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H A Y W A R D B A K E R I N C .


Trench cutting and
remixing deep (TRD) soil
mix walls are mixed-in-
place walls that address
many geotechnical
challenges, using a
specialized vertical
cutter post mounted on a
base crawler machine.

The TRD method is unique in its ability

to construct deep walls with a low height,
low center of gravity rig.

he Trench cutting and Remixing Deep (TRD) wall method is
a relatively quiet, clean and compact technique developed in
Japan for constructing an engineered, continuous in situ soil
mix wall. The TRD machine advances horizontally along the wall
alignment while the cutter post cuts and mixes the in situ soil with
cement-based binder slurry. The full-depth vertical cutter post re-
sembles a giant chain saw, which vertically blends the entire soil pro-
file, eliminating any stratification and creating a near homogenous
soil mix wall with low permeability. The TRD method produces the
most uniform wall of any soil mixing process, with certainty of conti-
nuity in deep, challenging soil conditions.

Hayward Baker Inc. (HB), North America’s leader in geotechnical

construction, is committed to providing the most economical solution
that satisfies the technical requirements of each project. Whether a
situation is typical or unique, we have the experience and innova-
tion to assist engineers, contractors and owners with identifying and
implementing the best solution. For a variety of subsurface and ac-
cess conditions, the TRD method of soil mixing may be the answer.
Technology & Applications . . .

he TRD method is a relatively quiet, efficient way to construct continuous soil mix walls. Wall widths range from 22 to 33
inches (0.5 to 0.8 meters), and depths up to 180 feet (55 meters) have been constructed in nearly all subsurface conditions
from soft organics to cobbles and some rock formations.

Groundwater Cutoff Walls Foundation Support

Seepage and erosion through levees, dams, Soft soils beneath planned structures can be
and reservoir perimeters can be averted with reinforced with TRD walls to reduce settle-
TRD soil mix walls. ment and increase bearing capacity.

Pollution Control Liquefaction Mitigation

The TRD wall method provides containment When used to construct cells, TRD soil mix
structures for subsurface contaminants or bar- walls can remediate liquefiable soils beneath
riers to protect against migration from off-site planned structures such as buildings, port fa-
sources, and freshwater aquifers can be pro- cilities, tank foundations, dams, and levees.
tected from saltwater intrusion.

Earth Retention & Excavation Support Subsidence Isolation

Excavations for construction of below grade Subsurface construction activities such as tun-
structures such as parking facilities, highways, neling and mining operations can loosen over-
subway stations, treatment plants, and others lying soils and result in settlement of adjacent
require perimeter earth retention, which TRD structures. TRD walls can be constructed
walls can provide. between the subsidence source and the struc-
tures as a preventive measure.

① ④

② ⑤

① Support for a planned excavation adjacent to apartment buildings provided by ④ A TRD cutoff wall is constructed through a profile of limestone and clay
a TRD earth retention wall. beneath the centerline of a planned dam.
② Groundwater lowering beneath railway tracks during adjacent construction ⑤ TRD wall grid constructed to provide liquefaction mitigation for a planned
dewatering is prevented by a TRD cutoff wall. structure.
③ Seepage and piping through a levee is prevented by construction of a TRD
cutoff wall.
Procedures & Design Considerations . . .
TRD Method
The TRD base ma-
chine first connects
to the idler post sec-
tion (bottom sec-
tion of post), which
has previously been
placed in an adjacent
cutter post box. The
Design Considerations
machine is then moved to the starting position of wall construc-
TRD walls can be installed in soils ranging from soft organics to
tion. Vertical cutting then begins by starting chain rotation as the
dense sand with cobbles and some rock formations. Because the
idler post is lowered into the soil ①. The TRD base machine is
TRD method vertically mixes the soils within the total depth, in-
then disconnected from the idler post and moved back to the cut-
dividual strata are only significant to the degree they are a com-
ter post box where it is connected to the next section of post ②.
ponent of the total profile being mixed.
The base machine then moves
back to the starting position and
The site exploration should determine site geology, soil gradation,
connects this cutter post section
pH, in situ moisture content, and organic content of each stratum
to the previously installed idler
within the planned wall depth. Continuous sampling is required
post ③. The process is repeated
when retrieving samples for laboratory bench scale testing.
with additional sections of cutter
post ④ until the required depth
The strength and permeability of the soil mix wall depends on
is reached. The cutter post box is
the entire soil profile, water content, and grout slurry compo-
then removed and wall construc-
sition and volume. Therefore, laboratory bench testing should
tion begins. The post is advanced
be conducted using site soils and lab procedures that simulate
horizontally along the wall align-
Connecting sections of post. the field mixing. Laboratory testing uses full-depth soil samples
ment while the cutter chain cuts
of the treatment
and mixes the in situ soil with cement-based binder slurry in-
zone. A series of
jected through ports near its tip ⑤. Conventional soil mixing
slurry mixes can
techniques mix the soil in situ at its natural elevation. Therefore,
then be prepared,
the properties of the wall vary as different strata are encoun-
mixed with vary-
tered. The revolving TRD cutter chain creates a circulation of
ing percentages of
cut soil (or soil and rock) and injected slurry, vertically mixing
the soil samples,
the entire profile, eliminating the pre-existing stratification. This
and cast into cyl-
results in the highest homogeneity of any mixing method.
inders. Labora-
tory tests are
In the case of retaining walls, steel beams are inserted into the
performed on the
wall immediately behind the TRD machine.
cured cylinders
to determine the
mix design that
will achieve the
specified soil-
crete properties,
such as uncon-
fined compressive
strength and per- Unconfined compressive strength results from
meability. laboratory bench scale test program.

Steel beam reinforcement in retaining walls.

The TRD wall method produces the most uniform

Equipment & Materials . . .

wall of any soil mixing process with certainty of
continuity in deep, challenging soil conditions.

TRD Rig Grout Slurry

The TRD base machine is a 100 U.S. tons (91 tonnes) crawler Delivery
crane. The hydraulic cutter motor is mounted on a short mast, The slurry is pro-
which is connected to a wide frame. The motor can be raised duced in an on-site
and lowered on the mast, and the mast can be moved horizon- batch plant. The
tally on the frame. The cutter post chain is connected to the batching system
hydraulic motor. can be a computer-
controlled colloidal
The cutter post is composed of an idler section at the base, shear mixer or a con-
which is attached to additional post sections to reach the re- tinuous jet mixing
quired wall depth. The post guides and supports the chain, system. The slurry
which is driven by a hydraulic motor at the top of the post. Pipes is continuously agi-
inside the post allow for the injection of grout slurry, air (if nec- tated after mixing
essary), and the presence of inclinometers to measure cutter and before pumping.
post verticality.
A pipe inside the cut-
Insertion of the cutter post in sections allows the base unit to ter post permits the
maintain a low profile of 40 feet (12 meters) tall while construct- injection of the grout
On-site grout batch plant.
ing walls to depths of 180 feet (55 meters). The low profile en- slurry at depth. The
sures stability of the base unit and allows wall construction at pump delivery rate
low headroom sites (see cover photo, left). is adjusted to the cut-
ting rate of the TRD
machine to produce
the prescribed mix-
ture of grout and soil.
Flow monitoring de-
vices located in the
delivery line monitor
grout flow, pressure,
density, and total in-
jected grout.

A second pipe is
available for the in-
jection of air, which
Above: Bottom
three sections of
is sometimes used to
cutter post and increase fluidity and
drawing of inter- enhance mobility of
nal inclinometer
and grout pipes. the materials to be
mixed. Batch plant controls.
Left: Hydraulic
motor, mast and
frame connected Grout Slurry
to base crawler The grout slurry is typically composed of water, swelling clays
(bentonite, attapulgites, or sepiolite), and cementitious bind-
ers. Binders are typically Portland cement, fly ash, and ground
granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS).
HB has developed proprietary data
acquisition (DAQ) equipment and software

Quality Control . . .
for real-time monitoring of all parameters
during the TRD mixing process.

Pre-Construction during the TRD mixing process. In-cab monitors display real-
Prior to TRD wall construction, full-depth soil and rock samples time quality control feedback to the operator and field engineer
are obtained and brought to a laboratory where mix design test- during wall construction. It is also possible to remotely monitor
ing is performed. The final mixture consists of 65 to 80 percent the feedback. All data are transmitted in near real-time to an
of the in situ soil and rock. online central database via cell modem.

During Construction Wet grab samples are taken routinely during production for flow
Inclinometers located table tests to check the viscosity, ensuring that the soil mix can
in the cutter post at properly flow yet maintain cut up soil and rock particles in sus-
multiple depths mea- pension. Wet grab samples retrieved from the wall immediately
sure its verticality. after mixing are also cast into cylinders for unconfined compres-
The verticality in two sive strength and permeability testing, if required.
planes is visually dis-
played on an in-cab Post-Construction
monitor for the opera- Coring of the cured wall is possible but not recommended be-
tor in real-time. GPS cause it creates a discontinuity in the wall. Because of the ex-
position tracking can tensive quality control of the continuous, high uniformity wall
be used to monitor produced by the TRD method, coring is generally only per-
and document wall formed if a variation in the grout or construction process raises
alignment. a concern over a specific segment of the wall.

During TRD con- If required, core sampling of the wall can be performed to as-
struction, a mass flow sess homogeneity of the soil mix and to retrieve samples for
sensor within the strength testing. However, as is typical with core sampling, if
grout line records flow aggregates are present in the wall matrix, they can dislodge
rate, specific gravity, from the weaker soil mix matrix inside the core barrel and dam-
and temperature of In-line grout flow meter. age the core sample. Downhole video logging of core holes can
the grout slurry. provide a visual assessment of homogeneity of the soil mix.

HB has developed proprietary data acquisition (DAQ) equip-

ment and software for real-time monitoring of all parameters

Twenty-eight-day unconfined compressive strength test results of cylinders cast

from samples retrieved from deep in wet wall. These results confirm the unifor-
mity of the TRD wall both with depth and along the alignment.
In-cab DAQ monitor displaying real-time quality control feedback during wall

Advantages of Hayward Baker

TRD Soil Mix Walls Design-Build Services for the Complete
Range of Geotechnical Technologies

u Compact, low headroom machinery u Most homogeneous of soil mix technologies Cement Grouting (High Mobility Grouting)
Chemical Grouting
Compaction Grouting (Low Mobility Grouting)
u Environmentally friendly u Certainty of continuity in deep, challenging Fracture Grouting
soil conditions Jet Grouting
u Constructs a continuous wall Polyurethane Grouting
u Wide variety of applications Ground Improvement
u Blends the entire soil profile Dry Soil Mixing
Dynamic Compaction
Injection Systems for Expansive Soils
Rapid Impact Compaction
Rigid Inclusions (Controlled Stiffness Columns)
Vibro Compaction
Vibro Concrete Columns
Vibro Piers™ (Aggregate Piers)
Vibro Replacement (Stone Columns)
Wet Soil Mixing

Structural Support
Augercast Piles
Drilled Shafts
Driven Piles
Franki Piles (PIFs)
Helical Piles
Jacked Piers
Pit Underpinning

Earth Retention
Anchor Block Slope Stabilization
Gabion Systems
Micropile Slide Stabilization System (MS³)
Secant or Tangent Piles
Sheet Piles
Soil Nailing
Soldier Piles & Lagging
TRD cutoff wall construction for a wastewater treatment plant in California. Additional Services
Earthquake Drains
Sculpted Shotcrete
Slab Jacking
Slurry Walls

Why Should You Choose Hayward Baker’s TRD Soil Mix Walls? TRD Soil Mix Walls
Wick Drains

Hayward Baker Inc. (HB) is North America’s lished itself in the forefront of geotechnical Website
leading geotechnical contractor, offering the specialty contracting, evolving and expanding Email
full range of pre- and post-construction ser- to meet the increasingly complex needs of the Hayward Baker Inc.
A member of the Keller worldwide
vices for foundation rehabilitation, settlement construction community. HB is capable of of- group of companies
control, liquefaction mitigation, soil stabiliza- fering full design-build services for any geo-
Copyright 2013 Hayward Baker Inc.
tion, groundwater control, slope stability, ex- technical construction application. H1-MAR-20007-JW Nov 2013

cavation support and underpinning. HB is an-

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Headquartered in Hanover, Maryland, HB has tifying and constructing the most economical
over 25 offices servicing North and Central solution that satisfies the technical require-
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