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INTRODUCTION

Hareesha N G
Lecturer
Department of aeronautical engg
Classification of manufacturing process

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Classification of manufacturing process

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Types of production systems
• Mass production / continuous flow process
• Batch production
• Job shop production

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Sand casting

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Sand casting

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Rolling

Hot-rolling

Cold-rolling

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Factors to be considered for selecting a
production process
a) Shape and size to be produced - For products with simple
shape, machining is best suited. But for complex and intricate
shapes, casting is preferred. The size of the product is also an
important factor. For example, 'long' products such as rails or
'thin' products such as car-body panels can be best made by
forming process compared to others.
(b) Quantity to be produced - Both machining and casting can
be used for producing large quantity products, but are not
suitable for small quantity products, as they are not
economical.
(c) Type of material - Materials possess various properties like
ductility, hardness, toughness, brittleness etc. Hard materials
cannot be machined easily. Brittle materials cannot be
mechanically worked (Forming process). In such cases,
casting is preferred.

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Factors to be considered for selecting a
production process
(d) Surface finish and dimensional accuracy - Casting with expendable
moulds does not yield good surface finish. However," if casting
process is selected, it should be followed by machining process to
obtain the desired surface finish and dimensional tolerance.
(e) Quality and property requirements - A defect-free product with
specific properties serve its purpose for long life. Properties of cast
material are generally less when compared to that of mechanically
worked materials. Also, casting gives a lot of defects. Hence, a process
that gives better properties and quality should be selected.
(f) Cost of the product - Customers often demand for products with more
features and performance at reduced prices. Hence, a low cost
production process should be selected, but at the same time, see that
no compromise is made in terms of quality.
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CASTING PROCESS

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Terms involved in casting

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Terms involved in casting process
• Mould box (flask) : It is usually a metallic
frame used for making and holding a sand
mould. The mould box has two parts: the
upper part called 'cope', and the lower
part called 'drag'.
• Parting line/parting surface: It is the zone
of separation between cope and drag
portions of the mould in sand casting.
• Sprue: It is vertical passage through which the molten metal
will enter the gate.
• Pouring basin: The enlarged portion of the sprue at its top
into which the molten metal is poured.

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Terms involved in casting process
• Gate/ingate: It is a short passage way which
carries the molten metal from the runner/
sprue into the mould cavity.
• Riser: A riser or feed-head is a vertical
passage that stores the molten metal and
supplies (feed) the same to the casting as it
solidifies.
• Gate/ingate: It is a short passage way which carries the molten metal from the
runner/ sprue into the mould cavity.
• Riser: A riser or feed-head is a vertical passage that stores the molten metal
and supplies (feed) the same to the casting as it solidifies.
• Mould cavity: The space in a mould that is filled with molten metal to form the
casting upon solidification.
• Core: A core is a pre-formed (shaped) mass of sand placed in the mould cavity
to form hollow cavities in castings.
• Core print: It is a projection attached to the pattern to help for support and
correct location of core in the mould cavity.
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STEPS INVOLVED IN MAKING A CASTING
The basic steps in making a casting are:
(a) Pattern making
(b) Mould preparation (including gating and risering)
(c) Core making
(d) Melting and Pouring
(e) Cleaning and Inspection

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a) Pattern making
• A pattern is a replica of the object to be cast.
• It is used to prepare a cavity into which the molten
metal is poured.
• A skilled pattern maker prepares the pattern using
wood, metal, plastic or other materials with the help
of machines and special tools.
• Many factors viz., durability, allowance for shrinkage
and machining etc., are considered while making a
pattern.

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b) Mould preparation
• Mould preparation involves forming a cavity by packing
sand around a pattern enclosed in a supporting metallic
frame called 'flask' (mould box).
• When the pattern is removed from the mould, an exact
shaped cavity remains into which the molten metal is
poured.
• Gating and risering are provided at suitable locations in
the mould.
– Gating - Passage through which molten metal flows and enter the mould
cavity.
– Risering - A reservoir of molten metal connected to the mould cavity to
supply additional metal so as to compensate for losses due to shrinkage, as
the metal solidifies.
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c) Core making
• In some cases, a hole or cavity is required in the
casting.
• This is obtained by placing a core in the mould
cavity.
• The shape of the core corresponds to the shape
of the hole required.

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d) Melting and Pouring
• Metals or alloys of the required composition are
melted in a furnace and poured into the mould
cavity.
• Many factors viz., temperature of molten metal,
pouring time, turbulence etc., should be considered
while melting and pouring.

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e) Cleaning and Inspection
• After the molten metal has solidified and cooled, the
rough casting is removed from the mould, cleaned
and dressed.
• This involves removing cores, adhered sand particles,
gating and risering systems, fins, blisters etc., from
the casting surface.
• then sent for inspection to check for dimensions or
any defects like blow holes, cracks etc.

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Procedure for making the casting

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Components Produced by
Casting Process
• Casting is the first step and the primary process for
shaping any material.
• All materials have to be cast before it is put to use.
• The ingots produced by casting process are used as
raw material for secondary processes like machining,
forging, rolling etc.
• More than 90 % of all manufactured goods and capital
equipment use castings for their manufacture.
• To list the components produced by casting is an
endless process. A few major components produced by
casting are given below.
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Components Produced by Casting Process
• Automotive sector - Nearly 90 % of the parts in automobiles are-
manufactured by castings. A few parts include brake drum,
cylinder, cylinder linings, pistons, engine blocks, universal joints,
rocker arm, brackets etc.,
• Aircraft - Turbine blades, casing etc.
• Marine propeller blades.
• Machining - Cutting tools, machine beds, wheels and pulleys,
blocks and table for supports etc.
• Agriculture and rail road equipments.
• Pumps and compressors frame, bushings, rings, pinion etc.
• Valves, pipes and fittings for construction work.
• Camera frames, parts in washing machine, refrigerators and air-
conditioners.
• Steel utensils and a wide variety of products.
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Advantages of casting process
• Large hollow and intricate shapes can be easily cast.
• Quick process, and hence suitable for mass production.
• No limit to size and shape. Parts ranging from few millimeters to
meters and few grams to tons can be cast efficiently and
economically.
• Better dimensional tolerances and surface finish can be obtained
by good casting practice.
• Castings exhibit uniform properties in all the directions -
longitudinal, lateral and diagonal.
• The casting process is usually the cheapest process.
• Unrelieved internal stresses are absent in cast components.
• Certain metals and alloys can be manufactured by means of
casting only, e.g., Phosphor-Bronze.
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Limitations of casting process
• Presence of defects in cast parts is a major disadvantage.
• Casting process is not economical for small number of parts.
• Properties of cast materials are generally inferior when
compared to those made by machining or forging process.
• Casting process mostly deals with elevated temperatures.
• There are limitations regarding thin sections.
• Casting process is not suitable for very small number of
components.

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INTRODUCTION TO PATTERN MAKING
• A pattern is a mold forming tool in the hands of foundry men.
• A pattern is a model or the replica of the object to be cast.
• Except for the various allowances a pattern exactly
resembles the casting to be made.
• A pattern is required even if one object has to be cast.
• A pattern may be defined as a model or form around which
sand is packed to give rise to a cavity known as mold cavity
in which when, molten metal is poured, the result is the CAST
OBJECT.

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Difference between pattern and casting
• The main difference between a pattern and the casting is their dimensions.
• A pattern is slightly larger in size as compared to the casting, because a
pattern,
– carries Shrinkage allowance, it may be of the order of 1 to 2 mm/ 100
mm.
– is given a Machining allowance to clean and finish the required surfaces.
– carries a Draft allowance of the order of 1 and 3 degrees for external
and internal surfaces respectively
– carries core prints.
• A pattern may not have all holes and slots which a casting will have. Such
holes and slots unnecessarily complicate a pattern and therefore can be
drilled in the casting after it has been made.
• A pattern may be in two or three pieces whereas a casting is in one piece.
• A pattern and the casting also differ as regards the material out of which
they are made.
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Functions of a patterns
• A pattern prepares a mold cavity for the purpose of making a casting.
• A pattern may contain projections known as core prints if the casting
requires a core and need to be made hollow.
• Runner, gates and risers (used for introducing and feeding molten
metal to the mold cavity) may form a part of the pattern.
• A pattern may help in establishing locating points on the mold and
therefore on the casting with a purpose to check the casting
dimensions.
• Patterns establish the parting line and parting surfaces in the mold.
• A pattern may help position a core (in case a part of mold cavity is
made with cores), before the molding sand is rammed.
• Patterns that are properly made and having finished and smooth
surfaces, reduce casting defects.
• Properly constructed patterns minimize overall cost of the castings.
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Pattern materials
Selection of pattern materials
• The following factors assist in selecting proper pattern material:
 The number of castings to be produced. Metal patterns are
preferred when the production quantity is large.
 The desired dimensional accuracy and surface finish required
for the castings.
 Nature of molding process i.e., sand casting, permanent mold
casting, shell molding, investment casting etc.
 Method of molding i.e., hand or machine molding.
 Shape, complexity and size of the casting.
 Type of molding materials i.e., sand etc.
 The high probability of changing the casting and hence the
pattern in near future.
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Materials for making patterns
• Patterns may be constructed out of the following
materials.
(a) Wood (b) Metal
(d) Plastic (d) Plaster (POP)
(e) Wax

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WOOD
• The most common materials for making patterns for sand casting is the wood.
Advantages
– Inexpensive.
– Easily available in large quantities.
– Easy to machine and to shape to different configurations and forms
– Easy to join to acquire complex and large pattern shapes
– Light in weight
– Easy to obtain good surface finish
– Wooden patterns can be preserved for quite long times with the help of
suitable wood preservatives.
Limitations
– Wooden patterns are susceptible to shrinkage and swelling.
– They possess poor wear resistance.
– They are abraded easily by sand action.
– They absorb moisture, consequently get deformed and change shape and size.
– They cannot withstand rough handling.
– They are weak as compared
Hareesha Nto metal
G Dept Aero patterns.
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Metal
• Metal patterns are employed where large number of
castings have to be produced from the same patterns.
• Metal patterns are cast from wooden patterns.
• The different metals and alloys used for making
patterns are,
– Aluminium and Aluminium alloys
– Steel
– Cast Iron
– Brass
– White Metal

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Advantages of Metal Patterns
– Unlike wooden patterns, they do not absorb moisture. They retain their
shape.
– They are more stronger and accurate as compared to wooden patterns.
– They possess life much longer than wooden patterns.
– They can withstand rough handling.
– They do not distort
– They possess greater resistance to abrasion. They have accurate
dimensional tolerances. They are far stable under different environments.
– It is easy to obtain smooth surface finish.
– They possess excellent wear resistance and strength to weight ratio.
Limitations of Metal Patterns
– Expensive as compared to wood patterns.
– Are not easily repaired e.g. (Aluminium patterns).
– Ferrous patterns get rusted.
– They (ferrous patterns) are heavier than wooden patterns,
– They cannot be machined so easily as wooden ones.
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Plastic
• Advantages
– Durable
– Provides a smooth surface.
– Moisture resistant.
– A plastic pattern does not involve any appreciable change in its size or
shape.
– Lightweight.
– Wear and corrosion resistant.
– Provides good surface finish.
– It possesses low solid shrinkage.

• Limitations
– Plastic patterns are fragile and thus light sections may need metal
reinforcements.
– Plastic patterns may not work well when subject to conditions of severe
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PLASTER
• Advantages
– can be easily worked by using wood working tools.
– Intricate shapes can be cast without any difficulty.
– It has high compressive strength (up to 285 kg/cm2)
• Disadvantages
– Can be used for small castings only
• Plaster Patterns Material: Plaster patterns may be
made out of Plaster of Paris or Gypsum cement.
• Applications: Plaster is used for making (i) Small
and intricate patterns, and (ii) Core boxes.
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WAX
• Advantages
Wax patterns provide very good surface finish
They impart high accuracy to the castings.
After being molded, the wax pattern is not taken out of
the mold like other patterns; rather the mold is
inverted and heated; the molten wax comes out and/or
is evaporated. Thus there is no chance of the mold
cavity getting damaged while removing the pattern.
• Applications
• Wax patterns find applications in Investment
casting process.

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PATTERN ALLOWANCES
• A pattern is always larger in size as compared to
the final casting, because it carries certain
allowances.
• The various pattern allowances are below
(a) Shrinkage or contraction allowance.
(b) Machining or Finish allowance.
(c) Draft or Taper allowance.
(d) Distortion or camber allowance.
(e) Shake or rapping allowance.

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Shrinkage Allowance
• Almost all cast metals shrink or contract volumetrically after solidification and
therefore to obtain a particular sized casting, the pattern is made oversize by
an amount equal to that of shrinkage or contraction.
• Different metals shrink at different rates because shrinkage is the property of
the cast metal or alloy.
• The metal shrinkage depends upon
• The cast metal or alloy.
• Pouring temperature of the metal or alloy.
• Casting dimensions (size).
• Casting design aspects.
• Molding conditions (i.e., mold materials and molding methods
employed).
• Cast iron poured at higher temperatures will shrink more than that poured at
lower temperature.
• Wood patterns used to make metallic patterns are given double allowance; one
for the shrinkage of the metal of the pattern and the other for that of metal
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to
be cast.