician S o th ey all went instan t l y an d . entire and incorrupt I t was re moved fro m S t Paul s to t he C anter . . d ied are preserved i n th e ch urch . . S t A l p h e ge was an E ngl ish n obleman . E uphemian was stand ing by t he la tt er a v oice cried out S eek t he “ .

at R ome and being at length appoi nted prefect of [E m il ia and L igu . c i a l l y as h e was only a catech u me n B ut th e people wo uld no t lis t e n . u n der the Palatin e H ill i s th e ch urch dedi cated to th is saint who . ' . a n d dedicated it to all the saints H e i s the patro n sai n t of M ilan . S h e was condemned to th e flames i n the persecution of D iocletian . . to th is refu sal 3 an d being bap t ized i n d ue ti me h e was consecrated . . a m itred bishop w ith th e cros ier . ch i efly celebrated for h is influence over Anas t asi a and for th e courage w i t h w hi ch he inspire d her H e was slai n by t he s word and t h row n . IL L US T R A T E D IN AR T . He founded th e Basil ica of S ant Ambrogio M a ggiore at M ilan i n 3 8 7 ’ . w h ile she has great fam e among G reek Christians was a R oma n lady . . . To th is h e greatly obj ected es p e . ers He h ad n o fear of man forbidding eve n t h e E mperor T heodosi u s . bees alighted on h is m o n t h w itho ut inj uring h i m T h is was th ought . someti m es w ith a beeh ive a t h is feet 3 b ut h is usual a t trib u te is a k n ot t ed scou rge w i th three thongs . 49 and was a s on o f a prefect of Gaul of th e sam e n am e H e st udie d . to enter th e Chu rch u ntil h e had atoned for h is sin i n perm i t ting the m assacre of se v en thousan d m e n at Thessalonica by p u bli c penance . S h e s u ffered greatly at the hands of h er h usband and family because sh e o p enly professed C hristian ity S t Ch r ys o go n u s (Gr i sogo n o ) i s . to ind icate h is futu re eloq uen ce S h ortly aft er h is going to M ilan . . . T here are m any wonderful and m irac u lous circu msta n ces rel a t ed i n h is l ife 3 and at h is death it was sai d that Chri st v i site d h im and that . h e ascended to h eaven i n th e arms of angels H e is represen t ed as . . April 4 A D 3 9 7 . i nto th e sea They are said to have su ffered at I llyria . . . w as b u ried by A p ol l i n a i n her garden near th e C ircus M axim us wh ere . J ust " . devoted h i mself to such stud ies as wo uld fi t h i m for h i s o ffice S t . . . . th e bishop d ied 3 and a great d is p ute arose b etween th e C athol ics and Arians concern ing th e s uccession wh en A mbrose by h i s eloquence . but Anastasia . ria (Piedmont an d G enoa) h e resided at M ilan H e was very elo . Ambrose was an eloquent ad vocate of t he ad v antages of cel ibacy for bo t h sexes a n d of th e supre m acy of the Ch u rch abo v e all other po w . quent 3 and the sam e story that is tol d of Plato an d Archiloch us i s told of h im namely that w hen an infant i n h is cradle a swar m of . . S t A n a s t a s i a (F r S t e An astasi e 3 G7 A y A va a r a a fn) e ’ . . B ishop of M ilan H e first gav e all h is property to th e poor and the n . . . . . “ ” o ut Ambrose shall be b ishop . . qu ieted t hem I n th e m idst of i t a v oi ce l ike that of a child cried .

. of t h e G olden F leece of Bur g undy as well a s of R ussia and o f i t s . . pu b l ic con fession wh ich so enra ged h er h usband tha t b e condem ned . . ded ica t ed t o S t Anas t asia The ch urch of Ch r y s o g o n u s i n t he T ras . . sin i fam ily of F lorence H e was ex t remely w ild un t il h e was s i x t ee n . . T h e R ussians bel ie v e th at h e preached to t h e M u scovi t es i n S arma t ia . S t A n d r e a o f Co r s i n i was born in 1 3 02 . . i n S crip t ure L egends tell t hat h e travelled i n t o S cy t h ia C a pp a . . . . a wol f . " Gr A y . w ife of I E g e u s t h e proco n s ul H e also persuaded her to m ak e a . . . . .50 L E GE ND S AN D S T OR IES her ch urch n o w stands I t i s sai d th at S t J erome once celebrate d . . . H e was th e bro t h er of S i mon Pe t er V ery l i tt le i s s aid of h i m . ’ S t A n d r e w (L a t S Andreas . . . . . sh e had before h i s bir t h in w h ich sh e dream ed of gi ving b ir t h to . . lan d since w hi ch t i me h e h as bee n the patron s a in t of t hat coun t ry . . . . u t e d t o t h e protecti on of th is saint th ei r v i ctory of the bat t l e of Angh iari F ebruary 4 A D 1 3 73 . . becam e a friar H e w as B ish op of F iesole T h e F lorentines a tt r i b . of S a n G r is o go n o D e cember 2 5 A D 3 04 . four t h cen t ury a par t of th e rel ics of S t Andre w w ere t aken to S cot . b u t t h is wolf on entering a ch urch was changed to a l a mb . . F r S t And r é . H e was of th e Co r . great order of th e C ross of S t Andre w H e i s re p resen t ed le a n in g . . . a ci ty of Achai a Here am ong many o t h ers b e conv erted M a xi m i l l a . docia an d Bi t hynia a n d con verted m ul t i t udes b y h i s preach ing . . I t a l S an t Andrea . t i fie d by J esus He was gl oriou sly tri u mph ant i n h i s d eath I n th e . . S t Andre w to be sco u rged and crucifi ed . . bu t t h e on e called by h is n am e i s ge n er a lly bel i eved to be l ik e t h a t on wh ich h e d ied I t i s said t hat he was fastened wi th cords ra t h er t han n ails . and of i t s fi rs t order of kn i g h t h ood H e i s t h e patron of th e O rder . S t Andre w was th e first called to be an A p os t l e . . w h i t e a n d h is beard d i v ided N ovember 30 A D 70 . years old w hen h is m other i n despair t old h i m of a d ream w h i ch . . H e re t ur ned to Jerusal em and aft er v i siting G reece cam e to Pa t ra s . T hi s grea t ly a ff ec t ed Andrea and he went t o a C armeli t e ch urch to . Th ere i s a varie t y of o p in . . t evere b u il t i n 5 9 9 was rebuil t i n 1 6 2 3 by S cip i o Borgh ese C ard in al . . . ma s s i n t h is ch urch T here is also a b eau t i ful ch urch a t V erona . W h en h e a pproach ed h is cross he v enerated i t as h a v ing b een san c . . ions as to t h e form of th e cross on wh ich h e s u ffered . pray where such a ch ange was begun in h i m th a t a t seven t een h e . . . . . on h is cross t h e G os p el i n h is h a n d 3 h is h ai r and h e a r d are si l v ery . .

A nt h ony an E gyp t ian was born at Alexandria . . or A n n i a n u s A n ia n us. IL L US T R A TE D IN A R T . “ ” fi es gracio us i s m u ch honored in the C h urch and n umerou s m iracles . . convert an d learned so ra p i dly tha t S t M ark m ade h i m bish op . . h e first entered the city of Alexandria H e becam e so zealous a . th e Carmel ite . . . . . D uom o of that ci t y a fine stat ue represen t ing h i m as ba p tizing the . . hristian w oman n am ed M ax i ma h ad h i m . . . words : “ E very one that hath forsaken ho uses or bre t hren or . years wi t h S t M ark and eighteen years aft er h is dea t h There was . St . . years of age h e was left an or p han . S t A n sa n o o f S ie n a . sisters or fa t h er. . S ienese converts . . th e t h irteen t h cent u ry th e great patron of S iena . q u i l l i n us His n u rse a C . Th is saint was a R om an A n s a n u s Tran . . . . At eighteen . name s sak e shall recei v e a h undred fold . on the banks of t h e ri v er Arbia S t An sano was u n t i l the end o f . . . . S t Antoin e l A b b é . h e feared th e t e m p t a . A D 1 2 25 . . bu ilt a ch urch at C onstan t inople and dedicated it to S t Anna Her . . . Angelo h e com manded h i m to be h ung u p on a tree and shot wi t h . . . body was rem o v e d from Palesti n e t o Constanti n ople i n 7 1 0 J uly 26 . . . have b een attribu t ed to h er in t ercessio n About 5 5 0 J ustin ian I . . St . i n Palermo and M essina T here was a cer t ai n Cou nt Beren g er wh o . . . . told that thi s saint was a shoemaker whom S t M ark healed whe n . a n d shall inh eri t e ver ’ . Ga . he heard these . A n m e fro m th e E ast an d preach ed ge l u s . . S t A n t h o n y (I t a l S a n t Anton i o Abbate or 1 E rem i ta 3 F r ’ ’ . w ith one sister H e had great . S e e S t Joach i m . ti ons of the worl d E n tering a ch urch one day . S t A n n a th e m other of th e Blessed V irgin wh ose name sigu i . M a y 5 . and there i s i n the . . . Ge r D er Heil ige A n ton or Anton i us ) ’ . . ran k and weal t h Thoughtful from childhood . 51 St . years old when he began to p reach w i t h great success He s u ffered . I n th e Acts of S t M ark we are . arrows The l egend a n d in fact the v ery ex istence of this sain t have . led an o p enly shameful l ife w i t h h is own sis t er Being rebuked b y . during h is absence He go v erned t he ch urch at Alexandria fo ur . . . a church i n that ci t y ded icate d to hi m April 2 5 A D 8 6 . . secretly ba p tized His faith was not disclose d until h e was nineteen. . . or m oth er or w ife or ch ildren or lands for my . been d isp uted 3 but p ict u res said to represent h i m are seen at Bologna . - . . m uc h during t he p ersecution of D iocletian and was at last beheaded . .

. cried o ut . But he prayed u ntil great drops stood o n h is brow and the . But h ere th e demons cam e and tort ured h i m w ith all k inds of . w ith h is s ister gave a l l h is share to th e poor and j oined a . ” I hav e strengt h to combat still ! Then was S atan fu rious an d . Then h e resol ved to go even farther i nto the desert As h e trav . . company of herm i t s in the desert H ere h e li ved so pure a l ife . . . sell all tho u h a st and give it t o the poor an d th ou shal t h ave . as t o arouse t he h atred of S atan wh o sent demons to tempt and . h e set h is dem ons to try all th eir powers to overco me h i m They . b ut as soon as An t hony rev i v ed h e insisted u pon return ing . a n d at ano t her ti me. ” good heart 3 for I will m ake thy nam e famous t hrough all the world . h e t ook them as a warning fro m G o d H e d i v ided h is wealt h . w h en h e sh ut hi msel f . m iraculo usly s u stained for h e wa s n o t waste d or changed ex cept . h orri b le sha p es th ey co uld conce i ve . I f th o u wilt be pe rfect go . . . . b ut h e su ff ered so m uch that b e determ ined to go yet farther into th e deser t an d . an d assu m ing th e forms of lo v ely w om en t empted hi m to si n . from h eaven and t he beasts van ished . Ha ! t h ou arch temp t er ! . h ind an d p ictured before h is m in d the at t rac t ions of th e world .52 L E GE ND S AND S T OR IES ” “ l asting l ife . . wh ile An t h ony l ook ing u p . . tem p t ati ons of S atan . i n t he air H e was n ow th ir ty five years old . . . t o h is cave and when there h e cried o ut . - i n a cav ern for twenty years and s a w n o one neith er w as h e seen . . . . h e fo und a ca v e w here h e thought S atan co uld not discover h im . surro und ed h i m w ith l ions tigers serpents scor p i ons an d all t h e . . ” treasure i n h eaven He was so impressed by these th ings t hat . cell . b eside t h ee and rej oiced to see thee contend and overcom e B e of . b ut wh en h e cam e forth all could see th at he h ad bee n . d idst thou thi nk I had fled ? L o here I a m agai n 3 I Anth ony ! . . an d wh en h e looked away t h ey disap p e a red . h o rr ible pains and tore h i m w ith th eir claws till a h erm i t wh o . of any . . . and th ey were roaring and h iss ing all aro und h i m B u t i n th e m idst of all th is came a great l igh t . Aga in b e resisted all th eir arts w ith prayer . t orment h im T hey wh ispered to h i m o f all h e h ad le f t h e . c l l e d h e saw h ea p s of gold an d sil ver but h e knew they were t h e . carri ed h i m food found h i m lying as i f dead He bore h i m to h i s . dem ons despair ed They th en p laced del icio us food before h im . “ O L ord J esus Christ ! w h ere wert th o u i n th ose m o ” m en t s of ang u ish ? An d Christ sai d gently Anthony I wa s h ere . .

thi ngs whi ch w ere belie v ed by th e w hole Church an d Paul was . . 53 th a t h is h air was wh i te an d hi s beard long An d no w h e preach ed . . for Paul . borne b y pro p h ets apostles an d angels to hea v en Then Anthony . ” the earth T hen Anthony wond ered for the gift of the cloak w a s . return to thy dwell ing . . . . were con v erted and cam e to the deser t u ntil there were fi v e tho u . but because thou art . c l oak 3 for h e feare d h e sh ould not reach h i m agai n before h is death . day hat h th is raven brough t m e half a loaf . . m union together 3 and as th ey sat a rave n brought them a loaf of . . S o he resol ved to seek Paul . . sa n d herm its i n the caves and ancient tombs and S t Anthony di d . m any m iracles A t length . to pray for h i m and h is people T h e th ird day h e came to t he ca v e . . . . . heavenly m usi c an d looking u p s a w th e s p irit of Paul . . n a siu s . of P aul At first Paul woul d not receive h i m 3 b ut at leng t h m o v ed . M y bro t h er ! G o d hat h sen t thee here . . come my brother 10 ! th e port ion i s do u bled and we are fed as . . - . R eturning when h e was about three hours from h is ca v e h e heard . by h is p rayers and tears h e adm i t ted h im Then t h ey held com . F o r sixty years every . “ sai d to h i m i n a v is ion There is one holier than tho u art. . expelled dem ons o v er whom he h ad gained great po wer M ul t itudes . IL L US T R A T E D IN AR T . w h o poi nted t h e way to h i m 3 and agai n a satyr wh o besought h i m . grave i n wh ich A nthony laid Paul wrapped in th e cloak of A t ha . that tho u m ightest rece i v e my last breath an d b ury m e Go . . i n th e a tt itude of p rayer T hen h e we p t o ver h i m and recited the . “ bread when Paul blessed G o d an d said . bring here th e cloak wh ich was gi v en to thee by th at h oly Bishop Athanasi us wrap me i n it an d lay m e i n . d esert roaring as if i n sym p athy an d w ith their paws they dug a .When h e had return ed to th e con vent he told all these . as a star . unknown to all B u t h e ki ssed Paul an d hastened to bring th e . an d as he j ourneyed he m et a centa ur . lamented an d went w ith haste to th e cave where Paul was dead . “ thanks The n Paul said . . h ad not s t rengt h to dig a grave T hen cam e two l ions across th e . . o ffice for th e dead and h e though t how h e could bury h im for h e . . when he had l i ved i n the desert seventy . ca n on ize d F ourteen years after A n t hony being one h u n dred and . . comforted th e sick and a fll ic t e d and . the herm it has served Go d i n sol itude and penance for nine ty years ” . E l ij ah was fed i n the w ilderness ” A n d they ate and returne d . . five years he began to be proud of h i s life of self den ial and a v oice . the love of Go d to all m en .

. . and wears the palli u m o v er the habit of th e D o m i n ica n s M ay 1 0 . tha t their com m un ion was n ot w i t hout i t s effects u pon th e la tt er s ’ pic t ures The Archbisho p of F lorence dying the p ope w ish ed t o . . wen t to F iesole a n d ask ed ad m iss i on t o t he D om in ican C on vent at . . A . . kee p secre t t he place of h is b urial G en t ly h i s sp irit passed away . and a ft er going t o a . blessed is used i n exorcisms T h e asperges or rod for sprinkl ing . . sign i fies h is p o wer to exorcise ev il spiri t s as a bell wh ich has been . . against fi re i n th is world an d t he nex t also Paul i s represented as . l 4 61 . . lonely p lace wi t h a fe w bre t h ren h e charged t he m t h a t t hey should . h ad learned perfectly t h e Book of D ecrees h e would recei ve h i m . T h i s h e d id i n on e year and then was sen t to C orton a to pass h is . God The crutch is a symbol o f h is age and feebleness The b ell . . of M onach ism I n G reek p ictures th e letter O i s o n th e cope on . . . . the left shoulder and al ways i n bl ue I t i s the fi rst letter of . w isdo m and h ol iness He is al ways represented as an archbish op. . . An thony Jan uary 1 7 A D 3 5 7 . . of An t onio was of ad vantage to the h eavenly m in d of Angel i co a n d . . m ade arch b isho p d uring wh i ch t i me h e wa s d is t inguish ed for h is . fift een Th e prior aft er talking w i t h h im told h i m that wh en h e . n ovi t iate i n study He took h is v ows at F iesole an d t h ere formed a . sea t ed o n a rock i n m ed itation an d a pal m tree n ear h im S t . city He died at t h e age of se v en ty th i rteen years aft er h e wa s . F loren t ines as h e was n ot only m uch belo v ed but a nati ve of t h ei r . wi t h various a t t ri b utes H e wears a m onk s h abit as t h e found er . . b ut h e begged that An t on io sh ould h ave i t i ns t ead wh ich t h e p o p e granted Thi s grea t ly pl eas ed t h e . h is fee t or a ci t y or h ouse burn ing signi fy th a t h e i s a pro t ec t or . h oly wa t er i s a sym b ol of t he sam e id ea The hog represen t s t h e . . . D . . - . . ’ .54 L E GEND S AND S T OR IE S four years old fel t tha t h e m ust soo n d ie . . — old m eagre half clo t hed n pal m leaves h is hair long and w h i te i . . . called 1 1 Beato a n d Angel ico I t i s bel ieve d that t h e great l earning . . caused h is frie n ds to regard h i m as fi tted for a rel igio us l ife H e . give th e o ffi ce to Angel ico . . . and angels conveyed i t to h eaven S t An t hony is represen t ed . . sensuali ty and a pp eti t es wh ich b e conquered F lames of fi re under . . H e was born about 1 38 4 H is though t fuln ess and stud io usn ess . . S t A n t o n i o Archbishop of F lorence was a native o f F l orence . tender at t achm e n t to th e wonderful pain ter m onk F r a G iovanni - .

.

t ure . " ’ ’ S t A t h a n a s i u s ( Gr A y A fla va m o . I t a l S an t Atanasio . . b es t kno wn by th e creed wh ich bears h is nam e was an Alexan d rian . . A D 3 73 . . . St A or S t A u s t i n (L a t S A ugustinus . . I t a l S ant ’ . . and being con v er t ed h e was ordained d eacon . . . . Th is sain t . t he ma g is t ra t e h earin g t hem asked if t h e V i rgin co uld g ran t h er . . . ing the great h eresy of his a ge m aterially aided by his perse veran ce i n t he v i ctory of the Cath oli c C h urch H e was bi sh o p fort y six . u gu s tin e . . . . . b e gg ing i n the name of Jes us and th e Blessed V i rgi n The w ife of . 2. . h is mother feared the destruction o f h is character. . bu rn ed h er S h e is th e pro t ec t or a gain st too t hache and a ll d iseases . h er As soon as h e did so an angel appeared w i t h a garm en t d az . . . . . F r S t A u g ustin ) T h e fa t h er of S t A u g us t i ne wa s a . T a g a s t e N u m idia I n h is you t h h e was so devo t ed t o p leasure t hat . h is m o t her M on ica was a C hris t ian He was born i n . . A g ostino . and a p u p il of S t An t hony He first s t ud ied science and l i t era . . of t he tee t h Her a t tribu t es are a pair of pin cers w i t h a too t h and . . . . . . . w ho answered t h e prayer by t he bi rt h of Apollonia S h e was v ery . . . O r t h o d o xi ae . . . . h ea t h en . . t ee t h o ut one by on e w i t h p in cers and t hen kindling a fire t h ey . som eti mes a golden tooth suspended on h er neck chai n - . . and in her s orro w . b u t oth ers accused her . g rims food an d money and full of fai t h i nvoked M ary s i n t ercessi o n . F ebruary 9 A D 25 0 . s i t i o n t o Arius at th e C oun cil of N ice gain ed for h i m th e t i t le of t h e ” F a t h er of O rth odoxy H e becam e Bish op of Alexandria and d ur . . h er to worsh i p t h e idol of t he c ity B u t s h e made the sign of the . H is o pp o . cross before th e idol and com m anded its demon to d e p art T h e de . beau t iful 3 and as h er m o t her constantly told h er the s t ory of her b ir t h . she gre w up a Chris t ian and sought S t L eontine that h e m igh t bap t ize . . . . ” . prayer for a ch ild Being t old of h er grea t power sh e gave t h e pil . . “ z l i n gl wh i t e wh ich h e th re w o ver her say ing Thi s i s Apollon ia y . ’ . th e p al m . - years but h e was i n ex ile d uring twenty years of t hat t ime M ay . to her fa t her wh o gave h er to th e hea t h en governor He com manded . 56 L E G E ND S AND S TOR I E S m agistrate At leng t h t h ere cam e three p il grim s to Alexan d ria . . “ m on broke th e statue and fled crying Th e h oly v irgi n Apollonia . L a t S A th anasi us Pater . F r S t A t hanase ) ’ . . . . the ser v ant of G o d ! Go n ow to Alex andria and announce t h e fai t h of Chris t S h e obeyed and converted m any . . ” drives m e for t h T hen t h ey bound h er to a col u mn an d dre w h er . . .

IL L US T R A T E D IN AR T . 57

so u ght ad v i ce o f the B ishop of Carthage He com f ort e d her w ith .

t h e ass u rance that h er prayers would be answered at last At length .

Augustine wen t to R ome an d becam e famou s as a lawyer B ut h e
, .

was res t less and u nhap p y He went to M ilan and was there con
.
,

v erted by th e preach ing of S t Ambrose who bapt ized h im i n th e .
,

presence of h is m other The T e D eum i t is thought was com
.
, ,

posed for th is occasion S t Augustin e and S t Ambrose recited it
. . .

as they approached th e altar H e was B ishop o f H ippo ; an d after
.

thirty five years H ippo w as besieged by th e V andals and S t Augustine
-
, .

e r fs h e d at th e age of se v enty five I t is said tha t h is remains were
p
-
.

remo v ed to Pav ia He was the th ird doctor of the C h urch and h is
.
,

w ritings are celebrated O n e of th e scenes i n h is life most f r e
.

quen t ly illustrated i n art is that of a v ision related by h imself an d , ,

wh ich h e saw wh ile wri t ing h is D iscourse on th e T rinity H e was .

walking on the sea sh ore lost i n med itation on h is great theme w he n
-
, ,

h e saw a l ittle ch ild bringing w ater and endea v oring to fill a hole
whi ch he had d ug i n the sand Aug u stin e asked h i m t h e m oti v e o f.

h is labors The ch ild sai d h e intended to empty all the water o f th e
.

sea i nto th is cavi t y “
I m p ossi b le exclaim ed S t Augustine
.

Not
,

. .

” “
m ore i m p ossi b le answered th e ch ild
,
than for thee, O Augustine , ,

to ex p lain th e mystery on wh i ch thou a r t n o w m editating He i s .

the pa t ron of theologians and learned m en August 2 8 A D 4 3 0 .
,
. . .

S t A u g u s t i n e o f Ca n t e r b u r y i s beli e v ed to have i ntrod uced th e
.

Benedic t ine O rder i nto E ngland He was sent from R om e as m ission .

ary to Britain by S t G regory F earin g th e dangers represented to
, . .

exist in E nglan d at t hat t im e h e and h is com p an ions were seized wit h
,

dread and Augustin e went to beg th e pope to recall h is comma n d
, .

Th is G regory refused to do He m ade Augu stine bisho p over t hose
.

wh o should be con v erted They lan ded i n K ent where t h ere was
.
,

great h atred of Christian ity ; b ut Quee n B erth a was a Chris t ian and ,

for her sake K ing E t hel b ert perm it t ed the m to enter C an t erbury ,

wh ich they did singing p rai ses and carrying th e image of C hrist
, ,
.

E t helbert a n d h is peo p l e becam e Christians and were ba pt ized i n a ,

l it t le cha p el wh ic h Berth a had built n ear C anterbury and being a , ,

F rench princess had dedi cated t o M ar t i n of T ours
,
S t Augus t ine . .

desired greatly to see th e ancient Britons C hr i s t ians wh om th e E ng ,

lish had dri v en into the m ou ntai n region s of Wales re clai med from ,

certai n abu s es w h ich h ad crept i n a mo n g t h em H e al so w anted the i r .

58 L E GE ND S A N D S T OR I ES

as sistan ce i n h is m issionary w ork am on g th e E ngl i sh B u t th e B ri t .

ons ha t red of t heir oppressors sadly obs t ructed S t A u gustin e s p iou s

.

and pacifi c w ishes I n v i rt ue of h is a uthori ty as Papal L egat e h e
.
,

v isi t ed all th e British bish ops 3 and these w ill ingly responded to h is
inv i t a t ion to a conference at A u s r i c on th e edge o f Worcestersh ire , ,

n ear Herefordsh ire a place later called A ugu stine s O ak
,
A ugus ’
.

t ine requ ired o f them aid i n con v e rt i ng th e pagan E ngl ish ; con
form i ty to th e c usto m of th e U n i v ersal C h u rch as to th e t i me o f
celebrating E aster and as to th e man ner of adm inistering bap t ism
, .

Th ese th ings they refused because of their h atred of the ir n ational ,


enemies Whereu pon S t Augusti ne proph esied that i f th ey w o u l d
. .

n o t preach to th e E ngl ish the w ay of l ife th ey w oul d fall by th eir ,

h a nds u nder the j udgment of death T h is prediction w as ful .

filled aft er the deat h of S t A u gusti ne w h e n E t h il fr i d king of th e .
, ,

pagan N orth ern E ngl ish m ightily o v erth re w the Britons at C hes t er
, ,

an d slew twenty two h undred of th e B ritish monks of B angor wh o
-
,

prayed i n sight of the battle fie l d for th e v ictory of th eir coun t rymen -
.

Those w h o account S t Augustine i nstigator of th i s m ass a cre wh ich
.
,

took place years after h is d ea t h kno w not h is t ender chari t y w hose , ,

only weapon s against sinners were prayers for their conversion H e .
-

s ho u ld be represented in th e Ben ed ictine h abit w ith th e s t a fl and th e

,

G ospel or as b ishop w ith p a l li um cope and m itre
, A D 604 , , . . . .

S t B a l b i n a was th e da ugh ter of the prefect Qu iri nu s an d d is
.
,

co v ered th e lost ch ains of S t Peter Th e church dedica t ed to h er . .

at R ome is v ery ancient S h e is represented v eiled wi t h chai ns i n
.
,

h er h an d or n ear h er .

S t B a r b a r a ( I t a l S anta Barbara 3 F r S t e Barbe )
. . Th i s . . .

saint was of t h e E as t an d daugh ter of D i o s c o r u s wh o d wel t i n Hel i
, ,

O p ol is . He was rich and n o b l e and lo v ed h is only daugh t er so fondly ,

that b e sh ut h er u p i n a h igh t ower lest sh e shou l d a tt ra c t s ui t ors
by h er beauty Here sh e p assed h er tim e in study and wh il e wa t ch
.
,

ing the wonders and beau t ies of th e h eavens fel t th a t t h e id ols coul d ,

n o t be gods or th e creators of th e world
,
B u t sh e h ad h eard of n o .

o t h er G od A t l engt h th e fam e of O rigen reach ed h er fro m Alexa n
.

dria and sh e sen t h i m a l etter by a tru s ty servant a sking th a t h e
, ,

s h oul d teach h e r H e s e n t a d i sciple d is g uised as a physi cian who
.
,

instruc t ed h er and aft er h er con versi on bapti zed h e r Her father
, , ,
.

h a d set w orkm e n to m ake a bathr o om i n h er to wer ; a n d w h e n t h ey

IL L US T R A T ED IN AR T . 59

had made two wi ndows sh e desired the m to add another ,
T hey .

were afraid to do th is b u t she insis t ed ; and whe n h er fa t her asked
,


the cause sh e said ,
K no w my father tha t t hrough t hree w indows
, , ,

doth th e soul recei v e l ight — t h e F a t her the S o n and t he Holy , , ,


G host 3 an d t h e three are one T h en h er father would have k illed .

h er with h i s sword 3 b ut she fled to the t Op of the to wer and an gels ,

concealed h e r and bore her away to a place of safety A she p herd .

be t rayed where sh e was h idden and h er fa t her dragged her by t he ,

hair and p ut h er i n a d ungeon He then deli vered her t o the pro .

consul M arcian wh o scourged and t ort ured her b ut she d id not
, ,

yield 3 and at last h er father carried her to a mountain near th e city ,

an d h i mself beheaded her I mm ediately a great te m pest arose and .
,

th e lightn ing entirely consu med the father S t Barbara is t h e . .

patroness of F errara M an t ua and G u a st a l a 3 also of for t ifi ca t ions
, ,

and fir e arm s as well as of arm orers and gunsm iths S h e is also
-
,
.

i n v oked as a protector against lightn i n g a n d the explosion s of
gun p owder A tower wi t h three w i ndows i s her p ec u liar at t rib u te
. .

S h e also has t h e book palm and sword S h e is fur t her in v oke d by
, ,
.

all w ho desire th e sacra m ents o f the Ch urch i n their dy ing hours .

D ecember 4 A D 303 ,
. . .

S t B a r n a b a s ( I t a l S a n Barnab a 3 F r S t
. The
. . .

n ame of A p os t le is also gi v en th is saint ; and if n ot fully enti t led

to it h e is at least next i n holin ess to the Apostles wi t h wh om h e
,

labored .He was a nat i v e of Cy p rus — a L e vite and a cousin of , ,

S t M ark
. He labored wi t h Paul at Antioch and L ystra ; and t h e
.

legends t ell us t h a t he was of so noble a p resence t hat he was called
J u p iter w h ile Paul was s tyled M ercuri us At le n g t h on account of
, .
,

a d i fie r e n c e concerning M ark th ey se p arated 3 an d Ba rnabas p reach ed ,

i n It aly as well as i n Asia M inor and Greece and i t i s said h e was ,

the firs t Bisho p of M ilan T rad ition says h e preach ed from t h e .

G os p el of S t M at t h e w written by the E vangel is t h im self wh ich h e
.
, ,

carried always wi t h h i m and that it had p ower t o heal t h e si ck ,

when laid upon their bosoms He was a t las t se ized by t h e Jews .

and cruelly m artyred wh ile p reach ing i n J u d ae a M ark a n d o t h er
,
.

Chris t ians buri e d h im and i n th e t i m e of t h e E mperor Z eno h is
,

resting p lace was rev ealed in a vision to A n t e m i u s He was foun d
-
.

w i t h the G ospel in h is bosom T h is was t aken to C ons t antino p le .
,

and a ch u rch w as b u ilt u n der the i n v ocation of the saint J une 1 1 . .

60 L E GE ND S AND S T OR IES

St . B a rt h o l o m
Bar t holo me us ; I t a l S a n Bartolomeo ;
e w (L a t . S . .

F T S t B a r t h t l e m i)
. . T h e origi n of t his sain t is do u b t ful i t being
.
,

d is p u t ed w he t her h e were t he son of a pri nce P t o l o m e u s or of a , ,

h us bandman Aft er t he ascens ion of our L ord h e t ravelled t hro ugh
.
,

I nd ia carry ing t he G os p el of S t M a tt he w H e preach ed in A rm en i a
, . .

and Cilicia He su ff ered a h orri b le dea t h a t A l b a n o p o l i s bein g fi rs t
.
,

flayed and t h en crucified H i s a tt ribu t e is a large k nife S om e
, .
.

t imes he has h is o wn sk in hanging over h i s arm A ugus t 2 4 . .

S t B a s i l t h e G r e a t (Gr A 7 B a o fAe t o s 3 L a t S Basil i us M agn us ;
"
. . . .
, .

I t a l S a n Bas ilio M a g no ; F r S t Basile )
. T h is sain t i s t h e second . . .

i n h onor i n t he G reek Ch urch as we l l as t h e founder of t he Bas ilians , ,

alm os t t h e only mon as t ic order k nown in t h a t ch urch 3 for the O rder
of S t A n t hony h as b ut a fe w h ouses a t S in ai an d L e b anon and b y
.
,

t he shores of th e R ed S e a H e was born at C aesarea in C ap p adocia .
, ,

i n 3 2 8 a n d was of a fam ily of great sanc t ity
, h is grand mo t her , ,

father mo t h er two bro t hers and a sis t er all being sain t s H e w rote
, , ,
.

m any t heological works He at t ribu t es h is early ed ucation t o h i s
.

grand mo t h er S t M acrina H e studied at C ons t an t ino p l e and at
, . .

A t hens w h ere h e was associated wi t h both S t G regory of N a z i a n z e n
,
.

and w i t h J uli an aft erwards th e A p os t ate H is great t al ents a t one
, .

t i me so arou sed h i s pride tha t bu t for th e i nfl uence of S t M acrina .
,

h is sis t er h e w ould h ave perilled h is sal va t ion H e was t hen a b out
,
.

twent y eigh t an d aft er th i s gave h i m self en t irely t o rel igion
-
,
pass ,

ing som e years in th e desert as a herm i t where he lost h is h eal t h , ,

from t h e austeri ty of h i s li vi ng H e was m ade a p riest i n 3 62 and .
,

ei ght years after Bish o p of Caesarea T h e 1 4 t h of J un e t h e day o f .
,

h i s ord ina t i on i s a grea t feast in th e Gr e e k C h urch H e l i ved wi t h
,
.

the sam e a b s t in e n ce on t h e th ron e as i n t h e d esert H e vigoro u sly .

o pp osed t h e Arian heresy 3 and when t h e E m p eror V alens req ui red
h i m to comm u n ica t e rel i g iously w i t h th e Arians h e refused T h e ,
.

em p eror t h re a t ened h i m e ven w i t h death w i t h ou t effec t A t len g t h , ,
.

h e t h ou gh t t o awe Basil by com i ng t o ch urch in g reat s t ate wi t h a l l ,

h i s cour t and sold iers I t was on th e day of th e E p i p hany I ns t e a d
. .

of overawing t h e sai n t h e was h i msel f ov erawed by t he pie t y of t h e ,

con gre g a t i on a n d t he an g el ic d evo t ion of the grea t b ish o p T h e c m .

e r o r aft erwards conferred w i t h B a sil and t hou g h h e remain ed
p ; u n

con ver t ed h e m ade some concessions t o t h e C a t hol ics I t i s rela t ed
, .

of Basil as of two o t h er saints that w h ile h e preached t h e H oly
, , ,

IL L US T R A T E D IN AR T . 61

Ghost , i n th e form of a wh ite do v e reste d on h is sho u l d er to inspire , ,

h is words J une 1 4 A D 38 0
.
, . . .

S t B a v o n (E l e m
. S t Ba v o or S t B a f 3 I t a l S a n B a von e )
. He.
,
. . .

w as born a nobl e man 3 som e authorities claim D uke of Braban t He , .

was converted fro m idola t ry by S t Amand of Belgium fi rst Bish op .
,

of M aestricht Ba v on was then n early fift y years old a wido wer an d
.
, ,

h a d led a d i ssipated life H e ga v e all h i s ri ches i n chari t y and was
.
,

placed by S t A mand i n a m onastery i n G hent 3 b ut h e left that an d
.
,

l i ved a h erm it i n th e forest of M a l m e d un H is shelter was a h ollo w .

tree an d he subsi sted on h erbs I t is rela t ed of h i m that aft er
, .
,

becom ing a Christian h e m et on e wh o had b een h is sla v e and cruelly
trea t ed Bavon besough t h i m to bin d and beat h im an d cast h i m
.
,

i n p rison as h e h ad formerly done to h i m Th is w as of co urse r e
,
.

f used 3 b ut th e saint so i nsiste d that fi nally i t was done an d while ,

i n prison h e p assed h i s ti m e i n doing penance for h is form er sins .

H e is the patron of G hent and H a e r l e m H is attribute i s a fal con ; .

he is someti mes represen t ed as a h ermit and som eti mes i n h is d u cal ,

robes O ctober 1 A D 65 7
.
,
. . .

S t B e d e t h e V e n e r a b l e was born at J arro w i n N o r t h u m b e r
.
,

land i n 6 7 3 H e was em inent for h is lear ning and piety and som e
,
.
,

even thought h i m s u p erior i n eloquence to S t G regory He d ied . .

d ic t ating th e last words of a translation of the G ospel of S t John . .

“ ”
He was called t h e V enerable an d was known by thi s nam e at a ,

C ouncil a t Aix la Cha p elle Th ere i s a legendary account of t he way
- -
.

i n wh i ch h e received th is titl e I t says tha t h is sch olars wish ing t o .
,

put an inscriptio n on h is tombstone one of them wrote ,

H a c su n t in f os sa

B e d ae o ssa ,

leav ing th e blank as abo v e becau se no s u itable word occurred to hi m , .

H e fell aslee p th inking of it 3 an d wh en h e awoke v enerabili s had ,

been inserted by an angel s hand There are other ways of a ccoun t ’
.

ing for the title b ut th is i s the favorite one Bede s works are ex t an t
,
.

,

and h is E c c l e si a s t i a l History i s th e only auth entic record we ha v e
of t h e early E ngl i sh C h urch M ay 2 7 A D 73 5 .
, . . .

B e l a n d t h e D r a go n W hen Cyrus was K ing of B abylon an d .
,

D an iel was hi s friend and greatly honored by him th e Babylon ians, ,


had an idol called Bel to whom were gi v en every day twel ve great ,

measures of fi n e flour and forty sheep and six v essels of wine ,
And , .

62 L E GE ND S A N D S T OR IE S

th e number of th e p riests wh o attended h i m were th ree s core and ten ,

and t hey had w i v es an d ch ildren N o w Cyrus worsh ip pe d Bel b ut .
,

D an iel worsh ip p ed h is own Go d ; and wh en Cyrus demanded th e
reason of t h is D an iel replied t hat he could not worsh i p ido l s m a d e
,


w i t h hands b ut the li ving Go d w ho had created all m e n and th e
, ,

world i n wh ich they li ved T hen Cyrus ask ed D an iel if Bel were not
.

l iv ing and reminded h i m of ho w m uch he ate and drank e very day
, .


Then sa id D an iel 0 king be not decei ved ; for th is i s but clay
, ,


w ith in and brass wi t ho ut and d i d ne v er eat nor drink a n ything
, So .


th e k ing was wroth and said to th e priests I f ye tell m e not who
, ,

th is i s t hat de voureth th ese expe n ses ye sh all d ie B u t if ye can , .

cer t ify m e that Bel devoureth them th e n D an iel sh all d ie : for he ,

” “
h ath S poken blasph emy against B e l A n d D an iel re p lie d L e t it .
,

” “
be according to thy word Then t h e priests said to the k ing L o
.
,

w e go ou t b ut thou 0 king set on th e m eat and make ready the
, , , ,

w ine an d sh ut th e door fast and seal i t w ith th ine o wn signe t ; an d
, ,

to morro w wh en th o u comest in if tho u fin d e s t n ot that B e l hat h
-
,

eaten u p all we w ill suffer death ; or else D ani el that s p eake t h
, ,

falsely against us ”
N o w they d id thi s because t hey h ad an entrance
.

whi ch w as h idden u n d er th e table an d by th at they could go o ut ,

and i n as th ey liked Then th e king set th e food before Bel as t h e
.
,

priests had sai d 3 and D an iel com manded th e servan ts to bring ashes ,

an d h e stre wed th em upon th e floor 3 an d when all was ready they
closed the temple and the k ing sealed i t w i t h h is own seal T hen i n
,
.

th e n igh t the priests cam e w ith th eir w ives and ch ildren as th ey ,

were accustom ed to do and consu med all th a t h ad been p rovided
,
.

N o w i n th e m orn i n g t h e king cam e w i t h D an iel and th ey foun d t he ,

seal s wh ole and th ey broke the m an d went in And w h en t h e king
,
.


saw t h at th e food was gone h e cri ed out G reat ar t thou O Bel and , , , ,


w i t h thee is n o d eceit at al l ! Then D a n iel lau gh ed and said t o t he ,

k in g “
,
Behold n o w t h e p ave ment an d mark w ell w hose foo t s t e p s are ,


th ese S o whe n th e k ing s a w th e foo t ste p s of men w om en and
.
, ,

ch ildren h e was angry and took th e priests wi t h their w i ves an d
, ,

c h ild ren and th ese showed h i m th e door wh ere t h ey had gone in an d
,

ou t . Then t he k in g sle w th em an d gave th e idol Bel t o D an iel an d , ,

h e d es t royed b o t h the g od and h is t em pl e N o w i n t he sam e place .

was a g rea t dra g on wh ich was also worsh i pp ed b y the Ba bylon ians ;
,

and the king sa i d to D anie l W i l t tho u al so say t hat thi s i s of bras s ?

,

64 L E GEND S A N D S T OR IES

p erfect hol iness fled fro m h e r to S ubiaco a wilderness forty m iles
, ,

from R ome Here he l i ved for three years entirely u nkno wn ex c e pt
.
, ,

t o R omano ano t her herm i t who shared w i t h h i m h is brea d and
, ,

wa t er .H ere h e was grea t ly t em pt ed b y t he recoll ec t ions of t h e
world he had left a n d es p ecially a t on e t im e by the remem b rance of
, , ,

a beau t ifu l woma n h e h ad seen at R ome w hen to o vercome h is great , ,

desire to re t urn t o h er h e fl ung h imself into a th icket of brie r s and
,

t horns and rolled h imself t here in u ntil h e w a s t orn and bleed ing
, .

A t t he monas t ery of S ubiaco th ey sho w roses said to h ave been pro ,

p ga a t e d from these briers T h e fame of h is san c t i t y.a t last brought
grea t crowds to h im w ho begged h i s p rayers and t hat h e wo uld h eal
, ,

t heir d iseases ; and a com pany of hermits n ear by reques t ed that h e
w ould be their h ead B ut wh en th ey saw th e severi t y of his l ife
.
,

t h ey attem pt ed to poison h i m W he n h e m ade the sign of the cross .

before t h e p oisoned cu p it fell to th e ground in fragments He t hen
,
.

returned t o h is cave a n d a gai n d welt al one B u t so many h erm i t s .

came to S ub i aco an d l i ved i n h u ts and ca v es that a t leng t h for th e , ,

sake of order Bened ict com manded the m to build twel ve m onas t eries
, ,

and h e placed t wel ve monks i n each T wo senators of R om e brought .

to h i m the ir sons M aurus and Pl a c i d u s to be ed uca t ed as C hristian s
, ,
.

They w ere but t wel ve and fi ve years of age an d th ey becam e th e ,

s p ecial charge of B enedi ct B u t S atan m uc h tro ubled at all th is .
, ,

put it i n t o th e h eart of a priest F lorentins to trad uce the character , ,

of S t Bened ict and t o poison h i m wi t h a loaf of bread T hese plans
.
,
.

failing h e at last brough t seven young wom en i nto on e of t he m onas
,

t e r i e s to try t he ch as t i t y of t h e monks Then Benedi c t left S u b iaco .
,

an d i mm ediately F lorenti n s was cr u sh ed to death ben eat h a falling
gallery in h is ow n h o use B enedict even w e pt for h is fa t e and i m
. ,

posed a p enance on M aurus when h e rej oiced a t i t T h ere s t ill r e .

m ained at t h is time on M onte C assino a tem p le of Apollo T hi t her
, ,
.

Benedi ct w en t and b y h is m iracles an d p reach in g conver t ed t he
,

i dola t ers so th at t h ey broke th e statu e and al t ar and burn t the
, ,

grove T h e saint then b uil t u p two ch a p el s and d ed ica t ed t he m to
.
,

S t Joh n t h e Bap t is t an d S t M ar t i n of To urs
. O n t h e sum m it of t h is
. .

m oun t ain h e founded t he m onas t ery wh ich has al ways b een regarded
as t h e p aren t of all o t hers o f t he Bened ic t ine O rder H en c e b e .

p rom ul g a t ed t h e rules of his ord er H is sis t er S ch olas t ica followed .

h i m to M onte C assi no an d h e v isi t e d her o n ce a year d uring th e last
,

IL L US T R A T E D IN AR T . 65

years o f h is life I n 5 4 0 Totila K ing of th e G oth s v isited Benedict
.
, , ,

and entrea t ed h is b lessing T h e saint reproved h im for h is p ast life .
,

and i t was thought that aft er t his the G oth wa s less ferocious B e .

fore h is death m onasteri es o f h is order were i ns t i t u ted i n all p ar t s of
E urope H e was a t las t seized w i t h fever and on the sixth day h e
.
,

ordered h i s gra v e to be dug and after standing upon th e edge of it , ,

s upported by h is di sciples an d i n silent contem p l ation h e was born e , ,

to the altar of the church and recei v ing the last sacramen t s there ,

died . M a rch 2 1 A D 5 4 3 , . . .

S t B e n e d i c t o f A n i a n (F r S t Benoi t d A n i a n e )

. Th is saint . . .

was p age an d c u p bearer at t he court of Pepin l e —-
Bref an d a d istin -
,

g u i s h e d com mander i n th e army of C harlemagne H e was b orn at .

M aguel onne i n L anguedoc and h i s original nam e i s unknown H e
, ,
.

h ad an ex t rem ely narro w esca p e from dro wning aft er wh ich h e e n ,

t e r e d on a religi o us l ife H e went first to the abbey of S t S eine ; but
. .

d isa p prov ing of th e habits of th e m onks h e d welt a h erm it on the ,

banks of th e A h ian At length a n u mber of h erm its h aving j oi ned
.
,

h im h e fou nded a B en ed ictine m onastery w ith great severi ty of rule
, , .

H e was called to A ix la C hapell e b y L o uis l e D ebonnaire -
Here h e
- - -
.

fou nded an oth er monastery He presided at a coun cil for the r e fo r .

m ation of t h e monasti c orders William D u k e of Aquitain e w as a .
, ,

great warrior an d had vanqu ish ed th e S aracen s in th e south of
,

F ran ce H e was con verted by S t Ben edict and b uilt a monastery
. .
, ,

i n wh ich h e l i ved and died a monk S t B en ed ict conferred u pon . .


William the m onk s habi t F ebruary 1 2 A D 8 2 1 .
, . . .

B e n e d i c t B e n n e t B i s c o p or S t B e n n e t o f W e a r m o u t h
, , .
,

d id mu ch for art as well as for piety i n E ngland He was of a noble .

N o r t h u m br i a n fam ily H e foun ded th e m onasterie s of S t Pe t er s a t
. .

We a r m o u t h an d S t Paul s at Jarrow He had a cul t ivated tas t e
.

.
,

an d went fi ve ti mes to F rance and I taly He brough t to E nglan d .

s tone w o rk ers and glaziers to i ntrod uce a new style of b uild ing
-
He .

brough t too m any books and p ictures a n d also a certai n John
, , , ,

Abbot of S a n M artino w h o was a teacher of m usic and wh o in t ro , ,

d u c e d ch anting into E ngl is h cath edrals S t Bennet wrote many . .

books of instruction for m onks and died at an advanced age cele , ,

b r a t e d for p iety and m u n i fic e n c e J a n u a r y 1 2 A D 703 .
,
. . .

S t B e n n o is noted es p ecially for h is co n nection w ith th e E m
.

p e r o r Henry I V He was a G erman
. B enedictine and B ishop o f ,

5

66 L E GE ND S AND S T OR IES

M e is se n ; and whe n Hen ry after being excom m un i cated at t em pted , ,

t o en t er t he ca t hedral Benno locked t h e doors an d t hre w t h e k ey
,

into t he river E lbe H e t hen wen t to R om e O n h is re t urn t o M e is
. .

sen he ordered a fisherman to cas t h is n et into th e ri ver an d a
, ,

fish was t aken i n wh ich was fo und the key H is proper a t trib ute i s
,
.

a fish wi t h a key i n i t s m outh .

S t B e r n a r d o f Cl a i r v a u x (L a t S Bernard us D octor m ell i
. . .
,

fl u u s ; I t a l S a n Bernardo d i C h iara v alle Abbate 3 Ge r D er H eil ige
.
, .

Bernhard ; F r S t Bernard ) was a m an of great power an d im p or
. .

tance H e was born i n 1 1 9 0 at F ontaine near D ij o n H e w as t h e
.
, , .

son of a n oble ; and h is m oth er Al ice was a remarkable woman , , .

S h e h ad a large n umber of ch ildren a l l of whom sh e n urse d at h er ,

own breas t as she bel ieved that i nfants i mbibe w i t h th e m ilk t h e
,

tem p erament of the n urse According to all au t h ori t ies sh e gave
.

h er son h is early ed ucation F rom the age of fi ft een h e prac t ised .

great self deni al an d from it h is heal t h su ffered H e had grea t p er
-
,
.

sonal beau t y Aft er studying at the U n i vers ity of Paris he en t ered
.
, ,

a t twenty th e Benedi ctin e m onas t ery of Citeaux H e resi s t ed a l l
,
.

temp t a t ions ; and i t i s related of h i m that fi nding h imsel f gaz ing o n ,

a beau t iful woman w i t h a feel ing of p l easure h e rush ed in t o a h al f ,

frozen pool an d remained there u n t il nearly frozen h i mself T h e .

abbey of C i t eaux becam e so crowded that Bernard was sent at
twen ty five t o foun d an o t h er m onas t ery H e w ent wi t h twelve com
-
.

“ ”
pan ions to wh a t was then called th e V alley of Worm wood and ,

t h ere founded t h e abbey of Clair v aux I n a few years Bernard .

b ecame fam o us and h is ab b ey very m uch crowded H e was con
,
.

s id e r e d an au t h ori t y i n m at t ers of law as well as of rel i g ion He .

was j u d g e b e t ween Anacletus and I nn ocen t I I decid in g i n favor of .
,

t h e la tt er to t he sa t isfac t ion of the whole C h urch He also reconciled
,
.

t he d is p u t es b e t ween the clergy of M ilan and R om e He preached .

a second C rusade succee d ed i n rousing th e peo p l e to grea t e n t h u
,

s ia s m ,
and was i n vited to assum e th e comm and H e was also t h e .

a d versary of A b elard an d Arnold de Brescia S t Be rn ard i s one of . .

t he F a t h ers of t h e C h urch I n h is writings he sets forth w ith great .

p ower t he p erfections of th e Blessed V irg in es pe c ially i n the M issu s ,

E s t 3 and i t was b el ieved that sh e a pp eared to h i m t w ice : once w h e n

,

ill an d unabl e t o wri t e sh e restored h im b y h er p resen ce ; and agai n
,

she m oiste n ed h is lips w ith the m ilk of h er bosom s o that h i s ,

IL L US T R A T E D I N AR T . 67

e loquence w as irresistible H is h ealth suffered greatly from h is labors
.

and fas t s and h e d ied at six ty three H i s at t ri butes are the demon
,
-
.

fettered beh ind h im 3 three m i t res on h is book or at h is feet emble m s ,

o f three bish o p rics w h i ch h e refused 3 the beeh i ve a symbol of elo ,

q ue n ce The . m itre an d crosier as Abbot of Clair v aux are gi v e n h im , ,

but rarely A u gust 2 0 A D 1 1 5 3
.
,
. . .

S t B e r n a r d o f M e n t h o n was by birth a noble S a v oyard
. In .

h is youth he was serio us and st ud ious showing s u ch traits o f charac ,

ter as indicated a religious v ocation H is fa t her wi shed h i m to marry ; .

but h e p referred to study a n d p ut h i mself under th e teach ing of ,

Peter Archdeaco n o f A o u s t
, I n 9 6 6 B ernard was made archdeacon .
,

w hich was at that t i me a responsible and laborious o fli c e as its d u ties ,

comprised the w hole go v ernm ent o f th e d iocese B y great devotio n .

and constant preach ing for forty t wo years h e di d mu ch good i n t h e -
,

dioceses o f A c a st S ion G en e v a T a r a n t a i s e M ilan and N ovara He
, , , , ,
.

destroyed an i dol o n a m ountai n i n th e Wa l a i s and exposed th e ,

deception of the heathen p riests He founded t wo roads and two .

m onastic hospitals the G reat and L i t tle S t Bern ard th e form er of
, .
,

w h ich was n ear the site of the hea t hen idol before spoken of At t hese .

hos p i t als the m onks assisted b y their dogs searc h out an d care for
, ,

travellers wh o are l ost i n t h e passes of t he m ou ntains where th e ,

storm s are se v ere and the cold intense S t Bernard d ied at N o v ara . .
,

at eighty five years of age His body i s i n the m onastery at N ovara
-
.
,

and his h ead i s sh own i n a rich case at t h e mo n astery o f M on t e J oye o

,

i n th e diocese of A o u s t M ay 2 8 A D 1 008 .
,
. . .

S t B e r n a r d i n o d a F e l t r i shares th e honor of ha v ing founded
.

“ ”
th e M on t s de Pi é t é H e was a most eloquent man and p reache d
- -
.
,

at the church of S anta C roce i n F lorence against Jews and usurers , ,

an d on t he n ecessi ty that th e poor shoul d be protected from them .

I t is certai n t hat th e t wo Bernardi nos labored i n this m atter b ut no t ,

easy to decide to wh i ch b elongs the greater h onor .

S t B e r n a r d P t o l o m e i (I t a l S a n Bernardo dei T olome i )
. He . .

w a s of an illus t rio us fam ily of S iena ; born i n 1 2 72 He d istinguished .

h i mself as a la wyer 3 bu t at length seized with th e religiou s p assion ,

of the age h e went i nto a m ountain called th e M ount of O l ives
, , ,

abo u t ten m iles from S iena Here he formed the order called O l i .


ve t a n i T hey followed th e R u le of S t Benedict and w ore a w h ite
. .
,

h abit. Augu st 2 1 A D 1 3 4 8 , . . .

68 L EGEND S AN D S T OR IES

St rn a rd in o o f S ie n a
. B e Th is saint w as of the fam ily o f .

A l b i z e sc h i H e w as born a t M assa a S ienese town i n 1 3 8 0 H is
.
, , .

m o t her dying h e was ed uca t ed b y a n aun t whose i nfl uence devel
, ,

o p ed n o t only h is t alen t s bu t grea t p urity of charac t er also A t , .

seven t ee n h e j oined a bro t h erhood whose m em bers were devo t ed to
t he service of th e hospi t als A pestile nce soon broke o ut w h ich .
,

d es t roy ed great n umbers and among t he m physicians and pries t s , .

F o r four m onths B ernardino w ith t wel v e others cared for t h e inma t es
of the plagu e h ospital H is health su ff ered greatly from h i s labor . .

H e became a F rancisca n at t wenty t hree He was a celebra t ed -
.

preacher and went all o ver I taly He end eavored to reconc ile the
, .

G uelphs and G h ibell ines H e was o ffered three bishoprics w h ich .
,

h e refu sed Th e D uke o f M ilan o ffended at h i s preachi ng threat
.
, ,

ened h i m i n v ain ; he then sent h i m m oney w i t h wh i ch h e went to ,

the prisons and l ibera t ed poor d eb t ors H e founded the order called .


i n It aly O sservan t i and i n F ra n ce F r eres d e l Ob se r v a n c e b e ,
” ’
,

cause they obser v e strictly th e R ule of S t F ran cis goi ng barefoot an d .
,

k eeping stri ctly the v o w of p over t y W hen p reach ing h e h eld i n .
,

h is hand a tablet o n wh ich was t h e nam e of Jesus in a circle of golden
rays A m a n w ho had li ved by m aking cards and dice complai ned to
.

th e saint that on accou nt of th e reform s i n religion h i s occupation ,

w a s gone Bern ardin o advised h im to carve table t s l ike h is to sell
.
,

to th e people He d id so 3 and a peculiar blessing be ing at t ache d
.

t o th em h e sold large n umbers an d m ade a fortune i n th is way
, ,
.

S t Bernardino i s said to h a v e founded t h ose i nsti t ution s called still
.

i n F rance M onts de P i ét é wh ere m oney is loan ed o n pledges I n
“ ” - -
,
.

th e com m encem ent th ey were e n tirely charitable an d for th e benefi t
of the poor He died at Aquila i n th e Abruzzi wh ere h is remains
.
, ,

are preserved i n a sil v er shrin e i n th e ch urch o f S a n F rancisco .

M a y 20, A D 1 4 4 4 . . .

St . was a R om a n lady wh o togeth er w ith h er fa t h er
B ib i a n a , , ,

m other and sister su ff ered m artyrdom i n the reign of J ul ian t h e
, ,

A posta t e S h e was scourged an d then pi erced w i t h a d a gger
. Th e .

ch urch dedicated to h er i s be t ween t h e S anta C roce and t h e Porte
M a ggiore T h e col u mn t o wh i ch she was bo un d i s sh own wi th i n the
.

ch urch D ecem b er 2 A D 3 6 2 .
, . . .

S t B l a i s e o f S e b a s t e (Gr A y B Aa t a 69 3 I t a l S a n B i a gio ;

.
. . .

F r S t B l aise ; Ge r D er He i lige B la s i u s : s i gn i fication
. . . ,

IL L US T R A T E D IN AR T . 69

Th i s holy man was b ishop o v er th e C h r istians at S ebaste i n Cappa ,

docia and i n the ti me w hen A gr i c ol a u s was governor was o b li ged to
, ,

flee to th e m oun t ains to escape persecu t ion T here were grea t n um .

bers of w ild beas t s there but instead of harm ing the saint they came , ,

to h i m i n n u mbers every m orn ing to recei ve h is blessing 3 and wh en
A gr i c ol a u s sent to ob t ai n beasts for th e am p h itheatres the h un t ers ,

fou n d S t Blaise surrounded with them H e n ursed th e sick ones
. .
,

reproved the ferocious and ga v e h is benediction to all The h u nters , .
,

amazed at th is seized h i m an d took h i m to t h e go v ern or As they
,
.

w en t th ey m et a woman whose ch il d was choking from a bo n e stuck
,

i n its t h r e a t Th e m oth er cried o ut O ser v ant of Christ have m ercy
.
, ,

on m e H e laid h is han d on the throat of the ch ild and prayed and ,

it was heal ed Again they m e t a woman whose p ig h ad been carried
.
,

o ff by a wolf 3 and as it was all sh e had of worldly goods she was i n ,

m u ch distress S t B laise com manded the wolf to bring back th e
. .

pig unharm ed w h ic h was don e T h e go v ernor sentenced h im to be
, .

scourged an d i mprisone d w ith ou t food 3 b ut th e poor w oman had
killed h er p ig and brought a part w i th bread and fr u it to th e holy
, , ,

man A secon d ti me th e g ov e r n dr tortured h i m by tearing h is flesh
.

w ith iron combs such as are used to card wool ; w hen as h e still
, ,

remaine d firm i n h is faith h e was beheaded H e is the p atro n o f ,
.

B agusa also th e p atron of wool combers of those w h o su ffer from
,
-
,

throat d iseases and of wild an i mals H e is a po p ular sai nt i n F rance
,
.

and E ngland an d es p ecially i n Y orksh ire w h ere once i n seven years
, ,

a festival i s held in h is h onor The iron wool comb is hi s proper .
-

attrib ute F ebruary 3 A D 3 1 6
.
, . . .

S t B o n a v e n t u r a was the great prelate of th e S eraph i c O rder
.
,

“ ”
and was styled i 1 D ottore S e r a fic o H i s fame is not confined to .

h is order as h e i s considered one o f th e brightest lights of the
,

w hol e Ch urch H is nam e was G io v anni F i d a n ga and h e was born
.
,

at B a gn a r e a i n T uscany i n 1 22 1
, I n h is infancy h e was so ill , .

th at h is life was despaired of and h is m oth er took h i m to S t ,
.


F ran ci s to be healed W hen the saint saw h i m h e exclai med
. O , ,


b uona v en t ura ! w hereu p on h is m other dedicated h i m to G od by th e
n am e of Bon aventura H is p rogress i n study was amazing ; an d at
.

t wenty t wo h e became a F ran ciscan and went to Paris to study
-
,

th eology H e soon becam e celebrated 3 but h is h umil ity was so great
.

that h e fe l t u n wort hy to recei v e th e Holy Comm u n io n a n d l egends ,

. ouis ) g r eatly honored h i m wh ile at Paris and he was chose n . was in t h e days of Charl es M artel and a t i me w hen h e co u ld h o p e . and F riesland p reach ing w ith great su ccess I n 73 2 h e wa s m ad e . ‘ . so h e re t urned to N u t s a l l b u t soon . t he p o p e h e n o w t ravelled through Ba v aria Th uringia S axony . te n t on t h e ba n k s of a s m a l l ri v e r i n F rie sl an d w here h e a wa i t e d a . . aid of t he pope i n h is German labors I t i s sai d to have been at . of M ayence Bu t wh en seventy four years old h e ga v e u p a l l h i s . . - . . B on i fa c c i o ) The h istory of S t Boniface i s one of th e m ost a u t h e n . Arch b isho p and Pri mate of all G ermany . . At lengt h h e was m a de C ardinal an d . . . ’ n a l s h a t they foun d h i m i n th e garden of a con v en t near F loren ce ’ . S t B o n i fa c e m artyr (L a l an d Ger S B onifacius I ta l S a n . - . . i n th e ch urch of the F ran cisca n s at L yons 3 b ut th e Cal vinis t s i n . an d soon aft er K ing P epin . ton i n D evo n sh ire H e taught l itera t ure and th e H oly S cri pt ures . . . . . . . w hen a coun cil was h eld a t L yons to reconcile t he Greek and L a t i n ' ch urch es h e being one of th e m ost d istingu i shed of preachers fi rst . . J uly 1 4 A D 1 2 7 4 . . . . Bish o p of Albano W hen th e pope s n uncios carri ed h i m th e card i . at t h e B e n e d i c t i n e a b b e y of N u t sa l l or N u s c e ll a n ear Win ch es t er .7O L E GE ND S A ND S T OR IE S tell th at th e Host w a s pre sented to h i m by a n gel s L ou is I X us . . . . l eft E ngl and for the las t t i m e and wen t to R ome to en t rea t t h e . t ic as well as beau t iful of the legends of h is age J us t ice can b y . . . u ntil h e was th irty si x years old F o r some years h e h ad n o t been - . . hap py in h i s qu ie t voca t ion b ut was constan t ly haun t ed b y a desire . v o t ed him self a g ai n to m issionary la b ors At lengt h wh il e in h is . h onors and g ird in g on t h e p lai n ha b it of a Bened ic t ine m onk de . addressed the assembly Th e fatigues of h is labo rs h ere brough t o n . a fever of w h ich h e d ied b e ih g fif t y three years old H e was buri ed . H is nam e was Wi nfred and h e was born of a n oble fam ily a t C red i . ( S t L . . Y ork but decl ined the h onor . for no resul t s from h is labors . l e Bref whom Boniface had anointed n am ed h i m th e fi rst Bishop - . . n o m eans h e d one t o h is ch aracter i n the space allo tt ed h i m here . . . w as h ing th e plate from w h ich h e had j u st eaten 3 an d h e req u e st e d them to h ang the h at o n a tree until h e co ul d tak e i t I n 1 2 74 . . t h is t im e t ha t h e changed h is n am e R eceiving a com m i ss ion from . . 1 5 62 broke O pen h is shr i ne an d thre w h is ash es i nto th e S a li ne . . G eneral of h is order a t t h i rt y five H e w a s ap po in t ed Ar ch bish op of - . . to p reach t h e G os pel i n G ermany H e w en t first to F riesland b ut i t .

.

. eigh t ch ildren t o l ive rel igio usly Aft er the d ea t h of U l p h o she built . . . . . . . an d t h eir d iscipline has been d escribed as m ost fearful i n its se v eri t y . as a servan t u ntil past m iddle l ife H e knew n oth ing of l i t erature . S t B r u n o was th e fo under and first abbot o f the Carth usian . . . O rder H e was of a noble family of C ol ogne and o n account of h is . near S e v ille at Paular and other places possess a world of i n teres t . h eads sha v en U rba n I I ha d been a pupil of Bruno at R heim s and . . . . J uly 1 8 . an d th is i s eaten separately They labor too w ith great d iligen ce . . . th e m onastic orders a n d adds al most perpet ual silence to th e u sual . . sh e had many Her order was appro v ed by the pope u nder t h e . . t ion de t ermined on a m onasti c l ife W ith six com pan ion s h e w en t t o . wh en h e became p e pe sent for h i m to aid h im i n h is great cares an d . . I n spite of all th is th ey h a v e an extrem e love of t h e beautiful an d . . G renoble whe n H ugo the bish op ha v ing been warn ed i n a dream of . . Th e robes and hoods of the C arth usians are wh ite and their whole . . . . Ca d m o n t h e P o e t l i v e d i n th e m onastery o f th e Abbess Hilda . She . founded h is fi rst m onastery a n d h i s order was confirmed by th e po p e . . . pi l gri mages to Ro m e and Co m po s t e l l a . . O n ce as h e d i d th i s and w e n t to the stable to care for the h orse s . i n their perfec t io n 3 a n d th eir p i ct ures at th e C hartreuse of Paris ( n o w i n the L o u v re ) i n th e Chartre use of S anta M aria de las Cu e vas . is of great interes t I t i s am ong th e m ost severe i n its rule of all . and n ot l ik ing t h e li fe at co u rt retired to Calabria wh ere h e fo u nded . H e aft er wards taugh t in th e school at R h ei ms 3 but after long r e fl e c . taste flesh a n d make b ut o n e m eal a day of pul se bread and wa t er . great talents was sent to Paris to study t heology u nder R ay m ond . . t heir coming ga v e them som e barren lan d at C hartre u x Here Bruno . . m onas t eries at Wa s t e i n for monks and n un s respect i v ely and hand .72 L E G E ND S AND S TOR IE S U l ph o was v ery de vo ut and i nfl uenced h e r h us band and t he i r . somely endowed bo t h T heir rule was princi p ally t hat of S t Augus t ine . though m odified by d irections Bridge t rece i ved i n v i sions of wh i ch . ” title of the R ule of the O rder of our S a v io ur “ S h e m ad e m an y . desired to make h i m Archbishop of R eggio B ut th is B runo refused . and when it cam e h is t urn to sing at ta b le h e went away . or poetry . . . v o ws O nly once a week can these m onks talk together They never . . . another monastery He d ied i n 1 200 Th e order wh ich h e establish ed . have done m u ch for art T heir ch urches and garden s w ere wondrou s .

. . S t Ca t h e r i n e o f A l e xa n d r i a v irgin a n d martyr (L a t S ancta . D ie Heilige K atharin a v on Alexandrien ) T his sai nt was th e daughter . l o s o ph y of Plato was h er fa v orite study w hile a ch ild S h e ha d . . ” begin ning of created beings T h en Caedmo n began to sing praises . . . . . h is death in 1 4 8 3 M arch 4 . “ and wh en h e ask ed wh at h e sh ould sing the reply was S ing th e . m ore an d m ore secl ude d d e v oti n g h i mself to religious p u rsu its u ntil . a n d an angel cam e in a dream an d tol d h im to sing . . . and being deno unced as a Christian th e j udge wh o condemn ed h i m . to G o d . . . IL L US T R A T E D IN AR T . I t a l S anta Catarina d e i S t u d i e n t i or S anta Catarina . . w h ile making th e sig n of th e cross . Poland and E lizabeth of A u str ia F rom h is ch ildhood h e par t ici p ated . . . acqu irem ents and her w isdom were most wonderful a n d the ph i . H e answered that he co uld not sing and for that reason had left . h er i n h er studies Her father died when sh e was fourtee n lea v ing . prepared by a dream to fi nd her a remarkable child 3 and at th e m oment of her birth a h alo of l ight played about h er h ead Her . r etireme n t wh ich d ispleased her subj ects and they begged her to . . . h e read he con v erted it i nto v erse H is paraphrase of S cripture i s . “ ” th e table But th e angel said Y o u shall sing notwithstand ing 3 . . h i m on account of h is severe discipl ine an d they tort ured h im m ost . . was abl e t o add more also When he told this to H ilda sh e believed . h i m to be inspired and recei v ed h i m into a m onastery wh ose m onks . of Costis (half brother to Constantine the G reat ) an d S a b i n e l l a - . . S t Ca s i m i r patron saint of Poland wa s the s on of Casi m ir I V o f . i n n bn e of th e pleasures of h i s fath er s co urt 3 an d as h e gre w u p h e ’ com p osed many hym ns He refu sed th e crown of H ungary and l i v ed . Queen of Egypt Before th e birth of Cath erine her m other was . her heiress to th e kingdom S h e gave herself up to study an d. an d when h e awoke h e rem em bere d al l h e had sung and . cruelly by pierci ng h i m w ith th e iron styles u sed i n w ri ti ng H e i s . S t Ca s s i a n (I t a l S a n Cascia n o ) w as a sch oolm aster of I m ola . Catharina . se v en learned m asters and chambers fitted with e v eryth ing to ai d . . the p atron sai nt of I mola August 1 3 . de lle R u ote 3 F r M adam e S t e Catherine 3 Sp S anta Catalina . . to death allowed h is scholars to be h is executi oners Th ey hated . were under her j urisdi ction H e was instructed i n S cri p ture . still p reserved in the B odleian L ibrary at O xford He d ied peacefully . . . . and as . 73 h e f ell asleep. Ger .

th ese words C atherine awoke and wept till m orn ing S h e called th e . sh e gazed on h is face she loved h i m and co uld t hi nk of no t hing el se . . godmo t her ” Then Christ sm iled o n h er an d p ligh ted h is tro t h to . where the queen was surro unded by angels sain t s an d mar tyrs an d .74 L E GENDS AND S T OR IE S m arry They said sh e was possessed of four n otable gifts — that . and from t hat ti me sh e des pised all ear t hly t hings and . . a l l o t hers in weal t h knowledge and beau t y . gift s so he whom she wo uld marry m ust l ike wi se b e of su ch n o b l e . Ca t herine . an d t he herm it ga v e Cath erine a p ict ure of M ary and Jesu s When . an d M ary a gain presented h er t o J esus . . . . L o she h a t h been ba p tized and I mysel f h ave b een h er . . she was of t he m os t no b le blood i n t he world and t ha t she sur p a ssed . . h er and besought h er to recei v e her as h er daugh t er Th e q ueen . desired to have for h e possessed a l l t h e req uirem ents and m ore 3 . . Then sh e stood up and followed t h em an d t hey led h er t o a chamber . . That n ight as C a t herine slept th e V i rgin and her S o n attended b y . tha t angels sh ould desire to see h im . S t and u p o ur dear sister . . . bad e h er welcome a n d led h er to o ur L ord B ut the L ord t urned . and so beni gn a s t o forgi ve all o ff ences S uch an one only could she m arry T hen S a b i n e ll a . . . thought only of the ti me w he n she should go to h e r hea v e n ly Brid e . . “ ” away saying S h e is not fair and beauti ful enough for m e . . and t h ey desired t ha t . “ say in g . m any angels a p peared to her . . wh ich she went w i t h the old hermi t to a sanc t uary o n a h igh m ou n tai n 3 and w hen s h e approach ed i t angels came to m ee t h er and sh e . h er and p u t a rin g on h er fi nger An d when she awok e th e rin g was . a n d the peopl e were sorrowful for they kne w of no such man . “ fell on her face B u t an angel said . h er beauty n one could descri be The angels p resen t ed C atherine to . deser t not far from Alexandri a was sent b y th e Blessed V irgin wh o . . and her st udies became d ull to h er That nigh t sh e h ad a dream i n . B ridegroom H e percei v ing th e darkness of her m ind ins t ruc t ed . . so b eau t iful . and so great as n ot to be inde b t ed t o her for being made a k ing ri cher than a n y o t her . Catheri ne would m arry n o oth er N o w a h erm it who dwel t i n a. still t here . . . for thee h ath the K ing of glory d eligh ted to honor ” . . she should give t he m an h eir S h e repl ied tha t as she h ad fo ur. blood that all wo uld worsh ip h i m . h er i n t h e true faith 3 an d she and also S a b i n e ll a were ba pt ized . . . h erm i t and demanded what would make her wor t hy of her celestial . B ut . ap p eared to h im to tell Catherin e th at h er S o n was t h e h usband s h e . At .

. came to Alexandria and declared a great p ersecu t ion against t hose . fell at the feet of C ath erin e an d declared th emsel ves C hris t i an s. . . they opened the dungeon a bright l ight a n d a fragrance filled all th e . . be t heir ba pt ism an d th e flam es glori ous crowns for them T hen t he . still rej ected h is o ffers h e or d ered th e m os t dreadful tortures for . _ . place T h en the empress an d Porphyry w ith two h undred others . I L L US T R A T E D IN AR T . . them wh en t h ey could n o t be bap t ized saying t ha t their blood should . 75 gr oom At lengt h th e good S a b i n e l l a died At th is t ime M axi m i n . . and . W hen M axi min returned h e put th e empress and all to death . eases of t h e t o n gue S h e i s al so p a t r o n e s s o f V en ice and a favorite . . . has also t h e m artyr s p al m the crown of royal t y the b ook whi ch ’ . M axim in ordered h er to be sco u rged a n d beh eaded T hen angels . and C a t h eri n e com for t ed . . . ess of educa t ion science an d p h iloso p hy of all students and of . . to be m istress of the worl d if sh e wo uld l isten to h im When sh e . . . but sh e pray ing to Go d overcam e them all . came and bore her body to th e t op of M t S inai and th ere i t res t ed . . . an d when aft er twel ve days . her But angels came to feed h er . t hen ordered fi ft y learned m en to com e fro m all parts of t he e mp ire to d is p ute w ith her . . fi re 3 by others th a t w ild beasts d evoured him C a t h erin e is p atron . and cons umed th e wh eels in fi re an d th e fragments flew arou nd . . colleges As p a t roness of eloquence sh e was invoked f or all d is . m a n d e d Por p hyry h is ser v ant to cast her into a dungeon and s t arve . h er . — wheels revol ving i n d i ff erent d irections that sh ould t ear h er . . when h e coul d n o t do t h is and was abo u t to go to war h e com . saint of ladies of royal b ir t h S h e i s re p resen t ed as richly dressed . . . . . . ated It i s said by som e that M ax im in was cons u med by an i n ward . and adm iring C a t herine s bea u ty still m ore t h an at fi rst o ffered h er ’ . in many p ieces When t h ey h ad bound h er to th ese an angel cam e . so that t h ey too decl ared t hem sel v es Christians Then M ax im i n . and held an argument w i t h t he tyrant and con founded h im H e . i n a m a rble sarco p hagus I n t h e eighth century a m onastery w as . and killed th e executioners an d three th ousand p eople B ut agai n . b uil t over her burial p lace an d h er re mains are still grea t ly v ener - . em p eror adm iring her beauty tried to o v ercom e h er v irt ue . expresses her learning 3 an d frequen t ly she t ramples on the head o f . . . enraged com manded the m to be b urned . w ho d id not worsh i p idols T he n C a t herine cam e forth to t he tem p le . and h er p eculiar a tt ri bu t e is t h e wheel ei t her whol e or broken S h e . .

h er o wn cou rse in l ife S h e ne ver entered a convent as a professed . . . 3 07 . ’ .76 L E GE NDS AND S T OR IES M axi m in th us symbolizing th e tri umph of h er C hristian fai t h over . . persecuted h er putting t h e m ost m en ial labors u pon h er and treat . Bridegroom . . b u t sh e m ade a vo w of silen ce for th ree years an d led a l ife of . . St . i n 1 3 78 . . D om in ick to p ray and th ere sh e h ad m any wonderful v isions S h e . . . n un . h is d well ing i s n o w - . of F errara S h e entered a con vent of Poor Clares and bec a m e d is . . S t Ca t h e r i n e o f S i e n a (L a t S an cta C atharina S en ese V irgo . t h e grea t est sel f denial S h e went e v ery day to th e conve n t of S t - . t i n g u i s h e d as a painter There are sai d to be several pic t ures of . hers in Bologna H er remains dressed i n brocade an d j ewels are . . prayer with a wh ite dove resting upon h er h ead of wh ose presence . m uch p leased w i t h C a t herin e that h e left her t o d ecide t h e t erms o f pe ace b e t w een h i msel f and t h e F l o r e n t i n e s l C a t h erine fel t i t t o b e a . . sole her S h e n ursed t h e sick e ve n th ose wh o had the mos t loath . S h e was th e da u ghter of a dyer . S iena la S anti ssima V ergine ) . . Ca th e r i n e re c o n c il de t he F l o re n t i n e s to t h e H o ly S e e . a d m i ra b i l i s et gloriosa S ponsa Ch ri sti 3 I t a l S anta C a t erina d i . . i s a favori t e and ex t remely bea u t ifu l subj ect of art N ovem b er 2 5 . . som e diseases H er fam e s pread through all Tuscany and to M ilan . A D . l ife as early as i n her ei g h t h year an d prayed Chr i st to be h er . was grea t ly temp t ed of S atan 3 sh e inflicted upon h ersel f the m ost severe penan ces an d Ch rist cam e to h er i n v i si b le presence to con . to be seen in her con ven t at Bologn a M arch 9 A D 1 4 6 3 . . . . pagan ism and cruel t y T h e m arriage of S t C a t herine to th e S avio ur . been grea tly ven era t ed i n her own city for abo ut four cent uries S h e . . who d welt n ear th e F onte B randa at S iena . th e O ra t ory of S t Cath erine S h e dedicated h ersel f to a rel igi o u s . . Ca t h e r i n e o f B or S anta C aterin a de V i gr i has l o o gn a . . i ng h er wi t h great h arsh ness But at length h er fath er saw h er at . erine t o h i m as their m ed ia t or The p ope th en a t A vi g non was so . was of noble fam ily and for a ti me a m aid of h onor at t he co u rt . 1 St . d u ri n g t h e P on t ifica te of Urb a n V I . . H oly S e e were ex com m uni ca t ed by th e po p e and th ey sen t C a t h . sh e seemed u nconscious F rom th i s tim e sh e was allo wed t o ch oose . as h e was t h at of C atheri ne of Al exandria Her . a n d N a p les At leng t h the F loren t ines h a v ing re b elled a gains t the . fa t her and m oth er were angry at h er refu sal to marry and g rea t ly . .

. . “ ” female saints and is know n at S iena as la S anta . . . S h e was one of th e most noted of . . h istory render h er l ife i nteresting in m any ways S h e is represented . ’ crate d it to G od s service Her parents desired her when sixtee n . beri n g her v o w prayed G o d to h elp h er to preserve her ch astity . m a r ka bl y serious and p ious S h e early m ade a v o w of chastity and . because he had listened to Cecilia and respected h er vow w hatever . the instruments employed i n secular m usic were i nsu ffi cient to ex press th e m usic o f her soul an d she i nvented th e organ an d couse . . have a broth er n am ed T i b u r t i u s w h o m I love as my own soul . H e so ans wered her prayer that when sh e told V alerian of her faith . “ h e most desired sho uld be granted h i m T hen V alerian said I . . l owed the death o f G regory C atheri ne took the p art of U r b an V I . return to th e L ateran wh i ch h e did I n th e great sch ism wh ich fol . C ecil ia h ad tol d Valeria n that she had a guard ian angel 3 and w hen h e returned fro m h is baptism h e h eard sweet m usic and saw th e . - . i n g — still full of zeal and faith . h e became con verted an d was ba p ti zed and respected her vow . . . . . . . . . . w h ich s h e is said to h a v e recei v ed April 3 0 A D 1 38 0 . S h e i s suppose d to ha v e l i v e d . T h e facts of her . S t Ce c i l i a ( F r S t e C e cile ) . . beneath her bridal robes sh e wore a garment of penance and rem em . C lement But h er failing heal t h p re v ented her from fu lfill ing the . devoted hers elf to a rel igious l ife S h e al ways carried a copy of t he . years old to m arry V alerian a rich yo ung noble S h e did so 3 b ut . . Cecilia was i n ch ildhood r e . . m ission C atheri ne died at thirty three after great physical s u ff er . . w ife had secretly becom e Chri stian s . ILL US TR A TE D IN AR T . . ‘ ” gran t that h is eyes also may be opened to the truth Th is request . to . . - . . that ti me S h e w as th e daughter of a noble R oma n wh o w ith h is . the court of J oa n n a I I of S icily w ho had sided wi t h the an t i pope . . roses w h ich bloom i n Parad ise C ecilia an d V alerian knelt an d . . . 77 g re a t cause of m isrule i n the C h urch that th e popes w ere absent . i n the t h ird century and th e honor p a id to h er can be traced to . from R om e an d sh e used all her p owers to persuade G regory X I to . Gos p els i n h er robe S h e especially excelled i n m usic and compose d . and sung hy m ns so s w eet that angels cam e to l iste n to h er B ut . . i n p ictures i n th e hab it of th e D om ini can O rder w ith th e stigmata . . w ho appointed her ambassadress w ith S t C atherine of S weden . . th e angel crowned them w ith t h e flo wers and tol d V alerian th at . angel standing n ear h er w ith t wo cro wns m ade of t he i mmorta l .

. G aul as m issionary preach ers At G enoa the people threw them into . T i b u r t i us an d M axi m us . . h e was s urprised for i t was not t h e . . N azari us wh o was a conver t ed J e w Togeth er t hey travelled t h rou g h . S h e ga v e h er money to th e poor an d desired th at her h ouse should . . be made a church S h e d ied swee t ly singing and was buri ed beside . t e e n t h century th e ch urch was agai n repaired and h er co ffin o p ened . th e p refec t A l m a c h i u s com m anded them to w orsh ip J upi t er . T hey were placed in h er ch urch n o w . . . T his so enraged t he prefect that h e com manded t h e three to be beheaded Cecilia cared for and b uried thei r rem ains i n the cem e . St . . . . wh ich represents her as sh e appeared i n the co ffi n S h e i s the pa t ron . Ce l s u s (I Th i s was a young d isci ple of S t ta l . h urt her at all . b urial p lace Her body was found an d al so th e bod ies of V al erian - . comm anded Cecil ia to w orsh ip J up iter an d th reatened h er w i t h fear . . S a n Cel so ) .78 L E G E ND S AND S TOR IE S wa s pleasing to Go d 3 and wh en T i b u r t i u s entered s o o n aft er and pe r c e i ve d t h e fragrance of t he roses. . th e stones and p ipes for h ea t ing the bath still re main I n the six . w hen the cel ebra t ed statue of S t Cecil i a ly ing dead was m ade “ ” . . Her bath room i s a chapel and . angel S h e i s ri chly dressed an d often has j ewels N o v ember 22 . and . . ch urch h e h ad a v ision of S t C ecilia i n w h ich sh e told h im h er . conve rt ed and baptized T hey t hen gave th em sel ves u p to a religiou s . b e cast th e brothers in t o prison and gave . th e m a keeper called M ax im us an d h e al so becam e a Chris t ian . . b ut t h e y were m iraculou sly saved and came at las t to M ilan . A D 28 0 . s t rengthened Bo t h C elsus and N az a r i us were beh eaded a t M ilan . neck and breast and yet d id n ot k ill h er S h e lingered t hree days . . t ime of flowers T hen C ec i lia t old h i m of t h eir fai t h and h e t oo w as . . th e sea . so h e then sent an executi oner to slay h er w ith th e s word H i s h and trembled so th at he inflic t ed t h ree wo unds on h er . . w here P r o t a s i u s a n d G c r va s i u s h ad b ecome Chris t ians wh om t hey . . l i fe and d id m uch good to th e poor and persec uted C h r is t ians B u t . w hen t hey wo ul d not . . . t e r y of C al ix t u s D esiri ng to h ave h er great weal t h th e prefect t hen . - . . . . called S t Cecilia i n T raste v ere . . . to be throw n i nto her bath filled w ith boil ing w ater T h is di d not . . ful tort ures S h e only sm iled h er scorn H e t h en com m anded h er . . . a roll of m usi c S h e also h as the cro wn of roses an d a n a t tendant . . . ess of m usi c and m usicians Her proper attri b ute i s the organ an d . . . . h er h u sband I n the n i nth century w h en Paschal r e paire d her .

.

. . . ° u ncle Pi us IV H is elder brother d i e d wh e n Charl es was t wen t y six . laxi t y of d iscipl ine and h e m ay be regarded as a powerful instru men t . chari t ies were m ost m u n i fic e n t At th e tim e of t h e p lague at M ilan . H e went at once to take possession of h is d iocese and esta t e H is . of t he nobl est fam il ies of L ombardy Bei ng the s econd son h e w as . . . h imself m ortally wounded and t he people considered h im to be m i rac . twenty eigh t priests to j oin h im a l l of whom w i t h S t C harl es esca p ed s . . would precede h i m H e i s frequently represented w ith a b ook i n . u nh u rt H e l ived i n a ti m e wh en th e cl ergy had fallen i nto great .80 L EGE ND S A N D S T OR IES h er with them . . sa . J a n ua ry 28 . . . h as b e e n k e p t b y t h e Ge rm a n s an d F re n c h o n l y s i n c e 1 4 8 6 . h i m sel f to see th at his p eople were cared for I n p ubl ic b e l i v ed as . i ncomes h e dedicated to p ubli c u ses only spending for h i mself enoug h . . . p erformed all th e d uties per t ai ning to h is o ffi ce H is exam pl e i ns p ired . . m issionaries to preach i n e very p art of h is d iocese an d went al so . 1 St . 1 H e is n ot m e n ti on e d i n t h e Ca th o l i c Ca l e n d a r of Sain t v e a s B l e ss e d s . . a tt em p ted to k ill h i m b y fi ring u pon h i m wh ile h e was cele b ra t ing t he e vening service H e fi n i sh ed th e prayer al t ho u g h h e bel iev ed . h e went into the city wh en all oth ers fled and tended t he sick an d . twen ty three h e was m ade card inal and Archbish op of M ilan by h i s - . t im e of h er death i n 1 6 4 1 t h ere were seven t y five houses of h er . becam e h is rank and ga v e feasts of wh ich h e n ever par t ook Hi s . if a s t rict ch ronology were observe d S t C lo t ilda and S t S igismon d . . - order i n F rance and S avoy S h e was canon ized i n 1 76 9 A ugu st . . the reven ues of a rich Benedictine m onastery b ut wo uld only re ser v e . h ated by those p riests w h o had been i n th e habi t of using the reve n ues of t h e C h urc h for t hei r own ind ulgen ce . . and one F r a F arin a . . T his saint was of one . . Ch a r l e wh ose h istory as C harlem a gn e th e G reat m a n g e . early dedicated t o the Ch urch At t wel ve years of age he recei v ed . - . S t Ch a r l e s B o r r o m e o (I t a l S a n C arlo ) . H is f e a st. a mere p it t an ce for h imself de v oting t he rem aind er to chari t y A t . i n res t or i ng the m to zeal for th e d uties of the ir v ocation H e was . th e head of royal saints i n the countries o ver w hic h h e ruled although . . . to buy h is b read an d w ater and straw on wh ich to sleep H e sent . remembrance of h is h a v ing caused the S crip t ures to be correctly translated and widely prom ulgated January 28 A D 8 1 4 . . E m p eror of F rance It aly and G ermany is so fam il iar to all — stands at . . b ut sh e re mained fi rm i n her d eterm ination At t h e .

remained unharm ed five days an d s ung G od s p raises H er f a t her the n ’ . . . IL L US T R A T E D IN A R T . ” H is remai n s repose i n a rich shrine at . supposed to hav e been born at T i r e a town on the borders of L ake . wa t ch ing t hose wh o begged al m s and had nothi ng to gi ve sh e th ough t . . F T S t e C h ristine . when on h is way from C h artres to Paris to v isit S t D enis Taking . central a n d northern I taly S h e was the ch ild of a R oman patricia n . i n th e cathedral of C hartres represen t s the h istory of S t C heron . S t Ch e r o n was a d isciple of S t D enis an d was Bisho p of . T h e cathedral o f Bolsena i s consecrated to h er —patroness of B olsen a . . S t C hri s t ina t h e p ai ntings in wh ich are attrib uted to the C aracci . . safely to land S h e was then thrown into a fi ery furnace wh erei n sh e . . ) S h e is . . . . been converted to th e doctri nes of C hrist As she stood one day . wh o go v erned th e city S h e called h erself C hristina because sh e had . . B olsena wh i ch h as sin ce been swallowed u p i n th e lake . . . . . . i s t i n a (I t a l S anta Cristina . . J ulian h earing that she sang i n her p rison sent orders that h er . . . tem p le of Apollo to sacrifice 3 b ut w hen she came th ere t h e idol fell do w n before her w h ic h so frightened h er father that h e di ed B ut . bound t o a p ost and sh ot w ith arrows till sh e d ied T h us was sh e . gave the m to th e p oor H er fath er was furious and ordered h i s . . C hartres H e was attacked by robbers and h is head was struck o ff . 6 . ’ . . of th is saint h as been rej ected by the Ch u rch but she is celebra t ed i n . . . . . ordere d her head to be shaved an d tha t sh e sh ould b e taken to the . . 81 u o u sl y l h eale d H e die d N o v ember 4 1 5 8 4 an d w i th h is last breat h . bore h er u p and Go d c l o t hed her w ith a w h ite robe and led h er . Th e legend . tongue sh oul d be c ut o ut wh en sh e s t ill contin u ed to sin g to th e . exclai med “ E cce v en i c . . of t h e golden idols of h er father an d she broke the m i n p ieces and . lake of Bolsena wh ich f e w travellers visit i s a chu rch ded icated t o . M ilan H e is represented i n card inal s robes and barefooted a rope . o t h er N ovember 4 A D 1 5 8 4 . sh e was not harm ed At last i n des p ai r h e comm anded her to be . a bout h is neck and one hand raised i n benediction w ith a book i n th e . . h is head i n h is hand he contin ued h is j ourn ey O ne of t h e w indow s . m artyred and angel s bore h er soul to h eaven O n an island i n th e . amazement of all S h e was n ext sh ut up w i t h p oisonous re pt iles b u t . . servan t s to beat her an d thro w her into a d ungeon H ere angels . . St C h r. throw n i nto the lak e with a m ill stone t i ed t o h e r n eck But angels - . . cam e and healed her wounds H er father th en comm anded her t o be .

“ of O ff e r o and w ith an ai r of authority said . 29 5 . I t a l S a n C ri stofero e . Ge r D er H eilige . for I hav e h eard h e i s the m ost po werful of a l l t h e e a rth and I . . . . . . . C hrist or S a t an and su pp osed h is m as t er to be afraid of no one sin ce . w h ich won h im sai ntly reno w n was called O ff e r o wh ich si g n ifi es . stron g and I fear lest h e shall ov erco m e m e . . . S atan . “ ” t he bearer H e was proud o f h is v ast size and streng t h 3 bu t i n . Ch r i s t o p h r (L a t S t C hri sto p horus . . for h e i s very m ighty and as wicked as . S h e h as also t he m ar ty r s pal m a n d crown . . of wandering h e cam e to th e co u rt of a k ing sai d to excel all o t hers . n ame of S atan and e v ery ti me h e d id so the k ing trembled an d . . ” h i m w ill I seek a n d serve . j ourneyed on th ey came to a cross erecte d by the w ayside w here . . sp i t e of thi s h i s poverty com pelled h im to become a servan t S o b e . . . or C ris t ofano . Wh ith er goes t th ou . ” and for what dost th ou seek ? Then sai d O ff e r o “ I w ish to fi nd . h e was th e grea t est monarch of th e earth 3 b ut on e day as h e stood . .82 L E GEND S A ND S T O R IES and th e V enetian S t ates Her proper attrib u t e i s the m ill s t on e . . ” b o wed before h i m and j oi ned h is followers Aft er a ti me a s they . for my m as t er m us t fear n o one So he . i n power an d weal t h an d to h i m h e o ffered h is serv ices T h e king . . an d when t h e . I make t h is si g n t ha t S a t an m a y . O ff c r o th en . wandered a gain seek ing S atan . . boas t of such a servant N o w O ff e r o kne w n o t h ing of th e po wer of . H e was of the lan d of Canaan and before p erforming th e d eed s . a t erri b le b eing w i t h th e a pp earan ce of great po wer m arch in g a t t h e . . J uly 24 . resol ved th at the m ost po werful m onarch of t h e earth alone shoul d be h is mas t er an d h e went to seek h im At length aft er m any days . crossed h i msel f O ff e r o ask ed th e m ean i ng of th is . . acce pt ed h im gladly for no o t her m onarch of all th e eart h co uld . . . . . . . ’ S t U rs ula . “ k ing d id not a n swer h e said I f th ou dost n ot an swer m e th is I . . ” “ h imself d ecei ved and said S in ce th ere is one wh om t ho u fearest . beside h im a m instrel w ho was si nging m en t ioned frequ en tly t h e . h e and your serv ice shall be a n easy an d pl e asant one . A D . - b u t sh e som e t imes has arrows alone w hen sh e m igh t be m is t aken for . a n d crossing a great d esert h e s a w . St . C hris t o p h ) S t C hristopher m igh t well be cal led t h e gian t saint . . ” would have h i m for m y m aster S atan w ell p lease d r e p l ie d “ I am . h av e n o power o ver m e . Then O ff er o fel t . . . h ead of an arm ed l egion He did not see m to noti ce th e g reat si ze . . ” leave t hee T h en th e ki ng said . F r S t C hri sto p he or Cr i s t o fl e .

” . . not one pe r ish ed w h er e befor e so m an y had been s we p t away F o r . b u t o f the boughs of trees An d h e aided a ll w ho came 3 an d many he . Then sa i d the he r mit I f tho u w ilt u s e thy strength kno w est thou a . h im lightly . . haste an d fear an d went a long d istance o u t o f h is way to avoi d th e . an d i f he acce p ts thee h e w i ll i m p ose great d uties u p o n . began to teach h im and sai d T h o u art r ight i n bel ie v ing that C h r is t . for h i s pow er extends o v er both hea v en a n d earth and w il l endure th r oughout eter n i ty B ut tho u canst not ser v e . . . . S o he left . At length h e . . bo r e u p o n h i s sho u lders and was n e v er weary by day or n ight i n . w ill not fast for i t i s m y strength that makes m e a good serv ant . . . . . ” and w hen I behol d i t I fly lest h e sh ould o v e r come me T hen sai d . suited h i m well S o h e w ent to the r i ver and b uilt upon i t s b ank a . . came to a her m it w hom he entr eated to tell h i m w here Christ could . The n sai d O ff e ro I . ” more p owerful than thou an d h i m w ill I seek and ser v e . S atan a n d wandered m an y days i n sear ch o f C hrist . ” w herefore dost tho u avo i d i t ? But S atan spoke n ot T hen sai d . ” i t s s wi ft cur rent many o f th ose wh o would cross i t ? O ff e r o said I . “ ” “ ” kno w such a str eam T he n go the r e sai d th e h er m i t an d a i d . . . “ sai d the herm i t I kno w not h o w to p r ay neither w i ll I learn . . . . At length . th ose w h o str uggle w i th i t s w a v es . . not too lar ge for h i s great h eight and strength As Jes us beheld this . . . IL L US T R A T E D IN AR T . . i s the gr eatest k ing . “ O ff e r o Te l l me w ho is this Jesus . work 3 and if Ch r i st w il l ha v e thee f o r th i s serv i ce he w i ll assure thee . . “ ” ” w hy should I waste i t by fasti ng ? An d besides tho u must p ray . . be foun d Then the he r m i t seei ng that h e kne w noth i ng of Jesus . O ff e r o “ E xce p t tho u tellest m e I must lea v e thee Being compe l led . “ ” thee a n d w ill r equi r e that th ou fast o f ten . a sta ff he used a p alm tree w h ich h e p ulled up i n the for est an d i t was - . deep w i de r i v er that i s o ften s w ollen w i th rai ns a n d swee p s away i n . ” of h is acce p tance T hen was O ff er e glad for this was a task w h ich . for since t ho u fearest hi m h e is . . and the weak a n d th e l ittle ones b ear tho u from sho r e to sho r e on thy b roa d shoulders T his i s a good . 83 fo u r r oa d s met W hen the D e v il s a w th i s h e t ur n e d w i th gr eat . . ” S uch a ser v i ce i s for weak ones b u t not for me sa i d the proud gi ant . h e was w ell p leased w i th Off e r o and h is labor 3 for though he woul d n e i ther f ast nor pray yet had he fo u nd a w ay to ser v e h i m . . assisting those w h o c r ossed the r i ver An d after h e began h is work . the w icked one re p lied I fear the cross beca use u p on it Jesus d ied 3 . cross . Then sai d O ff e r o “ Why is th is ? W hat i s th i s c r oss and . .

. to p rison an d tried to seduce h im to i dolatry by sending beauti ful . A n d h e w ent out quickly b ut he coul d fin d no o n e B ut w h en he h a d aga i n la in do w n . rested one nigh t i n h is b u t he heard a v oice l ik e tha t of a w eak ch ild . for th is I ” am no w called Christ Off e ro the bearer o f Chri st D a g n u s sent h i m. k ing fa i nted W hen h e was h imsel f agai n h e said . a pp r obati on of th ee fix tho u thy sta ff i n the earth and i t shal l gro w . . . the sa me v oice call ed a s before an d at the th ird call h e arose an d . . acce p ted thee Thou hast borne not only th e w hole w orld b ut H i m . .84 L E GE ND S AND S T OR IE S ' aft er Ofl e ro h a d spent a long time an d d i d n ot w eary o f h i s t oil as h e . . a n d bel ie v e d i n Ch ri st sho ul d be de l i v ered from ear thq u ake fi re an d . p ermitted h i msel f to be bou nd and take n to D a gn u s t he K i ng of . . i n s p ite o f h is great strength s h e a t h e n struck h i m w hen he said . ” h im Offe r o O ff e r o carr y m e o v er to n i ght . . . w ent to S amos w here there was a great persec u t i on o f Chri stians an d . and by h is i nfluence the women became C hristia n s and su ff ered d eath . “ ” W ere I n ot a Christian I woul d take v engeance o n thee He . sought w ith a lantern At last he foun d a l ittle ch il d w h o besought . beca u se they too w orsh i pp ed Jesus . . ble w t h e wa v es were tossed and t h e roar o f th e waters was as m any . . L ycia i n w h ich country was S amos . w omen to h im w h o urged h i m to si n B ut C hristo p her w as faith fu l . . aid of h is pal m sta ff at length h e crossed and p ut h is b urde n safely . . n o w I ser v e Chris t and ha v e borne h i m . . . . had borne and h e fell do w n a n d w orsh i pped h i m After that O fl e r o . . dow n upon the other s ide Then h e cried out W hom have I born e ? . th unders and the l ittle ch i ld gre w h ea v y an d more h ea v y u ntil . to ex ecution h e kneeled do w n an d p rayed that all w h o beh eld h i m . . W h o art th ou ? . . - . . . “ ” and it said O ff e r o w i lt tho u carry m e o v er ? . T he n D a g n us tortured h i m . . . . greatly a n d commanded hi m to be beheaded When they led h i m . . ” and bear fruit O ff e r o d i d so 3 an d th e staff was soo n co v ered w ith . w ho m ade i t o n thy shoulders As a sign o f my p o wer an d of m y . . o n m y shoul ders . . At the sight o f th e giant the . “ an d the giant ans w ered M y first name was O ff e r o the B e arer b ut . ” Had it been th e w hole w orld i t could n o t ha v e been more h eavy ! . “ Then th e ch i ld r e p l i ed M e tho u hast desi r ed to se r v e and I ha v e . . Offe r o feared he should h i msel f si nk an d both be lost B ut w ith the . . . . H e l i fted h i m u p an d . carryi ng h is sta ff began to cross th e stream I mmedia t ely the wi nds . . lea v es an d t h e dates h u ng i n h uge clusters upon i t But the w onder . ful ch ild was gone Then O ffe r o k ne w that i t w a s Chri st w h om h e .

w ere betrothed b ut Ch r ysa n t h u s persuaded D aria t h at a state o f . . . I LL U S T R A T E D IN AR T . o ger s o f earth quake flood or fire The sight o f h i m i s thought also . S e i ff o . . acco m pan y h i s p i ctur es Ch r i st oph or i S a n c ti s p e c i e m qu i c um qu e t ue t ur . c rated an d vi si ted by pil rims He i s represented on a w indo w at g . S t Ch r y s a n t h u s (I t a l S a n G risante ) . F r S t e . . S t Cl a i r (L a t S C larus ) is one of the beheaded saints . . . He . A D 3 64 . R o me from Alexandria an d S t D aria cam e from Athens T hey . . h ired by a lewd wom an wh o coul d not overcom e h is chastity Th is . . fa i nt or fai l on that July 2 5 . v illage i s between R ouen and Pontoise H is shrine is greatly v en . to i mpart strength to the w eak an d w eary w h i ch i dea i s expressed . . . ’ . the cou n ty of V exin . . S t Ch r y s o g o n u s (I t a l S a n Gr i so gon o ) . m m erian according t o som e 3 b ut Baillet bel ie v es i n th e persecu t io n . . S t M aclo u in R ouen . i n F rance H e preached wi t h great faithful . . w ealth of h er f am ily caused her to recei v e many offers of marriage . . . i n many i nsc r i p tions mo r e or less s i m il ar to the fo l lo w i ng on e w h i ch . . 85 tem pest I t was belie v ed that h i s prayer w as e ff ect u al a n d that a ll . T h ey were remarkable for their d e votion to th e F ai t h . T hi s saint cam e to . . w ere interred was long called the cemetery of S S Ch r ys a n t h u s and . . th e L atins O ctober 2 5 A D 2 3 7. . w ho p iously i nvoke S t Ch r istopher are safe f o r that day from a ll dan . . v irgin ity was m ore favorabl e to a religious l ife than that of mar r i a ge . . S e e S t A nastasia . N o vember 4 . I ll o n a m qu e di e nu ll o l a n gu or e t e n e tur . . I t a l S anta Ch iara . of V alerian I t i s said that soon aft er th eir b uri al a large number . was an E nglish man o f noble ex t raction and l i v ed and labore d in . ‘ n ess and was m urdered at a v illage wh ich bears h is name by r u fli a n s . . . her mother was named O rtolana Her beauty and the great . S t Cl a r a ( L a t S an cta C lara . T hey were at length acc u sed and m ar t yred — i n th e reign of N u . . ” ( “ W hoe v er shall behol d th e i mage o f S t C hr i stopher s h a ll n o t . D aria Th e Greek C hurch h onors the m on M arch 1 9 and O ctober 1 7 3 . of C hristians who were prayi ng at their tomb were walled up i n the cav e and th u s buried ali ve The part of the catacombs where they . S h e had early dedicated herself to a rel igious l ife and went to . C laire) C lara (1 Assisi was the daughter of a n obleman F avorino .

. . years o l d . D . as was t he custom o n t h a t d ay Whe n the o t hers approached the . adhered to th e r u les of her order as to i nj u re her heal t h and for a . . the i n fid e l s t h re w down t he ir arms and fled I nnocent I V v isi t ed . profession S h e went t o ch urc h wi th a ll her fam ily richly at t ired . world and appoi n t ed Pal m S unday as t he day for her to make h er . age her convent o f S a n D am iano sh e arose fro m h er b ed wh ere sh e . . . . . .86 L E GE ND S A N D S T OR IES S t F rancis. . S t F rancis d welt . S h e was con d u cted to the al t ar w h ere S t F rancis . M adre S e r a fic a or t h e foundress of t h e O rder of F ranciscan N uns . to ask h is advice He encouraged h er to reno u nce the . . . . S t C lara is a favorite sain t all over E uro p e but es p ecially so i n . l ong t im e she was bedridden O n one occasi on wh en th e S aracens . . garmen t s was covered w i t h t he personal p en iten t ial ro b es of F rancis . . . A ugust 1 2 . t hey b ore h er remain s wi t h th em T h e lat t er is no w t h e ch urch of . ” order were severe i n the ex t reme C lara wen t by t he w ish of S t . . d ied a t six t y i n a rap t uro us t rance b el ieving h erself called t o . F rancis t o the con vent of S t Paolo . bess When t h e n uns rem oved from S a n D am iano t o S a n G iorg io . l 25 3 . heaven by angel ic voices H er sis t er Agnes su cceeded h er as a h. . cam e down from t he al t ar t o gi ve her t he pal m branch A t e veni ng - . or as t hey are be t t er kno wn t he Poor Clares . al t ar sh e remained afar o ff . ” . h ad so long been confi ned and placing the Pyx wh i ch contained t he . . . . and before h er d ea t h i t had s p read throu g hou t Chris t endom and m any noble l ad ies had j oined i t S h e . S p ain Her p ro p er a tt ri b ute is t he Pyx con t aining the H os t S h e . and at leng t h by h er mo t her C lara so s t rictly . “ The rules of her . h ouse of U ba ld i n i . . to wh om F rederick had gi ven th e for t ress of N ocera cam e to rav . Hos t u p on t he t h resh old sh e kneeled down an d be gan t o sing w hen . A . c u t o ff her hair w i t h h is o wn h ands and she p ut t ing o ff her ri ch . . S an t a C hiara d Assisi and i s t h e m os t fam o us one of h er order ’ . . wh ich h e t hre w o ver her Th us she became h is disci p le a n d t h e . . . wears a gray t un ic and t he cord of S t F rancis w i t h a black v eil . S h e also bears t he lily the cro s s and the pal m . every m eans to i nduce h er to re t urn to them w itho ut e fl e c t 3 and i n ‘ a shor t tim e she was followed by her sister Agnes only fo ur t een . by m any ladies of rank among wh om were three of th e . h er and confi rmed h er order . H er fam ily an d friends tried . and S t F rancis ad m iring her h um ili t y . . . . . she concealed herself i n a v eil and escaped to the P o r z i o n c u l a w here . .

.

an d w hen th e sold iers . T he priests of t h e idols prescribed th at h e sho uld bath e i n ch ildren s ’ bl ood Thre e thou sand ch ildren w ere collected to be slain 3 b ut a s . . Ste . . and by th is h e was con verted an d w as bap . d ian princess and th e w ife of Clov is S h e i s famed a s hav ing . were ch anged fro m the three toads (crapau ds ) of earl ier days to . th e fl e u r s de lys the e mble m s of p u ri ty an d regeneration J un e 3 . . . Co n s t a n t i n e E m p e r o r Constantine w h il e still an idolater . . . A D 5 45 .88 L E GE N D S AND S TOR IE S St . . sh i p their G od N o w S yl vester was th e Bishop of R ome wh o h ad . ” cents . . and a persecutor of the C hristians w as affl icted w ith a leprosy . tim e h e sho uld cease to persecute th e C hristians and h imself wor . h im a pool in wh i c h he could wash a n d be cl ean and that from that . found h i m a n d led h i m a way h e thought i t w as to h is ex ecut ion . . . He then comm anded the ch ildren to be restored to th e ir m others to w h om h e gave l arge gifts to compensate for their s u ff erings . - . . brought from h eaven by a dove 3 and tradition says th at an angel came down bearing three l il ies w h ich h e gave to S t R em i and he . better is it that I shoul d d ie th an cause t he death of these i nno . . They took h i m to th e em peror w ho asked h i m w ho th e two god s . h id aw a y fro m th e cruel ties of Constanti ne and was i n a cave near M onte C a l vo T h e e mper o r sent for h i m . ers were m urdered e scaped to a convent an d becam e a monk of t h e . . Th at n ight i n hi s sl eep S t Peter an d S t Paul appeared to h i m and .A t h is baptism i t i s said that the o il w as . . i n turn gave th e m to Clotilda and at th is ti me th e arm s of F rance . . . C hristianized F ran ce Her h usban d after long resisting h er a t . told h i m th at C hrist had sent them to h i m because he had spared the innocents They told h im to send for S yl vester w ho woul d sho w . m id st of an unfortunate battle I mmediately th e fo r tunes of h is . . . ~ t i z e d by S t R em i . . arm s w ere changed . . B enedictine Order S eptember 7 A D 5 60 . t i ne then desire d to s e e the e ffig i e s of these apo s t l es S yl v e st e r . . . . ch ildren so entreated h i m that h e stopped h is chariot an d said F ar . . tempts for h is conversion c a lled u pon the G o d of Clotilda i n th e . pl ied t h a t th ey were n ot gods b ut th e apostles of J es us Cons t an . . . th e em peror rode to th e pl ace w h er e they w ere th e moth ers of th e . . S t Cl o u d was a grandson of S t Clotilda w ho w hen h i s broth . . Cl o t i l d a Clotilde ) ( S t Clotilda w as a B urg F r . w ere wh o h ad appe a red to h i m the pre viou s n ight S yl vester r e .

. h i mself and carrying on h is shoulders t wel ve h o df ul s of eart h and l a ying th e first stone A nother acco unt of th e manner of h is con . . th at those wh o blasphemed against Hi m shoul d lose the ir l i ves . th e arb itrators were as t o n i sh e d an d Constantine was shaken in h is faith but S ylves t er sai d . Helena t old h i m that i t would have been b e tter to become a J e w than a Christian S o h e wrote h er to bring to disp ute w ith S ylves . duri n g th e campaign of 3 1 2 w h il e on h is m arch to R ome h e saw a . th e next day . th e th ird day that any on e wh o ins u lted a C hristian should forfei t half . . Then S yl vester was attacked w ith fury . . . I L L US T R A T E D I N AR T . h is d isease Th e n ext d ay Constantine commanded that Christ . . . . th at they were l ik e those w hom he h ad seen in the v ision S y lves . v ersion to C hristian ity and one frequently ill ustrated i n a r t i s that . defeated th ese learn ed R abbi s Then on e of th em Z a m br i w ho . . . h is goods . sho u l d b e worsh ipped i n a l l R ome as th e only Go d . . 89 sho wed h i m som e p i ctures of Peter an d Paul and Constantine saw . . th e seventh th at th e tithes of the dom ains of R om e should belong to . po inted arbitrators Then S ylvester praying for w isdom utterly . th e n ext day h e gave the pri vilege of . an d that on t he nigh t before h is last battle w ith M a xe n t i u s h e was . th e fourth day th at the Bishop of R ome should be th e . first bishop of th e world . . said he fell dead at h i s feet as soon as h e had w h ispered to h im . should fall dead The bull was brought . th ese are A u tun A ndernach an d V erona B ut to these . sai d that when h e sh o u ld speak i n h is ear th e n ame of h is Go d h e . was a m agician desired that a fi erce bull should be brought and . “ ” l um ino us cross i n th e sky w ith the inscription By this conqu er . . ter th e m ost learned of the Je ws S h e cam e to R om e w ith on e . and as th e m agician had . . the sixth h e ordered that no . . cl ai m th e honor of hav ing been the place w h ere Constantin e behel d th e cross . ch u rch es shou ld be b uilt w itho ut th e con sent of th e b ishop . h undred a n d forty doctors of th e l a w A day was appoi n ted for . m iraculous directions a n d the s u ccess w h ich follo wed h is obed ience to them is a ttribu ted h is belief i n C hristian ity Th e E mpress . ter then baptized h i m and h e came o ut fro m h is baptism cured of . . sanctuary to the C hri stian ch urches . th e Ch urch an d the eighth day h e founded th e L ateran by d iggi n g . the discu ssion . com manded in a v ision to i nscribe th e sacred monogram of th e n ame of C hrist u po n th e sh ields of h is soldiers Three di ff erent localities . and Z eno and Crato Greek ph ilosoph ers were a p .

th e governor that h is soul sho uld be in torments that n ight a n d as h e ate h i s d i n n er h e wa s ch oked to death There i s n o n eed to re m i n d . S t Paul H is f e s va l i s D ecember 3 1 a n d h e d ied i n 3 3 5 ' . life Th is h e could not do . . . . S t Co s m o and S t D a m i a n ( L a t S S C osm us e t D a m i a n u s . as gentle as before he h ad been fierce T hen all w ho saw th is b e . killed three h undred persons dail y by h is poisonous breath Th en . tian wh o w as afterward slain for h is faith Th e governor believed . med ici n e for t h e purpose of relieving su ffering and refused all com . . . rep r esentation Th ey were A rabi ans b ut d w el t at A l gae i n Cil ici a . at last they w ere beh eaded They w ere patrons of med icin e an d. . C hris t ian v irtue Th eir ch ari ties w ere extensive . . and th ey studied . b ut g a ve l ife He desired that Z a m b r i should restore the b ull to . . “ h av e also th e title of A n a r gyr e s ( w ithout They w ere patron s . S yl vester went down to the dragon an d exorci sed h i m i n th e n a me . . . g. . . . crosses a n d sto n ed . of C hrist and bound u p h is mo u th w i th a thread and sealed i t w ith . . ern i n g the C h u rch for n early twe n ty fo ur years h e died a n d was - . . an d th e ir moth er Th eodora trai n ed the m i n . b ut n one of th e stones reached them so th at . th at sin ce h is conv ersion th e d ragon w h ich d w elt in th e m o a t h ad . Their father d ied e arly . F r S S Cé m e e t . I n th e time of D iocleti an th ey were seized by th e pro c onsul L yc i a s . and th row n i nto th e sea b ut were saved by an angel They were . I t a l S S Cosimo e D a m iano gl i sa u ti m edi ci A rabi . b ut S yl vester made th e sign o f th e . . the sign of the cross S yl vester al so ga ve aid in h i s h ou se to a C hris . . . p e n sa t io n for th eir labors Th ey d id n ot refuse to rel ie . l i e ve d and w e re baptized A w h ile after th is it w as told t h e emperor . also p ut i n th e fi re w h ich wou ld not burn the m and bound to . D a m ien ) These brother sai n ts are seldo m separated i n tho u gh t or . b uried i n th e cemetery of Priscilla at R ome The proper attri bute . . one th at h istory and th e legends greatl y d i ff er reg a rd i n g Co n stantin e . . th at S yl vester had riches wh ich belonged to th e martyr an d t hreat . A s for S yl vester he was at the great N icen e Council a n d after go v . . ve even an i m als wh en in their po wer T hey became most sk ilful physician s . of S t S yl vester is th e bull som etimes th e portrai ts of S t Peter and . . .90 L E GE N D S AND S T OR I E S ’ that th e n a m e h e h ad spok en was S atan s for C hri st d id not d estroy . ened h i m w ith tort ures if h e d id n ot give the m u p S yl vester told . . su cceeded to th e h onors of [E sc u l a p i u s am ong th e G reek s Th ey . cross a n d com man ded h i m to ri se w h en the bu ll obeyed a n d rose u p .

.

. Virgin Cypri a n w as soon baptized and becam e as famous for h is ' . . loved her a n d determined to w in her for h i mself H e se n t demons . . of S t O s wa ld buried i n t he tomb of S t C uthbert w h en th e former . p ie t y as h e h ad before been for h i s w i ck ed n ess W h e n the l ast pe rse . H e th en se n t th em to D i o c l e . . C hrist c u t off her beau tiful h air and made of it an o ff eri n g to th e . a t the power of h er v irt ue that h e resol ved to serve th e G o d of t h is p u re m a ide n S o h e w en t to her filled w ith repentan ce and confessed . m a n d e d th e se sai n ts to be thrown in to boil ing pit c h w h ich by a . S t Cy p r i a n and S t Ju s t i n a o f A n t i o c h ( I t a l S a n C ipriano . l i c ked h i m into life when h e had al most perished from cold and expo sure M arch 20 A D 6 8 7 . . S t Cy p r i a n o f Ca r t h a g e and archbi sh op of t h a t place per . . . . H is rel ics . . . J ustin a was a n exceed i n gly lovel y and v ir t uous Chri stian m aiden of A n tio c h H er fa ther w as a priest of the idol s bu t sh e co n verted bo t h . . c u t i o n of th e C hristi ans broke out th e G overnor of A n tio c h com . . . i sh e d i n t h e persecu tion of Valerian H is m artyrdo m i s one of t h e . . rai s ed by h is o wn l abor a n d i t is said that angels bro ught h i m bread . i l M a go 8 S a n ta G i ustin a . S ep t e m ber 26 A I ) 3 04 . F r S t Cyprien l e M agicien e t S t e . . h imsel f a Chri sti a n J usti n a i n h er j oy at so great a victory for . h i m a n d h e r mother to h er o w n fai t h A n obl eman named A g l a i d e s ’ . . lous things are told of h im d uring h is l ife and of h is rel ics after . m a gician Cypri a n for h i s aid in w in n ing h er heart N o w Cyprian . w a s sl a i n i n battle H e also h as th e otter w h ich w as sai d to h av e . . . are n o w i n th e cathedral of D urh a m H is a t t ribute is th e h ead . m ira cle h a d n o po w er to harm them . m e m ory of h is s a ncti t y Here he supported h i mself u pon wh at h e . . .92 L E GE N D S AND S T OR I E S on the coast of N orth u m berl a nd called afterwards H oly I sland i n . te m pt her but all w itho ut success Th e n Cypri an was so a sto n i sh ed . to her to fi ll her m in d w ith unchaste a n d vol uptuou s i mages but s h e . fro m Pa rad ise H e w as afterwards Bishop of L indisfarn e M i r a c u . . . . J usti n e ) T he h i stories of th ese sai nts can n ot be sep a rated S ai n t . . . h is d t a t h H is shrine bec a me a place of pilgrim a ge . . . . . rem a ined u n a ffe c ted A t le n gth h e sent th e pri n ce of ev il spirits to . so ugh t h er love in vai n and at length h e appl ied to th e f a mou s . . po w er to o verco m e all obstacles B u t w hen h e s a w J usti n a h e al so . was very l ea rn ed in astrology a n d n ecroman cy a n d do ubted not h is . . . ti a n at N ic o m edi a w ho ordered the m to be instantly beh eaded .

. . . l istened w ere converted S o t hey labored among t h e neighboring . fl e sh a n d t or e h e r b ody i n p i e c e s i n t h e s t r e e t s t o t h e g r e a t gr i e f a n d s c a n d a l o f . I L L US T R A T E D IN AR T . . . . ” the L ast J udgment w ith C hrist enthroned and surrounded w it h “ . pi ctures as to convin ce large n u mbers of th e truth of th e Christian f aith S t Cyril also learned their languages m ad e an al ph abet for . . . When fi nished th e k ing des ired an explanation of th is terribl e pi cture . . Th is sai n t w as Patriarch of A lexandria from th e ye a r 4 1 2 to 4 4 4 H e . . I t a l S a n C irillo . i n t h e wor l d f o r e x t e n t u p o n a s u s p i c i o n t h a t sh e i n c e n se d t h e go ve r n or a ga i n st . . . T h e m o b w h i c h w a s n ow h e r e m or e. . T h e si l e n c e o f O r e s t e s a n d . . u n ru l y or m or e f o n d o f r i o t s a n d t u m u l t s t h a n i n t h a t p o p u l ou s c i t y t h e s e c o n d . . G reek as i n th e L atin C h urch and is the only bish op w ho m they . . . palace that should impress h i s subj ects w ith awe M eth odi us painted . . . . S t Cy r i l (L a t S Cyrill us . . . . . 1 Th e R Al b a n B u t l e r i n h i s s k e t c h o f S t C yr il s l i fe t ou c h i n g o n t h e ev . nations w ith s u ccess M ethod i us p ainted and Cyril so explai n ed h i s . o f t h e h i s t o r i a n So c ra te s bo t h h i s d e c l a r e d e n e m i e s su ffic e s t o a c u i t h i m ” . w rote m u ch u pon th eology an d w as earn estly engaged i n t he co n tests . i s th e o n ly on e l ikely to come w ithi n th e observation of the traveller . - connect h i m w it h t he terribly cruel m urde r of Hypatia the femal e . ’ . a l l goo d m e n e s p e c i a l ly o f t h e p iou s b i s h o p C yr i l A n d t h e s a m e a u th ori t y ” . of Bulgaria desired M ethodi us to paint a p icture in the h all of h is . and perh aps th e picture by Paul Veronese i n the Brera at M ilan . . . . . . an d Cyril gave i t w ith su ch po wer that t h e monarch and all wh o . th em and translated a part of th e G ospels H e obtained too th e . . t h e i r b i sh o p se d i t i ou sl y ro se p u l l e d h e r ou t o f h e r c h a r i o t c u t a n d m a n gl e d h e r . represent w i th h i s head covered Jan uary 2 8 A D 4 4 4 . S t Cyril was a ph ilosoph er . S t Cy r i l and S t M e t h o d i u s . angels also the h app iness of th e blessed and th e m iseries of the l ost . S e ptember 1 6 A D 25 8 . F r S t Cyri l le ) . . . . an d S t M ethod ius an artist T hey w ere of th e Order of S t Basil a n d . 1 m athem ati cian and ph ilosopher H e is as h ighly ve n erated i n th e . 93 most authentic in h istory H e is very rarely repre sent e d in w orks of . . . w ere sen t by th e Patriarch of Co n stantinople as m issionaries to th e people wh o l ived on the borders of th e D an ube B oga r i s th e K i n g . . . a d ds I t i s v e ry u n j u s t i n s o m e m o d e r n s t o c h a rg e h i m [Cyri l ] a s c o n sc i o u s o f s o h orr i b l e a c r i m e w h i c h sh o c k s h u m a n n a t u re . a r t . b y t h e g o ve r n o r a n d o f t e n v i s i t e d h i m . of th e early C h urch S ome n on Cathol ic writers h ave sough t to . . d e pl or a b l e m ur d e r o f H y p a t i a sa y s : S h e w a s m u c h r e s p e c t e d a n d c o n si d e r e d . q .

h eavenly th ings was called T h e o sO ph u s H e w e n t to E gypt . . occu rred every time the m ass was celebrated th ere until S t B enedict . . M ethodi us w i th a ta b let on w hich i s a pi cture Th e G reeks h onor . bu t as th ey are th us represe n ted i n w orks of art i t m ust be gi ven to make t h e r e pr e . S t D en is the same w ith D ionysius the A reopagite w il l not be con . d ied They w ere buried in th e ch urch n ear the altar On e day as . D e a d N u n s th e l egend of There w ere two noble lad ies wh o . ” i n pe n an ce and forbidden to partake d epart a n d leave u s thes e n uns . . . scu tations of th em u n derstood D i onysi us w as an A thenian phi . . . . . j oined th e sisterhood of S t S ch olasti ca They w ere fon d of scandal . S t D e n i s o f F r a n c e (L a t S D ionysiu s . arose from their graves and w ith sad appearance left the ch urch Th is . . - . h i m as m u ch land as h e can encircle by a furro w from sun to sun . m illenary w as l a tely celebrated w i th great splendor . th e L atins bot h . . . . o n M arch 9 T hey are ho n ored as th e apo s t les of the S c l a vos . S e e S t E leaz ar d e S a b r an . fi fth he plough s w ith th e stags . l a i n of h im and th e k ing comm ands h i m to be brought before h i m p . . . p ictures I n the fi rst the abbot shoots th e deer w ith a cross b o w . . . I t a l S a n D ion isio . .94 L E GE N D S AND S T OR I E S privilege of celebrating m ass in th e S c l a vo n i c to n gu e Th ese sa ints . S e e S t Cosmo . S t D a m ia n . . because it had eaten h is w heat I n th e second th e foresters com . . l o so ph c r H e w as a j u dg e of th e A reopagus and for h is w i sdom in . to study astrol o gy and wa s at Heliopol is at the ti me of the c r u c i l i xio n . . . S t D a ria . a re ge n erally represe n ted together . the plough to be drawn by tw o w i ld stags fro m the fore st I n the . The ir . . I n t he third and fourth h e i s i n the presence of the k ing w h o grants . them word that unless they reformed he would p un ish them F o r . pitying them prayed for th eir souls and they rested peacefully . o f o ur L ord H e was greatly tro ubled at the darkn e ss w h ich en d ured . . . . . . . S t Cyri l w ith a book and S t . . . . S t D e lph i n e . S e e S t Ch r ys a n t h u s . “ B enedict cel ebrated mass wh en th e deacon said L e t th ose w ho are . D a l e A b b e y the l egend o f Th is l egend i s represented in five . . . F r S t D e n is ) The truth of th e l egend w hich m akes . fi rmed u pon a cri tical examination of facts . S t Cyril M a rch 9 a n d S t M ethod iu s M ay 1 1 . or D ionigi . . and vain talk S t Bened ict h earing of this reproved th em and sent . . a w h ile th ey re membered t h e admonition b ut relapsed again and so .

.

the instance of the B ishop of O sma a regular canon of S t A ugus . . . w a t c h i n g t e a r s a n d p ra y e r H e was a z e a l o us a d v o c a t e o f p o p u l a r e d uca t i on . conv i n ce a n d convert man y A s to th e persecution of th e A lbigenses . ti n e a t th e age of t wenty e igh t years When th irty years old h e - . I ta l S . of the rosary w as a great assi stan ce to S t D om in ick i n h is l abors . w ith a torch in h is m o n t h A t h is baptism a star descended fro m . was . h a ve fi ftee n large an d on e h und r ed and fi ft y sm a ll be a ds The l arge . . - . e rs u a s i o n a n d good e xa m p l s h ou l d b m p l oy e d a n d by n o m e a n s t e rror p e e e . . F rom th is arose h i s . e . .h andmaiden s h e . . th e pope i n 1 207 to pre ach to t h e A lbigenses in th e V audois H e . S t D i gn a . and religiou s d e votion were great e ned He obtained perm ission fro m .i k (L a t . . r ae c.g a F r S t D om in ique . . M urillo th e most importan t being in the L ou vr e . . w rote out th e arti cles of faith . . . represent th e Paternosters and the sm all th e A ve M arias Th is use . 1 w as a Castil ian of noble descent o f the house of G u zman H is . . S D ominicus P ater Ord in is P d i t S t D om i c n. . F n o date ur des F r e res P r é c h e u r s S p S a n D om ingo ) T h is saint . . it is certain th at he was extremely earnes t i n h is prayers a n d e n d e a v 2 o r s to secure th e trium ph of th e C h urch H e un ited w ith several .96 L E GE N D S AN D S T OR I E S bal C aracc i an d A l bano wh o wa s then h is pup il The se fres c os were . second t ime to F rance w ith hi s bi shop to condu ct t o Castil e th e young princess w ho was to espo use Prince F erdinand H e r death . priests w ho w ent abou t to preach barefoot . a n D omeni co S a n D omenico Ca l a r o . . . . w ent to F rance and being shocked at the heresies of the A lbigenses . A s the h eretical books w ere burned this m iracle had th e e ffect to . . heaven to crown h i s brow He stud ied at Valencia a n d be c ame at . . . . . A ugsb urg w hose . order w h ich w as con firmed i n 1 2 1 6 S t D om in ick by h eavenly . 1 T he e x t. . a oru m . H i m s l f k n w n o o th e r r m s th n t h o s e o f i n s t ru t i o n p a t i e n c e e a p e n a n ce a fas t i n g c . h e preached w ith su ch e ff ect as to conver t m a n y He w ent t he . S e e S t A f ra of . i n spiration ins t ituted th e devotion o f t h e rosary A rosary sh o uld . 2 S t D o m i n i c k m a i n t i n d t h a t t o l a bor w i t h s u c c e s s a m o n g th se h e re t i cs . mother dreamed before h is birth th at sh e had brough t forth a dog . . . . . transferred to can vas There are also p ictures o f S t D iego by . a e e . E m p re s s E uge n i e F ra n c e i s a c i o n o f t h e h o u s e o f G u z m a n o f s . j ust a s he arri ved w as a great shock to h i m and thencefort h h i s zeal . and i t is said that w hen th is book w a s thro w n i n th e fi re it wo uld not remain bu t leaped o ut uninj ured . .

can N uns for w hom h e m ade a rule w hich they adopted . . . . are m a n y i n teresti n g legends of his wonderful miracles A t on e time . . F r S t D o n at ) . . a l ily i n one h an d an d a book in the other There . . . or abo ve h is head . F ran cis an d S t D o m i n i ck s a ying th at th ey wo ul d traverse the w hole . from h is horse When at the convent of S t S abi n a they h ad not . He . A t on e . h eaven by S t Catherine and S t M ary M agdalen to a convent of D o . . m i n i c a n n uns H is attributes are the dog by h is side .was commiss i o n ed by th e p ope to reform th e nunneries at R ome F rom th is origi n ated the Order of the D om in i . . they had and i m medi ately two angels appeared with bread and w ine . . . . . m enico at Bologna I t i s sai d h i s tru e portrai t was brought from . Cardin al S teph ano d i F ossa N ova w hen h e h ad been k illed by a fall - . . Th i s . . nick had a vision i n w h ich h e saw th e S avio ur w ith th e arro w s of . . death an d among them th e fath er of D onatu s D o n atus then fled . s u fficient food S t D omin ick pronou n ced t h e blessing upon th e l ittle . w h ich are m ore famou s than the splend id one of h is o r der i n the R u e S t J acques at Paris . . e r o r J ul ia n J ul i a af t er h is apostasy p ut m any Christians to p n . on by h is ard uous labors Two years after h i s death h e w as canon . . . saint was of noble b irth a n d i n ch ildhood a com pa n io n of the E m . a n d told no o n e where sh e h ad h idde n th e t reasure Whe n h e r . . . th e star on . . . fou n ded m any con vents i n the pri n cipal cities of E urope none of . i z e d and h is remains placed i n th e magni ficent A r e a d i S a n D o . . wh i ch w as celestial food and sweeter th an any of earth S t D om i . d i vine wrath in h i s hand Th e Virgi n asked hi m wh at h e woul d do . h u sban d retur n ed h e w as i n great d ist r e ss . ret urned to h is con vent at Bologn a w here h e died of a fever brough t . earth a n d su bd u e i t to C hrist A ugust 4 A D 1 22 1 . 97 I n 1 2 1 8 S t D omi nick . . . . time a tax g atherer of th e provi n ce wen t on a j ourn ey and left the - . I L L US T R A T E D I N AR T . . . a n d fe a r i n g to be p u n i sh e d as a defaulter h e appealed to D onatus w ho went t o th e tomb . . from R o m e to A rezzo an d had for h is co m pan io n the h oly m o n k . and w hen h e repl ied th at h e w oul d destroy the earth on account of its w i ck edness sh e besough t h i m to w ait and prese n ted to h i m S t . . . mon ey whi ch h e had w ith h is w i fe E u p h r o s i n a S h e d ied s u d d e n ly . . i t is said b e restored to life th e you n g L ord N apoleon nephe w of . Hilarion T h ey preached and perfor m ed m an y m ira cles . that the D omi nicans w ere called J a c o b i n s in F rance A t le n gth h e . . S t D o n a t o o f A r e z z o ( L a t S D onat us . . I t i s from the si t uation of th is conve n t .

A s she was led to execu tion a young lawyer called Theophil us j eered . . . devo t ed to prayer fasting a n d al msgiving S a p r i t i u s o r F a b r ic i u s . sisters to be bu rned and D oroth ea to w i t ness th eir su fferings S h e . m ost be a utiful of the ci ty of C aesarea S h e was a C hristi an and . . \Vhen . d rop of w i n e spilled Thi s miracle w as th e cause o f t h e con ve rs ion . . ans w ered h i m a n d thi s was heard by m any . i d olaters When D on a tus prayed i t w as made w hole an d n o t a . w ould gi ve h er th ese to a l ife of i dol atry S h e was taken to pri son . . . of so m any th a t th e pagans i n th eir rage tort ured and beheaded . . w as besi d e her a bea utiful angel w ith a basket i n w h ich were thre e . roses a n d three appl es S h e com manded h i m to tak e t h em to The e . the j oys of h e a ven and declared th at she preferred the death w hi c h . bene a th the h igh altar of the cath edral of A rezzo A ugust 7 . garde n s from wh ich th ey came Then sh e w as beh eaded W hen . th e h a n d or on t h e h e a d or a basket w it h three apples an d three . and s uddenly there . He be c am e a monk at G l aston . . h im . . w ith d e a t h i f she wo uld not worsh ip th e i dols S h e dep icted to h i m . . T heoph il us receive d th e frui t a n d tasted of i t h e too becam e a Chris . . . . and two sisters C a l ista an d Ch r i s t e t a w ho h ad reno unced C hristian . a n d as h e celebrated th e Holy M ass the cu p . . F r S t e D oroth e e ) . . ing th e m sel ves again C h rist ians Then F abri ci us commanded the . . . . D or o tea . . . th e govern o r heari n g of her beau ty sent for her an d threat ened h er . S h e was a nobl e v irgi n and th e . . S t D u n s t a n was bo r n in 025 . . at the place o f exec ution sh e knel t a n d prayed . S t D o r o t h e a o f Ca p p a d o c i a v irgin a n d martyr (I t a l S anta . t u r e d and beheaded S h e end u red th e tortures w ith great courage .98 L E GE N D S A N D S T OR I E S and called u pon E u ph r o s i u a to tell h i m wh ere th e m oney wa s S h e . . . i ty through fear of torture w ere sent to i nd uce D orothea to follo w . th e ir ex a m ple B ut sh e so in fl uenced th em that th ey left h er d e c l a r . Bishop of A rezzo . tia n a n d at l ast s u ff ered martyrdom H er attri bu tes a r e roses i n . h er and asked h er to send h i m fruits from th e gardens to w h ich sh e . b ury H e w as a fine scholar a remarkabl e m usician a pain t e r an d . . . . H ilario n was scourged to death and w ith D onatu s i s i n t e rre d . . encoura ged th e m through all an d was t h e n cond emned 90 be tor . roses held by a n attend a nt angel F ebruary 6 A D 3 0 3 . D onatus w as made . w h i c h h eld t he w i n e a n d w h ich was o f glass was broken by som e . wa s goi n g S h e told h i m that h is request should be granted . . . p h i l u s a n d t el l h i m sh e h ad sent them and should awai t hi m in th e . . . .

.

. . mon a stery a n d the n un s perished in the fl a m e s A pril 2 . . T h e eccl e si a sti ca l l e g e n d o f . . by force A s soon a s she could esc a pe fro m h i m sh e r e turned a n d . a s o ur e . t wenty three S h e li v e d to see the consecra tion of t h e ch urch sh e - . celebra ted for her s a n ctity le a rning and be a uty S h e spent t he for . . . w a s a be a utiful n un VV i l f r i d a wh o m th e k ing took from her conven t . . a n d w h e n sh e w as rebuked for i t by S t E t h e l wo l d sh e insisted th a t th is wa s of no . sinc e becom e t h e se a t of t h e E a rls of Pe mbrok e E dith was rem a rk . sh e th en took a r a zor a n d cut o ff h e r nose a n d u p pe r l ip Her ex a mple w as followed by th e whole comm un ity . “ “ ” bene a th a n y ga rment F or a nsw e re d sh e prid e m a y e xist under . . . a n d a m ind m a y be as p ure u nder th ese 1 ” v estments a s u nd e r your t a t t er e d furs S h e d ied a t the a g e o f . d ri ven u pon th e E ngl ish co a st i n N orfol k H e was t a k en to K ing . . E dm und bec a m e j e a lous of th e D a n e and k i l led h i m A dog wh ich . un que s ti o n e d t rut h i n o t i n a c c o r d n wit h . of the young k ing a n d th e splendor of h is court T h e h un tsm a n of . . tune her fa ther g a ve her i n found ing a n unn ery a t W ilton w h ich h a s . im port a nce for G o d re g a rded the h e a rt a lone a n d th a t h e co uld re a d . th oug h e m b o dy i n a n g . T h e h untsm a n confe ssed h is cri m e a n d a s a pun ish m e nt wa s p u t . . S t E d i t h o f W i l t o n d a ughter of K ing E dg a r . H e w ent out fowl ing in a sm a ll sk iff a n d a storm com ing on he w a s . H e r m o th e r . on wh i c h s o m p oe m s h a v e b e e n m a d e B u t . r e a d e rs k n o w . h a d bu ilt in honor of S t Denis b ut d ied forty three days a f ter .1 00 L E GE N DS AN D S T OR I E S a ppe a l to th e m . E d i th o f P o l e s w o r th S e e S t M o d we n a . . K i n g E dm und i s th is : R a gn a r L o dh r og wa s a D a n e o f roy a l blood . their virgin ity T h e pira tes in the ir d is a ppointment set fir e to t h e . . th e pi ra tes c a me the frightful spect a cle the n uns presented prote cted . . . s a ce th e hum b le subm i ssi o n of Ch ri s tia n virgi n s t o th e a u th oriti e s o f t h e Ch ur c h . on th e occ a sion of the con s e cra tion S eptember 1 6 A D 9 8 4 . S t E d m u n d k ing a n d m a rtyr . a ble for the costl in e ss a n d eleg a nc e of h e r a ttire . t h e d r e s s o f n un s o f e ve ry o r d e r i s r e u l a te d b g y a s t ri c t ru l e an d t h e l e ge n d a ry a n s we r o f t h e n u n E d ith t o S t E t h e l wo l d . a n d w hen . - . E dm und wh o m uch a d mire d t h e str e ngth of t h e D a n e a n d h is sk il l . . L o d h r og h a d r e a red w a tch e d o v e r h is body u nt il i t wa s discovere d . the g a rb of wretch edness . . 1 S o fa r t h e l e ge n d . . E dith w a s born i n the n unnery S h e refused to go to c o urt a n d w as . a s a h untsm a n w hil e L o d h r o g wa s d a zzled by the a ccom pl ishm e n ts . . . St . . . . D unst a n was w a rned of her a ppro a ch ing end w h il e celebra ting m a ss .

a l a rge gra y wolf w a tch ing t h e head of t h e k ing T his they b uried . . . gr e a t honors to t h e n unn e ry a t S h a ft e sb ury wh ich A lfr e d t h e Gre a t . S t E d w a r d t h e M a r t y r w a s th e son of K ing E dga r . . done the de e d T h e n th ey s wore venge a nce a n d collecting a gre a t . . On e . . d estroyed e veryth ing w ith i n their re a ch a s th e y a dv a n ced to the territory of E d mund T h ey dem a nded of h i m on e h a lf h is kingdom . . . . N ovemb e r 20 A D 8 70 . . a sh a meful b uri a l a n d i nstitut e d rej oicings a t h i s d e a th . a bou t to k il l the h untsm a n B ut h e t old them th a t E dm und h a d . h is body w a s then filled w ith a rrows from t h e D anis h bows a n d fi n a lly h e wa s behe a ded Hu mbert a lso wa s m a rt y red A t . struck w ith remors e a n d desired herself to go there B ut wh e n sh e . His re m a ins were removed w ith . H e took counsel w ith Bishop Hu mbert a n d determ ined n ever to . recei ved h i m k i ndly b ut comm a nded o n e of t h e s e rv a nts to st a b . and when S t D unsta n reproved E lfrid a a s a m urderess sh e w a s . . s ubm it to a h e a then power H e then prep a red for b a ttle a n d m e t . . s urro unded by h is e ne mies a n d w ith Humbert took refuge in t h e . rode a w a y a n d d ied i n th e for e st E lfrid a a n d her son ga ve h im . T his saint w as son of K ing . . a n d scourged . I . po we r coul d m a k e h im . . . h a d endo wed M a rch 1 8 A D 9 78 . t h e D a nes n e a r T hetford wh er e th ey fought K ing E dmund w a s .a drift i n t h e s a m e bo a t w hich h a d brought L o dhr o g to E n gl a nd H e . . ch urch T h ey were dr a gged out a n d th e k i n g wa s bound to a tree . . . . . t h is w a lk e d b a refoo t e d to the pl a ce . m ounted h er horse for t h e j ourney h e would not move a n d n o . But Go d . d a y wh e n h e wa s hunti n g h e w ent to C orf e C a stle w here his step . sh e d a celesti a l ligh t o n h is gra v e and t hose w ho c a m e to it were . . E dm unds w h ich n a me i t still ret a ins . h e a led of a ll i n fir m i t i e s M ultitu d es m a d e pilgrim a ges to his gr a ve . a n d th en a town wh ic h w a s c a lled i n m emory of t h e ki n g Bury S t . moth e r E lfrid a wa s l iv ing w ith h is broth e r E thelred His mother . . . h im i n th e b a c k as h e w a s drinking He find ing h imself wounded . flee t w e nt t o i n v a de E ngl a nd T hey l a nd e d i n N orth umbri a and . S t E d w a r d k ing a n d confessor . . . . w a s c a rri e d to t h e home of the D a ne w here h i s two sons seeing . . . i n a spot wh ereon were a fterw a rds bu ilt a ch urch a n d mon a stery . E th e l r e d who h a d b e fore hi s birth t wo oth e r sons . . length w hen th e Christi a ns w ho h ad h idd e n c a m e forth t hey fo un d . But wh en i t wa s . t h e bo a t of th e ir fa th e r a n d supposing hi m to b e m urdered w ere . so E lfrid a p e rce iving th e w ill of Go d i n .

. J a n u a ry 5 A D 1 066 . D a negelt bec a use w hen a l a rge su m of th is tribute wa s brought to . . E liz a beth ) T h e H e bre w sig nifi c a tion of thi s n a me is . a r t a n d vet i n m ost c a ses a s th e a ccom p a n i ment to those of still . h er h u sb a nd . of fe a lty to hi m cl a n s [e s e i n d e sa m e r e T h e coron a tion of E d w a rd . wom a n of rem a rk a ble ch a ra ct e r a n d gre a t piety H e was e a rly . w a s on E a ster D a y 1 04 3 He fre ed h is subj ects fro m the t a x c a lled . H e th us m a de of h i s b itt e r enemy a devoted friend . . holding a p a ck a ge of p a pers to com memora t e a noble a c t of h is l ife . - . I t a l S a nt a E lis a bet a . . dignified a n d gra cious S h e a ppe a rs a s a n i mport a nt pe r son a ge i n . c ouncil to d ecide w ho should succeed to the thron e S t D unst a n . “ worshi p pe r T h e G os p e l describes E l is a beth as “ ” of G o d or con s e cr a ted to Go d . . ing demon d a n cing u pon the mon e y T his s a in t h ad m a ny v isions . m a rried to Del ph i n e heiress of Gl e n d e n e s S h e wa s a s piou s as . . H is mother wa s a . . Ge r D ie Heilige . . . . . beth a . . S t E l e a z a r d e S a b r a n w as a F ra ncisc a n . A fter the d e a th of h is fa th er h e found p a p e rs w h ich h a d been written to ind uc e h i s fa ther to d isinherit h im a n d wh ich a ttribut e d to h i m . . . so the council decided in fa vor of the exp e cted prince w ho w a s a fter . t h e p a l a ce a n d th e king wa s c a lled to look a t it h e beheld a r e j o i c . . l a st wi thdre w to perfect secl usion S t E le a z a r i s re presented in a r t . gre a ter i m p ort a nce S h e is fi rst se e n in picture s of t h e V isita tion or . . . a l l m a nner of e vi l In ste a d of t a k ing reveng e on th e writer of these . t i 3 ' L E G EN D S ‘ ' AN D S T OR I E S n e a r t h e time for th is th ird o n e to be born E thelred c a ll e d u po n h is . h istory is told i n h a s rel i e fs i n h is ch a pel i n W est m inst e r A bbey - . Sp S a n t a I s a bel . . S t E l i s a b e t h moth er of John th e B a pt ist (L a t S a n ct a E lis a . d uring h is l ife a n d a lso possessed m ira culou s powers of he a ling His . . . c a l umn i es h e sent for h i m a n d b urn e d the letters in h is p resen c e . th en resided for some t im e wi th S a nch a Q ueen of N a ples b ut a t . ” w a lk ing in a l l th e com m a n d ments of t h e Lord bl a meless . . gre a t a bil ity a n d j u sti c e H e d ied a t twenty eight S t Del p h i n e . wa s p r esent a n d he prophesied t h e e a r ly de a th of those a l re a d y bo r n . . A s Count of S a bra n h e a dm inist e red h is a ff a i r s w it h . w a rds the s a int o f whom w e spe a k A ll th e nobl e s took th e o a th . . . a wom a n “ “ ” well strick en i n ye a rs wh en she wa s ex a lted to a m ira culou s ” moth e rhood a n d ch osen for h igh h onors by Go d S h e sh ould not . a n d they w e r e both enrolled in t h e T h ird Order of S t F ra ncis . h owever be re presented a s decrepi t a n d wrinkled but as elderly . . .

.

h er devoti n a n d pi e ty Bu t a ltho ugh s h e s u ff er e d m a ny insults o . w he n she w a s n ine y e a rs old t h e moth er a n d sist e r of Pri n c e L ou is . and a bright l ight wa s a bout her a n d the j ew e ls on her m a n t l e . h er m ind w a s de voted to he a venly th ings a n d ch a rity w a s her ch i e f ch a ra c . . t e r is t ic . s i d e r e d a n o men of a h a p py m a r r i a ge F rom th i s time th ey w ere . . he h esi t a ted wheth e r t o bl a me or pra is e h e r a serv a nt brough t t h e . . . h er h usb a nd m igh t s a y J ust th e n Lou is c a m e to s e ek h e r a n d a s . but a fter h i s de a th wh ich h a p pened . . f e s s o r h a d told h er th a t t h e im posts for th e su pport o f the roy a l t a ble w ere u nj ust a n d fro m th a t ti m e whi l e others fe a sted she a t e . could not a ttend to h i m then b ut h e e n tre a ted h er in t h e n a m e . of Joh n t h e B a ptist N o w th is wa s h e r p a tron s a int a n d s h e co uld . . . a ll . bre a d a n d d r a n k o n l y w a ter . . h e believed th a t a ngels a ttended h er A t a nother ti me w hen Louis . . bu t o n e d a y Lou is too k t h e cup from h e r h a nd a n d t a sted a n d h e though t h e d r a nk w in e m ore del iciou s . n ot refuse w h a t wa s a sked i n h is n a m e . soo n seen to be very d i ff eren t from a l l other ch i ldren . m a ntl e s a ying sh e h a d found it h a nging i n i ts pl a ce T h e n Lo u i s . . - . a n d being l a id i n the s a m e c r a dle t h e y smiled a n d pl a yed i n such a m a nn er th a t i t w a s con . but a t l e ngth wh e n h e wa s tw e nty t h e m a rri a ge too k p l a c e T hey l ived a l ife o f most p erfe ct l ov e b ut . som e wa y gre a t bless ings fro m t h e s a nctity o f h i s w i fe Her con . did a ll they could to pre v e n t th e m a rri a ge b e c a us e th ey d id not l ik e . s t r a t e d bu t h e s e cre tly fel t tha t h e a n d hi s p e o p l e should r e ce i v e i n . led her forth t o h is guests w ith h is he a rt full of lov e a n d wonder . . never sep a ra ted a n d grew together i n perfect l ov e E liz a beth w a s . . w a s h er true frien d a n d fa th e r . d e cl a red h e h a d giv e n E l iz a b e th only w a t e r Lou is s a id no t h ing for . sh e n ever resented them an d Lo u is rem a ined true to her i n spite o f .1 04 L E G E N DS AND S T OR I E S next d a y sh e w a s betroth ed to Louis . gl ow e d w ith cel e sti a l brilli a ncy T ra d ition t e lls u s th a t t h e b e gga r . she cont inu e d a ll h er r e l igio us p en a nc e s Lou is som e tim e s r e m on . . hen she w a s a tti red a n d a bo u t to enter th e a p a rtm ent of Lou is a wretched b e gga r sough t her ch a r i ty S h e told h i m sh e . th a n h e had ever had before H e qu estioned th e cu p be a r e r w ho . A s long as Herm a n l i v e d E liz a beth w a s h a ppy a n d h e. S ometi m e s he fe a r e d s h e w a s too p ure a n d holy to be a n y oth er th a n t h e brid e of H e a v e n . . so s h e tore o ff h er costly m antle a n d g a v e the begg a r a n d sought h er ch a mber fe a ring wh a t . ente r t a ined a com p a ny of p rinces h e desir e d E liz a beth t o d ress m a g . n ific e n t l y W .

Wh e n L ouis was a bsent . . This e nra g e d t h e mother of Lo uis . . . G erm a ny b u t e speci a lly T huri n gi a . . . . T h is too wa s b e l i e v e d to h a v e b e e n Jesus . E liz a b e th s p e nt a ll h e r t i m e i n v isiti n g t h e p oor a n d as s h e o n e d a y d e sc e nded to E isen a ch c a rrying food in h e r robe s h e m e t her h us . I L L US T R A T E D IN AR T . But she k issi n g h im m a ny . I t a ly w ith th e E mperor F red e ric k 1 1 A gr e a t fa m in e a ffl icted a ll . p l a ints of E l iz a b e th . . a n d th is wa s i n w i n t e r T h e n h a w a s . . of p a t ienc e h e we nt to s e e . w ife a t p a rti n g wa s su ch th a t E liz a b e th wa s c a rried hom e m ore de a d th a n a l i v e . S h e exh a usted t h e p ubl i c t re a sury a n d ga ve a w a y her own robes . . f o r s h e h a d j ourney e d two d a ys w ith h im b e fore she could fi nd strengt h to l e a ve h im It wa s th e ir fin a l p a rting . W h en Louis d e m a nded w h a t sh e did sh e d id not l ik e to sho w h i m . “ ” to h i m s a id L e t h e r do a s she w i l l . . a sweet infant a n d a s h e g a z e d i t v a nished a w a y fro m h is sight . . a n d j ewels Wh e n Lou is return e d h i s counsellors m a d e gre a t c o m . fo unded s e vera l hospi t a ls a n d w e nt const a ntly from o n e t o t h e other . c a re for S h e c a rried h im in h e r a rms a n d l a id h i m i n h e r own bed . H e comm a nd e d his ret a in e rs to c a rry h is body to h is w i fe a n d to . . . 1 05 wa s non e o th e r th a n our B l e ss e d Lord A noth e r tim e wh e n v isiti n g . a n d wen t on thin k ing of a l l t hes e wond e rs . . a n d a g a in sh e l a bored w it h h e r o w n h a nds t ending the sick . a n d wh e n h e r e turn e d she t old h i m wh a t sort of p e rson w a s i n h i s bed in h i s a bs e nce A l most out . th e e a rthly ros e s of sum m e r . . I n 1 2 2 6 L o uis w e nt to . for . . . a n d p r e ss e d h e r robe mor e firmly togeth e r H e insist e d a n d open e d . . . . ch a riti e s a n d l a bo r s T h e fa min e wa s follo wed as usu a l by a pl a gue . bu t h e only th a nk fu l th a t sh e was still sp a red . . . Her gr i e f wa s so gre a t th a t Go d a lon e could sust a in h e r by m i r a c u l ous comfort T h e bro t h er of Lo u is He n ry now d r ove her forth . Lou is d i e d i n C a l a bri a in t h e a rms of the P a tri a rch of J e rus a lem . defend h er a n d h is ch ildre n e v e n w ith their li ves fro m a l l wrong . “ tim e s s a id S e e ! I h a v e given to t h e Lord w h a t i s his a n d h e has . . S he . E liz a beth w a s u ntiring in h er . p re s e rv ed to us wh a t i s th in e a n d m in e ! T h e n ext y e a r Lou is ” we n t to t h e Crus a d e s T h e gri e f of the h e a r t s of this h usb a n d a n d . h er m a ntl e wh e n h e s a w only red an d wh it e roses more lovely th a n . b u t such a g l ory s e e med to surround her th a t h e d a red n o t tou c h h e r b ut h e p ut one of t h e roses in h is bosom . a bo u t to e mbra c e her . and behold ! wh e n h e look e d he found . b a nd T h e p a th wa s i cy a n d she b e nt with t h e we igh t of her burd e n . t h e p o o r o f E is e n a ch s h e fo und a leprou s child w hom none would .

. . d ition s a ys th a t a ngels bore h er spirit to h e a v e n a n d a s th ey a s . . .N ovember 1 9 A D 1 2 3 1 . I n t he . R eform a tion s e c a lled this shrin e w a s des e cra t e d a n d her r e m a ins - . w i t h the body of L o u i s th e y obl ig e d Henry to a ccept t h e o ffic e of . . . to th e d irection of her rigid confessor Conra d S h e l i v e d a l ife of . th e church at M a r bourg wh ic h b e a rs her n a m e w a s visi ted by . . S h e wa s . hospit a l mocked a t her S h e fo und a shelter for h e r ch ildren a n d . suppo r ted herself by spinn ing w ool Bu t w hen th e knights r e turned . S t E l i z a b e t h o f P o r t u ga l (S p S a n t Is a be l d e P a z ) T h is ’ . the streets a s a m a d wo m a n s h e spun woo l u ntil s h e h a d no strength . . regent unti l her son H e r m a n could reign . lest s h e should love the m too well S h e dra n k t h e very dre gs of th e . a n d th a t even th e Bless e d Virgin t a lk e d w ith her Wh e n dying sh e . s h e wa s l eft a widow S h e d ied a t six t y fi ve a n d c a n be d istingu ished . rem a ining I t is s a id th a t s h e w a s com forted by cel e sti a l beings . - . . c uriosity in th e s a cristy of the ch u r ch T h e c a stl e of Wa rtburg i s . ” c e n d e d were he a rd to ch a nt R eg n u m m und i c o n t e m p s i . S eville . . h a lf S h e wa s c a nonized four ye a rs a ft e r h e r d e a th H e r shrin e in . . . in ru ins T here a r e m a ny pi ctures of th i s lov e l y s a int . b ut th e most . . p ilgri ms a n d its ston e steps worn a wa y by thei r kn e e s . pe n itenti a l h um ili a tion a n d e ven sep a r a t e d hersel f fro m h e r ch ildren . . w a s follo wed by her three other ch ildren a n d h er wom e n It is . a n d E liz a b e th r e ce i ved a s her dower the city of M a rbourg A n d no w sh e g a ve h e r self u p . o f P ortug a l H e wa s most fa i th l e ss a n d crue l a s a h usb a nd b u t a . . . . she c a rried her newly born b a by i n her a rm s a n d . n ie c e of E liz a beth of H unga ry S h e wa s m a rri e d t o D ionysi us K ing . . . cup of pen a nc e a n d cloth ed i n r a gs a n d m oc k ed by t h e ch ildr e n i n . celebra ted wa s p a inted by M urillo for t h e ch urch o f t h e Ca r i t a d a t . fr om the oth e r S t E liz a beth o f wh om we h a ve spoken by her a ge . E l iz a beth wa s th e d a ught e r of t h e K ing o f A r a gon a n d th e gra nd . . a s the former i s a l w a y s re resented as on n wh ile th i s one i s o l d p y n‘ a n d v e n e ra b l e S h e wa s s o p a ti e n t a n d so o ft e n r e c o nci l e d t h e . w inter time . t wen ty four ye a rs o l d a n d Lo u is h a d be e n d e a d thre e ye a rs a n d a - . S ilence a n d d ie d T ra . good king to h is su bj ects A ft e r forty y e a rs of gre a t domesti c tri a l s . sc a ttered no one knows w here T he shrin e is still p reserv e d a s a . ” sa ng sweet hymns a n d a t l a st s h e s a i d . s aid th a t s h e fell a n d th a t on e who m s h e h a d c a red for i n th e .1 06 L E GE N DS AND S T OR I E S w ith her ch ildre n a n d took posse ssion of t h e W a rtbu rg I t wa s . . .

.

. i s bel ieved to h ave power o ver th e te m pests A t N apl e s a monastery . . . . . . represented in a very c uri o us G reek picture called the O bsequies of . th e shores of the M ed iterran e a n i n S pain S icily a n d C a l a bri a and . . . .1 08 L E GE N D S A ND S T OR I E S th a t h e w as m ad e bishop wh ich o ffi ce h e h eld m ore th an twenty . . H e so w ithstood all com mon tortures that h e wa s c u t open a n d h is e n tra i l s wou n d off l ike a ske in of silk o n wheels H e was a bish op . . ’ h a nd T h ere is an altar ded icated to h im in S t Pe t er s over w h ich . F r S t E lme ) . S t E r a sm us i s i n voked u nder t h e nam e of E lmo by the m ariners on . G reek festi val J a n u a ry 2 8 L ati n F ebruary 1 abou t 3 78 . rible m a rtyrdo m u nder D iocletian at F orm ia now M e la d i Gaeta . . lb u m la t i u s o f his Ch u rc h o f t h e H oly Cross he d irected the m e n t o o . a m os a i c represents h is death I t i s a copy of a p icture by Poussin . ti m e .o f t he m i r a c les w h i c h he d id w as t hi s : w he n l a yi n g the . p a ga n s He su ffered ma r t yrdom w ith h i s friend P o t i t u s . S t E ph re m . . . S t E phrem wh i ch i s on e of the best represen t atio n s of herm i t l ife ” . . a n d is represented as su ch w ith the im pleme n t of h is torture i n h is . . H e was . o f E de ssa w h o o n account of h is writings i s o n e . Octob e r 1 1 . . . . . thrown into the d it c h and was fou n d lyi n g beside a dead ch ild wh o . . S t E phesus was an o fficer u n der D iocletian and was sen t to d estroy . d ig i n a cer t a i n pl a ce a n d t hey th ere fou n d a p o t of gol d whi c h w as . S t E r c o l a n o ( H e r c u l a n u s ) w a s Bish op of Per u gi a at t h e t i m e of . e n ough to pa y for t he ch urch S epte mber 7 A D 3 4 0 or abou t th a t . S t E t h e l b e r ga . . . . . O f th is s a int there i s l ittl e k n o w n bu t th e on e . Sp ’ . v e a r s O n e. . f a c t th a t sh e w as th e a bbess of th e fi rst Benedic t ine n unnery i n E ngland w h ich wa s at Bark ing i n E ssex . . . . . S t E p h e s u s an d S t P o t i t u s a r e represented o n th e walls of . t h a t he h i m s el f bec a me a Chris t ian and t ur n ed h is arms a gainst t h e . wa s bu r ied i n t h e s a me grave w ith th e saint . . S t E r a s m u s o f F o r m i a ( I t a l S a nt E lmo or E rasmo . all t h e Christ i a n s i n S a rd in i a But h e was so w ar n ed by a d re a m . the Ca m p o S a n to at Pis a a n d seem to belo n g especi ally to th a t city. . . and when th e city wa s t a k e n by order of Totila h e was beh eaded on the ram p a rts . . S t E r m o or E r a mo . of the F a thers of th e G re e k Ch urch w as a h erm it of S yri a He i s . . . . . and for t re ss h e a r h is n a me J u n e 3 A D 2 9 6 . age d th e pe o pl e through the siege of Perugi a . T his s a i n t s u tf e r e d a most hor . th e i n v a sion o f the G o th s u n d er Totil a H e labored h ard and e n c o u r . .

A ft er . . plaisance an d attempted to drag her fro m the conve n t S h e fl e d to a . . . being b uried sixteen years in the com mon cemetery sh e was placed . . . . A w icked m a n B r i t s t a n being very sick repe n ted and . . saint b y a n gels J une 23 A D 6 7 9 . . ’ rocky point called S t E bb s H ead n r i d pursued h er b u t the t ide . . th e R oman s b ut th e people belie ved i t to h ave been wro u ght for th e . . . I L L US T R A T E D IN AR T . forth branches and leaves and becom e a large tree A m iracle was . E ugen ius S h e went to R om e and was p u t to death in the time of . w ife . . . . . . . h i m i n a state of continency for twel ve years she took th e veil at . to C hristi a n ity p ut on th e attire of a m an and becam e the mon k . . w h i ch sh e though t that h er sta ff being stuck i n the ground had put . . . I n a K ing of th e E ast A ngles and when she m arrie d T o u b e r t or T o u . S t E thelreda crossed th e H umber w ith t wo v irgi n s w ho . th e E mperor S everus D ec e mber 25 . de n t iu s E ulal ia was b ut twel ve years old at th e ti me of the p ubl i . S pat at the j udge S h e was then tortured to death . t h e Christians an d reproached h i m for hi s cruelty and impiety . . . ' suddenly rose an d made the rock inaccessible H e m a r r i e d a n o t h e r . Th e . E th e l r e da T his saint is also called S t A udrey S h e w as . the fou n dress of the m agn ificent cathedral of E ly H er father was . ai d of S t E thelreda . . desired to ded icate h imself to Go d i n th e m onastery a t E ly b u t on h is w ay th ith er h e w as arrested and i mprisoned H e i mplored th e . instrum ents of tort ure and on th e other the o ff erings for th e idol . h i m and w hen she to uch ed h is fet t ers th ey fell from h is feet . . and at nigh t sh e w ith S t Benedi ct came to . a second h usband n r i d K ing of N o r t h u m b r i a b ut after l ivi n g w ith . cation of th e E d ict of D iocletian S h e w ent to th e prefect w ho u dge d . berch Prince of th e G e r vi i th e isle of E l y w as her dowry S h e h ad . S h e trampled the o fferings un der her feet thre w down th e idol an d . 1 09 St . wrought through her i n tercession about f our h u ndred years after her death . and as s h e d ied . Coldingham w ith hi s consent K ing n r i d later repented h is com . i n a beautifu l sarcoph agu s of marbl e w h ich wa s probably a rel i c of . the reign of Com modus S h e was v e ry learned S h e was converted . . . . . T h e story of th is saint i s told by Pru . . . S t E u l a l i a o f M e r i da . . a wh ite dove issu ed from her m outh and fl e w to h eaven S h e is m uch . w atch ed beside h er w hi le sh e slept a n d h ad a m iraculou s dream i n . . governor im mediately seized h er and placed on one side of her th e . S t E u g e n i a was the daughter of Ph ili p Proconsul of E gypt i n .

. I t a l S ant E ufemi a . . lover of h unting . . . ho m ily upon S t E uphe m ia among the writings of A steri us w ho w rote . . . B u t w hen h e wa s i n t h e m idst of the river there c a me on on e side a . . . ’ . . . . o n e c hild wh o m h e left on the b a n k w h ile h e retur n ed for th e o t her . “ ” . a n d w a s b a ptized together w ith h is wi fe and t wo so n s and was called . S h e w a s very be a utiful i n person A fter s u ffering m any tort ures she . . . b uri e d at Barcelo n a D ece m ber 1 0 . S t E un om ia. w h ite st a g w h ic h fled a n d ascended a h igh rock A s h e looked h e . b u t h e declared h i m sel f re a dy to do so He returned to h i s h o m e . S t E u s t a c e (L a t S E ustati us . ch urch es dedicated to h er bot h E a st and W est I n Constantinopl e . . . sign i fi ca ‘ . c ast into th e sea b ut they a ppeared again i n th e island of L emnos . S t E u p h e m i a o f Ch a l c e d o n i a ( Gr A y E t sw za . l io n and o n th e other a wol f w h ich b e a s t s c a rried off the two b o ys . E u stache ) Before h is conversion this saint w as called Placid a s . for s uc h was . a n d o n e d ay w h en i n th e forest he p urs ued a . a n d h is wi fe carried a wa y by pi r ates and h e w andered in poverty w ith . . . a bou t 4 00 S h e s u ffered death n o t f a r fro m Byz a nti um abo ut 3 07 . tion pr a ise . . . . ‘ . G reek sai n t a n d i n the E astern Ch urch is styled G reat . H e was captain of the guards of th e E mperor Traj an H e was a . . F r S t e E uph e mie ) S h e was a . . . the fame of h er beau t y and h er co ura geo us end uran ce There i s a . w as thro w n to th e l ions w ho li cked her feet an d refused to do v io . . t h e sold iers w ho desired to please h i m k illed the maiden w it h h is . . . . . S eptember 1 6 A D 3 0 7 . . s a w bet w e e n th e horns of th e st a g a rad i a n t cross and on i t an . . a n d th e figure on th e cross . l en ce to her P r is c u s her j udge was so enraged at th is that one of . . . sword With in a cen tury from the time of her dea t h there were many . . . . . H ence di ff eren t portions of h er rem ains were carried to many places . h is s o ns One day h e wished to c r o s s a stre a m a n d swam over w i t h . . H e went to a v illage w here h e labored for h is support for fifteen . . E ust a ce M isfo r t un e soon came H i s property wa s t a ken by robbe r s . ” belie ve He wa s then t o ld that he should s u fl e r m uch for Christ . . spake an n ou n ci n g i tself a s the i mage of th e R edeemer a n d dem a nd . . alone there were fo ur L e o th e I conoclast ord ered h er rel ics to be . F r S t ’ . . . 1 10 L E GE N D S AN D S T OR I E S venera ted i n S p a in and is b uried at M erid a A noth er S t E ulalia is . . S e e S t A fra of A ugsb urg . i n g of P l a c i d u s that h e sh o ul d bel ieve He an s wered “ L ord I . I t a l S an t E ustachio . i m age of Jesus H e fel l o n h is k nees .

.

a powerful pl ea a ga i n st h e r I t w as i n t h e time of t h e grea t p e rs e c u . . fo llow them Bu t sh e wa s kept four m onths i n prison w ith th e hope . . she de voted herself to the care of her ch ildre n and to pious works of ch arity S h e had gre a t ri ches w h ich mad e h er en em i es anxio u s . F é l i c i t é) T his s a i n t was of an ill ustrio us R oman fa m ily . . to acc use h e r as a C hristia n so that they m igh t sh are the spoils . de M atha . . . art s h e i s represented as h ooded or ve iled l ike a w ido w w ith th e . outside t he w a lls of Bresci a of w h ich city they are t he patron saints . d istingu ish them is that S t F el icitas w as not recogn ized i n the E ast. . . . . sons never ceasing to exhort th e m to rem ain true to th ei r faith . . m artyr s pal m and s urrounded by h er sons T h e representat ions of ’ . I n Byzantine art seve n yo ung m artyrs w ith th ei r m other probably . that th i s prolon ged agony wo ul d d estroy h er faith and strength B ut . the so n s J u ly 1 0 . . . to t h e gods s h e had rej ected T hi s sh e refused . F elix and Ph ili p were beaten w i t h cl ubs S y l van us w as t hrow n fro m . th is R oman fa m ily are someti mes confounded w i th those of th e S e ven M accabees and their h eroi c m oth er T he only gu ide by w h i c h to . of the dangers w h ic h threatened h e r ch ildren n o less t h a n h ers el f . . F eb r u a ry 1 5 A D 1 2 1 ' . represent th e J ew ish rather th an th e R oman saints S t F el icitas i s . and oth ers th at sh e w as thrown i nto a caldron o f boil ing o il In . . . tio n of th e E mperor M a rcus A u rel i us A n to n in u s S h e was called . . S t F e l i c i t a s a n d her seven son s (I t a l S a nta F el ic it a F r S t e . h ad all t hus s u ff ered martyrdom F el icitas praised Go d th at sh e had . . S e e S t John . th e patron ess of m ale heirs N ove mber 2 3 A D 1 73 F esti val of . a rock A lex ander Vitalis an d M artial w ere beheaded A fter th ey . . . bee n the m other of seven son s wh om h e had deem ed wort hy of being sa i n ts i n P aradis e H er only desire w as th at sh e m ight qu ickly . . . . . an d w hen re minde d . . . N ovemb e r 20 A D 1 2 1 2 . S t F e l ix de V a l ois .112 L E GE N D S AN D S T OR I E S The be a sts d id n o t attack them and th ey w ere a fterward s beh e a de d . . A w idow . . at length sh e was tortured and k illed S om e s a y sh e was beheaded . . before P u bl i us a prefect of R om e w h o commanded h er to sacrifi ce . . J anuari us th e eldest was scourged w i t h tho n gs loaded w ith lead . s h e repl i ed tha t th ey k n e w h o w to ch oose everlasting life i n prefer e n ce to eternal d eath S h e w itnessed t h e tort u res and death of h er . and h er influe n ce h avi n g con verted ma n y to h er religi on gave the m . . . . .

S t F e l i x or F e l i c e . throw n over h is sho ulder. . separated by the pop e becau se being w ith i n th e prohibited degrees . . I L L US T R A T E D I N AR T . . for forty five years h e d aily begged the bread an d wine for h i s con - vent and su ch an ab u nd a nc e of these articles was never kno wn th ere as d uring h is t ime On thi s accoun t h e i s represented i n th e h abit . l i x d e Ca n t a l i c i o Th i s saint was a nati ve of Citta D u F e . . . . . appointed ques t or of a com m un ity of the Ca p u c c i n i at R ome Here . . cate than any that crown the cities of the I mp e rial R h ine H e also . 8 . ch ildren w ere ho wever declared legiti mate Bere n gari a returned to . . . h er father s court and l i ved i n retirement T h e influenc e sh e had ov e r ’ . garia as was h er hu sband F erd inand fo ught bravely against the . . . 113 St . . . then vani shed from h is sigh t H e w as th e fi rst sai nt of the Ord e r of . . angeli c ch ild w ho gave h i m a loaf of bread and a benediction and . . Th is great k ing warrior and sain t was the eldest son of . . th e troops condu cting th e fight Thousands of M oors were sl a in b u t . ’ to h er son and when a t hi s father s death h e s ucceeded to the throne of L eon th e tw o k ingdom s w e re un ited F erdinan d wa s m arried to . Joan Co untess of P onth ie u wh o was as obedient and loving to Beren . cal e i n U mbria He w as born i n 1 5 1 3 H is parents were v ery poor . of h is order w ith a beggar s w allet wh ich has t wo e nds like a purse . . M oors an d expelled th em fro m Tol edo Cordova and S eville I t i s . ” th e A rtists of S pain w e are told th a t h e fo unded the cathedra l of “ Burgos w h ich points to h eaven w ith spires more rich and deli . . Hi s parents were . . A lphonso King of L e on an d Bere n garia of Castile . . . told of h im th at as h e w ent out on a stormy night to beg h e m et an . . S t F e r d i n a n d o f Ca s t i l e (Sp E l S anto R e y D o n F ernando . t h ere was only a single Christian killed and h e was one w ho had gon e . into b attl e refu sing to forgi ve a n inj ury A t the ti me of h i s death . of consanguin ity they h ad m arried w ithou t a d ispensation Their . t he Capuchins M ay 2 1 A D 1 5 8 7 . The e xtrem e devotion of h is life won th e ad mi ration not only of th e brotherhood to w hi ch h e belonged but of all w h o sa w h i m I t i s . . “ F erd inand was pla n n i n g an exped ition to A frica I n th e A nnals of . . . ’ . related th at at th e battle of X eres S t I ago appeared at the head of . . He entered a Capuch in m onastery as a lay brother L ater h e was . F erd i n an d was extraordinary an d endured t h rough o ut h is l ife Be . . J u l y 1 2 S e e S t N abor . . r e n ga r ia w hen sh e cam e i nto possession of Castile gave u p her rights . . . t o contain the al ms begged for h is convent .

de s c r ibed above were gi ven h i m The inscri pt i on was tran sl ated . . . I n th e begi n ning . . o f t he priests i n h is trai n begg e d for some rel ics and th e remains . . . I t w as a dorn ed w ith various rudely pai n ted symbol s and a portion . . . trait o f S t F erd ina n d tho ugh t to be auth enti c in the co n ve n t of S a n . that th is e mperor w as D iocletian b ut i t i s also thought to h av e . . . . . F r S t e Ph ilom e n e ) . w h ic h re flects m ore glory u pon h is character th an h is victories or h is “ “ ” c a t hedral fou n d ations can gi v e God h e repl ied i n w hose cause . was . S t F i l o m e n a (L a t S a n cta P h i l u m e n a . t r e a sury f r el i c s i n th e L ateran When Pi us V I I retu rned from o . . I fight w ill supply my n eed . ye a rs ar t is t s s wa r m ed a n d l a bored l ike bees and sple n d id prelates . l a vish ed t h e ir pri n cely reven ues to m ake fair an d glorious the tem ple ” of G o d i n t r us t ed t o their care When u rged to tax h is pe opl e i n . . . cord abo ut h is neck and a crucifi x i n h is h and Hi s d aughter E lenora . W i th in th e past half century th i s saint h as gr own i n th e p o pul a r - veneratio n \Ve k n o w but li t tle of her h i story . . place H e w a s buried in th e cath edral of S ev ille There i s a por . wo m a n than a w hol e army of M oors H e d ied as a pen iten t w i th a . . w a s m arried to E dward I o f E n gland S h e possessed th e pi ety a n d . order to recruit h is ar m y and fi ll h is empty co ff ers h e made a reply . . . l ra n c e ' a N e a pol itan prel ate was sen t to congratulate h im One . —l u m e n a pa x t e c u m fi T h c se remains supposed to be those of a mart y r w ere pl aced in t h e . . . . . of an i n scription the beginning and end of w h ich were gone I t . ’ o re a ch ed S evi lle th e greatest religio us festi val e ver h e ld there took . mak e her h is w ife A fter wards a young artist w as told i n a v ision . v isi n i n w h ich S t F ilomena appeared wi th great glory an d re vealed o . I fear more th e curse of one poor old . coura ge of her fa ther I t was sh e w ho s ucked the poison fro m her . h usba n d s wound ’ Wh en the d ecree o f F erdin and s canoniz a ti n . th a t she h ad s u ff ered deat h for preferri n g th e C hristian fa ith a n d h er vo w s of chastity to m arriage w ith the emperor w ho w ished to . Cle m ente at S ev ille M ay 3 0 A D 1 1 5 2 . . . . .114 L E GE N D S A ND S T OR I E S began to reb uild the cathedral of Tol edo w here d uring four h undred . . “ ” S a i n t Ph ilomen a rest in peace A m en A nother priest had a . of th e present ce n t ury a sep ul chre w as discovere d in t h e Catac o m b o f Priscilla at R ome i n w h ich was th e skeleton o f a you n g girl .

.

the Virgin and went i n d isguise to her v ineyard beyond the gate of . On ce i t h a ppened that w hile reciting the O ffice of O ur L ady she w as called a w ay by h er h usband four ti mes at the same verse . an epi d e m ic by h er prayers an d the increasing of bread by prayer . b ut her father m arried h er to L ore n zo P e n z ia n o a ri ch nobleman . . I n th e Torre d e S pech i is h er convent w h ich has been th e ’ h e re . when there was not enough for th e inmates of h er c o n ve n t are . S a n Paolo to gather fagots wh ich she bro ugh t on h er h ead into the . 1 4 40 . May 4 . p l easures belo n ging to her st a tion and de voted h ersel f as far as pos . th e p a ge i n golden letters T hi s w as done b y h er gu ard ian angel . The ch urch ded icate d t o th is saint . tri buted to her : th e raising of a dead ch ild to l ife t h e stay ing of . fa ther w as Paolo d i Bassi S h e w as born i n 1 3 8 4 S h e was ex . i n R o m e w a s the sce n e of h er fas t s and vigils a n d is n o w called by . S h e sh unned th e society and . S t F ra n c e s c a R o m a n a . . S t Petersbu r g . young b ut they took no vows S h e spe n t so m u ch ti me i n prayer . . . b a nd sh e collected the compa n y of women w hose su perior she became after h is death Th eir principal labor w as teach ing th e . vei l of the n un to that of a bride .116 L E GE N D S A ND S T OR I E S and he wa s throw n into th e ri ver E n n s M a n y mi racl es w ere attrib . A D . . . . c omfor t o n t h e occ a sio n of some a ff l ic t ion H e r fa m e w as n o t by . so me of the mos t im porta n t e vid ences of her favor w ith H eaven . . sible to a religio us l ife E very d ay sh e recited t h e en t ire Office of . S h e di ed of a fever a t the ho use of her son wh om sh e had gone to . freq ue n t i n A us t ria a n d Bohe m ia a n d oft en adorn p um ps and fou n . . th a t sh e was frequently i n terru pted by the d e mands of h er fam ily . . any me a ns confined to R o me b ut w as great in all I t aly M arch 9 . . w hen sh e re t urned the fi fth tim e she foun d th is v erse written on . w ho attended her i n v isible form M a n y wonderful w orks are a t . t a i n s A m agnifi ce n t mo n astery bearing h is name commemorates . u t e d t o h im o n e o f w h ich w as t hat w ith a si n gle pitcher of water b e . . t r e m e l y piou s fro m her ch ildhood and w ould have preferred the . best school i n a l l R ome for the girls o f the h igh er classes H er . city and distributed to th e poor D uring th e l ifeti me of h er h us . h er na m e ra th er than th a t of S anta M aria N uova w h ich i t formerly . exti n gu ished a l a rge c o n fla gr a t i o n R epresentati ons of this saint are . h is l ife an d its pai n ful e n d A p icture of S t F lorian by M urillo is i n .

. t itle of F ran cisco (the F rench man ) from the fact that his father h ad h i m early instructed in F rench as a preparation for b usiness . F r S t F ran cois d A ss i s e ) ’ . gay pleasures I n a qu arrel between th e i nhab itants of A ssisi . and those of Perugia F ranci s w as taken a prisoner and h eld for . many ri ch j ewels and beautifu l garments an d all were mark ed w ith . . . These are th e rich es reserved for my servants and the . i n wh ich h e w as dressed That sam e n ight i n a vi sion he though t . L at . ” was the fo under of th e F ra n ciscans one of th e three M endican t . at th e same time to return to h is former mode of l ife and not to . . as yet of the sp irit ual w eapon s Christ gi ves h is disciples A ft er . St . w ards wh en h e w ent to pray i n t h e half ruined ch urch of S a n . F ra n c is of A ssisi ( Pater S e r a ph i c u s . . - “ D am iano as h e knelt h e h eard a voi c e say . ” Church wh i ch falleth to ru in . at th is that F rancis h id h i msel f m any days in a cave i n order to escape from h is wrath Wh en h e returned to th e city he was so . F rancis tho ught th at h e was to be a great soldier for h e kne w not . and confined h i m . . i ll for month s an d it w as d uring th i s sick ness that h is thoughts . . whom he recognized on e w ho h ad formerly been known to h i m as rich an d noble F ran cis exchanged garments w ith h im putting on . . . the boys b o o t e d h im in th e streets Hi s father bel ieved h i m i n sane . . I L L US T R A T E D IN A R T . F rancis repair m y . a year in the fortress of Perug ia O n reach i n g hom e h e w as very . ch ant H is b a ptismal name w as G iovan n i b ut h e acqu ired t h e . but h is mother se t h im at l iberty begging hi m ‘ . . . . S . I t a l S a n F rancisco d i A ssisi . I n h is early years F rancis w as belo ved for h i s generou s and com passionate h eart an d remarkable for h i s prodigal ity an d lo ve of . w ere turned to th e consideration of th e w icked u selessness of th e l ife h e h ad l i ved S oon after h is recovery he met a beggar i n . F ra u c is — “ called th e S eraph ic fro m th e fervor of h is love of G o d . F ran ciscus . . . . t he tat t ered cloak of th e m en dicant and gi ving hi m t h e rich cloth es . 117 St . . ” w eapon s wh erew ith I arm thos e who fight in my cause F r om th is . h e sold som e merchandise and took the money to the priests o f S a n . “ said. . Orders of F riars His father Pietro B e r n a r d o n e w as a rich mer . . changed so h aggard a n d so ragged that h e was not recogni z ed a n d . the sign of the cross I n th e m idst of th e m stood Christ and he . h i mself i n a splendid apartment fi lled w ith all k inds of arms an d . D amiano for th e repairing of th eir ch urch H is father was so angry . Tak ing th i s i n its most l iteral sen se .

. by h is follo w ers from w h i ch pecul iarity they are called Cordeli ers . . and tak ing a coarse cloak from a begg a r w h o stood by h e gave it to F rancis w ho gladly . . . . . abo ut h im to see i f he had any superfl uous comfort H e could find . fame of h is piety j o in ed h i m h ere Poor as h e was h i s attention . perfor m ed was that of caring for th e lepers i n a h osp ital . abj u red h is former l ife a n d thro wi n g h is garments to h is father said . a l l of . and casting th a t .118 L E GE N D S AND S T OR I E S pro vok e h is fa th er and d isgrace the m al l by h is strange co n d uct A t . . . h is nati ve mount a ins begging al ms every penny of w hich th at could . recei ved i t as the first fru its of th e poverty on w h ich h e was res o l ved He was n o w twe n ty fiv e years old The fi rst l abor h e . - . n . . w h ich shone w i t h equal and cons ummate l us t re in t h e m a n of God . ” “ He n c eforth I recog n ize no fa ther b ut H i m w ho is in h eaven . le n g t h h i s fa ther to o k h i m to t h e b ishop to be ad vised by h i m . of S anta M aria d egl i A n gel i and several d isciples attracted by th e . h e . ’ de a ly d is a ppeared T h e brethren n o t i rrationally con cl uded that . . ‘ . O n e of the F ra n ciscan legen d s i s that as h e j ourneyed to S iena . . ” ” order of the Poor Clares Th e v o w of po verty t h e most com . A m ong h is femal e co n verts none are of greater n ote than the fi rs t . . a n d P o v e rty t h e be a uty a n d s u m of e va n gel ic a l perfe c tion . a w ay h e u sed instead a ro pe of he m p Thi s has also been a dopted . s a l uted h i m w ith the words Welcome L ady Poverty ! and sud . “ G ray S is t er the foundress of th e . noth i ng t hat he could spare save h is leather girdle . . for t h e reparation of ch urches He d wel t in a cell near the ch apel . . Clara ( 1 A ssisi the be a u ti ful ’ . H e p r eached w it h m arvellou s e ff ect and soon had m any follo wers . . and ex a ctly resembling each oth er in age and appearance w h o . “ S t F r a ncis was e n coun t ere d by th ree maid e n s in poor raiment . . h i s l ife were passed in prayer and pen itence H e w andered among . “ w as attracted to th e text Take noth i n g for your j ou r n ey ne ither . . . th a t by t h e three poor m aidens w ere sig n ifi ed Ch asti ty O b ed ien c e . . T h e bishop w ept w i th j oy and adm iration . thi s a ppa ri t i o n i m ported some mystery pert a in ing to S t F rancis a n d . Wh e n F ra n cis s a w th e holy m a n h e thre w h i mself at h is feet . l e t e a n d absol ute was i nsisted u pon by S t F rancis i hi s order p . staves nor scri p nor brea d n or money nor t wo coats . be spared after supplyi ng the i mperati ve w ants of nature w as gi ven . and b e cast . . and t h is was con sidered the more meritorio us from the fact t hat b e fore th is h e could not lo o k o n a leper w ithout fai n t ing Th e n ext years of .

.

. to a c a ve on M t A lverna . earth H e attempted to repeat the l 4 l s t Psal m a n d at th e last . that he was to b e transformed i nto a resemblan ce to C hris t not by . . ions of o ur S aviour and h is Blessed M o t her . ” h i m the ti t le of the S eraph ic “ A fter h aving fasted for fi fty days . then h e beh eld as i t were a sera ph w ith si x sh in ing w ings beari ng down u pon h i m fro m abo ve . . hollo w rock There are n u mberless l egends connected w it h S t . and between h is w ings was th e form of a man cru cified By thi s . i n his solitary cell on M t A l verna and passed the ti me in all th e . . h e u nderstood to be figured a heav e nly and i mmorta l i ntelligen ce . H e r e h e h ad many tran ces and vi s . . requ ested th a t h is body sho uld b e b uried w i t h those o f th e n i a l e fa c tors at a place called th e Colle d I nferno outside th e w alls of his . . bu t notw ithstand ing h is endeavors they . t h e martyrdom of the flesh b u t by t h e m igh t and fi re of D i vine . . approached h e comm an ded those abo ut h i m to place h im on the . w ere seen by ma n y H is last d a ys w ere fu ll of su ffering A s death . love Wh en th e v ision had disappeared and h e h ad recovered a . . and i t is sa id th at the saint was someti mes raised into the air i n e cstatic raptures of devotion H ere i t was that h e h a d the wonderful v is ion and . h eaven by the ardor of h is desires . t a k e a fa rewell of all th at remained of h i m who h ad shown h er the w a y of religiou s perfection O nly t wo y ears passed before h is ca non ' . fir m a t i o n of his order he resigned h is o ffi ce a s its head and retired . i z a t i o n a n d th e beginn ing of the ch urc h w h ic h co ve r s h is re mains . pas t th e ch urch of S a n D amiano Clara and h er n un s came ou t to .1 20 L E GE N D S AND S T OR I E S regard an d k indness a s o n e insa ne or w anting in m enta l c apac ity . rece ived the especial marks of th e favor of Go d w h ich obtained for . F rancis a v as t n u mb e r o f w hi ch a r e wri t t e n in picture h is t o ry . l ittl e from its effect it was seen th at in h is h ands h i s feet an d . . These are still entire and u n violated i n their tom b w h ich is i n a . . ” side h e carried t h e w ounds of o u r S aviour I t i s p iously b e . . . s ubj ect to death and h u m iliation A n d i t w as m ani fested to h i m . “ ” verse Bring my soul o ut of prison h e breathed h is l a st H e had . ’ . and honor h e h a d recei ved . A f e w years later h avi n g obtained from Pope H onori us the con . l i e ve d that these w ounds w ere really i mpressed by a su pernatural power F rancis i n h is h u m il ity desired to conceal t h e great favor . an d as h is body was borne . n ative ci t y Thi s request was fulfi lled . fervor of prayer and ecstatic conte mplation transported al most to . . .

scribed Th ey k ept L ent all the year . . of S t F rancis at A ssisi On h is return h e becam e a h ermit and l ive d . L ouis X I of F ran ce h ad h eard of the m any wonderful c ures perform ed . for h e fel t that lo ve of Christ in our h ear t s sho uld fil l u s w ith sy m pathy for everything th a t can su ffer p a in or be be n e fit e d by ki ndness When in R ome h e had al ways w it h h im a pet . . . . w h o h ad know n h i m w ell I t h as al most the val ue of a portrait . . in a cave near R eggio H is fam e dre w di sciples abo ut h im for w hom . w here h e made for the m nests an d fed the m e very d ay u ntil th ey . . S t F r a n c i s painted soon after h is deat h u nder the oversight of tho s e . . . . and court w ith all th e h onors possible Wh en h e arri ved at th e . at Plessis l e Tours w here h e w as dyi n g T h e saint felt th at h e had . . . . c i s c a n R ule add ing to it e ven greater austerities th an it already pre . . do n o t kill them I beseech th ee b ut . . for h e became a friar an d l ived a holy life ” fro m that day forth There is i n th e ch urch at A ssisi a p icture of . an d th ey called t hemselves as . - . I L L US T R A T E D I N AR T . 1 21 M any of th e m are illustrat i ve of h is love for all lower ani mal s a n d even insects . . . . . . their title indi cated th e least of all t h e d isciples of th e C h urch K i n g . castle th e k ing knel t to him and pray e d h i m to obtain fro m Go d the . . . - at R om e A t the age of fi fteen h e went w it h h is parents to the shrine . ‘ these are the birds to w hom the S cripture compares those w ho are p ure and faithful before G o d . . m et a yo ung m an on h is w ay to S iena to sell some do v es w h i ch h e h ad c augh t i n a sn are and F rancis said t o h im 0 good you n g man ! . S t F ra n c is de P a u la . . “ l amb O ne instan ce of hi s tenderness i s th us gi ven : One d ay h e . also h is recompense . smal l city o f C alabria i s more i mportant i n F rance and i n co n nec. sain t that C harles V I I I fou nded th e ch urch of the Trin it a d i M ont i . tion w ith F rench h istory than i n h is ow n country I t was for th i s . October 4 A D 1 2 2 6 . . . Th is saint though a nati v e o f Paol a a . . . b e e a m e so tame as to eat from h is h and A n d the young man h ad . applied to S ixtus I V for aid i n the matter A t the comman d of the . M in imes or th e Herm its of S t F rancis for th ey follo wed th e F ran . pope F ra ncis w ent and h e was recei ved at A m b oise by th e da u ph i n . gi ve th em rat h er to m e and w hen they w ere given to h i m h e pu t them i n h i s b o som and carried the m to h is convent at R a va c c i a n o . not been s um moned in th e right spiri t an d refused to go w h en L ou i s . th e people b uilt cells a n d a littl e chapel H e cal led h is l ittle ban d . for th e sick by S t F rancis de Paula and sent for hi m to come to h i m .

t o his wi ll wa s man s fi rs t d u t y he performed for h i m the l a st o ffi ces ’ . w ife an d had a large family of promisi n g ch ildren . G o vernor of Catalon i a and adm ini stered th e a ff airs of the provin c e . H e w as . . are frequ ently represented togeth er i n pict ures Before th e R e vo l u . c h a n g e d it u o n t h e ro a d T h e R e v A L B A N B UT L E R ” p . w hen th e E mpress I sabella d ied it w as h is d uty to raise th e w i n d ing . w ith great care and faith fulness . . sh eet from h er face at th e m om e nt the body w as to be buried and to . w h ile h e w as fondly in lo ve w ith h is beau tiful . But h e was . o f religion F rancis was k ept in F ran c e by Charles V I I I a n d L o uis . - . . bu t th is - . an d at th e s a m e moment made a noth er vo w t o fors a k e th e servi ce o f the k ings of earth and from that h our to serve o n ly the Ki n g of . became the title of hi s order i n F rance w here h is d isci ples be c ame . b ut through th e acquaintance of a Jesuit n am ed A r e as he becam e a d isci ple of L oyol a and correspo n ded . though tful and m el anch oly and ch eri shed in h is heart deep rel igious . . . w ith h i m H is w ife d ied and h e then resol ved that after pro vid ing . i ng h im t h a t G o d alone could gi v e l ife or death and th at subm ission . . tion the e tfig i e s o f F rancis de P a ul a were very common i n F rance . . . . . sta tion and power . “ hom mes i n every ” good sense of the term F rancis was godfa t her to F rancis and th ey . . all t hat w oul d seem to m ak e l ife d esirabl e and h a ppy w ealth . Th e courtie r s gave h i m th e . H is tomb wa s broken open by the H uguenots i n 1 5 6 2 and h is rem ains . . . the J e su i t O rder H e belonged to a fam ily m uch less ill ustriou s i n . X I I a n d hi s influence was very great .f ro m t h e c a r e h e h a d t a k e n h e was s u re n o o n e c o u l d h a ve . .1 22 L E GE N D S AND S T OR IE S return of h eal th an d a longer l ife F ran cis rebuk ed h im an d rem ind . e m p r e s s be c a u se . 1 s we a r to the identi t y of th e remai n s H e d id so an d took th e oath . feel i n g C ircu mstances combined to strength e n these e motions H is . 1 F r a n c i s n ot k n ow i n g t h e fa c e wou l d o n l y s w e a r i t wa s t h e body o f t h e “ . fr ie n d G a r c i l a sso d e la V ega the poet died . ’ b ur n t H e died at Plessis and L ou ise d A n go ul é m e prepared h is . w ind i n g sheet w ith h er o wn hands A pril 2 A D 1 5 07 - . . v ery popul a r a n d were t o the peopl e L e s Bon s — . h e w as h i mself more than once bro ught near to d ea t h by severe sicknesses A t le n gth . Heaven But th is h e coul d not ful fil l iterally at once . . . . ” ti t le of L e Bon homm e in deri sion of h is m ode of life . for h is ch ildren in the bes t manner h e would renou nce the world and . S t F r a n c i s B o r g i a s t ands as th e th ird among th e saints in . th eir l i ves than i n th eir rank I n yo uth he w as s urro unded w i th . .

.

w h ich these pictures a r e p a inted h a s v a ried w i t h the spirit i n which the indi vid ual artist has cont e mplated t h e mystery I n the earl i e r . a n d in add i t ion to these h e i s believed . . and always . t wi ce in L u ke i 1 9 . . i n D a n i e l v i i i 1 6 and ix 2 1 . . . . L a t S G abriel . . . S t G a b r i e l ( Gr A y I a flp t fih . to th e D ivi n e w ill H is body was interred near the shore w here . a n d th e f llo w e rs of I slam o I t i s a s th e a n gel of the A n n u n c i a tion . c a lled by h is n ame . . . . b a r r o w a long the ground a n d th e ri ver followed th e course h e th u s . t h eir patron saint as th eir proph et d eclared h im to be h is i n spiring a n d . to h ave foretold th e bir t h of S amson a n d t hat of the Virgi n M a ry H e . . th ere is still a c r oss to m ark t h e s pot . . e v vii i H is n ame is m ent ioned fo ur times in t h e Bi ble t w ice ( ( I t . . th a t he is m os t frequently a n d beauti fully re prese n ted T h e spi r it i n . . . D . t i c a t e d a c ts m a k e h im of su ch importan ce as to command our d eepest i n terest i n all rel a ti n g to hi m . F r S t G abriel ) T h is ’ c llo . . A . a s a messe n ger bearing i mportant t id ings F irst h e a n nounces to . i s ve n erated as the angel who especi ally w a tches over ch ildbirth T h e . . instruc t i n g a n gel T h us i s b e h igh i n the regard of J e ws Chris t i a n s . a n d l as t ly h e comes to tell th e mother of ou r L ord that sh e i s t h e o n e highly fa vored and bl essed amo n g women These fo ur a u t h e n . F r igd i a n us . b uil t to the honor of th is great m issionary saint D ecember 3 . . . S . next h e tells Z a charias of the ch ild that should be born to h is old ' age . . I t a l S a n G abri " ‘ . i s repr e sented i n a r t is h is turning th e co urse of th e ri ver S erch io . w hen i t threatened to del uge L u cca T h is h e d id by draw i n g a . F re d ia n o of ) LTh i s sai n t ucca (L a t . D a n i e l th e re t u rn of the Je w s from their capti vity and th en makes . St . . 1550 . “ Jews bel ieve h i m to be the ch ief of th e angeli c gu ards and th e ” kee per of th e celestial tre a sury Th e M oham med a ns regard h i m a s . . m arked ou t H is w hole h istory is painted i n a ch urch at L ucca .1 24 L E GE N D S AND S T OR I E S an renounced h i s d esire for m artyrdom sin ce i t w as n ot according d . “ ” s a in t w hose n a me signifies G o d i s m y stre n gth i s th e secon d . place he had gone i n 5 60 Th e princi pal o ccurren ce in h is l i fe w h ic h . . w as a nat ive of I rela n d H e was m ade Bishop of L ucca to w h ich . b u t h i s remains were carri ed to M a lacca and fi n a lly to G o a wh ere a m agn ifi cent church h as been . i n ra n k among the archan gels or th e seven w ho stand before G o d . h i m u n d erst a nd t h e v ision wh i ch show s for t h the future of th e nations . S a n G abriele L A ngelo A nn unzi atore .

a n d th en sto n ed to death by th e A rians He i s patron sain t of . h er i n nocence Th e steward was really p ut to death w h ile th e w i fe . . of the intercession of Ge m i n i an u s and after h is d eath h e preserved th e cathedral fro m d estru ct i on by a flood H e is represen ted on th e . . p rotector of that city . R im ini O ctober 1 4 A D 3 5 9 . . . ni sh ed the subj ect for poems plays and pi ctures w h ich are anyth ing . . . executed b ut those ch arged w ith th e task of putti n g her to death . “ ” ol i ve branch typical of the peace on e arth that he anno unced . Th is saint was Bisho p . and as h i s qu een ' . coins of M odena a n d honored as th e p atron saint and especial . S t G a u d e n t i u s o f N o v a r a was t h e bishop an d is n o w th e . S t G e n e vieve o f B ra b a n t . n ursed by a wh i t e doe A n umber of years h avin g passed h er h u s . “ i nscribed A v e M ari a G ratia Plena a sceptre a n d some t i mes an . struction by A ttila Ki n g of the H uns i t wa s spared on account . S iegfried w ho w as l ed by h is ste w ard to bel ieve h e r to be wanting i n . . M arch 1 8 . b ut aft er the th irteent h . S pirit . century sh e becomes th e o n e to be exalted S h e is fro m th is ti m e . left h er alon e in th e forest S h e gave birth to a ch ild wh ich was . Th e story of th is saint has fur . b ut religio us in the i r ch aracter B ut th ere are m any representation s . G ibbon 3 5 t h ch apter ) When M odena was threatened w ith de . was restored to her hom e and h appiness Th ere i s a picture by . band w h ile h u n ting came to h er ab od e E xplanat io n s m ade plai n . fidel ity to h imself and h e r marri age vows He ordered her to be . . S t G a u d e n z i o (L a t S G a u d e n t i u s ) w as on e of th e early bi sh . . . . ops of R im in i His e ffigy i s found on its coins He was scourged . fame of h is m iracles that h e w as sent for to go to Constantinople to h eal the daughter of th e emperor w h o was possessed of an evil . . I L L US T R A T E D I N AR T . most frequently d epicted as th e R e g i n a a n g e l or u m . . S t G e m i n i a n u s (I t a l S a n G emin iano ) . . G abriel oft en knee l s before h er H is attri butes are the lily a scrol l . . . I t i s supposed to h ave been th e Princess Honoria (S e e . patron saint of th at ci ty . . 1 25 ones both t h e a n gel and th e V irgin a r e standing and th e manner of . . . i n a r t of h er roma n tic l ife and su fferings S h e w as the w ife of Co u n t . of M odena i n the m iddle o f th e fi fth century S o great was the . the Virgin i s expressive of h um ili t y an d of reveren ce for a su perior being S h e has bee n p a i n ted as k n eel i n g . .

. . consecrated to G od s service F rom this time she fel t he rs elf sepa ’ . h er mother struck her i n a fi t of anger S h e was struck bl i n d a n d .1 26 L E GE N D S AND S T OR I E S A lbert D urer wh ich is so m eti mes c a lled by t h e name of G enevi e v e of . f o r w h ich G o d had ch osen h er He talked w ith h er . . her sight w as restored G enevi eve remained w ith h er parents d uring . . sh e declared her w ish to be th e brid e of Chri st T he bishop hung . their l ives and th en went to a relat i ve in P a ris A lthough sh e d i d . . rated from all worldly and de voted to all h eavenly interests Th ere . I t a l S anta G e n ove va ) . . . t ion Wh en h is eyes rested on th e l it t le G enevi e ve h e was m ad e . remained so for t wo m onth s w hen G enevi e ve made th e sig n of t h e . m anner wh ich at her a g e sho wed her to be the especial ch ild of G o d . an d the peopl e in their alarm woul d h ave fled from th e c ity . n ight at N a n terre The inhabitants flock ed to recei ve h is bened ic . . th at G o d would not allo w th is pagan to overcome h i s follo w ers A o . . . . m arch prob a bly by d irecting i t to O rleans A n d again wh en C hil . . . S t G e n e v i e v e o f P a r i s (E n g . d eric took possession of P a ris a n d t h e peopl e suffered fro m w ant of . fa ith and pra yer A t l ength A ttil a th re a tened th e destructio n o f Paris . b u t G ene vi e ve addressed them begged the m to remai n and assured th e m . . as a pretender an d hypocrite S h e was tormented too by demons . i nteres t amo n g those of med i aeval ti mes The v illage of N a n terre . not enter a con vent sh e vow e d perpetual chastity at fi ft een years of . . sheep Whe n she wa s abo ut se ven years old S t G erm ain spen t a . w as her birthpl a c e and d uring her ch ildhood sh e tended a flock of . are many wonderful stories tol d of her ch ild hood O n o n e occasion . som e venerated h er for the hol iness of h er l ife others regarded her . . aware by i n spiration of the sa n ctity of her character and th e glory . . . able proof of h i s approbation of G e n evi e ve D uri n g this time w h ile . cordi n g to h er prediction A ttil a sudd enly ch a n g ed the course of h is . Ge n . round h er neck a coin marked w ith the cross a n d blessed h er as one . l ighted for h er n igh tly vigils B u t sh e was able t o rel igh t them by . . . . age I t was m any years b efore Go d gave any publ ic and u n m i s t a k . fo o d G enevi e ve t o ok C m m and of th e b o ats wh i ch wen t to Troyes for . T his s a i n t is es s e n ti a lly F re n ch and is of v ery great i mportance a n d . a t emp e st arose wh ich wa s c a l med by h er prayers a n d t h e pro . cross above th e w ater w ith wh ich she bathed h er m other s eyes a n d ’ . wh o a mong other t h ings constan t ly blew ou t th e tapers sh e h ad . and w i t h a . . “ ” Braba n t b u t it is i n t ru t h the Pe n ance of S t J oh n C hrysostom . . . . o aid .

.

A ft er th is S t G eorge s l o w th e dra gon and cut o ff h is head . th is loathly th i n g an d w ill del i ver th ee through th e power of J esu s . . . bea s t l ike a dog I n th is m anner they approached th e c ity The . w h o re a d it w ere fi ll e d w ith terror b u t S t G eorge tore i t down a n d . ‘ ” “ del i ver you ! b ut sh e repl ied O noble yo uth ! tarry n o t h ere lest . th e k i n g g a ve h i m great treasures . a l l he possess ed even to the h al f of the k ingdom th a t sh e m igh t be . . thou perish w ith m e ! b ut fly I beseech thee ! Then S t G eorge . . . sp a red . c l e t ia n w h i ch de c l a red t h e persecu t ion ag a inst t h e Christi a n s A l l . but h e gave al l to th e poor keep . i n h er royal robes and declaring h erself ready a n d w illi n g to d ie for . and seeing h er tears h e stopped to learn the cause o f h er “ sorro w . . . Christ ! E ven as h e spoke th e drago n approached th em . i n g only bel ieve in the G o d through w h ose m ight I h ave co n quered th is ad versary a n d be baptized an d I w ill destroy h i m before your . i n g abs o l u t ely noth ing for h i m sel f a n d h e w en t on h i s w ay towards . D acian and conde mned to eigh t days torture . . P a lestine Th i s wa s t h e t ime of th e publ ication of t h e E d ict of D io . . h e r people S h e moved slowly towards the place wh ere th e d ra on . “ p r i n cess again e n treated hi m F ly I beseech thee brave kn igh t an d. . . A n d i n that d a y w ere twenty thou sand people b a ptized . m ight be spared to h i m e ight days longer T h is w as granted a n d at . th e e n d of that ti me Cl e o d o l i n d a went forth to the sacri fi ce clothed . . bu t the people s a id t h a t as i t w as by h i s o wn edi ct th at the ir ch ildren had bee n sacrifi ced there w as no reason for allow ing h im to . a n s w ered Go d forbid th at I should fly ! I w ill l ift my hand agai nst . . ” . people w ere fi lled w ith fear .When sh e h ad tol d h im h e said F ear not for I w i ll . . pri n cess . . Then th e . of those w ho h ad already perished J ust then S t G eorge came to the . at le n gth th e dragon w as pi n ned to th e earth by the l anc e o f th e br a ve knigh t He th en bo u n d th e dragon w ith th e girdle of th e . . w ithhold h is o wn a n d they threatened to take th e princess by force . . i f sh e was n o t d el ivered to th em Then th e k ing ask ed th at sh e . . ” eyes . pl a ce . a n d giving it to h e r sh e was abl e to l ead th e conquere d . rushed to combat w ith th e monster T he struggle was terribl e b u t .1 28 L E GE N D S A ND S T OR I E S h e lov e d e xce edingly A t lengt h the lot fell to her Th e k ing o ff ered . b ut S t G eorge cried o ut F ear n oth “ . T he n . ” le a ve m e here to d ie ! But S t G eorge m ak i n g the sign of th e cross . H e was fi rst bound ’ . g ca m e daily for h is v icti ms an d th e w ay w as stre wed w i t h the bones . . . trod it into the d ust F o r th is h e was carried before th e proconsu l .

. and co urage The story of S t George bears great resemblance to . of S atan and the n poisoned a c up of w ine w h ich S t George drank . a n d h is veneration i s very an cient in the E ast I n E urope h e was . d i a t e l y b eh eaded S t G eorge was next bound upon a w heel filled w ith . . in 1 22 2 an d th e Order of th e Garter w as i nstit uted i n 1 3 3 0 A pril . sh arp kn i ves b u t two angels descended from h eaven and broke it i n . w i t h torches a n d then sal t rubbed i nto h is wounds S ee i n g th at all . . . . the templ e and h is persecutors i s very l ik e th at of the Ph ilisti n es w h en th ey called S amson o ut of his prison hou se to mak e sport for - th em T he G reek s gi ve S t George th e title of th e G R E A T M A R T Y R . n o w subd ued he was taken by t h e j udges to assist at the sacrifi ces i n . l a s t D acia n comm anded h i m to be beheaded He met death w ith j oy . th e heat hen templ e Crowds came to witness h is h umiliat ion B ut the . t hese horrible and devilis h cruel t ies had no power to vanqu ish t h e S p iri t of the saint D acian sent for an enchan ter wh o invoked th e ai d . next h e was b urned . th e idols w ere . S t G e r e o n one of th e comm a n ders of the Theban legion When . . t i a n i t y by th is m iracle and u pon h is decla r ing the fact was i m me . lightnings from heaven Th e temple w as destroyed . . . . . . b u t l ittl e h onored until the Crusades wh en th e ai d h e obtained for . . saint knelt down and p r ayed and instantly there ca m e th under a n d . soldi ers w ere put to death and th r o w n i n to a pi t Th e ven e r ation . 9 . . poison h ad no e ff ect on h im Th e magician w as converted to C hris . E ngla n d His feast was ordered to be kept thro u gh a l l E n gl a n d . . . S t M aurice a n d th e greater part of th e legion w ere at A ga n u m ( n o w . nou n ce Chri sti a ni ty U po n t h eir refusal Gere o n a n d ma n y of h is . wh ile th e priests and ma n y of th e people perished N ow at . . . . 1 29 to a cross an d h is body torn w ith sharp nails . . . When R ichard I made holy war h e placed h is army u n der th e pro . . . I L L US TR A T E D I N AR T . . . . . prefect by order of th e E mperor M aximi n co m m a n ded t hem to r e . cru s hed . t e c t i o n of S t G eorge an d fro m th is tim e he has been pat r on s a int of . Before doing so h ow ever h e made the sign of th e cross and the . of o utside th e part of G ermany wh ich was the sc e n e of h is s u fl e r i n gs . of th is sai n t exte n ds ba c k to th e four t h ce n tury but h e i s l ittl e h eard . p ieces They then p ut h i m i n boil i n g oil Belie v i ng that he m ust be . G odfrey of Boul ogn e made Chri stian soldiers seek h is patronage . . those of A pollo B ellerophon and Perseus wh ile t h e d estru ction of . S t M aurice ) G ereon w i th h i s command reac h ed Col ogn e Ver u s the . . 23 A D 3 03 .

an d w ith th em w ere . . S t G e r v a s i u s a n d S t P r o t a s i u s (I t a l G erv a sio e Protas io . procession to the basilica . ’ one of the most wonderful and famo us in the world is called S an t