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Ms. D Rambaran 2018 FORM 4.

ARANGUEZ NORTH SECONDARY SCHOOL

SCHEME OF WORK

DEPARTMENT: SCIENCE

FORM IV

ACADEMIC YEAR: Term III (APRIL – JULY 2018)

WEEK NUMBER OF LEARNING CONTENT SCOPE TEACHING SUGGESTED


SESSIONS OUTCOMES STRATEGIES ASSESSMENT
SRATEGIES

SECTION B LIFE PROCESSES: Photosynthesis

Describe the process Two stages of Power Point CSEC Biology


of photosynthesis in photosynthesis: The light presentation Past Papers
green plants. dependent and the Light
independent. The evolution You Tube Videos
of oxygen as a result of the
splitting of water by light Associated labs
energy. The subsequent
reduction of carbon dioxide
to a carbohydrate (glucose).
The chloroplast is the site
of the reaction.

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Relate the structure The external features and Draw and lab the CSEC Biology
of the leaf of a internal features of a dicot external features. Past Papers
flowering plant to leaf as seen in cross section
its function in under the light microscope.
photosynthesis. Emphasis on adaptations
for photosynthesis.
Explain how Limiting factors in the Power Point CSEC Biology
environmental environment affect the rate presentation Past Papers
factors affect the rate of photosynthesis. Factors
of photosynthesis. such as light intensity and You Tube Videos
carbon dioxide affect the
rate at which photosynthesis Associated labs
occurs.
Discuss the Emphasis on the importance
importance of of nitrogen in the formation
minerals in plant of proteins and magnesium
nutrition using in the formation of
nitrogen and chlorophyll.
magnesium as
examples.

SECTION B LIFE PROCESSES: Diet and Nutrition

Perform tests to Starch, protein, lipids, Test for CSEC Biology


distinguish among reducing and non-reducing Biomolecules Past Papers
food substances. sugars. Chemical and
physical properties of Power Point
presentation

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carbohydrates, proteins,
lipids. You Tube Videos

Associated labs

Discuss the Components of a balanced Test for CSEC Biology


importance of a diet including vitamins, Biomolecules Past Papers
balanced diet in minerals and their roles.
Humans. The results of their Power Point
deficiency or surplus presentation
(Malnutrition). The effects
of age, sex, gender and You Tube Videos
occupation on dietary
needs. Dietary Project: Analyze
recommendations for the items being
treating and preventing sold/made
diseases- diabetes and available to
hypertension. students in the
cafeteria. Assess if
these items meet
the needs of
developing
teenagers. Make
suggestions if
needed.

Relate the structures Simple diagrams of the Test for CSEC Biology
of the human alimentary canal and the Biomolecules Past Papers

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alimentary canal to internal structure of a tooth.


their functions. Mastication and the role of Power Point
teeth in the mechanical presentation
breakdown of food to be
included. You Tube Videos

Explain the role and Inclusion of catalysis. Power Point CSEC Biology
importance of Properties of enzymes, role presentation Past Papers
enzymes. of digestive enzymes in the
mouth, stomach and You Tube Videos
pancreatic enzymes in the
small intestine. Associated labs-
Investigate the
effect of
temperature and
pH on the activity
of catalase or
amylase.
Describe what Simple diagram of villi and Power Point CSEC Biology
happens to the role of absorption of the presentation Past Papers
products of products of digestion. You Tube Videos
digestion after their Transport to the liver and
absorption. assimilation to be included. Associated labs-

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TOPIC: Photosynthesis

ASSOCIATED LABS

Activity #01: Testing leaves for the presence of starch.

SBA SKILLS: ORR/AI/MM

Leaves that have been in sunlight contain starch, however placing Iodine on a fresh leaf would not yield any result. The
outer waxy surface will not absorb the solution and the green colour would hide the colour change. The leaf’s outer waxy
layer has to removed and the leaf decolourised.

APPARATUS

1. Fresh leaves 2. A large beaker 3. Bunsen Burner

4. Tripod stand 5. Iodine Solution 6. Forceps

7. Ethanol 8. Petri Dish 9. White Tile

10. Test Tube 11. Test Tube rack

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Activity #02: Testing variegated leaves for the presence of starch.

SBA SKILLS: MM/AI/ORR

Starch is only made in the parts of the leaves that are green. This can be demonstrated by using a variegated leaf which
has green and white parts. The white regions, which lack the green pigment called chlorophyll would yield a negative test
for starch.

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Activity #03: Need for light for photosynthesis

SBA SKILLS: MM/AI/ORR

Use a destarched plant that has been kept in a cupboard for at least 48 hours.

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Activity #04: Testing leaves for reducing sugars.

SBA SKILLS: MM/AI/ORR

Instead of starch the leaves of some plants such as onions and chives store sugars. The leaves of these plants can be tested
for reducing sugars.

APPARATUS:

1. Onion/chive 2. Test Tubes 3. Benedict’s Solution

4. Large beaker 5. Bunsen Burner

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Activity #05: Drawing of a leaf section

Observation of a prepared slide.

SBA SKILL: D

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Activity #06: Drawing of the External features of a leaf

SBA SKILL: D

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Activity #07: Investigating the effects of the lack of minerals on the growth of seedlings.

SBA SKILL: PD

Design an experiment to investigate if seedlings need minerals to grow normally.

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Activity #08: Experiment with Chlorophyll and Chromatography

SBA SKILL: ORR/MM

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Photosynthesis is the process by which plants make their own food. Plants capture the energy from sunlight with their
leaves and other green parts of the plant. The green colour comes from a pigment called chlorophyll. Chlorophyll absorbs
the energy from the sun, allowing the plant to use this energy to make its own food. Plants use carbon dioxide and water,
along with this energy from the sun, to make glucose, which is a sugar. This is photosynthesis.

At the height of photosynthesis, during the summer when the days are long, plants continually make chlorophyll. The
green from the chlorophyll covers up any other colour that may be in the leaf. However, when the days become shorter
and the temperatures become cooler, trees stop producing chlorophyll. Without chlorophyll present, the leaves change
colour as the other pigments are exposed. The yellow colour that we see in the fall is a pigment called carotenoid. We also
see carotenoids in carrots, corn, bananas and even canaries! The red colour that we also see is called anthocyanin, and
this is produced by the leaves only in the autumn when the days are short and the temperatures are cool, and only when
chlorophyll is no longer being produced. Anthocyanins can also be found in cranberries, red apples, cherries and
strawberries.

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TOPIC: Diet and Nutrition

ASSOCIATED LABS

Activity #01: Determine the energy content of a food sample.

If a sample of food will burn well in air, you can measure its energy content using a simplified version of the food
calorimeter.

SBA SKILL: ORR/MM/AI

If the change in temperature is greater when the water is heated with the use of the fire caught by the food substance,
then the energy content in the food substance is higher because the heat energy is greater, since the heat energy is
absorbed by the water when the fire is kept under the test tube containing water. The formula indicates that if the change
in temperature is greater when the mass of the substances and the volume of water are constant, then the heat energy is
higher.

Apparatus

 Test Tube
 Measuring Cylinder
 Laboratory Thermometer
 Water
 Needle with Handle
 Scalpel (for cutting the substances into exactly 0.5 grams)

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 Test tube holder


 Burner
 The following substances are the 5 different food items that are used to conduct the experiment, the substances
used are:

i. Biscuit

ii. Koko Crunch

iii. Cheetos

iv. Peanut

v. Candlenut

Variables

 Independent Variable: Heat energy of the food substance used.


 Dependent Variable: Temperature change in the water/Amount of energy absorbed.
 Controlled Variable: Amount of water, Temperature of surroundings, Type of needle used, Temperature of water.

Manipulation

 Independent Variable: As we vary the food items that we use, their heat energy/ they themselves become the
independent variable.
 Dependent Variable: The change in temperature/ Heat energy absorbed is varied as the heat energy of the
substance is varied.

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 Controlled Variable: The temperature is not varied in any case or does not depend on anything during this
experiment, amount of water equals 20ml in each trial of experiment for each food substance.

Procedure

 Measure 20ml water in the measuring cylinder and pour in the test tube.
 Place the test tube in the holder and lock it tight.
 If the food substance measures 0.5 grams on the electrical balance, then use the substance, otherwise use the scalpel
to divide it into smaller pieces and make sure it measures exactly 0.5 grams.
 Measure the initial temperature of water using the thermometer
 Poke through a food substance measuring 0.5 grams using the needle with the handle.
 Turn on fire on the burner.
 Set the food substance on the needle to fire on the burner.
 Once the food substance starts to burn, place it under the test tube so the water inside it can absorb heat.
 Measure the temperature change in the water using the thermometer.
 Measure the energy content in the food item by using the following formula:

https://schoolworkhelper.net/lab-answers-energy-from-burning-food/

Activity #02: Food tests

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This experiment allows the students to become familiar with both the positive and negative colour results for identifying
biomolecules such as – sugars (reducing and non-reducing), starch, lipids and proteins. Additionally, a food sample can
be tested and the biomolecules it contains identified.

 10 Test tubes
 2 Test tube racks
 Test tube holder
 2 Measuring cylinders
 Large beaker
 Bunsen burner
 Gauze and tripod stand
 Labels
 Stop clock
 Distilled water
 Glucose solution (reducing sugar)
 Sucrose solution (non-reducing sugar)
 Starch solution
 Oil (vegetable)
 Protein solution (albumen)
 Benedict’s solution
 Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
 Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
 Copper sulphate (CuSO4)
 Iodine solution
 *Food sample ____________ (optional)

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METHOD:
(A) BENEDICT’S TEST (REDUCING SUGAR TEST):
1. Label 2 clean test tubes – R1 and R2. Add 1cm3 distilled water to R1 and 1cm3 glucose to R2.
2. In each test tube add 2 cm3 of Benedict’s solution.
3. Place both test tubes into a boiling water bath for 2 minutes.
4. Observe and record the initial and final colours of each test tube in an appropriate table.

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(B) NON-REDUCING SUGAR TEST:


1. Label 2 clean test tubes – N1 and N2. Add 1cm3 distilled water to N1 and 1cm3 sucrose to N2.
2. In each test tube add 2 cm3 hydrochloric acid (HCl).
3. Boil each tube in a water bath for exactly 1 minute, then remove from the water bath and neutralize with 2cm3
sodium hydroxide (NaOH) – until the fizzing stops.
4. Carry out the Benedict’s test as above (A -steps 2 – 4).
5. Observe and record the initial and final colours of each test tube in an appropriate table.

(C) STARCH TEST (IODINE TEST)


6. Using cleaned test tubes – S1 and S2 – add 1cm3 distilled water to S1 and 1cm3 starch to S2.
7. Add 3 drops of iodine solution to each test tube.
8. Observe and record the initial and final colours of each test tube in an appropriate table.

(D) PROTEIN/ BIURET TEST


9. Using cleaned test tubes – P1 and P2 – add 1cm3 distilled water to P1 and 1cm3 protein to P2.
10. To each test tube add 1 cm3 of dilute sodium hydroxide (NaOH) followed by 4 drops of 5% Copper Sulphate
solution (CuSO4), shake gently to mix each test tube.
11. Observe and record the initial and final colours of each test tube in an appropriate table.

(E) EMULSION TEST FOR LIPIDS


1. Using cleaned test tubes – L1 and L2 – place 1cm3 distilled water to L1 and 1cm3 oil to L2.
2. To each test tube add 1 cm3 of ethanol, and shake each vigorously.
3. Pour cold distilled water into each test tube.
4. Observe and record the initial and final colours of each test tube in an appropriate table.

Name of Test Substance tested Main reagents/ treatment

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Benedict’s test/ Reducing R1 - water - Benedict’s solution


sugar test R2 – glucose solution - Heat
Non-reducing sugar test N1 - water - HCl + heating
N2 – sucrose solution - NaOH
- Benedict’s solution + heat
Starch/ Iodine test S1 - water - Iodine solution
S2 – starch solution - (no heating)
Protein/ Biuret test P1 - water - NaOH or KOH
P2 – protein solution - 5% CuSO4 (no heating)
Emulsion test L1 - water - Ethanol + shaking
L2 - oil - Cold water

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