Mekanika Kuantum

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Mekanika Kuantum

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You are on page 1of 5

Johar M. Ashfaque

we introduce commutation relations leading towards a collective definition of angular momentum and

spin.

1 Commutation Relations

Definition 1.1 The commutator, [A, B], of two operators A and B is defined by

[A, B] = AB − BA.

Note. The position operator X and the momentum operator P do not commute.

We define the one-dimensional relation between X, and P by

~ d ~

(P Xψ)(x) = (xψ(x)) = ψ(x) + (XP ψ)(x),

i dx i

which, in terms of the commutator, can be expressed as

~

[P, X] = = −i~.

i

In classical mechanics the angular momentum of a particle of mass m, is defined as the vector product

~ = ~r × P~

L

where ~r represents the distance of the particle from the origin and P~ is the momentum of the particle.

~ point away from the origin at right angles to the plane for convenience.

Remark 2.1 Let the vector, L,

~r = x~i + y~j + z~k

P~ = Px~i + Py~j + Pz~k

and

~ = Lx~i + Ly~j + Lz~k.

L

In quantum mechanics we get linear Hermitian angular momentum operators, from the classical expres-

sions by

~r → R̂, P~ → P̂ = −i~∇.

Thus

~ → L̂ = −i~R̂ × ∇.

L

~i ~j ~k

L̂ = X̂ Ŷ Ẑ ,

P̂ P̂y P̂z

x

giving

∂ ∂

L̂x = Ŷ P̂z − Ẑ P̂y = −i~ Ŷ − Ẑ ,

∂z ∂y

1

∂ ∂

L̂y = Ẑ P̂x − X̂ P̂z = −i~ Ẑ − X̂ ,

∂x ∂z

and

∂ ∂

L̂z = X̂ P̂y − Ŷ P̂x = −i~ X̂ − Ŷ .

∂y ∂x

We also have

L̂2 = L̂2x + L̂2y + L̂2z .

We check the commutation relations for the operators L̂2 , L̂y , L̂y and L̂z . We have

[L̂x , L̂y ] = (Ŷ P̂z − Ẑ P̂y )(Ẑ P̂x − X̂ P̂z ) − (Ẑ P̂x − X̂ P̂z )(Ŷ P̂z − Ẑ P̂y ) = i~L̂z .

We now carry out the whole calculation for [L̂y , L̂z ], as follows

(Ẑ P̂x − X̂ P̂z )(X̂ P̂y − Ŷ P̂x ) − (X̂ P̂y − Ŷ P̂x )(Ẑ P̂x − X̂ P̂z ) = Ẑ P̂x X̂ P̂y + X̂ P̂z Ŷ P̂x − X̂ P̂y Ẑ P̂x − Ŷ P̂x X̂ P̂z ,

as these are the only non-commuting operators obtained on multiplying out, which on simplification gives

[L̂y , L̂z ] = Ẑ P̂y (P̂x X̂ − X̂ P̂x ) + Ŷ P̂z (X̂ P̂x − P̂x X̂) = (Ŷ P̂z − Ẑ P̂y )[X̂, P̂x ] = i~L̂x .

Similarly,

[L̂z , L̂x ] = i~L̂y .

We also have

[L̂2 , L̂x ] = [L̂2x , L̂x ] + [L̂2y , L̂x ] + [L̂2z , L̂x ] = [L̂2y , L̂x ] + [L̂2z , L̂x ],

where

[L̂2y , L̂x ] = L̂y L̂y L̂x − L̂x L̂y L̂y = L̂y (−i~L̂z ) − (i~L̂z )L̂y = −i~(L̂y L̂z + L̂z L̂y ),

and

[L̂2z , L̂x ] = L̂z L̂z L̂x − L̂x L̂z L̂z = i~(L̂y L̂z + L̂z L̂y )

giving

[L̂2 , L̂x ] = 0.

Hence, we can conclude that

[L̂2 , L̂x ] = [L̂2 , L̂y ] = [L̂2 , L̂z ] = 0.

−1,

if (jkl) is a cyclic permutation of (213) (odd parity)

εjkl = 0, otherwise

1, if (jkl) is a cyclic permutation of (123) (even parity).

Proposition 2.2 The angular momentum satisfies the following commutation relations

Definition 2.3 Any three operators Jx , Jy and Jz that satisfy the commutation relations

[Jj , Jk ] = i~εjkl Jl

We have

[Jx , Jy ] = i~Jz , [Jy , Jz ] = i~Jx , [Jz , Jx ] = i~Jy .

2

Definition 2.5 The ladder operators, J± , are defined by

J± = Jx ± iJy ,

where

1 1

Jx = (J+ + J− ), Jy = (J+ − J− ).

2 2i

J+ J− = Jx2 + Jy2 − i[Jx , Jy ] = J 2 − Jz2 + ~Jz , J− J+ = Jx2 + Jy2 + i[Jx , Jy ] = J 2 − Jz2 − ~Jz .

[J 2 , J± ] = 0;

J∓ J± = J 2 − (Jz2 ± ~Jz );

[J+ , J− ] = 2~Jz ;

[Jz , J± ] = ±~J± .

[X 2 , Lj ] = 0,

[P 2 , Lj ] = 0,

[X.P, Lj ] = 0,

[L2 , Lj ] = 0,

[J 2 , Jj ] = 0.

Theorem 2.8 The eigenvalues of J 2 have the form j(j + 1)~2 for j = 0, 12 , 1, 32 , 2, .... For each choice of

j the eigenvalues of Jz are m~ for m = −j, −j + 1, ..., j − 1, j. The degeneracy of each eigenvalue is the

same as that of j~.

The idea of spin is of great importance in quantum theory. In this section, we look at the Pauli spin

matrices and their algebraic properties.

The traceless, linearly independent 2 × 2 matrices

0 1 0 −i 1 0

σx = , σy = , σz =

1 0 i 0 0 −1

The Pauli spin matrices, have the following basic properties:

σi2 = I;

Tr σi = 0;

i 0

σx σy σz = ;

0 i

det σi = −1

where I is the 2 × 2 identity matrix, and

Tr (σi σj ) = 2δij ,

3

where Kronecker’s delta, δij , is defined as

(

0, for i 6= j

δij =

1, for i = j.

The operators Ŝx , Ŝy , and Ŝz representing the three spin components are defined to be

~ ~ ~

Ŝx = σx , Ŝy = σy , Ŝz = σz .

2 2 2

We can show that the operators Ŝx , Ŝy , and Ŝz satisfy the commutation relations, by means of cyclic

permutations

1 2 0 1 0 −i 0 −i 0 1

[Ŝx , Ŝy ] = ~ − = i~Ŝz .

4 1 0 i 0 i 0 1 0

Similarly,

1 0 −i 1 0 1 0 0 −i

[Ŝy , Ŝz ] = ~2 − = i~Ŝx ,

4 i 0 0 −1 0 −1 i 0

and

1 2 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0

[Ŝz , Ŝx ] = ~ − = i~Ŝy .

4 0 −1 1 0 1 0 0 −1

We can evaluate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors for the operators of the Pauli spin matrices correspond-

ing to the angular momentum components of the spin-half particle. We compute the eigenvalues and

eigenvectors of Ŝx . We have

−λ 1

det

= 0 = λ2 − 1.

1 −λ

Thus, λ = ±1.

For λ = +1, the eigenvalue equation is

1 −1 1 a1 1 −a1 + a2

~ =0= ~ .

2 1 −1 a2 2 a1 − a2

1 1

√ .

2 1

1 1 1 a1 1 a + a2

− ~ =0=− ~ 1 .

2 1 1 a2 2 a1 + a2

1 1

√ .

2 −1

Table 1, summarizes these eigenvalues and eigenvectors for Ŝx , Ŝy and Ŝz .

4

Spin Component Eigenvalue Eigenvector

1 √1

1

Ŝx 2~ αx ≡ 2 1

1

Ŝx − 21 ~ βx ≡ √1

2 −1

1 √1

1

Ŝy 2~ αy ≡ 2 i

1

Ŝy − 21 ~ βy ≡ √1

2 −i

1 1

Ŝz 2~ αz ≡

0

0

Ŝz − 21 ~ βz ≡

1

Table 1: The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices representing the angular momentum components

of the spin-half particle.

Definition 3.1 The total spin for the spin-half particle is given by

3 1 0 1 1 1 0

Ŝ 2 = Ŝx2 + Ŝy2 + Ŝz2 = ~2 = + 1 ~2 .

4 0 1 2 2 0 1

Therefore, we have that in general the total spin for a spin-s particle

2 2 1 0

Ŝ = s(s + 1)~ .

0 1

It can be shown for Ŝz by defining the ladder operators in the case of spin-half particle as

0 1

Ŝ+ = Ŝx + iŜy = ~

0 0

0 0

Ŝ− = Ŝx − iŜy = ~

1 0

We have

1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1

Ŝ+ = = , Ŝ+ = =

0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0

and

1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

Ŝ− = = , HatS− = =

0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0

confirming that the ladder operators move the eigenstates of Ŝz , up and down.

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