LAB-21: The Images of Alexander the Great Professor David Gordon Mitten Mondays, Wednesdays, and some Fridays

, 1-2pm Sackler Lecture Hall (downstairs from the main entrance) Professor Mitten Wadsworth House 304 Office Hours: Mondays 3-4, Wednesdays 2-3 Office Phone: 617-495-3355 E-mail: mitten@fas.harvard.edu Head Teaching Fellow Almut Trinius Office Hours TBA E-mail: trinius@fas.harvard.edu Course Description and Aims The images of Alexander the Great provide a context within which students may exercise their skills of visual analysis and improve their visual literacy. These images will be studied in their wide-ranging historical contexts, with special attention to how modifications of Alexander's image emphasize different aspects of his personality, how his images reflect artistic conventions, and to what extent later images are grounded in the Hellenistic tradition. Important themes of the course include how images can be used for political purposes, how different portraits of rulers reflect changing ideas about leadership, and how other cultures reinterpret visual imagery. Sections will involve intensive examination of relevant themes and monuments. Two of the short papers will analyze original objects from local museum collections. Grading Section participation 20% One-hour midterm examination 15% Three papers 35% (1st=5%, 2nd=10%, final=20%) Final examination 30% Sections Attendance at weekly sections is required. Note that section participation is 20% of the final grade: attendance without participation is not enough to receive full participation credit.

Web page www.courses.fas.harvard.edu/colgsas/2267 The site will contain course information, TF e-mail addresses and office hours, hours and locations of sections, and an image base of slides shown in lectures and sections. Announcements and assignments will be posted throughout the semester. Required Texts, Films, and Museum Trip The following may be purchased at the Harvard COOP, Textbook Division. They are available on reserve at Lamont Library. --Pseudo-Callisthenes, The Greek Alexander Romance, London – New York: Penguin, 1991. --Romm, James. Alexander the Great: Selections from Arrian, Diodorus, Plutarch, and Quintus Curtius, Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 2005. --Sourcebook: Literature and Arts B-21, Images of Alexander the Great --Spencer, D., The Roman Alexander, Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2003. -- and either: R. Lane Fox, Alexander the Great, London: Folio Society, 1997.** or: P. Green, Alexander of Macedon 356-323 BC: A Historical Biography, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.** **These are about 500 pages each, and should be read over the semester. Please note that the following required book may be purchased at the desk in the foyer of the Sackler Museum: --Arnold-Biucchi, C. Alexander's Coins and Alexander's Image, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Art Museums, 2006.

Films The Michael Wood two-part video series, In the Footsteps of Alexander the Great, is on reserve at Lamont. This film should be viewed before the final exam. We will be asking you to view one of two movies made about Alexander the Great: the 1955 version starring Richard Burton, and/or the 2004 edition made by Oliver Stone. The films will be screened in the Sackler Lecture Hall, time TBA. Both films will be available on reserve at Lamont, along with all of the other course materials. Museum Trip Please note that there will be a required field trip to the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston during the reading period in January. We will be viewing some of the objects on display there, and the materials covered in this discussion will be covered on the final exam. Final Examination This course is in Exam Group 6. Time and location of the final will be announced as soon as possible.

Schedule of Lectures WEEK I: Introduction Lectures: Monday, 9/17/07 Alexander the Great: A Man for all Seasons Wednesday, 9/19/07 Repeat of first lecture Friday, 9/21/07 Images of Rulers in Egypt and the Near East Readings for this week: Sourcebook 2: Bieber, "Alexander the Conqueror of Europe and Persia (336-330)," pp. 29-38. Sourcebook 3: Badian, "Alexander the Great and the Unity of Mankind," pp. 425-444. WEEK II: Conceptualizing Kingship Lectures: Monday, 9/24/07 Heroic Images of Rulers and Kings in Ancient Greece and Asia Minor Wednesday, 9/26/07 Persia and Greece: Traditional Rivalry and Different Conceptions of Kingship NOTE: ELECTRONIC SECTIONING WILL TAKE PLACE THIS WEEK Readings: Sourcebook 11: Keegan, "Alexander the Great and Heroic Leadership," pp. 13-91. Sourcebook 4: Badian, "Alexander the Great and the Loneliness of Power," pp. 192-205. WEEK III: The Young Alexander Lectures: Monday, 10/1/07 "Philip the Barbarian": The Rise of Macedon Wednesday, 10/3/07 The Young Alexander and the Construction of his Self-Image Section 1: Greek Art and the Athletic Image Topic for Short Paper #1 assigned in section Readings (to be completed before section each week): - please turn page Sourcebook 1: Barnet, "Writing about Art," "Analysis," pp. 32-39, 99-119.

Romm, Chapters 1 and 2, pp. 1-32. WEEK IV: Alexander on Campaign Lectures: Monday, 10/8/07 Columbus Day, classes cancelled Wednesday, 10/10/07 Alexander in Troy and Asia Minor Friday, 10/12/07 Alexander in the Levant and Egypt Section 2: Recognizing Alexander: Realism and Symbolism in Portraiture Readings: Sourcebook 8: Bieber, "The Portraits of Alexander the Great," pp. 390-421, 423-427. Sourcebook 9: Hartle, "The Search for Alexander's Portrait," pp. 153-176. Sourcebook 13: Green, "Alexander's Alexandria," pp. 3-25. Romm, Chapters 4 and 5, pp. 70-93.

WEEK V: Alexander in Triumph Lectures: Monday, 10/15/07 King of all Asia: Mesopotamia, Persia, Bactria Wednesday, 10/17/07 Alexander in India; The Death of Alexander Section 3: Materials and Meaning in the Art of Alexander's Court Short Paper #1 due in section; Topic for Final Paper distributed in section Readings: Romm, Chapters 6, 7, and 8, pp. 94-173. Sourcebook 15: Carney, "Artifice and Alexander History," pp. 263-285. Optional: Sourcebook 14: Carney, "Women in Alexander's Court," pp. 227-252 Sourcebook 16: Stoneman, "The Legacy of Alexander in Ancient Philosophy," pp. 325-345.

WEEK VI: Art in Alexander's Time Lectures: Monday, 10/22/07 The Alexander Mosaic Wednesday, 10/24/07 The Alexander Sarcophagus Section 4: Review for the Midterm: How do We read Historical Sources? Readings: Sourceboook 7: Ridgway, "Court Art and Hellenistic Art: The Role of Alexander," pp. 43-58. Sourcebook 12: Badian, "Darius III," pp. 241-267. Sourcebook 19: Beard/Henderson, "Alexander the Great Rides in: A Mosaic at Pompeii," pp. 13-23. Sourcebook 20: Badian, "A Note on the 'Alexander Mosaic'," pp. 75-92. WEEK VII: Midterm Examination; More on Alexander's Time Lectures: Monday, 10/29/07 MIDTERM EXAMINATION Wednesday, 10/31/07 Pella and Vergina Section 5: Numismatic Evidence: Ancient Coins as Clues about the Past Readings: Sourcebook 5: Hammond, "Evidence for the Identity of the Royal Tombs at Vergina," pp. 111-127. Sourcebook 6: Green, "The Royal Tombs of Vergina: A Historical Analysis," pp. 129-151. Sourcebook 10: Bauslaugh, "The Numismatic Legacy of Alexander the Great," pp. 34-41.

WEEK VIII: Alexander's Legacy Lectures: Monday, 11/5/07 Coinage and Image Wednesday, 11/7/07 The Ptolemies and Alexandria Friday, 11/9/07 The Romans: Pompey, Julius Caesar, Marc Anthony, Augustus, Trajan, and Constantine Section 6: Republic and Empire in the History of Rome Topic for Short Paper #2 assigned in section Readings: Sourcebook 17: Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars (selections), pp. 16, 63, 83, 179-180, 222. Sourcebook 18: Zanker, "Introduction," "Conflict and Confliction in the Imagery of the Dying Republic," "Man and God: Role-Playing and Self-Image," pp. 1-11, 44-53. Spencer, Chapters 1 and 5, pp. 1-38, 165-203. WEEK IX: Medieval Traditions of Alexander Lectures: Monday, 11/12/07 Veterans Day, classes cancelled Wednesday, 11/14/07 The Alexander Romance in Byzantium Friday, 11/16/07 The Alexander Romance in the West Section 7: Alexander in the Medieval and Byzantine Traditions Readings: Sourcebook 21: Kazhdan, "Alexander Romance," "Alexander the Great," pp. 58-59. Sourcebook 22: Strayer, "Alexander of Roes," "Alexander Romances," pp. 149-151. Sourcebook 23: Galavaris, "Alexander, Conqueror and Captive of Death," pp. 12-18, 74-77. Sourcebook 24: Cary, The Medieval Alexander, pp. 1-5, 83-86, 223-225, 273-274.

WEEK X: Alexander and the Islamic World Lectures: Monday, 11/19/07 Introduction to the Islamic Context Wednesday, 11/21/07 Alexander in Illuminated Manuscripts Sections will not be held this week, Happy Thanksgiving! Readings (they will be discussed in section 8): The Greek Alexander Romance, Introduction and pp. 35-39, 100-125, 127-159. Optional: Sourcebook 26: Baynham, "Who put 'Romance' in the Alexander Romance?," pp. 1-13. WEEK XI: Islamic and Renaissance Interpretations of Alexander Lectures: Monday, 11/26/05 Iskander and the Islamic Alexander Wednesday, 11/28/07 Alexander in the Western Renaissance Section 8: Alexander in the Islamic Traditions Short Paper #2 due in section Readings: Sourcebook 27: Renard, "The Royal Hero", pp. 66, 86-92, 278-282. Sourcebook 28: Waugh, "Alexander in Islam," pp. 237-253 Sourcebook 29: Southgate, "Portraits of Alexander in Persian Alexander Romances of the Islamic Era," pp. 278-284. WEEK XII: Alexander in Modern Western Europe Lectures: Monday, 12/3/07 Alexander from the Renaissance to the 17th Century Wednesday, 12/5/07 Alexander in the 18th and 19th Centuries Section 9: Printed Images: Alexander through Early Modern Eyes Readings: Spencer, Chapter 6, pp. 205-218.

WEEK XIII: Alexander into the Twentieth Century Lectures: Monday, 12/10/07 A Champion of Hellenism: The Megali Idea Wednesday, 12/12/07 Twentieth Century Ruler and Personality Cults: Hitler, Stalin, Mao Tse-Tung, and Ataturk Friday, 12/14/07 Alexander and Modern Popular Culture Section 10: Alexander as a Hero for Modern Greece Readings: Sourcebook 30: Abbott, "Alexander and Philip in Folk Tradition," pp. 279-289. Sourcebook 31: Barr-Sharrar, "Macedonian Studies and the 'Macedonian Conflict'," pp. 19-20. Sourcebook 32: Danforth, "Alexander the Great and the Macedonian Conflict," pp. 347-364. Sourcebook 33: Kinzer, "The Hero," pp. 35-51. Sourcebook 34: Solomon, "Greek and Roman History," pp. 42-45. WEEK XIV: Conclusions Lectures: Monday, 12/17/07 Will the Real Alexander Please Stand Up Final Paper due at start of Monday's lecture No sections this week; see you in January!

**** **** **** **** Reading Period Reminders: *Be sure to view the Michael Wood 2-part series, In the Footsteps of Alexander, which is on Reserve at Lamont Library. Get there early, since everyone will need to watch it before the final exam! *We will be handing back your final papers and scheduling review sessions for the final examination in January.