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ARCHITECTURE

Magazine by
DAYLIGHT &

VELUX

Autumn 2008  Issue 09 Renewable energies 10 Euro
Autumn 2008  Issue 09 Renewable energies 10 Euro Daylight & Architecture Magazine by velux
renew
able
energies

E
VELUX
EDITORIAL
Mankind will not survive in the long run if our energy supply is not switched to
renewable energies. Besides the fact that the combustion of fossil fuels increases
global warming, their stocks will be exhausted in a matter of hundreds, if not tens,
of years. This issue of Daylight & Architecture addresses the theme of renewa-
ble energies from a variety of viewpoints, discussing the availability of renewa-
ble energies and ways to harness them, and investigating how renewable energy
supplies and energy efficiency can go hand in hand in the built environment. We

All life
also present different pilot projects, and a pioneer architect who has undertaken
groundbreaking work in this direction.
Solar energy is sometimes viewed as a niche resource with a useful, but lim-

thrives on ited, potential. However it is probably the only long-term energy source that is
both large enough and acceptable enough to sustain the planet’s long term re-

energy
quirements. In his article, Professor Richard Perez discusses how much energy
we will need in the future to meet our needs and shows that solar energy has the
greatest potential of all energy sources.

from The writer Tor Nørretranders’ thesis is that the biggest change in recent years
is taking place right now: environmentalism used to be a story about limiting con-

the sun sumption – not over-using, not over-fishing, and not over-eating. Now we can use
as much as we like – as long as it is the waste of someone (or something) else. If
we build on biological materials and produce waste edible by micro-organisms
or pigs or plants, then there is no limit.
The Chilean architect Enrique Browne has persistently used nature, espe-
cially vegetation, to both enhance the living quality of his buildings’ inhabitants
and to cut the buildings’ energy use to about half that of other contemporary of-
fice buildings in the country.
The new Monte Rosa Hut portrayed in another article is, in many ways, a par-
adigm for energy-efficient, autonomous buildings in remote regions. The build-
ing is intended to become 90% autonomous in terms of energy supply and have
a waste-water recycling system.
At VELUX we feel an obligation to take responsibility for, and lead the way
in, the development of ideas and concepts that will reduce fossil consumption –
and thus CO2 emissions. As a building component manufacturer, our starting
point is the fact that buildings are responsible for more than 40 per cent of
Europe’s total energy consumption – so they constitute a substantial potential
when it comes to making reductions. VELUX has developed CO2-neutral alterna-
tives – like the SOLTAG demo house for markets in Northern Europe and the Atika
concept house for the Mediterranean countries. With the vision of Model Home
2020, VELUX has now taken a step further towards the future to investigate
how to optimise liveability and sustainability in future buildings.

Enjoy the read.
Photo: adam mØrk

1

AUTUMN 2008 now 4 VELUX Insight 36 reflections 48 VELUX DIALOGUE 58 VELUX PANORAMA 62
Issue 09 THE New Stay alive – Back in the
ContENTS MONTE ROSA HUT renew yourself driver’s seat

1 VELUX Editorial In an apartment building in Madrid, bamboo poles The ETH in Zürich and the Swiss Alps Club want to Recycling is good but total sustainability is better. What influence are architects having on the future A home as a source of life: The demonstration house
2 Contents provide shade and a hint of the exotic. 20 teams create sustainable architecture in the high moun- Only when we organise the way we live in such a energy consumption of our society? Where can a SOLTAG shows how energy efficiency can be com-
4 Now of students compete with each other in the ‘solar tains near Zermatt. The New Monte Rosa Hut is to way that all our waste is completely and benevo- start be made on spreading their knowledge more bined with maximum living quality. The CO2-neu-
8 Mankind and Architecture decathlon’ in Washington. Also: Oslo celebrates its achieve a degree of energy autonomy of over 90 per lently re-absorbed by nature or re-used in indus- widely than before and what levers can architects tral home consists of partly pre-fabricated modules
Making the Case for Solar Energy new opera house, and the Pritzker prize goes to cent. In summer, the foundation stone was laid for try will we really be living in a sustainable manner. apply on the political level? These and other ques- and can be erected either on existing flat roofs or, as
18 Daylighting Jean Nouvel, a never-tiring experimenter in mat- the new building, on which specialists from differ- For Tor Nørretranders, the concept of symbiosis tions have been discussed by Daylight&Architecture any other terraced house, on new building plots.
Enrique Brown: ters of daylight architecture. ent disciplines have worked, together with archi- in nature, whereby different species satisfy each with Gaëtan Siew, the outgoing president of UIA,
A ”Natural” Approach to Building tects and students of the ETH. other’s needs, is a perfect model of this credo. the international union of architects.
34 Pacific Light
36 VELUX Insight
The New Monte Rosa Hut
48 Reflections
Stay alive – Renew yourself
54 VELUX Model Home 2020
58 VELUX Dialogue
Back in the Driver’s Seat
Interwiev with Gaëtan Siew
62 VELUX Panorama
66 Books
Reviews
68 Preview

Photo: torben Eskerod
Mankind 8 DAYLIGHTING 18
AND Architecture ENRIQUE BROWN:
Making the case for A ”natural” approach
SOLAR ENERGY to building

Energy without end: The sun is the only source of The phrase ‘A natural approach to building’ is to be
energy that can satisfy the energy requirements taken literally in the case of the Chilean architect
of mankind for the foreseeable future without any Enrique Browne. Browne makes light, landscape
Photo: Roig / Andia.fr

serious damage to the environment. In his article, and vegetation into a part of his buildings. By ar-
Richard Perez explains the steps that are necessary ranging for plants to climb up the facades of high-
to make the ‘solar era’ a reality. rise buildings, for example, he allows the users to
experience the changes of the seasons.

2 D&A AUTUMN 2008  Issue 09 3

Location: the Bjørvika penin. bic window grilles. The city centre. and height. The back of gleaming white and at the same time but by reaching deep into the city: the the building. outset. houses the office section. the new build. sur- Photo: Trond Isaksen/Statsbygg 4 D&A  Autumn 2008  Issue 09 5 . The architects. an openwork wall sculp- of the new opera house in Oslo.” in 1999. now The things that make architecture tick: events. Two additional details play- idea on into the building stage. They are stabilized bossed pattern of hemispherical and Oslo should be able to climb “on to vertically by glass fins of the same conical dots for this that are reminis- the roof” of the new opera house. Opera house “As northern Europeans we have a nounced an international architec. the above-mentioned artist. and Kirsten Wagle. “monumental” structure when it an. which faces away from incomparably cool. This part of the building – the white marble cladding that rises sunny August day in 2007. It is said that 20. working with artists Astrid Løvaas Snøhetta tailored their design con.000 the water. considerable credit that it took this them. appropriately called The Factory by from the shore of the Oslo Fjord to The abundant light inside the new Snøhetta – was given sheet alumin- the roof of the building. depending on the the Danish-Icelandic artist’s words: pret monumentality through height. angle it is viewed from. and the backdrop of the Norwegian capital. From the building is appropriate to its shining ium facade cladding. But competi.000 people studios for set builders and make- It owes this gleaming brightness to spent time on it in the course of one up artists. ing with light and shade draw atten- The government was looking for a tion to themselves: Olafur Eliasson. new building has a total of 18. a multi-lane highway. on the Fjord side – with ‘The said Olafur Eliasson at the opening sula. rounded the sanitary area – under completely different relationship ture competition for the new building the lowest section of the sloping with sun deck with light from people in the south. only a stone’s throw from the Other Wall’. tres high in clear ‘low-iron’ glass en. of ice crystals or finely chased Ara- uted his art is impressive proof of tion winners Snøhetta did not inter. with only the essential steel cent of Braille and make the large fa- it does the Norwegian state as client connecting elements laminated into cade panels sparkle in the sunlight. It is reminiscent building for which Eliasson contrib. ing stands out from the grey urban square metres of accessible space on as in most opera houses. and yet cut off from it by ture in white MDF. roof. competitions and selected new devel- opments from the world of daylighting. the roof. developed an em- cept to the idea that the people of velop the foyer. the Norwegian architects whiteness: tall facades up to 15 me.

thing more for Nouvel than just aper. iconic building. differently on every floor. Innova. when the glaring back into the existing brick facades. from Germany to the USA in three Even now its praises are being sung gant with a building while at the same He is known as modern architecture’s perience it and see its multiple facade Madrid is growing. perforations are reminiscent of rust. the extreme south-west of the city: the evening. Something height were laid down in the archi. Jean Nouvel identi. Puerto the photovoltaic panels are fitted on the top floor of the CaixaForum that of the two-aisled brick structure was sibility of failure. Floor-to-ceiling Foreign Office Architects to design boo forest. The parcel has a first glance. ploitation of sunlight. building applies in the Carabanchel district in bamboo bars. ing structure in concrete. staircase cores. Here parison with an ideal arrangement shine through the building’s perfo. as one of the finest places to have time relying so much on the element alchemist. and a hermetically sealed wooden chest in an architecture practice: the light. place on the outskirts of the Span. the commercial viability the position of the sun automatically. Over budget. It is only on look- ing concept. while in Madrid they used rusty cast. be the days of gigantic solar awnings panels. and the above-mentioned iron-pan. to describe it formally. Spain and Germany was chal. the thermal mass of the light. The former student of the Ecole meet. New apartment to penetrate deep into the rooms. This These are filled with densely packed home running entirely on solar power show that this means an efficiency station in the centre of the Span. & de Meuron had already tried out the the outer skin adapted to the exhibi. And the coloured glass louvres of the other multi-storey apartment blocks on the outside. latent heat storage units made of mi. a building Jean Nouvel is currently designing a dents could be provided on the east dependent on the architect’s vision. In Nouvel’s The Hotel in Lucerne the municipal housing department. Floor-to- timber-frame technique and shipped rarely been so structurally extrava. tive use of materials also contributes induced pitting. curs during the day. with the nature of light and how to tube-like individual plots that are students’ pavilion was built using the into the plasterboard panels. outside. A new structure ally. The exterior material triad constantly make his architecture ‘dis. ing more closely that you become of the whole project and the team’s thus enabling the panels to combine idea of covering a building and all its tion galleries behind. gone seem to roof is insulated with 2x3 cm vacuum created a fascinatingly profound and den’ on the fire wall of the building. At ing a versatility contest that was en. defies any attempt catch sparkles of light. which actually con. fies one of the reasons himself: “I have else unforgettable is the way Nou. ish capital. as well as some additional exhibition lighting effects and reflections. Windows too are some. tal pattern locating the building some. attitude also explains his interest in (1987): adjustable metal shutters in a compact structure using the max. according to the Pritzker Prize Manhattan. appear’. Canada. elled outer skin. Even the surface of the rated metal skin in the evening and at possible by a new internal load-bear. to take it in. Photo: Technische Universität Darmstadt Photo: Sergio Padura Photo: Roland Halbe Photo: Roland Halbe Solar decathlon Light streaming Architecture as Homes with a for students through a rusty hood an experiment bamboo veil The US energy ministry’s Solar De. ent’ newspaper. consists of photovoltaic elements. sunlight is filtered through the irreg. It has an amorphous silhouette. on the plot’s western boundary. The opposite lighting effect oc. tion Cartier in Paris in 1994. for the Fonda. asked the London practice create light similar to that of a bam- ings on the basis of ten criteria. complex piece of work. occasion. The interior of the building is seum in San Francisco. rate a gradation of possibilities not listic characteristics. worked for a long time as a scenog. You have to ex. This oak folding shutters in front of the night. There the fa. anchored the monotony of post-war Modernism basement restaurant. reflections with your own eyes in order blocks are springing up all over the 1. Even though the building is very but as an effect of the inhabitants’ fitted with photovoltaic cells. Impractical. creating thick planted roofs. the eye of an insect. when the sun is low in Washington for the final event.” This the Institut du Monde Arabe in Paris Foreign Office Architects designed iment with this project was to erase Darmstadt draws attention to an voltaic heat pump to warm up air iron panels. where between high-tech and folklore.” large conservatories and metre. at an early stage – and has remained coloured windows bathe the interior 100 social housing units in a new de. enlarged appropri. but positioning the new their changing configuration. sometimes. tall building for 72 luxury dwellings in side. building was retained. on 2 June. enlivening the facades with cal integration. and it is not unusual for tional open air living space. Herzog placed them with new apertures in dull or ugly or repetitive. The Darmstadt cro-encapsulated paraffin and built critic David Cohn’s comment on the cies flourish here. accused a Nouvel building of being in an intensely yellow or blue twilight. north and east sides. They are rooted in a sists only of a sequence of multi-sto. to a pleasant interior climate: the ately. A cathlon was held for the third time large modules.5 metre wide gallery runs round the last autumn. and placed it ferences into a single volume with a accepted in recent years: solar ar. heaven and earth. of intricate light and shadow. the visibility of the units and their dif- insight that has been increasingly drawn in from the outside. facade apertures with a perforated on the roof. it is now sup. the sky but still glaringly bright. For example. of the panels. facades. chitects have this to say: “Our exper- from the Technische Universität in solar energy gains and by a photo. The ar- The design by the winning team heated by a combination of passive cade was made of copper sheeting. But never dull or ugly. choice. Each of 20 high school and hence the transport costs.” runs architecture Blanc: about 250 different plant spe. tects’ brief. to the flat roof almost horizontally. Torre Agbar in Barcelona conceal an on the south. unduly weight construction is enhanced by yond an immediately recognisable the work of the French artist Patrick ble”. ularly pierced facade panels. that makes “dematerialization palpa. The architects had all the windows true to this approach: “No one has ever of the Guthrie Theater in Minneapolis velopment area. low. which the facade cavity form an ornamen. This accommodates rapher. vel stages the shading technology for building on the plot was left to them. so homogeneous skin able to incorpo- chitecture no longer has its own sty. with countless patches meant that the students were enter. Here too daylight takes deep – over 13 metres – all the dwell. they an expert jury assessed the build. John Lichfield in the British ‘Independ. a little bit like sometimes quite confined. and surroundings. building. imum height allowed. and follow silhouettes on the café floor. and in the morning and and to erect it on the National Mall in loss of about eight per cent in com. the building looks like tirely in keeping with later ‘real’ work Unlike the solar panels on the roof. diagonally opposite the CaixaForum. of small. Swiss architects Herzog & de Meuron removed and redesigned as a covered Jean Nouvel is being awarded this tures that let light into the building: them to be designed by architects aluminium shutters provide shade. that private gardens for the resi. shutters. The Swiss architects have metal mesh that also provides them rey glass screens. casting in the old building bricked up and re. The café’s droplet lights ported exclusively by three lift and our that many critics feel is long over. even on social housing. Congress in Washington DC. This was all made due. lenged to build a fully functioning The Darmstadt team’s calculations have created in a converted power public plaza. ish capital. offering the residents addi- teams from the USA. To keep the building. as well maximum shading and maximum ex. jury: the building. park on its western boundary. spaces. in which inside and outside. And now. pixel-like windows arranged ings and the maximum building and the interplay of open and closed as architectural quality and techni. with water. “Herzog & de Meuron have is completed with a ‘vertical gar. these louvers can move. of almost equal height. des Beaux-Arts in Paris turned against huge mirrors deflect the light into the EMVS. for him designing is a life. metal skin in 2006. The upper section of the year’s Pritzker Prize in the Library of they form part of a major spectacle with international reputations. a coffee in Madrid: the cafeteria on of surprise: the complete ground floor long experiment – with an in-built pos.” writes intricately perforated facade made up The number and size of the dwell. Even the facade panel mainly the restaurant and the offices. for the Young Mu. ing. Folding Rico. an hon. which are glazed all round. centre stage again: “It’s clearly a game ings face in both directions. now rises above the brick build. going well be. aware of the fine bamboo structure publicity work were judged.” ceiling glass facades allow daylight 6 D&A  Autumn 2008  Issue 09 7 .

By Richard Perez FOR SOLAR ENERGY 8 D&A  SUMMER 2008  Issue 09 9 10 . tions. but limited potential. MAKING Mankind Mankind as the focal point of architecture: Solar energy is often viewed as a set of niche applica- and architecture interior views of a corresponding relationship. with a useful. However it is probably the only long-term supply-side energy solu- THE CASE tion that is both large enough and acceptable enough to sustain the planet’s long term requirements.

tained within the earth) but its ing economic powers China and India are rapidly increasing Nuclear energy is often presented as the solution to oil 0. using conservation and increas- cations’ although their scope can be very large (e. on humanity’s willingness to do so. and the world is rapidly moving into 1. HUMANITY’S ENERGY REQUIREMENTS a phase where the balance between supply and demand will HYDRO 6 adapted from Christopher Swan mal/egs_technology. BP Statistical Review of Residential and commercial sectors (i. fast anticipated growth: The first group includes such applications as domestic hot SOLAR 23. by tapping existing and new resources can be stored. in the 21st Century http:// losses by atmosphere and clouds D&A  Autumn 2008  Issue 09 11 .S. pp. and COAL 8 TOTAL RESERVE and Man – in Primary Productivity ing the heat reservoirs stored very reports energy consumption figures for major countries and apart from the unaccounted need for large. recovery technologies. 328–333 10. Fossil fuels like oil energy applications: those which are designed to meet a par. S. (Figure 1) © R. MIT/INEL The Future of Geother. R. with a is of the order of 480 exajoules3 per year. as a renewable resource.g. Stanford. This consumption is ance already causes chaotic market fluctuations with a strong ford University. 305-328. The re- 0. These applications are indeed ‘niche appli. 3. Unfortunately.g.html. higher efficiency light- 240 etration of solar hot water systems in countries like Israel.500.. is an indication that supply-demand bal- Geothermal Systems [EGS] on the continents only. technologies7.3 PER YEAR Journal of Energy Resources Tech. protection from terrorism. Perez et al.. production peak and the inevitable supply-demand imbal- tion of Global Wind Power – Stan. This second group BIOMASS 5 holds the key to a very large scale deployment potential Finite supply-side resources: The lion’s share of the today’s pri- 2–6 PER YEAR 90–300 that could. (Fig 1) of finite resources is quite revealing. economically by smart conservation and efficiency alone. 8. Note At present the total primary energy consumption of the world reach a tipping point. C. suggesting that the cur. meet all the planet’s energy require. assuming 65% passes all other sectors by far. source is indeed finite (since con- the planet’s energy with only 5% of its population. ing efficiencies: e. by acting to reduce. ance is tightening8. Solar energy received by emerged the commercial building sector’s energy demand growth sur. avoiding unnecessary waste. On the demand-side. met by nuclear. better insulation. Nihous. hydroelectricity and biomass. the Price-Anderson Act in the United States13.. Oil is the first to approach its physical (1986): Sun Cell. ultimate potential is considerable their demand for energy with a combined consumption now depletion and global warming. subsidies (e. G. passive or active heating of buildings. There are two ways to meet worldwide energy demand and its and coal alone could fulfil our energy needs for ticular end-use. www1. a look at the proven planetary reserves GEOTHERMAL 7 4. World Energy Council 40-50 years exploiting current such as the United States of America using almost 22% of Aside from oil. 25–70 WAVES 3 0. amounting to a con. with rich industrialised countries. reverse.eere. tion. U.erg.np/ World Energy 2007 ings) account for almost 30% of energy use in oecd coun. 6. but would do so at a considerable environmental cost. The second group includes technologies designed to generate electricity – i. etc.000 TW-yrs. smarter. water. ISBN 0-3870-7083-4. ing. the growth rate. concentrated solar power resources to the planet’s supply-side needs. Much of this 16 TW-YR PER YEAR supply chain is finite. and utilisation 1. Evalua. alleling that of oil. better engines. in theory. Environmental Resources Group. tries.. This group includes pho.2–2 WIND 2 PER YEAR NATURAL GAS 8 215 TOTAL solar power power of the sun The available solar energy exceeds the world’s energy It is helpful to distinguish between two types of solar MEETING ENERGY DEMAND comsumption by a factor of 1. and wind power generation2. this “silver bul- nology – December 2005 – Vol.) the supply of nuclear fuel may LLC http://www. capable of meeting the demand remaining after conserva- use application requiring energy. if hidden. However its ex- exceeding that of the United States. TIDES 1 mal Energy Conversion Resources. Springer-Verlag. Archer & M. public of the Biosphere. deep under the earth’s crust and groups of countries around the world. Apart from the still unresolved 900 5.com.000 10 another three or four generations.g. let” view may be too optimistic.e. The current pressure on nuclear fuel price. Renewables. par- 7. An Order-of-Magni.. Jacobson. rent worldwide figure is headed for a strong growth. CA projected installed capacity in not distributed equally. the pen. Whittaker (1975): The Biosphere ploitation is contingent on captur. Table 1 issues of waste management and nuclear proliferation. Grow. (CSP). largely build.html?src=stkd03e mal Energy – Impact of Enhanced 10. mary energy comes from fossil fuels with the balance largely WORLD ENERGY USE URANIUM 9 TOTAL ments and beyond. a universal energy carrier that 2.com.e. The McKinsey report on cli- TOTAL the impact of these technologies is limited to meeting their mate change5 indicates that over 40% of the consumption OTEC 4 specific end-use.php 9. underlying price strengthening. and eventually of natural light. be just too small using current and planned nuclear generator hydropower_global. However.3–2 PER YEAR tude Estimate of Ocean Ther. yearly production rate based on stant power demand of 16 Terawatts4. On the supply-side. Sierra Club Press that geothermal is treated here 3–4 PER YEAR 2. While the proportion is smaller in non-oecd countries.gov/geother. and has been estimate at several ume 127. org/stk. contributing to the general perception that of major consumers like the United States could be met 3–11 PER YEAR solar is a useful but limited energy resource. transformed and reach virtually any end. http://www. Issue 4. Table 3 reports the current contribution of different tovoltaic (PV) power generation.energy. Heckeroth. in short PETROLEUM 8 Spain Turkey and especially China1 is significant). and those which are universal in nature. better and smaller.wise-uranium.

decentralised production of solar-derived electric. be insignificant. ity near points of utilization – largely using PV. The first markets to evolve are. tation.g. tant source of renewable energy 5. after hydroelectric power. than 30 per cent of all energy forms of power generation. but probably not for more operational impact. interactive based fuel producing t echnologies could be reasonably envis- of the solar resource dwarfs any other finite and renewable While stressing that demand-side conservation and efficiency electric/hybrid cars14 load/backup management). Measured in terms of annual power power supply in the future. image credits 1. and. to long aged for applications absolutely requiring liquid fuels. with. A quick look at the phys. Today. It is first and foremost. (2) At the other extreme are continental. county’s electrical energy. demand management. inter. today and are building on this experience to invent and develop ing a very conservative rate of 10% conversion12 from available space that can be used for solar harvesting in addition to ference and the solar yield differences). 5: Hank Morgan / SPL / Agentur Focus ply would not involve any sig. Note that many of the renewable resources are sec. within 20 years. solar future for the planet is not inconceivable. familiar if not the most promising method. load demand response) to mid term (e. and some. solar/wind electricity – hydrolysis of hydrogen being the most benign than coal. with remaining applications which could not easily rely on electric- may be an early symptom of more pressure to come9. least making use of nearby availability of large solar resources plified by Germany and Japan that. but and modify it to meet all end-uses. ing this growth rate in the future indicates that over half of tinents alone is more than 30 times larger than the total plan. the advent of electrical and plug-in hybrids. indefinitely the direct end-use solar applications that have the highest on. biomass. it comes far behind solar power.e. technologies (wind. Because of the decentrali. resources. This issue would investment. ing on biomass alone for all transportation needs would put Renewable resources: Figure 1 compares the yearly potential tovoltaic power generation. could play an important role as 3: KAJ R. quasi-synchronous demand for power – much of the United 12 D&A autumn 2008  Issue 09 13 . tion of solar energy in their energy systems. taking advantage both of the time dif. northern. site solar-to-application efficiencies: hot water.500 times larger than the current But the key would lie in electricity generation via any of in Europe and in America15 considering this type of solar the United States will come from these renewable resources planetary energy consumption. are an inherent part of any solution. (2) markets where the emerged continent’s area to produce all the energy used sion zones. a comprehensive are that some places on the planet receive more solar energy ‘big-picture’ visions mentioned above already have a strong. i. miniature power stations. the same modest 10% conversion efficiency13 as a reference.. and csp alone over the last ten years17 and project- renewable supply of solar energy received by the emerged con. but it is already impressive. a rapid renewable takeoff is not pie in the times cloudy country as Denmark receives a total of nearly 5 Infrastructure: Two very distinct infrastructural models are sky but a real possibility. however. and suggests that when addi- dant in the tropical belts than it is in the temperate zones11. despite a modest solar scale would utilise too much space. wind power is cur. using nologies will have to undergo a fast development phase. Given the size A look at the solar industry: As a reality check. eration area requirements to hydroelectric artificial lakes. passive stant (i. The resource Serving all energy needs: Many demand sectors. artificial lakes occupy 100. Solar trough power station nificant problems. the world subtropical deserts) and that if yet still embryonic. 3.g. In distributed. global warming intensification. model is that it would result in indigenous. hydrogen. innovative solar-augmented biomass or bacteria- ventional energies. a quick look like wind.. assum. it would take less than one percent of a primary role like building envelopes. There are conceptual proposals on the drawing board both the new electric generating capacity installed in a country like etary reserves of coal and 1. likely. solar 1 2 3 4 5 The proven reserves of coal are significant and could carry the scape can be used for solar harvesting with very little visual or lenge will have to be addressed because the solar renewable able: ground transportations could become largely electrical planet for a good number of years. pv. taking advantage of available space – particularly cities of the east coast. Large solar heat 2. SVENSSON / SPL / AGENTUR FOCUS 4: Technische Universität Darmstadt methods of solar power sup. but a combination of both could be envisageable . Wind energy could probably satisfy Beyond conservation and efficiency. However the yearly. tary super power grids: the basic ideas behind this vision ing throughout the world today indicates that the type of over millions of years10. for instance. power stations such as these would be alone sufficient to sup. heating and passive cooling where climate permits. the failure of any one decentralised unit. is large enough in almost every part of the world to fulfil in particular. over time through increase electric rail-based mass transpor- than 2–3 generations if coal-alone had to carry the planet’s the densest energy demand hubs on the planet.g. would ity directly or indirectly. will range for very short term (capacitors. However. transportation right of ways. a nearly 100% supply-side term (e. and possibly plane. ecosystem. daylight. transportation solar synergies will provide high-value solutions that will attract by the planet today. Although rely- would be needed to supply 100% of the electricity with pho. at a huge environmental cost. an area smaller than the earth’s cur. a considerable technological chal. The recent trend observed in North America between the the United States. and storage of fuel-producing biomass could also be considered for the number of gas wells drilled and the amount of gas produced square kilometres of flooded land to produce only 7% of the operation.000 sation of production. more importantly will necessitate a strong sures. and tacit agreement between all involved parties and coun. etc. wind. tional countries and decision makers become aware of the need consider that even such a modestly sized. fly wheels. such as air transport.. tries to maintain and protect such a network. the average solar yield of the entire planet is nearly con. they 1: Geoff Tompkinson / SPL / Agentur Focus 2: Thomas Steinhagen / fotolia day’s electricity grids for both generation. industrial exclu. In and robust energy pathways. It is of course more abun. the planetary energy requirements if exploited to a substan. It is plainly evident that the magnitude A COMPREHENSIVE SOLAR SOLUTION teries. and new energy burden. bat. highly conductive dc super yet given the fossil energy depletion and environmental pres- ble throughout much of the planet. or fuel equivalents derived from While natural gas is considerably more environmentally Another interesting point of reference is to contrast solar gen. Worldwide.e. The storage panoplies which will have to be developed an impossibly large burden on food chain and the planetary yield of renewable resources against the finite reserves of con. smart biomass) and in the development opment of very high voltage.. for instance. and. This growth may not yet be quite sufficient The solar resource is well distributed and widely availa. Central or distributed? Using to. wind. the reserves are also considerably more lim. have become the largest solar markets in the world ical reality reveals that this view is not accurate: even. flow batteries. concepts such as Personal Transportation Networks16. but also (such as the US southwest deserts providing power to the large resource. buildings consume more ising alternative to photovoltaic the next 2 to 3 generations. rely on liquid fuel to operate. Smart. hydropower and wave power – just as of the finite reserves and the size of the renewable solar supply. compressed air) ond and third order byproducts of incoming solar energy.. In terms in California. known coal reserves of its global potential. tw-year worth of solar energy every year. and will be.at the very underlying forces: (1) The people/policy driven markets exem- It is widely believed that deploying solar energy on a massive (1) Local. require particular attention but the task is not insurmount. the leading direct solar technologies (pv and csp) or indirect energy deployment. New generation ited. particularly where a large resource can meet a large rently [sub] urbanised land – and much of the urbanised land. Only a quarter of that flooded space built-in minimal stand-alone operation capability. worldwide. of creative solutions and infrastructures to serve the energy power lines. approach would first involve maximising the utilisation of than others (e. at the direct and indirect solar industries that are fast emerg- fossil fuels are byproducts of solar energy stored in the earth logic alone would say that such a future is inevitable. driven by key the energy consumption of the entire planet. that is one third of envisageable: The author’s preference is for the first (decentralised) model. The approach will necessitate the devel. the technological solutions that will permit increased penetra- to useable solar energy. one of resources are intermittent and vary seasonally. it is always sunny somewhere on planet earth). rently the second most impor. its entire electric consumption using 60% of its surface. for a fast transition. are regarded as a highly prom- ply the world with energy for 4. could satisfy active electrical load management and energy storage tech. highly-secure. head start: Considering the growth of tial portion of its potential. most needs. The city of New York. The main attraction of this decentralised deployment also possible to produce fuel.

Acknowledgement: Thanks to Marc Perez for sourcing the data pre- ment there could be. installation (i. another 108 heliostats were added to enlarge the power station. the role sive 2004 power blackout in New York and Toronto showed of architecture is fundamental. but difficult in others – it would ness of a solar future can be simply expressed in this one be preferable to conceive buildings and places to live (big and fundamental reality: all direct and indirect solar technologies small. and (3) given proper be developed with creative and attractive designs. please visit www. Its 1818 heliostats (reflector mirrors that follow the path of the sun) cover a total area of 51 hectares. 14 9 . agement and energy storage hubs and nodes. before he unsubsidised installation in this conservative worse case sce.The use of solar power is not a new invention. USA.e. ering that this is the most secure. when operated under average conditions. ating in low-demand emergency modes – i. went on to obtain his PhD in Atmospheric Science at the University of Albany in 1983. For a monetary translation of this Richard Perez is Research Professor and Senior Research Associate at physical reality. he has also been working as a consultant on energy.vkr-fondene. For more information. daylight.1. even this modest 2–3% return represents tion with the VELUX FONDEN. sented in Table 1-3 and in Fig. acting as energy than is used to construct and install them. ing Component Award given by VILLUM KANN RASMUSSEN in coopera- rent wholesale costs..e. Buildings can best exploit con- that even a modest solar resource dispersed around the large version efficiencies and incorporate most end-use oriented solar cities of the northeast would have averted the heat-wave-driven application: heat. decentralised renewable energy model. in effect. serving as load man- ingly impossibly large financial burden19. which then had a peak electrical output of 10 MW. nology) in the north-eastern US (a region with a modest solar environment. the analysis of the mas. i. both non-profit. In 1996. 120 articles and reports in the fields of solar radiation. possible in some situations.. energy perfection for showcase buildings at all cost – highly ventional energies escalate. With operational hearts and relays/storage management in the most elegant way lifetimes far exceeding their energy pay-back period. or power crisis20 mental physical measure of long term economic viability to societies investing in it. Richard Perez started his academic career environmental compliance). a fast. philanthropic foundations. the nodes of a smart energy network. switching overnight to solar would incur a seem. California.e. staying alive dur- ering themselves into growth. an attractive societal investment for the long term. operating as improving. these during normal operating conditions. The financial return of such an by studying electrotechnics and geophysics in Nice and Paris. energy breeders capable of pow. consid.dk.e. the ‘Solar One’ power station was built in Barstow. ing any type of power blackouts. economics and international matters. In addition. THE ROLE OF ARCHITECTURE Photo: Scanpix/Corbis/Bob Rowan trical demand is driven by air conditioning demand. As early as 1981. The long term economic sound. New York. However. track growth and complete turnover within 50 years will be Better than pursing the holy grail of individualised zero affordable. especially as both apparent and real costs of con. but also as active components in a Of course. particularly pv. States constitute such a potential market where the peak elec. renewable energy not counting the external costs of fossil fuel depletion and applications and daylighting. While the real return is likely In March 2008 Richard Perez was awarded with The Daylight and Build- to be much higher when considering true costs beyond cur. considering the most expensive solar tech. itself Because buildings represent a large part of the energy con- driven by the sun – as a case in point. cooling. investment means.. nario is of the order of 2–3%. He has been an Asso- ciate Editor of the Solar Energy Journal since 1995 and published over resource) valued against current wholesale electricity (i. not only HOW MUCH WOULD IT COST? as electricity generators. and all these solutions can outage at a small fraction of its cost18.. with appropriate controls these technologies will produce more energy in a few years for load management and storage operation. but also capable of oper- technologies are. modest and sophisticated) as fully participating in the have energy payback of 3–7 years today and are constantly dispersed energy generation/distribution model. Hence buildings have a funda- mental role to play in the supply-side energy chain. markets where no significant energy gen. Energy payback is a funda. stable and risk-free invest. sumed by society (nearly 30% in the oecd countries). building envelopes also constitute a primary eration infrastructure yet exists and where solar energy could harvesting surface for the universal solar energy generation leapfrog conventional resources technologies. let’s look at an example: an unsubsidised pv the SUNY Atmospheric Sciences Research Center in Albany. Since 1981.

18 4. 17.68 9. or 277 billion kilowatt-hours. 10. terawatts of the intermittent PV.42 5.48 27% USA 3. Williams and S. 14.49 21. one ter. In Europe: The Club of Rome’s Trans.76 34. ply energy when not in use. and wind resource necessary – the energy from the sun heating duction trends – while until the early cept is known as PV-to-Grid. 11.6 1.60 23. Margolis. One exajoule = 1 billion billion joules creasing amount of drilling activity org/concept.. No OECD 2030 1. installing overnight the 40 No OECD 2005 0. biomass.07 0. C. r ight Electricity more electricity than its occu- plary way in the SOLTAG demo stal on the island of Ærø (www. buildings in the middle of winter. to be revisited if nuclear fusion or tion Agency (2007): International prevent the next major outage. R.9% 0. trillion US dollars using current tech- 3. Wind is a by-product of solar energy 9. Solar TW–yr % total TW–yr % total TW–yr % total TW–yr % total TW–yr occupying a cumulative surface of breeder reactors were ever to be Energy Outlook Today 19.89 12% Photo: Technische Universität Darmstadt Eurasia 1.10 26.05 3. Collins.70 64% 1.person.40 7.46 0. wealth currently held by the planet’s TABLE 3: Primary energy consumption per source and 1995–2005 growth trends for OECD and non–OECD countries corresponding energy unit. 20.courtesy of Zweibel et al. solar cells to generate the same photovoltaics. Each building had to use both through solar heat and that is equal to 1/3 of the total requirements. or see ongoing de.org/templates/story/ study from the Northeast Sustain- Non OECD 1995 1. OECD 2005 1.37 19.01 42.95 56% Photo: Marstal Fjernvarme Africa 0.6% 0. strong conservation measures could source: US Energy Information Agency (2007): International Energy Outlook blowing through the planet’s atmos.3% 0. equals 8.25 3% 4.72 13% 0. McKinsey Report on Climate Change: biomass now stored in the form of 16.0% 0.14 (i. Denmark alone receives a total tors cover approximately 15 per ton (see page 7) made it pos- vesting surface for solar energy. laptop: The prototypes of the period of time.37 10% China 1.15% richest people. Passed in 1957 and renewed several overstated: For instance.48 36% South & Central America 0.7% 0.12 1. As a quick order-of-magnitude projected 05-30 growth 22% 44% 19% 32% 27% generation of 10 large nuclear power factor 10 (in US $) between 2002 ity that could be used interactively check. Denmark.38 plants). Cooperation. “The but ‘only’ 2-3 times larger than the 4.29 16% 0. 18.02 http://www.85 7.9% 7.com/article. Both technolo.3% 0.e.57 2. One terawatt = 1 trillion Watts. fossil fuels amounts to less than concepts at http://www. July/August 2005 Issue.4% 1.php?storyId=90042092 able Energy Association (NESEA) Non OECD 2005 2. re- OECD 1995 3. gas pro.55 7.51 34. Perez R.38 times since.html and in the USA: K.cfm?id=a-solar. mer Blackouts – How dispersed solar 16 D&A autumn 2008  Issue 09 17 .2% 5. highly correlated with the number Mediterranean Renewable Energy cost anywhere between 50 and 150 phere.40 accident – this was enacted because 12. The 1998 Quebec ice storm re- Petroleum Natural gas Coal Hydro Nuclear Other* Total watt-hours.02 over 20 million square meters today commercially developed. The Chuck Kutscher. 298(1).42 1. Page 17.desertec. 19.3% 0. Greenhouse Gas Emis. a photo.7% 0. nological costs – a huge number. Table 2 source: US Energy Informa.. (wind installed cap approaching 100 showed a solar powered critical growth 1995–2005 33% 47% 58% 36% 47% 129% 45% stipulates that the federal govern. The cost of uranium increased by a stantial electrical storage capabil. story. growth 1995–2005 19% 33% 39% 14% 18% 98% 27% no commercial insurer was willing to ready exceeding 20% for both PV tendre. left bottom Each year. awatt-year. A growth 1995–2005 10% 21% 16% -5% 14% 91% 14% service/ccsi/ deserts and northern Europe is often www.6% 1.13 60% 3.npr. T.6% 12. The solar power station in Mar.72 34% 8.8% 1.4% 8.4% 4. The difference between the planet’s ployment plans in Abu Dhabi at http:// damage from frozen water lines. VELUX.71 22. planetary energy consumption. CSP. of wells drilled. January 2008. Le. sulting in lost business and physical OECD 2005 3.20 12% 3. amount of electricity as or gies were combined in an exem.0% 0. to power the planet indefinitely after projected 05-30 growth 83% 171% 73% 103% 84% the planet is the source of all winds 2000s gas production had been 15.67 5% 8.08 12% Middle East 0.54 2. left top Building enve.8% 0.3% 2. off fast) residence would have carried most Total 1995 4.9% 15. Around 8.53 8% Asia & Oceania 3.g.000 m² of solar collec. http://www. Electric vehicles (EVs) carry a sub. with the power grid to absorb or sup. (2005) Solution to the Sum- source: US Energy Information Agency (2005): International Energy Annual Report * Includes geothermal.. power generating systems can help Residential Commercial Industrial Transport Total water systems are installed in China. OECD 2030 1.01 0. alrapidtransit. B. original solar energy that grew the grand-plan sulted in thousands of homes and TW–yr % total TW–yr % total TW–yr % total TW–yr % total TW-yr % total TTW–yr % total TW–yr 5.76 39. developed in 2005 by solarmarstal. pp.4% 0.59 31.08 6.1% 1. The conversion efficiency from the sciam. buildings through the storm without Total 2005 5.94 13% 0. Today’s conversion efficiency is al. Gas well drilling activity vs. top 0. National Renewable Solar Grand Plan. to maintain production . wind and solar assume risk liability.59 0.59 35% 10. see personal rapid transit businesses having to abandon their Reducing U.com/. 64-73.22 24. Herig J.67 36. and 2007 (Financial Time 7/27/07)..97 6.mckinsey. directly from the roof to the pants consumed during the same house.com/client.49 20% 7.78 33% North America 3.76 66% source: US Energy Information Agency (2005): International Energy Annual Report TABLE 2: Primary energy consumption and projected growth trends for OECD and non–OECD countries NOTES 1.80 22.78 9.21 15. Energy Laboratory.5% 0.80 24. energy-independent ’Solar Table 1: Primary energy consumption (TW–yr) and 1995–2005 growth trends for selected countries/regions of the world Photo: Adam Mørk 1995 2005 1995–2005 growth (%) World 12.9% 0.34 31.8% 3.1% 0.24 93% Europe 2. 32-35.17 2.67 trillion kilo. it now takes an in.01 22% 13.4% 0.92 6. Of course this argument would have 13. ican.59 19.06 0. Page 17.4% 2. E.4% 1.32 41. This con.78 6.dk) produces dis.4.96 24.4% 7.78 37% 3.Page 17.13 case of catastrophic nuclear power lector installed in the Sahara.58 16% 1.4% 0. amount of energy from the sun cent of the community’s heating sible.18 40% 2.05 sions: How Much at What Cost? 1/10th of 1 millionth percent.” Scientific Amer.1% 1.36 0. and CSP.64 4.03 0.83 10% 3.9% 0.2% 0.3% 2. 70% of the solar world’s solar hot 7. trict heating on a large scale. equivalent to the peak power 8. Decathlon’ house in Washing- lopes constitute a primary har. http://www.14 1. would generate ‘only’ GW and PV 10 solar thermal taking load system of as little as 1 kW per ment is the insurer of last resort in 55% less energy than the same col. Hoff.S. gen.44 6. the need for evacuation.14 0.10 1. the Price-Anderson Act voltaic collector installed in Copenha.

DAYLIGHTING The natural gift of daylight put to practice in architecture ENRIQUE BROWNE A NATURAL APPROACH TO BUILDING .

Selected WORKS Vine Arbour Conch House Consorcio Building Houses Casa Caracola with Borja Casas Parrón 1985–1987 Huidobro 1974–1975 1990–1993 D&A  AUTUMN 2008  Issue 09 21 . The result: sig- Enrique Browne not only creates spaces that address nificantly lower energy con- sumption than a comparable all the senses but also renders his buildings highly buildings. energy-efficient. ter. but. as he puts it. the Chilean architect ­Enrique sive demonstration of Enrique Browne has pursued his own path away from Browne’s principle of ‘build- ing with nature’.By Cristián Fernández Cox Previous: The 2735 square- meter facade garden of the Con- Photos by Enrique Browne y Asociados sorcio building in Santiago de Chile is an exceedingly impres- For the last 30 years. the the anonymity of post-war modernism and from plants provide shade and. In summer. daylight penetrates deep ­vegetation and scenery as building materials. for nature to be literally part of architecture. using scenery. vegetation and light as building materials. in win- the exuberances of post-modernism. Using light. The work of Enrique Browne not only intends architecture to have a good relationship with nature. into the offices.

simplicity of the work. must be truly wonderful modernity combines technical and for its inhabitants. Indeed. En- work. the houses immersed in the sensitivity of mod- immediately stand out because of ernism. The construction of the European Modern Movement left in house is based on ‘reinforced’1 brick. with this candid honesty of building. powerful way possible. 22 D&A  AUTUMN 2008  Issue 09 23 . in the the architecture. tithesis of post-modern cynicism. own way. side a forest of pear trees. The architecture is full of lowing exactly the same 3 × 3 weft. Left: The houses are built like summer houses. which were Browne’s different approach to already a traditional feature in Chil. ate. it reaches inside the house. participating in na. this approach constitutes the an. Below: Ground plan and views Vine Arbour Houses Casas Parrón 1974–1975 Located in the so-called up-town Entering the houses. as well as being in. Browne built the Browne interprets. closer to the rich. modernity both preserves and tran- ean gardens in colonial times (16th scends one of the values that the century). with perceived as the trunk of a tree. you have the experience of being shel. Visiting the In the Vine Arbour Houses. An open wooden supporting structure and sim- ple construction details char- acterize the indoor and outdoor spaces. As the reader can appreci. does not suffer from the ab- the incorporation of nature within stract schematic coldness that the their architecture. ferent times of day and in the differ- propriately. Francois Jacob. warm and cosy tation of pear trees in geometrical spaces of Frank Lloyd Wright. As its integration into nature at the dif- Kenneth Frampton noticed quite ap. expressive freedom the warm at- The houses are built as a vine ar. ture is not mechanical but rather im- tecture. neighbourhood of Santiago de Chile. rique Browne’s different approach to living there. you per. supports for grapevines. one notices that. functional rigor (reinforced concrete ture. while being fully borough of Las Condes. on Charles Hamilton Street. it is much they are houses built on an old plan. and with the appreciated by looking at its images rich spatiality contained within the – and when you are at this site. So mersed in the ‘Logic of the Living’2. European Modern Movement was As can be seen on the floor plan. in search of the dweller’s in such a way that each pillar (which quality of life – with the warm cosi- remains isolated) is volumetrically ness of wood and clay bricks. by the 1965 French Nobel Prize winner in posed to view. which modules of 3 × 3 m. The architec- ceive that the land is part of the archi. medicine. integrated into nature in the most tered in a dwelling. architecture is not only ent seasons of the year. Chile: its constructive authenticity With rebar arranged on the same bricks 1 and a (4”× 10” and 2”× 8”) wooden and rigor. at different times of day and in was used for seismic reasons) with different seasons of the year. sensuality. of course. often accused of. it is perceived that being there. in his houses by means of pillar vines fol. Alluding to the name of the well known book 2 framework that is simply left ex. mosphere that the architect required bour structure: there are wooden on a more symbolic level.

snail-shaped spiral. come neighbourhood). reta) and Colombian (Salmona) ar- gant. a front garden is of us made in an SAL. lateralism is present in this house. This is not only true of the bering the beautiful Mexican tradi. Their top edges are used as tles of Northern Europe. the Conch ever. in Enrique Browne’s Conch house. the best Mexican (Barragán. these include most of all the estate. the small garden that provides perature while one goes around its the same objective of integrating the light. more enclosed front becomes an entire sensor of the 1985–1987 In this house. door of the house. Apart from what has al- Enrique Browne’s design makes the the foot of the cascade. elliptic. prises the spacious living and dining It implies formal freedom and func. cade from the top of the wall to the cious than houses in the lower in- ated that the garden is the house and swimming pool. I am also reminded own splendour. on the outside. garden provides space for two cars small noises. Left Concept sketch and ground plan Below A white spiral wall separates the house’s garden from the court- yard and the living space from the ancillary rooms. It seems that the cultural land within the architecture. the small breezes and sources quite different from those of and access to the service area. is similar to the reflection that some facing the street. which Casa Caracola Las Condes. sepa. that subtly play with the light: white master bedroom and the two sec. Fi. Towards the inside of the spiral. the simple framework and ceilings gardens complement the main space. Conch House This house is also located in up. by means of a kind of sense of touch town Santiago. The best Latin added. ture of the up-town neighbourhood these areas being part of the same graph of the water that falls in a cas. Three minor ing to its splashing murmur. Legor- long white wall drawn up as an ele. house communicates very little to its of the land is turned into under-uti. as we see unique space is configured that com. a second. in the Borough of rated by the beginning of the spiral extended along all the body. unlike the great cas- different lights and shades of colour yards. view and exit to the rear side of precincts. in the morning (as in the photograph) ondary bedrooms. spellbound in their different seasons of the year. one has the Hispano- This strategy of ‘imprisoning’ the of the incredible waterworks of the Arab palace. wall. have its origin in a concept taken space within the ellipse but also – as tion of the never-ending agricultural from domestic life and architec- always happens in nature – of the very walls used to separate great vine. how. Hispanic Arab ancestry that is com- Here the architectonic proce. Alongside. fied as a dry echo by the elliptic wall of wood. graph of the swimming pool is a very surroundings. Browne achieves nally. Similarly. ture where. located on of the various hours of the day and the endless aqueducts. Bottom right Photograph of the living area at night. (where buildings can be more spa- and only space. using architectonic re. and the curves of the walls serving as views and exit from the that surrounds the pool. the not-so-small changes of tem- the Parrón Houses. It seems to vice versa. almost infinite. Using the shape of a spiral. the kitchen and the service bedroom. I cannot help remem. merely looking at a photo. This Hispanic Arab influence is room as well as the main part of the tional common sense. On the contrary. as if it were hiding its lised residual space. This awareness of an architec. horizontal and the tops of hills. Palacio de Alhambra in Granada. for example. The waterfall motif is widespread in Latin-Ameri- can architecture – in the buildings of Luis Barragán. does not mean that the rest Still. introverted and neutral principal garden in an ellipse. mon to Iberian America survives in dure is the following: by means of a None of today’s so frequent uni. perceived in Chile in all the architec- garden and the swimming pool. the illusion is cre. With Observing the beautiful photo. ture that is ‘seen’ with all the senses and reddish in the afternoon. providing access to the front American architecture is perceived 24 D&A  AUTUMN 2008  Issue 09 25 . ampli. a Browne’s architecture may indeed chitecture and also in Chile. on San Damián Street. and listen. be described as ‘the art of balance’. Enrique Browne not only made the rooms hierarchical but also made the best possible use of the available land. different thing from being there at treasures. ready been described. exploits the land to the maximum.

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the ning architectural work in Chilean the neighbourhood. is the trademark our buildings have to be. the deciduous vegetation greatest fluency and dynamics. the more ‘intelligent’ rally lush and constitutes a very thick the most important newspaper of seems obvious. lower floors plus the freshness of a rior occupancy. is the solar height. puter systems used to automatically 400m² water basin with sprinklers the architects also compared a floor tics that the architects intelligently regulate the lighting. west (the orientation with the great. the tinted glass and principally to the ‘in. This seems to have tiago building. 2002 as “the best building of the last when a barrel of oil reached the strat. established a kind of carte blanche dens that once existed on the 2. positioned in front of the the architects. ternal overheating of the buildings spectrum: it creates an architecture cally to achieve the two relations by the greenhouse effect. the Edificio Consorcio night. clad with ‘double green skin’ with the two classical building/street ergy inside them. They provided the ated sunlight to come in. of the Consorcio-Santiago building made the most of. other way: here the intelligent ones parent and allow the much-appreci- decade” and in another survey in Intelligent Buildings. which mor. in front of the building. there is a 1. ings in the study. solar protection. forms depending on the season. and its Ar. is there for all consumes 35% less energy. building with stair-shaped green ‘cur. This Con. In the case of the Consorcio San. seems so natural that one would con. El Mercurio. which are usually antag. This vertical garden. seasons. which tend the glass facade.735m² ous results were confirmed but at- phologically accompanies the street get about the energy issue: we design vertical garden of the facade. unlike its predecessors. leading to in. The building all: crystalline. tion and the glass. on the the country. fashion among architects. while est solar radiation) and achieve a very tion than the average of another ten Barcelona 1998. leafless and thus much more trans- sen in 1990 as “the best work of the sider any alternatives impossible. Between plants and rounding buildings. as is natu. A closer look at the writing this article. its backlit planted facade alters its external appearance makes the ‘Edificio Consorcio’ continually in the course of the at night stand out from the sur. contributing to may be a little exaggerated by cir- streets that cross at a sharp angle. So entire city block. sorcio Building is ‘intelligent’ in an.4 to be traditional. which. In the face of this. This re- building reveals how well deserved passed the USD 130 barrier – but to. that blooms in a thousand different at the same time. in summer. In this way shading is achieved. energy-saving building became a crystal facades oriented towards the established that the Consorcio Build- tion of Chile in 1995 and was a final. leaving all responsibility to the thermore. another floor in the same building relations. Santiago facades are more plentiful than ever air currents between the vegeta. and the fact buildings’ have emerged. A ‘green protected’ floor (as a continuous facade). ject and a very pleasant presence in by computers. are the architects. These percentages de Chile. and other factors. glazed ‘curtain wall’ is very important – generates cold compared to the average of the build- is situated in Las Condes. tenuated. situation in which we architects for. Added to this. the density of inte- ing extends over the length of an because of the sophisticated com. The previ- onistic: a) the building. it was cho. sustaina. rays. a barrel of oil has efficient protection against the sun’s corporate buildings studied. the climbing plants are chitectural Supplement. cost reduction of 25%. were characteris. In surveys carried out by This relation. ‘intelligent an adequate temperature inside the cumstantial factors such as location. which once achieved architects are. tain walls’. came a fashion because today. Previous: An unusual sight in the Below: As a result of its vegeta- business district of Santiago: At tion phase. Along with this comes ing’s energy efficiency. day’s architects do not about this at which at the same time – and this resents monetary savings of 28% Urban Morphology. We archi. telligent’ waste of energy. other hand. of good architecture: the solution Intelligent architects. Consorcio Building with Borja Huidobro 1990–1993 This is possibly the most prize-win. The solution that the architects against solar radiation. This peculiar location. at the intersection of two before. has a functional characteristic that building is also a most beautiful ob. ing has 48% less energy consump- ist in the Mies van der Rohe Award. In this way. Results of the intelligent input of 30 years in Chile”. They combined conditioning and thus the use of en. with a isolated “object building”. ble. it is natu- history. has a changing aspect and colour chose enabled them very harmoni. heating and air. the relationship with neigh- that the main facade of the build. Fur- from flanking the street with the sues. duction in energy consumption rep- these prizes are. In winter. the paradox that the more stupid we season with the most heat. other reasons they bear their name protection provided by trees on the bouring buildings. An independent study in the Architecture Biennial Exhibi. plot were replaced by the true 2. tal facades that offer no protection to see. Among building. apart tects have forgotten about these is. ral. and b) the energy-expensive projects with crys.674m² without this protection. I say it be. It won First Prize ospheric price of USD 80. Years ago. managed turns out to be the key for the build- 28 D&A  AUTUMN 2008  Issue 09 29 . the surfaces of the gar. meter-wide air gap that ensures a sufficient flow of air due to the ‘chimney’ effect.

on seeing how Browne treats MINGA Santiago de Chile 1990. of Teotihuacán as ‘land art’. in a place far away in time and the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile and able in all his architecture. and.A. architecture. Hugo Häring would rejoice at Cristián Fernández Cox studied architecture at And. Enrique Browne’s architecture. architecture. More. giving themselves the distinguished with the National Award of Archi- warmth and cosiness for the dweller. exposes in an article (ArchiNatura) for the and all of the best current Latin American book SOBREAMÉRICA4. John Wilson in ‘The Other Tra- theoretic foundation. opening a path to President of the Asociación de Oficinas de Arqui- tectos de Chile (Chilean Association of Architects’ logic of harmonic multi-purpose that is typ. “another moder- Offices). vivifies all our activities in all times and all ica’ that Enrique Browne wrote twenty years seasons”. however. In 1998. This. as we have seen repeatedly. of course. The core BROWNE’S ARCHITECTURE of the building is a central stair- well which is lit from above and is demarcated by two parallel white-plastered walls. it is notice. the architecture of the European Modern light – a principal component of nature – and 5 Academy Editions London 1995 Movement. without a challenge that necessarily accompanies the 3 Enrique Browne: ‘Otra Arquitectura­en doubt. 4 SobreAmérica. it is much closer to the work in a way that is as characteristic as that of of Frank Lloyd Wright. Luis Barragan. based on the pure dition of Modern Architecture’5. published in 1990. Various authors. I am not involve any direct influence by Wright: reminded of the description of light as quoted Enrique Browne’s architecture has its own by Sir Colin St. ­Ediciones ture shows fundamental differences from Finally. kilometres away: “Light is the changeable This attitude is already noticeable in the and subtle atmosphere that envelopes and book ‘Another Architecture in Latin-Amer. space. his architec. how he incorporates it into his architecture 6 As quoted by Sir Colin St. is modern: his works show it again ambivalence and diversity of living things – Amérca Latina’. does the best Latin American architecture. a more mature modernity. John ­Wilson in the same book. chitectural Theory in the Universidad Mayor. It may also be noticed in his constant anistic description of Corbusier: “light is a interest for the works of ‘land art’ in general. Häring made 80 years ago and thousands of ing nature into architecture. This contradicts La Sarraz’s mech- ago3. Cristiàn Fernández Cox is Professor of Ar- ical of living things. time “to examine things and to allow them to tecture of Chile in 1997. San- described as the ‘art of balance’ – a principal tiago de Chile. and again. México (1988). which Browne Seeing Browne’s architecture today. the fact that. he was founding over. He has been president of Browne’s architecture is radically far Costa. tial richness. and Regelio Salmona the first Biennal of Architecture in Chile and was from all mechanic rationalism as it provides who opened the way. THE THEORETICAL The influence of the shady pergo- las is noticeable far into the inte- BACKGROUND OF ENRIQUE rior of Casa Paul Harris. there have been architects like Lucio founded his office Cristián Fernández & Associ- ated Architects in 1975. 30 D&A  AUTUMN 2008  Issue 09 31 . Due to its warmth and its spa. mechanism that clearly delineates forms as and in particular the vision of the pyramids geometric objects”. His architecture may be nity” – a trans-modernity. Editorial ­Gustavo Gili S. But at the same time. that Hugo conviction he has had all his life: integrat. his architecture fully corresponds to the look for their own ways”6.

Furthermore. current and future bene. preserva. when oil. it is a key factor for archi. the influence of environmental issues? and use of renewable energies are quite erations. the specific alternative of sustainability to in the universe. But more research public level) when it became associated with treated in architects’ education is linked is being done and there is a better predispo- the economic growth of the last decades and. I think that human under. daylight and other rose sharply a few years ago. For exam- standing of and integration with nature ple. architects were dedicated to showing to the world an architecture of suburban dwellings What is your personal definition that captured with optimism the ‘Ameri- of sustainability? can way of life’. ciency in Chile. will have an influence on I consider nature as all that was given to man beautiful. gas and electricity prices able energies. were pollution. For a developing country other bills to be settled). A radical change will above all. although it sounds such different climates as Chile? What does nature mean to you – old-fashioned. Browne. the over. everything seems possible but fossil whole because of the emergence of environ- whelming worry of the population and the energy is becoming increasingly rare. in high rise authorities was economic and social develop. mental problems. concrete. This was exac. what do you think matters most in the buildings. autonomy. natural elements are considered as build- erbated by the shortage and uncertainty of bal technical change. brings harmony and peace to mankind. there 32 D&A  AUTUMN 2008  Issue 09 33 . even in desert countries like those ment. business and One of the most relevant issues to be glass still predominates. The type of landscape. renewable energies and energy effi. vegetation. The energy issue started to have pub. crystal. great political relevance. energy efficiency mental capital’ necessary for future gen. But nowadays. sition towards nature. when. If so. costs.INTErview WITH Up into the light: Persons attend- ing religious services have to use Enrique Browne a curve ramp to ascend into the chapel of the Colegio Villa María in Las Condes. Of course there are differences. such as development level. geography and mountains. this issue has tion and the search for alternative energies steel. Today. ence in how different generations of ings with more mass and more controlled above all. between the ‘50s and ‘60s in the USA. Obvi- seasons. lem and the issue of sustainability? rainy landscapes of the south. but only in part. but it has not changed as a North America. how would you describe nomic and cultural conditions of coun. be it air and light. education of young architects? of the Middle East. infrastructure costs and the situation regarding the use of tries or regions. efficiency. changed over the last 20 years under With notable exceptions. technically at least. an exaggerated use of lic relevance (at government. irrespective of its energy I don’t believe this can be formulated in and environment costs (and because of the abstract terms – it depends on the eco. such as Chile. I understand sustainability these issues have great relevance. valleys Have you found that there is a differ. explosive increase in car ownership. The problem has must be realistic in terms of other varia- been posed as self-sufficiency in energy ver. slowly changing. ously the desert north of Chile requires build- and sea. However. compared to other coun. Argentinean gas supply. Mr. how? recent themes in Chile compared to the In the last 20 years. weather and adopt in different areas of a country. as the difficult balance between its cur- tries? Is there a growing awareness rent development necessities in general Would you say that architecture has about these issues? and conservation of its ‘human or environ. just like the weather both in private life and in your work? tecture committed to this search to be and other factors. For example. which Enrique Browne designed in 1992. whose laws architects approach the energy prob. I consider nature. etc. covering or paint. to environmental preservation and renew. How does your approach to sustaina- sus sustainability and alternative costs. are made compatible with accelerated glo. architecture has been highly developed countries of Europe and In our times. and also how these themes come when vegetation. as a divine creation. bles. ble architecture vary in a country with fits. daylight inside than those in the wooded and and complexities we know better with time. ing materials on a par with bricks. etc. Until some time ago.

34°00’28’’ N For an entire year – whenever he was at home – 118°29’23’’ W Robert Weingarten photographed the view Photos by Robert Weingarten from his bedroom window overlooking Santa www.M Series 11/24/03 #120 6:30 A.M Series 05/26/03 #46 6:30 A.M Series 10/27/03 #105 6:30 A.M Series 01/12/03 #6 34 D&A  AUTUMN 2008 Issue 09 35 .weingartenphotography.M Series 03/25/03 #27 6:30 A.M Series 01/07/03 #5 6:30 A.M Series 08/14/03 #77 6:30 A.M Series 06/21/03 #52 6:30 A.30.M Series 10/26/03 #104 6:30 A.com Monica Bay each morning at 6. 6:30 A.M Series 04/13/03 #34 6:30 A.

0 W/m2K 36 D&A  Autumn 2008  Issue 09 37 . Canton of Valais.7 kWh/m2 (without cooking) Bearth & Deplazes Architekten AG.VELUX Insight Architecture for people – building with VELUX. The foundation stone for the building will soon be laid. Facts Client Monte Rosa Section of the Gross floor area 1.13 Wm2K Location Monte Rosa massif. roof) Switzerland Roof windows 39 standard windows type GGL F04 with Completion (planned) September 2009 fall arrest device. envelope (outside walls. It is intended to operate on the basis of 90 per cent self-sufficiency in energy.100 m2 Swiss Alpine Club SAC Gross cubic content 3. the New Monte Rosa Hut By Eva-Martina Keller Models and drawings by Monte Rosa Studio The Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETH Zurich) and the Swiss Alpine Club (SAC) are intending to set a new milestone in Alpine building with the New Monte Rosa Hut. Zurich. Switzerland U values for the building 0. U value 1.200 m3 Architects Studio Monte Rosa. (planned) Chur. Switzerland / Energy consumption 29.

Far left Accumulated power Left Comparison of the levels requirement for building. be 90 % autonomous in terms On the left: Building and waste of energy. three years after the anni. An ambitious build.5 m. ple. These people ensured that the who wanted to create something lasting and close co-operation between the parties. who followed each other projects initiated to mark the ETH Zurich’s tions. dozens of staff from the ETH scape between the Grenz.000 Fak t 25 % 11 % Gas gas Fossil Non-renewable Nuclear the mountains 18 % Helicopter 45 % Helicopter Fossil flights flights 0 0% The New Monte Rosa Hut is one of many part of the college’s anniversary celebra. These windows structure of the building.000 75 % 51 % Coal Solar Renewable 2. ing and for supply trips. ture and construction department set up effectively invited in as well. emphasising that Radial partition walls and a spi- ral stairway determine the interior Back to 2003.M ambition is no less than to introduce a new The students’ ideas developed into a feasible ground floor to their bedrooms upstairs. At that time. Co-operating on the hut of the future ists from the ranks of the SAC.ü. Eberle.883 Deplazes from the ETH Zurich’s architec. to eight beds. The chapter in mountain building.000 Sustainable 50 % Fac Biomass architecture in 41 % Cooking o r 1. ETH Zurich example Peter Büchel and Reto Jenatsch of the hut is offering shelter. The steps sustainable in terms of energy and ecology. framed by the Matterhorn So now a five-storey timber construction and Architecture and from EMPA. The internationally known Monte which will own the hut. including for bedrooms are kept small. and they and the large dining friendly way of transporting building mate.M is now on the table. project with the support of professors and dining room is awash with daylight. the windows in the Ground plans. In the winter term 2003/2004. of energy consumption of the ations and disposal of waste of existing (left) and new Monte the new Monte Rosa Hut. This thrusting down into the rock. Monte Rosa SAC Section already had moun. that no SAC versary year. for visitors when they are going up from the 2882. for a Rosa Hut. by a cascade of ing project for a forward-looking SAC hut.5 10. had been extended in various phases. and reminded the architects of many So today. the Monte Rosa Studio. Andrea room can accommodate a total of 120 peo- rials to an isolated site at a height of 2. the New Monte Rosa Hut. since 1895. 150th anniversary. the best pos. In contrast with this. Lucerne College – Technology Rosa glaciers. and so the shimmering aluminium outer covering and balances and life-cycle analyses. experts from various disciplines. The new hut is tailored to the needs of its future forward-looking for the college’s birthday. which is the name a rock crystal. Rosa area was chosen for the planned hut. The new building is to useful building life of 50 years. 100 % 20 % Diesel 30. a total of over thirty students devised open up breathtaking views of the mountains 2882. The idea came from the project. The guest rooms have three sible facade or the most environmentally of the project. 5 ort 20. were involved from anniversary project director Meinrad K. users. Gorner and Monte hut can survive without a rucksack rack. offered to construct a hut for the SAC as the SAC Hut Commission. Zurich. Working over four steps and a wide window facade.5 m ü. And the enchanting surroundings are metres above sea level. and Ingrid Alder are scattered across the entire facade. practical details – for example. intelligent project partners decided to replace it with unusual polygonal shape make it look like building services concepts. SAC. are still racking their brains over energy hut is in need of refurbishment. The SAC was quick to agree to the as president of the SAC Monte Rosa Section. tain accommodation in the spectacular land. basement to 3rd floor. On the right: Operat. power only has to be disposal. The project partners’ a design for the New Monte Rosa Hut here. Hut special. which 38 D&A  Autumn 2008  Issue 09 39 . the Swiss and the Dufourspitze. and Peter Planche. and this is to be built on stainless steel foundations national material testing and research insti. supplied from outside for cook- ing phase. terms. oper. Its metallically tute. in the outset.

Walkers and mountaineers are reys in the building and heightens its crystal. Thermal energy from waste marginal conditions are also taken into con. who want to enjoy the Alpine air. Energy management will have an impor. port. is gained from management links technology that is con.and energy-friendly construc. port is an optimised procedure. It is not just a matter of opti. The Velux roof windows used here demand periods. If a great deal of heat ing by about two thirds per guest per night. Solar energy leads to increasing efficiency for the system building technology proves its worth in the is run. Stefanie Hol. New research and development to the efficient use of materials. Com. So the system design department are assessing across the glacier. after the New Monte Rosa Hut is opened. lweg and her colleagues in the ecological mules were used to carry the components 90 per cent energy self-sufficiency needed for heating. optimising will use a second research and development antees forward-looking and full ecological tributing about 2.7 million Swiss for gas. A French website is here the windows also have to be installed oil-fired combined heat and power plant is agement system as contributions to ‘model that process can then be applied to increas. ous benefactors and sponsors from all sorts Hut on behalf of the ETH Zurich. Hut. In comparison with the old Monte Sustainability from cradle to grave This is in its turn very important for trans- specially subjected to tests simulating high ess. ogy and Urs-Peter Menti from the Lucerne stances that threaten the environment or This ambitious building project has its where alternatives are still being sought tant part to play in achieving a high degree of technical college’s integrated building tech. tute of measurement and control technol. resulting optimised. an 85 m2 photovoltaic plant built into the ventional and tried-and-tested as such to and how energy management can be further CAAD production methods. 3. Trans- wind forces before being used in the New a considerable contribution to covering the CO2 emissions created by running the build. A group convened life-cycle analyses. Eva-Martina Keller has been working as assistant to present) is the ambitious target – and that mising individual components. So data insights can be applied to running the hut of construction possibilities is extended. used instead of animals. in other words flush with the roof used as an additional power source for peak predictive control’. the last leg of the journey. terms of materials and manufacture. sideration.15 million. puter calculation also makes it possible to montrose. Only then can it be established whether The structural components are made using of sectors. can still be opened. achieve the ideal component size and weight.neue- created a number of diagonal sections. in contrast. as there is no road to the site. But thought is also being given to the end stages conducted by rail and road. the way these components work together phase to examine how all this ingenious optimisation of the building and the way it are coming directly from the ETH Zurich. but above all through is ventilated mechanically. 90 per cent self-suf. roof win- dows that can be opened provide for daylight and fresh air. additional solar energy is as a research station investigating the effi. energy self-sufficiency levels. with the first Monte Rosa Hut. which guarantee continuity of sup. room heating needs. also available: www. and ply even when the sky is overcast. but the windows when the hut is opened. The results of statement through logic applied directly in monterosahuette.nouvellecabanedu- diagonally. as a concession to guests by Lino Guzzella at the ETH Zurich’s insti. Monte Rosa Hut. which is delivered by helicopter at self-sufficiency. ficiency in energy (excepting for cooking. and household appliances etc. ing at recyclable building materials that time and expense. eliminates the impression of separate sto. this package of measures reduces The old hut will be demolished by 2010. It will cost about 5. The range they will be able to use the new hut from used in the facade area. A rapeseed visitor numbers are fed in the energy man. An ambitious target: staying in the hut. 40 D&A  Autumn 2008  Issue 09 41 . optimised energy everyday operation of the New Monte Rosa planning. In May 2008 she also took on the role of com- able to guests on every floor. paying attention delighted with this successful co-operation: line form.ch. and autumn 2009.ch. The heat emitted by people also makes Rosa Hut. When energy is required or there are few people The New Monte Rosa Hut is also perceived of the planned new hut’s life. the old Monte Rosa Hut was built in 1895. covering. The building project will not be over for the ETH Zurich the building with the aid of cradle-to-grave This option was also examined for the New aesthetic terms alone. and this is provided by 35 cient use of energy and resources. which are avail. The SAC is con. architectural fusion of roof and facade has mulators. nology centre – technology and architecture the future. munications representative for the New Monte Rosa for sewage treatment equipment. are ideally suited to the purpose. It is unusual to see roof windows south facade of the building. in a high level of energy efficiency. In this way. but rejected on grounds of its resource. health when they have to be disposed of in price. But the new hut is not intended to convince in m2 of thermal solar collectors. francs to build the new hut. Eberle in the college man- agement project section at the ETH Zurich since June does include hot showers. This is because the is stored in valve-regulated lead-acid accu.55 million project director Meinrad K. lighting as a whole. such as weather forecasts and expected and their efficiency measured in terms of justifies a particular kind of architectural For further information: www. Helicopters will now be tion and operation. Interior views of the working model. Excess energy form a complex overall system. in other words dynamic ing energy efficiency for lowland buildings. This also involves look. 2006. and sets standards for sustainable which has received this money from numer. protect resources and do not emit any sub. In the individual bed- rooms. A cascading staircase with a wide window front opens up a panoramic view of the gla- cier landscape on all levels of the building. and were air is recovered by a heat reclamation proc. Holistic analysis of this kind guar.

. the new hut looks like a mountain crystal.With its irregular shape. Under the aluminium skin. there is a concealed wooden construction which is to be prefabricated with the help of CAD/CAM methods.

Furi 1867 ROTENBODEN 2815 Monte rosa 2795 MAP: Bundesamt für Landestopographie 44 D&A  Autumn 2008  Issue 09 45 .

no longer operate alongside one ano. If a strategy of of the conceptual level. possibility of generating electricity practice. we need cessary: an estimated view of whe- this means a kind of new beginning pricing have a crucial part to play. ther – or better one after the other to understand and remain recognisa. own projects in a simple way. They must complement gning the New Monte Rosa Hut. but also the heat stored in the When energy supply and energy objective is easy to achieve). which always likes to ample. aware of any architecture practice There are a large number of heat sour. anergy should be used point at which electricity is genera. a something like a power failure. This is also why ar. If a tablished supply networks or the en. high-level en. transferred to energy and electrification. What part should the state play in ves where the electricity will come architects who also have some idea ther a concept is moving in the right in terms of civilization. operates at the interface between sci. We are well aware that domestica. But I feel that when mak. all this – in the form of funding pro. and what of kilometres before landing up in the increased efficiency. year by then. has a far finer mesh than oil and gas was able to digitize them. These are tem. construction. In fact it is the to users and implementing them ac. ing rules and regulations. We have devise a digital tool enabling users to to exchange one design technique lentin Bearth and Daniel Ladner. portant that people do not lose sight The solution has to lie in using rene. Rosa Hut? chitecture. too to secure redundancy at the would then be a link in this chain. grid means that we have one of the lopment depend on? that still works with T-squares. the users themsel. to be brought in from the outside. latter including buildings. from. ross a broad field. Zurich architecture department. but definitely not less. key if we wish to establish these ana. The responsibility for have to get there on foot. for in these skills. The fact is that when deciding To what extent is the question One research insight suggests that ETH in Zurich. We would like to supply system should function. on the interplay of architecture and computers alone it is easy to lose sight come out of the radiator and water scientific concepts actually can be practical building. Ultimately an approach drawn conclusions from this insight apply the insights available to their for another. I am convinced that soo- dence. with Va- supply system stable. We did this by creating a This is where architecture comes in: it in these fields. it is very im. but its entire and those from other disciplines efficiency matters? the technology would be dangerous specialist engineers. that might have travelled thousands tegy are the so-called ‘three Es’: You have developed a strategy lopment of architecture and our entire gital chain’ for a long time. Both are ne- does not simply come out of the tap. Of course this ques. building technology and mentation and opening up markets called radioactive waste repositories. term mortgage for later generations.Interview with Scene from the students’ design Andrea Deplazes studio at the ETH Zurich. It is difficult period of scientific develop. LCA is still con. This is also best thing that could have happe. rate this interplay visually. to a far-reaching context with question of how the underlying soft- we wanted to question what our civ. At this point. Now we must So in future we cannot keep trying director of the Bearth & Deplazes Architekten AG practice in Chur. warmth does not a test field that has to show which the current status and standard in a heat exchange facility. In. den. fined to isolated cases in the building user. from our courses at the ETH. for ex. dustry has built life-cycle assessment rywhere. – in other words the energy forms ted and distributed via the grid sys. waste air. esteemed in its material-bound qual- in other words a heat pump with heat example: the ETH Zurich recently pu. ment behind it already. this kind is to become reality. We kind of ‘artificial emergency’. LOW EX+ ARCH is more than merely when using these digital tools to keep tic reasons. who dings any more. Some movement can be discerned this heat. There buting this energy over a wide area. ning stage. human nature. for example. I think for example that nuclear about building technology and do not direction. chitecture has a key part to play. programmes start to make sense as disposing of the nuclear fuel rods has the students in our teaching. for example – nearly all stead of that. teaches building technology at the redundant emergency systems that ner or later a ‘digital chain’ will be ence. mobility has far greater difficulty in use as little exergy – i. The strategy aims to supply a building with heat if there is available extending from the first de- for or against self-sufficiency we of independence relevant in ar. The electricity example. rather than being purely academic In any case it is irresponsible to leave consistent application of Life Cycle computers? be brought by helicopter. but also ge. and pieces of information that are from it for application elsewhere? energy: you become independent of tegy breaks down into two working What is that about? main a mythological concept. but scarcely why we made this building scheme ned: science had come up with solu. It implies indepen. leave the field open to the free play energy we have at our disposal. still not been solved. using digital tools still lies with the It is interesting to see what energy chitecture and the other enginee. And ultimately there is also the chain’ would then be widely applied in tion does not arise in the case of the had built up in terms of alternative making these solutions attractive mainly heat sources within the tem. unless in the case of progresses. because no supply energy technologies. on a computer: everyone can create networks were available. An systematically and synergetically – State initiatives and public funding as such. which has a great deal to do with exchanger. Rosa Hut stands out because of the selves’ and not just rely on their ding materials and supplies have to automation – the project develop. renewable called LOW EX+ ARCH at the ETH civilisation. Any project reme’ design theme. programme is available to demonst- ergy sources available on site. I notice. Once an supply networks. Rules are most effective wable energy sources were they are field – in contrast with industry. come into play such as implemen. On the other hand. perature range I need in the building on site with a photovoltaic system. in order to reduce glo. What aims were you fol. measure itself against the Other. feasibility and idea a little further and ask oursel. sign ideas to the building process and are actually only choosing what we chitecture today – setting aside getting to grips with its problems. so buil. Assessment (LCA) to the building Of course it is. and then the exploration of were faced with the question of how pline that links its own components grammes and legislation in energy power is problematical – not because simply pass these questions on to the each element by computation. extreme locations like the Monte But in the immobile sector – in ar. between 15 and 25 degrees texts and format them. despite the New ring disciplines needed for building of the goal. for example. The design for the New Monte students must ‘think for them- to the New Monte Rosa Hut. conclusion that it is better for fire to re. He is also energy is needed to keep the heat ety’ a long-term objective by the end of ideas. for example. tive to goods from the supermarket The core elements of this stra. but that is an incorrect infer. pressure from prices. othermal energy. Celsius. ces in and around the building – solar – but interact from a very early plan. like the ‘1 ton CO2 society’ (which most highly developed infrastructure I see this quite pragmatically. In fact an eye on the project as a whole. For once tions for as long as there was no real tation to the stage of inclusion in from waste air or water. It is just like word processing Monte Rosa Hut. a veritable flash flood of ideas that The question is more about ways of available on the site itself. or that The rising price of oil price has led to the technical solutions are available. This is the pencil drawing is much more highly system is needed to exploit this last. and is thus or passive building will be reflecting drive a very efficient heat pump with which we at the ETH in Zurich reflect neering: if you rely on calculation and out of the socket. CAD systems have taken over eve- energy. Now it is possible to take this building technology. and its components. physical spatialisation of concepts. but because the problem of convey this view of their profession to Isn’t that a challenge to teaching: additional factor was that no vehi. of them found their way into practice. What will its further deve. but also to scientific ses as fossil energy sources. indust. only a very little electrical made achieving the ‘1 ton CO2 soci. envelope. constantly pointing out that cular transport by land is available stellations. In concrete terms. Then other things as well. We at the ETH in Zurich have been for the New Monte Rosa Hut de. despite the so. Or. They include any kind of heat You are introducing your students anyone can or wants to address the into a student pilot project. bal warming to a tolerable level. this competition. in other words to market not subject to the same conversion los. and visitors ment process always impacts on the questions. all that is needed is a relatively a technical energy concept. other disciplines. where the architectural concept for the new Monte Rosa Hut was developed. pursuing the aim of transforming the sign. ble. does not necessarily mean that the networks that we possess for distri. aim has been identified as necessary An additional factor is that elec. Andrea Deplazes was highly involved in desi- This method of ‘harvesting’ local means that every citizen of the earth research. Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) in Zurich since 1997. the state should tricity is the most valuable form of Cycle Analysis has a long and often the actual core of architecture: the Andrea Deplazes has been professor of architecture and construction a the in place. to be transported a long way. rial plant and similar constructions. and legislation. this incalculable problem as a long. The stra. Once this is blished a new energy strategy that and communicated. Self-sufficiency was a key idea growing vegetables in your own gar. this ‘digital impinge upon it. that ground. In this way you create an alterna. both through his department and the Bearth energy is really no different from should emit only one ton of CO2 per of this kind also corresponds with and cut out all firing systems. more precise as the design process misunderstood. but we have come to the is based on a number of parameters lessons could possibly be learned shopping basket. Life ity. I think for example tioned. for example. ves. To use your LOW EX+ ARCH … ware works. as has already been men. 46 D&A  Autumn 2008  Issue 09 47 . design and building process into a ‘di- lowing for this somewhat ‘ext. ar. building soon as they are addressing imple. and we have to train students sources are available. I.e. ergy in the form of electricity that has But it makes better sense here beyond. of the century. In. It into its processes so well because it as a compensation. The Life Cycle Assessment want to be independent of: the es. each other mutually. that in ten years labels like minergy small amount of electrical energy to LOW EX+ ARCH illustrates the way in know about this from structural engi- If electricity no longer comes ence and building practice. am not Monte Rosa Hut’s isolated situation. but only a few teaching courses. A highly effective exchange efficiency strategies are at stake. the The term comes from my colleague certainly not be used for heating buil. ted fire was important for the deve. should be as little legislation as pos. & Deplazes practice. It will also be important ilisation takes for granted for didac. so to speak. when the aims they define are easy best at our disposal. The students Because architecture is a disci. not only the building. components including spatial con. lytical methods in building as well. Professor Hansjürg Leibundgut. It should successively concentrated and made Self-sufficiency is a term that is often fossil energy sources that also have fields: mobility and immobility. realised. One sible.

It is called an billions of years ago. renewable energy is just part of the future tech- plants need for supper. in the gentle afternoon light. The bacteria will take care of the shit and Or be burned – just to get rid of it. living creatures. is exchanged with the surroundings. for my friend the waste of organisms. on the tabletop. an architect visiting our house. All life thrives it into waste that just piles up. on the energy ”Let me see the ball – it gives me hope for us all. all on their own. algae and bacteria. Nobody wants our shit for dinner. Shrimps move. when it see it again. like all living systems. It is all one great recycling business run sits a bowl of water bursting with life. windmills. Metals are not shrimps converting sunlight into movement. and the leftovers of one organism sphere’. The shrimps then eat. The waste to watch them. since they are animals like us. rather looks at it and wonders about the life going on inside. comes to energy. Yet the delicate substances are part of a con- balance is being threatened by the over-use of non. All the the last four and a half billion years. what Algae do not really show up much. by the sunlight falling on Earth. They also exhale carbon dioxide. ”Let me Renewability is not just about energy. sphere. where­- on which our ’Spaceship Earth’ has been running for by each species lives from the excretions of the others.” he says. So we take a finite resource and convert This. of one organism is the food of the other. ing on and on and on inside a closed sphere of glass. ”If than introducing off-line energy like fossil fuels or nuclear they can manage in there. they would very soon by animals. And. like we do. There is only one form of contact: the sunlight that it is not only the energy that can and must be renewable. So waste is piling up eat algae matter and combine it with the oxygen to produce and has to be driven away in lorries and dug under the ground. It is a closed system. shrimps more noticeable. We can do so with solar cells. And shit. bacteria and one else’s shit. Renewable matter streams 46 D&A  AUTUMN 2008 Issue 09 49 . Of course. We have started producing a is a simple little cycle going on: algae ”eat” sunlight and car. with no contact with the outside world. if you like. collected by plants (like grass on the This strategy is not renewable. we have started using resources that are not some- So there is a closed cycle going on – algae. Bacteria produce nourishment for the algae. at least to us. they catch the sunlight and use its energy to produce chemi. They play the role of plants inside the sphere: This grand scheme is also the general law of life on earth. Stay alive – renewable resources. algae and bacteria provide the life energy for another. we produce waste Renewability counts – for energy and matter that no one can use. It is finite and short-sighted. Except for us humans. wave machines or plant-material like the wood we gether they form an outstanding team: they live inside the small burn in fireplaces. they are tiny and dif. Earth. We use resources that are finite. of course. is just like our Planet Earth. These animals later recombine plant matter and be dead. But the lesson to be learned from the little ecosphere is year after year. It goes on and on in isolation. As we saw. produce carbon dioxide for the algae and waste for the bac- They inhale oxygen and use it to combust food into energy they teria. Photo: torben Eskerod continents or plankton in the oceans) which are later eaten If someone did that inside an ecosphere. that enters the sphere . The output of Inside live shrimps.” says my friend. the waste from plants – oxygen – into the carbon dioxide that Obviously. ferent from us. There is plenty of energy going through our system.Reflections Different points of view: ideas beyond By Tor Nørretranders Left Three species interact with each other inside a closed system those of everyday architecture. ironically. so we like vide oxygen and biomass for shrimps and bacteria. help produce stuff from it that is useful to the algae. movement. The shrimps are the one organism is the input of the other. but of long dead stars that exploded to gaze at. who have had some pretty weird ideas cal substances out of the carbon dioxide they inhale. it houses three species of flows through our environment. Algae pro- can use to swim around in the water. comes out of one organism is what goes into another. on energy from the sun. So there for the last few hundred years. No matter it is also the matter stream.” My friend from the sun as it flows onto our planet every second. But to. tinuous circulation process. Time to get back to thinking in terms of closed cycles and continuous renewal. perhaps we can also manage on reactions. – this is the concept of the ‘eco- Waste is food. Fossil fuels are waste of organisms.that gentle afternoon light. This is the concept form a perfect sym­biosis. Crabs. It is only a matter of learning how to harness this energy as it Just ten centimetres in diameter. the planet’s sphere. Or. Small creatures are liv. none of them particularly spectacular. There is no matter going in or out of nology we will have to develop. we rely. of organisms that died millions of years ago. So we are going to use up these resources. kind of waste that no other organism on the planet cares to bon dioxide to produce matter and oxygen. Similarly. but Ecosphere. renew yourself Right there. Inside the little bowl all matter is recycled.

the American architect William McDonough and the Ger- This. it will either be biological food for some line with the sunshine and with the matter flow of the living creature or technological food for the making of another prod- planet. The idea of limiting oneself belongs to the epoch of depots thing has to be part of a big cycle. We can grow and A kindred initiative is the cradle-to-cradle philosophy of show and glow at the same time. there is. ensures that cent of the atoms in our bodies they remain capable of are renewed every year. we can once again be welcome here on the ments. The epoch (that we are still living in) when all the energy and resources we use come from lim- Learning to do with more – instead of less ited. just different things. We can live. The Therefore. rather page book on changing the world. This way the waste of someone else and the waste we produce from it a product never goes from cradle to grave.not nec. and waste dumps. more in the artificial world than in the natural world. into the world: hi-tech and global. with no obvious purpose. The moment we start using only renewable energy and renewable materials. of world. That is. We have to learn from life itself that every. as we tend to now. the organs with each other and. 50 D&A  Autumn 2008 Issue 09 49 . We can thrive and prosper. re-enter the great chain of being. telling us not to stop living but to live in a wiser forward-looking movement. product is used up. then. but from cradle to is the food of someone else. We can introduce new and hitherto unknown technologies We can use as much as we like. room for much of that kind of activity. than outside it. ogies. develop technology Worldchanging. ble by micro-organisms or pigs or plants. These movements are sometimes called bright green move- If we do so. way. not over-fishing. It will recycle. not over-eat. since they are different from the traditional. A new form is phere of the environmental movement’s heritage and into a being born. does such a world come about? At the dawn of ronmental responsibility has been linked to cutting back on the new millennium. the next cradle. on. There is no need for us dark green. is the biggest change taking place in these man environmental chemist Michael Braungart. based on new technol- If we build on biological materials and produce waste edi. use and we therefore have to deposit deep under the ground. then there is no limit. perhaps. we can also start growing and moving Waste equals food: the ‘cradle to cradle’ principle and building and jumping around again. Environmentalism used to be a story about limiting oped a thinking based on the notion that ”waste = food”. Sterling’s idea led to a powerful and popular movement. Right The human blood circu. being reborn again and again. happily swimming and circling inside a small glass bowl or In that kind of world one has to limit oneself. the kind of environmentalism telling us not to ethos is to get away from the romantic and retarded atmos- use more and not to produce more is now over. prosper and grow. around 98 per. On the contrary. There is not flying around in the evening sky. environmental movement with its air of anti-busi- to be ashamed of ourselves or to limit our living to the most ness and anti-growth. we are free to use as much as we want as long as it is uct. necessary needs. The Movement – the name refers to a shade of green that is found moment we start being part of that great matter stream again.not over-using. of this. The Viridian Design of others and produce stuff that is not the food of others. So should we. They devel- years. deep or planet. not lo-tech and local. idea being that we can create a world. the interplay of supply and disposal is ideal-typical. The we can produce and consume as much as we like. material or element used by humans should be useful in next ing. when a makes a U-turn on all this: the moment we are in-flow. The bloodstream is the ‘transpor- lation is not a closed system in tation system’ that networks all the sense of the ‘ecosphere’. In spite functioning. and our use of these resources leads to waste that no one can Living creatures likes to suck up sunlight and to move around. Life likes to grow. finite depots of energy like fossil fuels or nuclear fuels – Life grows and a cornucopia of activity goes on all the time. that rids us of the absurdities of the fossil dependency. Use different things. that has produced a rich website and a 600- that will allow us to live inside the great cycle of life. at the same time. The only reason envi. produce different things . are another part. essarily fewer things. But the idea that we could call generalised renewability step of the biological or technological cycle. How. But in another kind Life likes to move. science fiction writer Bruce Sterling cre- consumption is that we consume stuff that is not the waste ated a new environmental movement. Every consumption .

the idea of headquar. music you move from records to tapes to discs to ipods to The internet is the leading example of what a new civilisa. thinker and commentator based dreams to do so. It flows from one like software. Left Picture of a river delta from space. You are a program running on constantly tion will look like. But your memories persist. Then nobody eats your shit age The Link Age.0. is replaced all the time. Share it all. they will all have to be rich in information and relationships You can do that and there is a word for it – when you stop between things. you are dead. but also for his 1963 book Operating Manual for Spaceship But perhaps you do not want to share your shit? Or to Earth. and then let us A society of flows and links talk about it. new technologies are all about sharing. You are not a materially constant object. of limits towards the world. whose equilibrium is sensitive to outside influences . especially those exerted by human beings. linking things together. but also about idea sharing. tions? Just hold your breath and stop exhaling.Sc. The internet could not possibly Your flesh is being replaced all the time. The entire basis for the civilisation we have created is the it in a few minutes from now. gence. the present product and are long gone. The flame is the same because the air The same goes for the new technologies. replaced atoms. but also Stay with us – renew yourself. Denmark. You are the same because bananas the environment. 50 D&A  Autumn 2008 Issue 09 53 . It has nothing to do have grown to the size and influence it has without the non. We cannot step out of it or live ters. That adds up to more than one creating a new version of civilisation. places and people: links. I call the coming renewing yourself. that we are really in the process of kilograms of water every day. All the atoms from your childhood body earth. We have to learn to work together. One without it. and someone else can use it. with life after death or wandering souls. He received ference. you are more The links are all about where the flow goes. We are part of the world. Tor Nørretranders is now adjunct pro- Recently. endless links between people and things. The flow is all about the renewable energy and materials. plans and dreams. the plants and the animals. in Copenhagen. ence. 98 percent of the atoms in your body are replaced. based ton of matter every year – going right through you. Many of these thoughts relate back to the visions of the Amer. in a presentation at an open source computer con. Let us discuss ing. It has to do with the centralised organisation. known for his domes. Every person takes in a kilogram of food and a few can argue. Try to resist taking in some plant waste for a minute or so. The coming. You do not want to help plants with your excre- Obviously. Just like the dance the next cycle based on the same materials. any more. innovations. The apple you had after lunch now remembers place to another. That is no small feat and we will have to share all our Tor Nørretranders is an independent author. in environmental planning and the sociology of science. use of depots of energy and materials. I innocently flashed a slide with the phrase ”share your the non-fiction prize of the Danish Writers’ Union in 1985 and the publicist prize shit” – and it immediately became the slogan of the confer. plants excrete oxygen. That goes for material stuff. the new uses of flows through all the time. as I have done. fessor in the philosophy of science at Copenhagen Business School. a Civilisation 2. endless flow You are in a state of what I call permanent reincarnation: of information and attention. because the water coordination is necessary: links. year. Originally graduating as a M. the new global structures we must build in come in and go out again – somewhat modified. the coming decades to get through the crisis of the climate – Try to step out of the stream and refuse to be renewable. In a single on entirely different principles: flow and links. We basically have to re-invent the world. links and more links. ingest that of others? Well. One creature’s waste is So please do not stop the sunlight flowing through you. the wireless world. The sun and the your childhood. The water circuit of the earth is a closed system. ican architect Buckminster Fuller. but distributed intelli. Nobody can control the enormous simple fact that you are more like a river or a flame than a rock Photo: Image courtesy of USGS National Center for EROS and NASA Landsat Project Science Office stream of information passing through it. Massive. The river is the same. They just eat you. another creature’s food. it is a great task to steer this Spaceship we are rid. for ideas. of the Danish Publicist Club in 1988. of inside and outside. No central control. distributed or an electric bulb. It is about material sharing.

velux. dynamic building envelope that can ping stones of the future. In the years to come. The goal is to paradigm for construction. the construction industry as well as and in Europe in particular. Latest de. Atika we present the first two Danish experiments of the global building stock does not contrib. further. important area of focus all over the world. On the following pages. We aim to go on influencing The future of construction faces serious chal. while SOLTAG is covered www. cal window producer. tion and CO2 emissions by 20 per cent. build a new model that makes the existing model obsolete. ity on renewable energies. next two years in five countries. door climate. it influences our health 20 per cent of their total energy consumption better than a thousand expert views”. thanks pressure on global resources is forcing eve. ar. to think creatively cerns about climate change and the increas. 54 D&A  AUTUMN 2008  Issue 09 55 . tial sketches onwards. The houses in Denmark and the UK will of our lives in and around buildings. states to reduce their total energy consump. The vision for architects and planners. Home 2020. energy of the energy we consume in Europe. healthy building materials. future living environments is called Model and find new solutions. Daylight. It includes a maximum ‘liveability’ sign that considers the total energy factor. From the ini. 2020. prehensive package for energy policy up to is a real-life visionary example of future hous- ings themselves.” Buckminster Fuller VELUX MODEl HOME 2020 The challenge today How we build also radically affects our cli.“You never change things by fighting the existing reality.com/modelhome2020 ACTIVE HOUSING Active housing is a vision of a future ing envelope. planners. fresh air and natural daylight and use of a building. They have to be energy. will have to be taken. Buildings consume about 40 per cent and setting the future agenda of construc- lenges in terms of resource supply. work and play. Experiments for the future roof window producer and VELFAC. in which further steps in this development use renewable resources through a the visions of the past form the step. as verti- tant role for many people. adapt to the needs of the inhabitants velopments have brought about chitects and engineers are required or users by creating an optimal in- technologies. We spend 90 per Since the early ‘90s. Building materials The European Union has adopted a com. As the founder of VELUX. fresh air and ventilation play an impor. Now is a time for ing global energy consumption. climate in general. which prioritises good indoor consumption during the construction climate. design of the building. VELUX has experi. due to the con. ute to or provide a healthy indoor climate Architecture 05. said: “One experiment is we live. Each house have to be reappraised and so do the build. to balanced daylight. with high prior. presented in Daylight & in the Model Home 2020 programme. Six houses will be built over the tests and experiments. in creating a healthy building. materials and skills in to incorporate the needs of daylight. mate. Villum The way we build radically affects how over. To change something. behind Model Home 2020 and develop them And they have to be healthy to live in. We spend a major part comes from renewable energy sources. The package requires all EU member ing – and an opportunity to test the ideas efficient and perhaps even produce energy. tion through experiments in climate-neutral efficiency and healthy buildings. Reduc. natural ventilation and ryone. and our well-being. nologies into the layout and overall ENERGY DESIGN BALANCED WITH LIVING FACTOR Active housing is a holistic energy de. cent of our time indoors but up to 30 per cent mented with demonstration houses. in this issue. focused on a highly efficient build. be built in a joint venture between VELUX as space. Constant ing our energy consumption has become an buildings with a high livability factor. all member states must document that Kann Rasmussen. as well as adapt to the the construction business that are ventilation and other passive tech. More. is one example.

the windows op. VELFAC and VELUX have architectural design were the main entity. ise value for life in the home and the archetypical residence as a futuristic Aarhus. Energy Lighthouse. Energy Need Energy requirement and production in kWh/m2/year Electricity Electricity Heating and Total Production Surplus for house. Solar cells. as it is known. The partners want the project to the amount of energy represented point for light. Home for Life Renewable of the heated floor area. mand-controlled. pending on the time of year and needs. the Alexandra Institute and with optimal balance between en. tems. criteria. a view of the outside. The The building will have a round Energy The home is laid out around a ”day. house and its spatial relationships de. Home for Life opens in March 2009. gineers) and Hellerup Byg (contrac- be built in the north of Århus in Den. Denmark Agency. All the rooms contain will be occupying. ventilation aperture. where the parameters are mu. ‘Home for Life’ is the result of an The systems are intelligent and de. workplace or to frame and the rest of Europe. for running warm water hold installations -14 -8. bensen entered a strategic alliance to con. light cross” which provides illumina. The University of Copenhagen. Outside of the heating season. The temperature in each Reduced heat recovery produce the energy. professors and students of storeys. mark. com. building is expected to be ready by ground plan with a central. the building will mid-2009 and will have facilities for atrium.5 -55 60 5 56 D&A  AUTUMN 2008  Issue 09 57 . on two storeys. and contain 950 m² in three imised and covered by renewable and tion and access from all four corners be tested by installing a family that the dean. Use window area is equivalent to 40 % season via mechanical ventilation sys. nature and the life lived inside it. The look and feel of this demonstra. daylit The total energy consumption is min. The winning consortium. pertise of: Green Lighthouse Danish University and Property in a turnkey contract competition in Århus. they also function as become a lighthouse for sustainable by the materials the house is built an exit point. Kyoto triangle building in Copenhagen. through sustainable and innovative the Kyoto Triangle (see illustration). windows facing in at least two direc. light conditions. consultancies: Architectural office Copenhagen. the surplus energy is equivalent to tions. the Department of Science Education building itself. the Municipality of Copen. fresh air can be drawn in via natural Comfort Aesthetics tilation systems with high-efficiency ventilation. tion home is an interpretation of the research: The Engineering College of struct a new sustainable building consisting of Christensen & Co. After the exhibition. Arkitekter (architects). So the Green ergy design is the fenestration. nenkraft. The the construction industry: VELFAC. This will be achieved whose energy concept is based on 190m2. Energies solar collectors and mechanical ven. is intended Efficient tioned to cater for energy technology Fossile Energy to be a showpiece for the UN Climate and visual appeal. tor) submitted the project ‘Sun Dial’. COWI (en- world around it. pro. posi. hagen. tually complementary and maxim. WindowMaster and Son. consuming. After around 30 years. and besides being an entrance in the home. Home for Life brings together the ex. which the energy concept and the fort and visual appeal into a holistic Aestethics AART and Consulting Engineers Es. architectural quality.5 -32. Comfort Change Summit COP 15 to be held in timise light. room can be adjusted independently. The home has a floorage of active frontage changes the look of the VELUX. ducing and not least experiencing life at the University of Copenhagen. Home for Life will ‘energy machine’ that interacts with The Aarhus School of Architecture ergy efficiency. A primary parameter in the en. re. Denmark sise the parameters of energy. The Fresh air is drawn inside in the heating late 2009 in Copenhagen. the The project has been commissioned Home for life interdisciplinary project to synthe. healthy indoor climate and good day. Denmark from. CO2-neutral energy generated in the of the earth. cessed seating. approaches to building design. air and heat intake.

namely a con- transmitted to. and how much does this promising in the construction sector. GS There are two levels on which sustainable GS II think this influence has increased In the rest of the world. Back in the driver’s seat D&A Mr. we collaborate with interna. ronment creates huge problems for them. to include issues of architecture and building that there is money to be made if you ‘go ting Architecture.VELUX Dialogue Architects in a dialogue with VELUX. and since buildings architecture be transmitted to – particularly D&A What influence do architects have to account for 50% of all energy consumption architecture that makes use of renewable guide their societies towards more sustain. the cost of curing peo- The second. but to us architects. with UIA has set up two work programmes over affect us” or “the others should lead the way” almost no concern for environmental issues. general public and pressure from environ. this opportunity is particularly energies and produces little or no CO2 emis. societies and polit. that is tackle the same problems for different rea- photo: Jakob Schoof side this. In the Anglo-Saxon countries. venue of this year’s Transmitting Architecture was the motto of the 23rd UIA congress. ago. comprise our organisation can discuss with CO2 emissions by 20 percent by 2020. the situation is dif- the other works more on a political level. These countries have devel- For the technical and awareness part. are various reasons. with in a reluctant manner in many coun. UN-Habitat. to say. Siew. environmen. ple is higher than it would have been to avoid mission work involves world-wide lobbying mental groups. but at the end of the day architects have at their disposal? to another? this economics approach is just as beneficial as the political one. are turning to environmental and authorities. Russia and India. environmental issues were still dealt China. I will sions? And what transmission channels do influence vary from one region of the world not judge this here. the approach is more one and necessities result in a great opportunity. political part of our trans. UK and Australia. After ten years of rapid growth. So the emerging with political organisations. however. because of a rising awareness among the and in many cases. In tal issues are becoming a real problem and experiencing a backlash in which the envi- our research groups. president of the UIA from 2005 to 2008. initially appears to UIA World Congress of Architecture. Today. This has lead to a situation pollution in the first place. energy-efficient architecture – be Fiat factory houses a vital mix- ture of functions. it is mostly lems occur due to environmental pollution. but also the sons. too. all these strategies tional organisations like UNEP. ferent again. green’. when we speak of Transmit. As you see. Companies have realised They may enable us to regain the role that we 58 59 . a hotel and a college. do with technical solutions and awareness. the former particularly green. discussed this and other questions with Gaëtan Siew. Here we prepare documents ing ever more widespread. but especially architecture can be transmitted: one has to greatly over the last few years. mainly North America. governments where concerted political action is becom. There In China. Interview with Gaëtan Siew Left The Lingotto building in Turin (Giacomo Mattè-Trucco. today. ical institutions are addressing them. the tries. and how? Daylight&Architecture gress centre. these experts share everywhere in the world. held in Turin in have little to do with “sustainable early July this year. and where even issues for a mixture of economics and the that each member in the 132 countries that the EU commission has set the goal to reduce pure need to survive. Ten years in large emerging countries such as Brazil. uted worldwide. the question arises as to who should a business opportunity. the last three years that brought together were common. 1915-1923). each region is trying to their own national governments. information and prepare technical stand. UNESCO and even WHO to persuade them of economics. world-wide. able development. Along. they are experts from various parts of the world. as the UIA did this year in construction in their programmes. the most widespread health prob- ards and benchmarks that can be distrib. But. They consider environmental issues Turin. where statements like “this does not oped extremely quickly in recent years. nations. But who should architecture – building”. In Europe. a shopping centre.

as we do not want all the construction company to actually manufac. There may be one common not resolve environmental problems merely people to use them in different locations. gramme organised. gress offers architectural asso- nationale des Architectes (UIA) ciations and colleges from all from 2005 to 2008. His most important projects include of awards and best practices that aim to D&A Do you have any evidence that think. Ten Commitments – strong commitments tural solutions. lise renewable energy sources and enable students of architecture around the world regions can then adapt to their specific cul. planners action. things cannot be too detailed. port and the ‘Chinatown’ quarter in Port-Louis. Money is not a problem in lished. The mainly young public gladly took the chance and filled the trade fair halls with all kinds of events – from a classic archi- tecture exhibition to a workshop. green’. We have already prepared drafts that 2011 in Tokyo? tural diversity. are everyone can use in their day-to-day work. three years and will be followed by more world. the physical environment. because our network experts. South-Eastern European countries. How is this pro. the UIA world con- was president of the Union Inter. they are wrong. until the next World Congress to be held in UIA is based both on sustainability and cul. the masterplans for Mauritius International Air- encourage architects world-wide to inno. and all the initiatives social environment and to cultural diversity. which they soon spread to other regions of the world we will discuss with several other organisa. tikakis. Gaëtan Siew has been President of the Union In- ternationale des Architectes (UIA) from 2005 try about the environmental benchmarks we now gaining momentum and will hopefully tant. Mau- ritius. Cannes and Abu Dhabi. Landscape architects. the result can only get This strategy has not only come from third – but no less important: humanitarian enables us to distribute and coordinate these better. they This second step will be important because itage will be one of the top priorities of the Renewable Energy Sources). detailed guidelines and benchmarks that world to look like Manhattan or Dubai. the UIA set up a work ture the winning competition scheme. What is more. including the building industry. this approach is extremely impor. as the ARES and is led by the Greek architect Nikos Fin. the UIA the UIA World Congress in Istanbul 2005 nese authorities have approached us now to D&A You recently suggested that a ‘fair in the effort.but the solutions will have to be holistic: you can. Gaëtan Siew founded his Secondly. The world is becoming increasingly well as several hotels in Mauritius and abroad. is deeply involved in this issue. and can you yet tell us the grand scheme but also the less ambitious but collaborate with architects and other yourself against them. and the real estate industry are joining us tion after natural disasters or war.000 to be sure – that the different nations and is a universal solution in architecture . After studying ar- can also use to their financial benefit. We would like this scheme to be simple. and we are convinced that to 2008 and will be heading the UIA’s Vision and have developed over the years. ‘fair’ architecture has to be fair not only to Strategy Committee until 2011. and cultures. be working towards this goal? ings. and we are running the risk of as generalists who cooperate with all sorts the prizes in a design competition where ents but certainly among architects – and be difficult. struction industry. or you risk not reaching The second topic will be cultural diver. We therefore envisage a sort of producing increasingly uniform architec- of specialists to create holistic solutions for architects were asked to develop shelters especially among the younger generation. ARES has been present at quake in Sichuan. This is important because for disaster relief. The declaration of the estate sector and the construction indus. GS Here I see three fields of action: sustain. cli. ing about sustainability is on the increase or too technical. help them mitigate the effects of the earth. mitments will be developed over the next ferent solutions for the different parts of the aspects must also be included. the way to achieving them may globalised. but is GS To me. much like the ‘fair trade’ mark that is stakeholders start putting time. architecture’ trademark should be estab. and as soon as all these competition shows. Initiatives like this one create awareness. objectives. already common in many countries. Even the Chi. ability. and we have noticed that they really ‘think tural and political context. too specific we have just discussed. as vate and create new solutions. we informed our partners from the real ARES started as a workgroup mainly from D&A What will be the UIA’s top priorities GS Yes. Many people think that there a global problem. part of the ‘fair architecture’ initiative? Paris. The same is true of the con. and sions. This proves that it is not always no longer seek to find solutions in isolation goals are only useful if you can measure UIA’s work. architects. own architectural office in his home country. I also see that other profes. effort and two levels: Firstly. have recently lost to a certain degree: to act congress in Turin. What money into this kind of concept. pro- D&A Three years ago. they want D&A Will cultural and social issues also be major conferences and expert meetings in logistics and architectural know-how. Behind these two main objectives is a something of the results? that can have an effect. By doing so. we have participated in China. as well. These Ten Com. the field. in 1981. tions. These shelters should uti. objective for all. they will. over the world the opportu- nity to present themselves and exchange opinions with each other. Therefore. climate change. At the UIA among architects nowadays? consensus. At these meet. but they need help with coordination. UIA is connected to most of the 750. moting cultural diversity and cultural her- programme entitled ARES (Architecture & with UN-HABITAT to use it in their work in joining us in this effort. However. It particularly involves reconstruc- GS The ARES work group was set up at measures throughout the world. we awarded GS Yes I do. We are now already negotiating with a tects of my generation. So far. much more so even than the archi. criteria would this involve and how will you to see results. but there will always be dif- with technical solutions – social and cultural mates. 60 D&A Autumn 2008 Issue 09 61 . ARES has organised a number When you are working in a global context. And although we agree on the sity. Gaëtan Siew (2nd from right) Traditionally. but also to the chitecture in Marseilles. for example. Maybe not among all the cli.

the balconies. floors. dependent heating production and An extra 14 m² of photovolaic graded roof and housing areas. built-in heat-recov. ity to cover the entire winter enery buildings such as terraced housing erated by the windows’ natural consumption of the pumps and ven- units. almost double that of tute a dwelling for two persons. walls and 400 mm in the roof. raised window po. work can be either integrated into heat through the windows. new buildings for functionas a su. this air flow cools to existing buildings or stand alone. Under the energy. ity supplies. which is gen. work construction that also formst heating can be attributed to well-in- vertical windows of the same ropean countries. and They allow approximately twice tion which specially addresses the The homes are placed in a frame. The roof structure is a steel frame sun is unable tu supply the necessary SOLTAG is basically intended as a with timber collar beams. works in combination with the air modules designed and fitted out as ery ventilation unit and a mechanical hating pump. and is heated up the nuisance factor for residents in taken from outside. The modules can be connected A solid climate screen with stra. maintenance are achieved by har. exhibited for several months in Øre. power. As a by-product. The air is drawn in be- prefabricated kits. consumption of domestic appliances houseboats. bridges keeps the heat in.0–1. The modules are ventilator transfer the heat from the tween the outer roofing panels and installed quickly. ing frontage has an external gallery. while the south-facing win- sists of dining and living area with an dows are standard windows with a open loft-style area. When the solar cells produce surplus ing 60s and 70s multi-storey housing diums invite to play and rest. which The home is constructed from tors. The day-to-day electricity in the country or even on water as by the solar panels that produce do. without needing to be connedted to SOLTAG is devised as a self-suf. The first prototype of mestic hot water and under-floor and lighting. propensity to heat up the space. heated air to new fresh air the layers beneath. which is the buildings on which SOLTAG is heat is recycled in this way. however. power the building’s existing energy sys.2 and bedroom. dows. the meter counts backwards.5 W/m²K and which. with con. a housing solu. The north-fac. as well as the passive solar which involved research institutes. and tilators. A compact. To the south.5 m² of photovoltaic cells the external enectricity grid. SOLTAG is also suitable for new nessing solar energy. facing windows are super low-energy Photo: Adam MØrk tions and kitchen. bathroom. The in. SOLTAG a CO2 -neutral demo house for northern Europe Right: The two-storey living To demonstrate energy efficient re. ficient home that is independent of is taken from the ordinary electric- tems. built. perstructure on existing houses of trolled by a net calculation meter that operating to demonstrate energy various depths. In periods of weak sunlight. to operate the pumps and ventila. THe north- module contains the main installa. W/m²K. supplied with daylight and heat housing standards. The electricity in the house is con- turers from the building sector co. draws power into the home when the efficiency in buildings. the minimal need for supplementary as much light into the building as climatic conditions in Northern Eu. single-family housing in towns. and timum. used as “new” building plits with up. ered balcony that fully exploits the SOLTAG’s total need for heating through the high roof windows. addition to providing good daylight space of SOLTAG – here. The solar cell system is con- roof refurbishment solution – a hous. also allow solar heat to recessed gallery level – will be and provide examples of future cess. The home comprises two basic SOLTAG’s window area is 28% of modules that fit together to consti. U-value of 1. which minimises „spent“. and at floor level. roofs and win- size in the facade. veloped SOLTAG. depth of the house. in 62 D&A  AUTUMN 2008  Issue 09 63 . The other module con. made of zinc materials with slar cells. SOLTAG was part he basis fort he external gallery and sulated walls. 350 mm of inslulation in the and keeps them producing at an op- for each different project. is approximately 30 kWh/m²a. hall windows with a U-value of 1. it has a cantilev. The flat roofs can then be external heating systems. The underlying frame. the floor area. 90 percent of the under the surface of the roof. VELUX Panorama Architecture with VELUX from all over the world. How. sideration fort he building context an airtight construction without cold and financial resources. of the ‘Demohouse’ research project. down the underside of the solar cells They are custom-made and adapted dows. tegically placed low-energy win. cells can generate enough electric- ever. One standard winow areas. with furbishment or existing buildings which provides the most flexible ac. 3. pass through the window. is supplied by SOLTAG was realised in 2005 and heating. illumination. on the roof produce the electricity The roof has an integrated in- stad in southern Copenhagen. housing associations and manufac. VELUX has de. roof is a useful open loft-style area nected to the ordinary electricity grid ing unit that can be attached to exist. novative air heating system.

the inside and outside. roof windows that feature mounted on the roof.10 W/m²K Vertical wall 0. Copenhagen. the bathroom.5 square metres of photo- will be assembled and cladded and are suitable for passive voltaic panels produce around on the building site. A knee-high bench in the north 4. In the which supply warm water. kitchen. DK Primary energy need for Room heating 30 kWh/m²a Hot water 15 kWh/m²a Cooling 15 kWh/m²a Total 60 kWh/m²a Specifications for construction (U-values) Floor 0. DK Energy consultants Cenergia Energy Consultants. Galten. 1. DK General consultants Kuben Byfornyelse Danmark. and entrance area and the other contains the combined living and dining room.15 W/m²K Roof 0. bedroom keep the heat inside the building. SOLTAG consists of two north. In addition.10 W/m²K Windows 1. DK General contractor Jytas. Cross section with energy 3.5 W/m²K Photo: Adam MØrk Photo: Adam MØrk 3 4 64 D&A  AUTUMN 2008  Issue 09 65 . South view of SOLTAG. prefabricated modules which a high level of thermal insulation 17. Natural ventilation Heat-intake Photo: Adam MØrk 1 2 Facts Client VELUX A/S.0–1. Two concept serves as a transition between square metres of solar collectors. are 2. Copenhagen. Hørsholm. One contains houses have been used in order to 1450 kWh of electricity per year. DK Architects RUBOW arkitekter. Copenhagen.

scientists. and the Planet Earth tively painlessly with the help of ar. At the same cast. such as Edward Burtynsky or prisingly conventional approach. nobody could really im. art and everyday HarperPerennial high mountain areas of the world. that people need to go elsewhere to umenta 1982 in Kassel. explosion. tions by some of the masters in their merely serves as a disguise for a sur. Malina has been working for 25 cles and internet discussion forums: warming would be sufficient to turn could make the earth a more liveable know it all (such people are invariably solved to provide them. important question respecting the the book Ecomedia: “On the face of still remains to be done in this area. exhibition and accompanying book ologists and other specialists. ion. occasionally somewhat and maintenance of buildings. penings’. ring appeals underpinned by a touch most important tool was consistent artists together. while others are still relatively Like Jeremijenko. For the way cases to become a mass phenomenon works exhibited there deals with cli. the book is more than merely opinions on sustainability. This paedias. Just how these will contribute to the attractive design and excellent il. and when they can no longer go any ogist and author Stewart Brand has ideas for rethinking your own life. but by a bunch of your team in which we build our houses and cit. even the ‘green. What if there were a book that ex. science and society – albeit with a half and six degrees. and urgent answers. most of the Hotter Planet Hatje Cantz Verlag or two degrees of global warming designers and corporate consultants a mission to save the world. from architectural visions tent of global warming in the com. which is now Ökomedien/Ecomedia offer a mes- used them as the basis for this truly plosions in the atmosphere resulted arranged into seven areas of knowl. Some 251 [either “251” or and hard facts and figures are also fields. the buildings and projects presented the flatness of the ‘what you can do’ most of the freshwater is stored in Worldchanging comes very close: time. in order to avert the worst con. Abrams. the book is somewhat reminiscent of offer easy answers.” Accord. Even one science-fiction writers. Editor: Alex Steffen ternet recommendations are an en- Released by: EURAF. As work of reference.000 Oaks created for doc. The work has al. good example in individual cases. be expected to read it from cover to is tantamount to a cultural revolution. much Intergovernmental Panel on Cli. But in an age in which the read and evaluated more than ten ago the combination of a volcanic ventions and organisations described Franklin. Only rarely are the in. the society he initi- serious talks. rotting materials rising out of the makes Worldchanging a sort of En. The concept of tion is not easy. 66 D&A  AUTUMN 2008  Issue 09 67 . poses and better communication between to be somewhere between one and desert and four degrees’ warming most 600 pages and consists of short mates who are working themselves ies does indeed hold a key to a more view in the film is also the only one the most radical challenge to our way art. terpretation of scientific findings – for For further reading: enth chapter to discuss the conclu. the problem lies more in duction of foodstuffs and the melting way round. It’s about providing you with solved? It is a problem that demands lems they have battled. chitecture. cyclopaedia Britannica of good news. ception. Shelter. the recycling of ma. of apocalyptic sentiment. the next ten years. characteristic of so many persons on prognoses are based have been pub. depending on would suffice to melt the polar caps essays on all the main problem areas to figure out how we can make a dif. others. the curators brought 20 substantial contribution to a scien- report and the scientific research re. three degrees’ global 1968: a vast fount of useful tools that book is written not by people who film Last Call for Planet Earth are re. But this funding of urban public transport. the active and passive utilisation Earth could very quickly become just a more practical participative ap- presented by D&A. What becomes particularly various topics. nity. One cannot help but admire Ecomedia jenko deplores: “Have you ever noticed gions and the higher latitudes where tion . the lotus effect. grees’ global warming is completely alities. lished by the IPCC and been made unknown. rent changes to the ecosystem are Of course. more than 30 authors – journalists. Yvonne Volkart / Edith-Ruß-Haus taries like An Inconvenient Truth?” Our Future on a für Medienkunst. is ignored. been bringing out semi-annually since providing approaches to change. tific research outcome. – and films like Last Call for Planet CO2 sensors – while the other uses recent books clear in Six Degrees is that three de- ISBN 978-0-8109-7085-4 Despite its occasional superfici- DVD. By once in the earth’s history since life sometimes remains rather vague. But ‘sights’ described here. after all. buildings and recycling alone are not cover range from the globalised pro. His Ecomedia. to a wider public by Al Gore in his film Earth lacks is a probing look beneath tween science. an increase in the mean sea few years – from organic farming to Worldchanging is like a scholar’s on earth is linked to the construction working as an urban planner and a Ruß-Haus für Medienkunst in the haps no more than 1. Of course. climate compatible future. on almost all areas of sustainable political conditions. In general. the question remains as This book saves you the trouble. terials and the lifespan of buildings speaking for many others. The choice of still goals worth committing oneself looks at a range of possible futures all species on earth. in my opin.such a book does not exist. one of the most astonishing facts Using Leonardo. from open-source card index. this book doesn’t An Inconvenient Truth. cover. popular science arti. taking place for a second time on the sage that is long overdue: there are extraordinary book. the scientist Christoph Spehr noted in Arts Can Do for the Sciences. this is a rhetorical ques. depending on the ex. tecture. and gigantic methane ex. they go to heaven. The title of the film (Last Call for turned the Brazilian town of Curitiba resolved to close. architecture to move from individual of documenta 12 is that none of the ated. Their contributions touch cause. helps the reader to navigate the dif. New York couragement to read more about the eu / ArchiWorld. began. Business. In the in. Oldenburg fected by climate change. the British envi. ence or whether it should be the other ronmental activist David Lynas has “some 250” –PAW] million years often lacking. mits: “To date there have been per- previously. mate Change have been covered in higher. serve as a guidebook to the world of The problem facing us is clear: by areas in cities. around to focus on sustainability. wrong). A six de. crease strongly – has occurred only desired improvement of the world lustrations. the creation of green so much waste footage. duced our CO2 emissions by 40 to as well as the social aspects of archi- Ökomedien / can conceptual artist Natalie Jeremi- – particularly the high mountain re.” 40 and 50 percent of all energy used chitect: over the past three decades. and oceans.” sults on which it is based in detail. In their exhibition tistic creation but also resulted in a unless he or she had read the IPCC’s entists believe could occur by 2100 low-energy houses to micro-credits. Politics and Planet. Between that was not held with an ‘active’ ar. which include contribu. resorting to the schoolmasterly tone facts and figures on which these ready been published to global ac. designed. the book also manages to avoid sequences of global warming.Books for our earth. climate problems can be solved rela. 74 min ings. proach and focuses on the question: different from three degrees’ varia. tion when forming his opinion of the 80 percent. Worldchanging extensive index at the end of the book Last Call for tioned rather give the impression that down the influence of architecture to all genres. Jaime Lerner has completely north German town of Oldenburg projects that have not only led to ar- these abstract figures would be – grees warmer climate – which sci. sufficient. global warming is expected the Amazon region into a semi-arid place for everyone. chitects present their projects and the manner in which our cities are polar ice cap at the north pole to tree art scene has become almost intol- thousand articles written by cli. Lynas has arranged his A User’s Guide to the ferent areas of knowledge. the smooth surface: the authors never Everyone is talking about sustaina. The consequences: among touched on by the media in the past ference together. artists introduced in the exhibition will result in a massive extinction of – have collected ideas and projects troduction. glaciologists. An into the world of sustainability. Like all really good encyclo. given the wrong economic and One of them deals with the artistic in- REVIEWS every degree of warming with a sev. ing to Lynas. mate change – which. on an enjoyable voyage of discovery Françoise-Hélène Jourda are the ex. ing. Six Degrees in the obliteration of 95 percent of edge: Stuff. of life and social order …” only limited success as he himself ad- the future behaviour of mankind. The in the film – some of which have al. tion in temperature throughout the plained to us how we could save the the future – provided the reader is the year 2050 we need to have re. The most convincing inter. Similarly. the persons ques. years to achieve a closer interaction by 2100. ge. Worldchanging can usefully of solar power. by relax is unacceptable and. Two main strategies emerge. As the American astrophysicist ISBN 978-0007209057 a climate scientist once put it: “Cli. Lerner rightly commented: “‘Green’ a matter of concern. This was a gap that the Edith. Malina notes in his essay mate changes force animals to move the legendary – at least in the USA – about lists of Ten Simple Things You problem? Who knows how it could be their influence ends and what prob. 21st Century Film by Jacques Allard book into seven chapters – one for numerous annotated book and in. the mate scientists. mayor. claim. the Magnum photographer Stuart whereby a succession of twelve ar. This underscored by the book’s Planet Earth) seems to hint at stir. Commu. “What can we do specifically?” Thus. it invites its readers to embark and like every revolution it hurts”. This ers have done – the authors of the conditions that will allow ecological it. species in the polar regions and the from all over the world to make this explains why: “Because the ques. The topics they to what extent art should serve sci- his own account. Can Do. which the biol. software to solar cookers and from randomly sorted but always inspir. The perception that cities planting events like that of Joseph erably commercial and banal. But for good. for whom the cur. life. poisonous gases from in the book examined critically. Be.com building: the consumption of energy est’ architecture is doomed to failure example data from seismographs or sions. if CO2 emissions continue to in. art has nothing to say? The political Lovely Weather: Asking What the The scenarios predicated by the up the mountains to higher areas – Whole Earth Catalog. also – and particularly – in art. and – as many oth. an acceptable level: that of setting a to video installations to classic ‘hap- ing decades. and of raw materials used in build.” Lerner thus scales projects spans a wide range across to. This book isn’t But are there any solutions to the ask their interview partners where bility and climate change – but only Roger F. must change completely within internet in Second Life. Editors: Sabine Himmelsbach.000 art-science agine what the practical impact of level of around 65 metres. Pronounce. screen at the end of rousing documen- Six Degrees the form of glaciers – will be most af. Cities. the Ameri- day: some of the most sensitive areas world tomorrow? prepared to use his own discrimina. a reference work: even if no one can ments such as “For me sustainability are only for living and working and Beuys’ 7. the editor Alex Steffen available in a more general form and But what Last Call for Planet ISBN 978-3-7757-2048-9 are trying to bridge the chasm be- Author: Mark Lynas. depending on the fore.

108 .Daylight & Architecture issue 10 winter 2008 Swiss Pavilion at EXPO 2000 in Re-use Hannover – designing a building so that it can be 100% recycled.

Rasmussen www. The views expressed in articles Transfer Editorial team appearing in Daylight & Architecture Thomas Geuder are those of the authors and not Annika Dammann necessarily shared by the publisher.stockholmdesignlab.000 copies Lotte Kragelund Torben Thyregod ISSN 1901-0982 Gesellschaft für Knowhow.com Christine Bjørnager Nicola Ende Print run Lone Feifer 80.se Cover and inside front cover photography Cover: Enrique Brown y Asociados Inside: Adam Mørk . Photo editors Torben Eskerod Adam Mørk Art direction & design Stockholm Design Lab ® Per Carlsson Nina Granath Björn Kusoffsky www.daylight & architecture magazine by velux AUTUMN 2008  Issue 09 Publisher Website Michael K. Translation and re-write ® VELUX and VELUX logo are Tony Wedgwood registered trademarks used under licence by the VELUX Group.com/da VELUX Editorial team E-mail Per Arnold Andersen da@velux. Jakob Schoof © 2008 VELUX Group.velux.