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Design of Hybrid

Concrete Buildings
A guide to the design of buildings combining in-situ
and precast concrete
A cement and concrete industry publication
R. Whittle MA (Cantab) CEng MICEgtgtrgrvrfgvgrgg
H. Taylor FREng, BSc, PhD, CEng, FICE, FIStructE
Published by The Concrete Centre
the design of buildings combining in-situ
and precast concrete
A cement and concrete industry publication
R. Whittle MA (Cantab) CEng MICE
H. Taylor FREng, BSc, PhD, CEng, FICE, FIStructE
Published by The Concrete Centresss
the design of buildings combining in-situ
and precast concrete
A cement and concrete industry publication
R. Whittle MA (Cantab) CEng MICE
H. Taylor FREng, BSc, PhD, CEng, FICE, FIStructE
Published by The Concrete Centre
Riverside House, 4 Meadows Business Park, Station Approach, Blackwater, Camberley, Surrey GU17 9AB
Tel: +44 (0)1276 606800 Fax: +44 (0)1276 606801gfgg
www.concretecentre.com
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asdasdada at www.concretebookshop.com
Tel: +44 (0)7004 607777
All advice or information from The Concrete Centre is only intended for use in the UK by those who will evaluate the signifi
cance
and limitations of its contents and take responsibility for its use and application. No liability(including that for negligence)
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loss resulting from such advice or information is accepted by The Concrete Centre or their subcontractors, suppliers or
advisors.
Readers should note that the publications from The Concrete Centre are subject to revision from time to time and should
therefore ensure that they are in possession of the latest version.
Cover photo: Courtesy of Outinord International Ltd.
Printed by Information Press Ltd, Eynsham, UK

Acknowledgements
The authors would particularly like to thank the following people for their support in the development of this
design guide:
Tony Jones Arup
Ian Feltham Arup
The contributions and comments from the Concrete Society Design Group and also from the following
people are gratefully acknowledged:
are in possession of the latest version.
Cover photo: Courtesy of Outinord International Ltd.
Printed by Information Press Ltd, Eynsham, UK

Acknowledgements
The authors would particularly like to thank the following people for their support in the development of this
design guide:
Tony Jones Arup
Ian Feltham Arup
The contributions and comments from the Concrete Society Design Group and also from the following
people are gratefully acknowledged:
are in possession of the latest version.
Cover photo: Courtesy of Outinord International Ltd.
Printed by Information Press Ltd, Eynsham, UK

Acknowledgements
The authors would particularly like to thank the following people for their support in the development of this
design guide:
Tony Jones Arup
Ian Feltham Arup
The contributions and comments from the Concrete Society Design Group and also from the following
people are gratefully acknowledged:
are in possession of the latest version.
Cover photo: Courtesy of Outinord International Ltd.
Printed by Information Press Ltd, Eynsham, UK

Acknowledgements
The authors would particularly like to thank the following people for their support in the development of this
design guide:
Tony Jones Arup
Ian Feltham Arup
The contributions and comments from the Concrete Society Design Group and also from the following
people are gratefully acknowledged:
are in possession of the latest version.
Cover photo: Courtesy of Outinord International Ltd.
Printed by Information Press Ltd, Eynsham, UK

Acknowledgements
The authors would particularly like to thank the following people for their support in the development of this
design guide:
Tony Jones Arup
Ian Feltham Arup
The contributions and comments from the Concrete Society Design Group and also from the following
people are gratefully acknowledged:
are in possession of the latest version.
Cover photo: Courtesy of Outinord International Ltd.
Printed by Information Press Ltd, Eynsham, UK

Acknowledgements
The authors would particularly like to thank the following people for their support in the development of this
design guide:
Tony Jones Arup
Ian Feltham Arup
The contributions and comments from the Concrete Society Design Group and also from the following
people are gratefully acknowledged:
are in possession of the latest version.
Cover photo: Courtesy of Outinord International Ltd.
Printed by Information Press Ltd, Eynsham, UK

fafafafa
The contributions and comments from the Concrete Society Design Group and also from the following
people are gratefully acknowledged:
John Stehle Laing O’Rourke
Graham Hardwick John Doyle Construction Ltd
Peter Kelly Bison Concrete Products Ltd
Alex Davie Consultant
David Appleton Hanson Concrete Products
Kevin Laney Strongforce Engin are in possession of the latest version.
Cover photo: Courtesy of Outinord International Ltd.
Printed by Information Press Ltd, Eynsham, UK

Acknowledgements
The authors would particularly like to thank the following people for their support in the development of this
design guide:
Tony Jones Arup
Ian Feltham Arup
The contributions and comments from the Concrete Society Design Group and also from the following
people are gratefully acknowledged:
are in possession of the latest version.
Cover photo: Courtesy of Outinord International Ltd.
Printed by Information Press Ltd, Eynsham, UK

Acknowledgements
The authors would particularly like to thank the following people for their support in the development of this
design guide:
Tony Jones Arup
Ian Feltham Arup
The contributions and comments from the Concrete Society Design Group and also from the following
people are gratefully acknowledged:
are in possession of the latest version.
Cover photo: Courtesy of Outinord International Ltd.
Printed by fnfgnfnf
The authors would particularly like to thank the following people for their support in the development of this
design guide:
Tony Jones Arup
Ian Feltham Aru[[‘of the latest version.
Cover photo: Courtesy of Outinord International Ltd.
Printed by Information Press Ltd, Eynsham, UK

Acknowledgements
Ian Feltham Aru[[‘of the latest version.
Cover photo: Courtesy of Outinord International Ltd.
Printed by Information Press Ltd, Eynsham, UK

Acknowledgements
Ian Feltham Aru[[‘of the latest version.
Cover photo: Courtesy of Outinord International Ltd.
Printed by Information Press Ltd, Eynsham, UK

Acknowledgements
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Ian Feltham Aru[[‘of the latest version.


Cover photo: Courtesy of Outinord International Ltd.
Printed by Information Press Ltd, Eynsham, UK

Acknowledgements
Ian Feltham Aru[[‘of the latest version.
Cover photo: Courtesy of Outinord International Ltd.
Printed by Information Press Ltd, Eynsham, UK

Acknowledgements
The authors would particularly like to thank the following people for their support in the development of this
design guide:
Tony Jones Arup
Ian Feltham Arupxczczc Society Design Group and also from the following
people are gratefully acknowledged:
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Hybrid Concrete
Norman Brown hjjghjghjg

Buildings
Contents
1. Introduction 5
1.1 Single point of responsibility 5
1.2 Design considerations 6
1.3 Best practice procurement guidance 6
2. Overview of hybrid solutions 7
2.1 Type 1: Precast twin wall and lattice girder slab with in-situ concrete
7
2.2 Type 2: Precast column with in-situ fl oor slab 9
2.3 Type 3: Precast column and fl oor units with cast in-situ beams 10
2.4 Type 4: In-situ columns or walls and beams with precast fl oor units 12
2.5 Type 5: In-situ column and structural topping with precast beams and
fl oor units 13
2.6 Type 6: In-situ columns with lattice girder slabs with optional
spherical
void formers 14
3. Overall structural design 15
3.1 Robustness 15
3.2 Stability 18
3.3 Diaphragm action 18
3.4 Shear at interface of concrete cast at different times 19
3.5 Interface shear 22
3.6 Shear and torsion design 25
3.7 Long-line prestressing system 26
3.8 Secondary effects of prestressing and the equivalent load method 29
3.9 Temperature effects 29
3.10 Differential shrinkage 29
3.11 Designing for construction 33
4. Bearings and movement joints 34
4.1 Horizontal forces at bearings 34
4.2 Restrained bearings 35
4.3 Movement joints 36
4.4 Actions and restraints 36
4.5 Design considerations 37
4.6 Allowance for anchorage of reinforcement at supports 37
4.7 Bearings that allow limited movement 38
4.8 Connections between precast fl oors and in-situ concrete beams 42
5. Structural elements and connections 43
5.1 Twin wall construction (type 1) 43
5.2 Precast columns, edge beams and in-situ slabs (type 2) 52
5.3 Biaxial voided slabs 55
5.4 Prestressed hollowcore units 58
5.5 Double tee beams 68
5.6 Stairs 74
5.7 Corbels, nibs and half joints 82
6. Construction issues 87
6.1 Method of construction 87
6.2 Composite action between precast units and in-situ structural topping
89
6.3 Specially shaped standard units 89
6.4 Long and short units adjacent to each other 89
6.5 Differences of camber in double tees 91
6.6 Method of de-tensioning double tee units 91
6.7 Checking strand or wire pull-in for hollowcore units 91
6.8 Placing hollowcore units into the correct position 91
6.9 Production tolerances 92
7. Special structures - case studies 93
7.1 Lloyd’s of London 93
7.2 Bracken House 100
References 104
List of worked examples
Worked example 1 Hollowcore fl oor acting as a diaphragm 20
Worked example 2 Interface shear between hollowcore slab and edge beam 23
Worked example 3 Upwards camber on slab due to temperature gradient 30
Worked example 4 Differential shrinkage 31
Worked example 5 Bearing of a hollowcore unit 41
Worked example 6 Vertical tie 56
Worked example 7 Anchorage length of longitudinal tie bar 65
Worked example 8 Dowel bar for connection of precast stairs 80
Worked example 9 Corbel design 84

1. Introduction
Hybrid construction allows the most appropriate use of different materials and methods
of construction to produce a pleasing and effective form of structure. The search for
greater economy, in terms of material costs and reduced construction time, has resulted
in innovative approaches that seek to combine construction materials and methods to
optimum effect. Hybrid concrete construction (HCC) is one such development that
combines in-situ and precast concrete to maximise the benefi ts of both forms of concrete
construction. Further guidance on the benefi ts of HCC is given in Section 2.1.
This design guide is aimed at the designer and considers a range of hybrid concepts and
the overall structural aspects. It provides design and detailing information for some of
the
common systems used and structural elements involved. Where applicable the information
is in accordance with BS EN 1992-1-1 1, together with the UK National Annex (Eurocode 2
is used to refer to BS EN 1992-1-1 throughout this guide unless noted otherwise). This
incorporates a section on the design of members by strut and tie methods, which is
particularly useful when considering ‘hybrid’ design details. This guide also considers
and
refers to the following European Concrete Product Standards for precast concrete elements:
􀂄 BS EN 133692 Common Rules for Precast Concrete Products
􀂄 BS EN 11683 Precast Concrete Products – Hollowcore Slabs
􀂄 BS EN 137474 Precast Concrete Products – Floor Plates for Floor Systems
􀂄 BS EN 132245 Precast Concrete Products – Ribbed Floor Elements
􀂄 BS EN 132256 Precast Concrete Products – Linear Structural Elements
􀂄 BS EN 149927 Precast Concrete Products – Wall Elements
􀂄 BS EN 148438 Precast Concrete Products – Stairs
The use of precast and in-situ concrete may well lead to the design of the individual
elements by designers working for different companies. Therefore, it is essential that
there should be a single named designer or engineer who retains overall responsibility
for the stability of the structure and the compatibility of the design and details of the
parts and components, even where some or all of the design, including details, of those
parts and components are not carried out by this engineer. This is particularly important
for the design of hybrid structures where misunderstandings as to who is responsible have
occurred.
It is the responsibility of the designer, before incorporating any proprietary system as
part
of the structure, to ensure that the assumptions made in the design and construction of
such are compatible with the design of the whole structure. This should include:
􀂄 an adequate specification for that part.
􀂄 ensuring that any standard product designed and detailed by the precast
manufacturer, is suitable for that particular structure.
􀂄 the design of any such part is reviewed by the designer to ensure that it satisfies the
design intent and is compatible with the rest of the structure.
1.1 Single point of
responsibility
Introduction 1
6
The design of each component should include consideration of:
􀂄 its performance in the permanent condition
􀂄 the construction method and loading
􀂄 any temporary supports required during construction.
The design should be carried out following the requirement of Eurocode 2, Cl. 1.3, which
assumes:
􀂄 Structures are designed by appropriately qualified and experienced personnel.
􀂄 Adequate supervision and quality control is provided in factories, in plants and on
site.
􀂄 Construction is carried out by personnel having the appropriate skill and experience.
􀂄 The construction materials and products are used as specified in Eurocode 2 or in the
relevant material or product specifications.
􀂄 The structure will be adequately maintained.
􀂄 The structure will be used in accordance with the design brief.
􀂄 The requirements for execution and workmanship given in EN 136709 are complied with.
The design assumptions should generally include the following construction related
information:
􀂄 sequence of construction
􀂄 exposure requirements
􀂄 pour sizes assumed (if appropriate)
􀂄 concrete strength at time of striking formwork and back-propping requirements
􀂄 breakdown of loading including allowance for construction loads
􀂄 loading history assumed.
It should be noted that some of the advice given in this design guide is a result of
failures
that have occurred on completed structures.
Best Practice Guidance for Hybrid Concrete Construction10 looks at the procurement
process from concept stages through to design and construction, suggesting processes
that allow the capture of best practice. It is supported by a number of case studies. The
guidance explains the benefi ts that result from:
􀂄 early involvement of specialist contractors
􀂄 using a lead frame contractor
􀂄 using best value philosophy
􀂄 holding planned workshops
􀂄 measuring performance
􀂄 trust
􀂄 close cooperation – with an emphasis on partnering.
It is recommended that this guidance document is used to maximise the advantages of
using HCC.
1.2 Design considerations
1.3 Best practice
procurement guidance
1 Introduction
7

2. Overview of hybrid solutions


This section considers a range of possible hybrid concrete construction (HCC). The ideal
combination of precast and in-situ is infl uenced by the project requirements. There is a
wide range of possible options, a selection of which is presented here as representative
of
current UK practice. This is not intended to be exhaustive, but to refl ect the spectrum
of
possibilities. The planning and detailed design of hybrid structural systems will almost
always require the involvement of specialist precast concrete manufacturers. These
manufacturers are willing and able to assist early in the design process to produce an
effi cient design.
There are advantages to using both precast and in-situ concrete summarised in Table 2.1;
more
detailed discussion on the benefi ts of concrete can be found in other publications 11, 12, 13.
The key to maximising the benefi ts of HCC is to use the most appropriate technique for
each element to produce an economic structure.
Precast concrete Precast or in-situ concrete In-situ concrete
Economic for repetitive elements Inherent fi re resistance Economic for bespoke areas
Long clear spans Durability Continuity
Speed of erection Sustainability Inherent robustness
Buildability Acoustic performance Flexibility
High-quality fi nishes Thermal mass that can be utilised for
fabric energy storage
Services coordination later in
programme
Consistent colour Prestressing Locally sourced materials
Accuracy Mouldability Short lead-in times
Reduced propping on site Low vibration characteristics
Reduced skilled labour on site
Six of the most regularly used HCC options are shown in Figure 2.1 and are described in
more detail in the remainder of this chapter. They will be referred to by type number
throughout this guide where the detailed design of the various elements is discussed.
Suggested span limits are given for each type of construction. Further guidance for
initial
sizing can be found in Economic Concrete Frame Elements14.
Hybrid concrete wall panels are increasingly being proposed on projects throughout the UK
and are often known as ‘twin wall’. They comprise two skins of precast concrete
connected
by steel lattices, which are fi lled with concrete on site, see Figure 2.2. The external
skins of
the twin wall system are factory made, typically using steel moulds. This results in a
higher
quality fi nish than a typical in-situ wall. The panel surface quality is suitable to
receive a
plaster fi nish or wallpaper. The panel surface is not normally ‘architectural’ concrete
and
the colour may not be consistent or easy to specify. Joints are cast using in-situ
concrete
and either have to be expressed as a feature or concealed. This option offers potential
advantages to the contractor in terms of speed of construction, as well as reducing the
number of skilled site staff required to construct the walls.
Table 2.1
Benefi ts of concrete.
2.1 Type 1: Precast twin wall
and lattice girder slab with
in-situ concrete
Overview of hybrid solutions 2
8
Figure 2.1
Typical hybrid concrete options.
Please note this diagram is repeated on the inside
back cover for ease of reference.
Type 1
Precast twin wall and lattice girder slab with
in-situ concrete
Type 2
Precast column and edge beam with in-situ
fl oor slab
Type 3
Precast column and fl oor units with cast in-situ
beams
Type 4
In-situ columns or walls and beams with precast
fl oor units
Type 5
In-situ column and structural topping with precast
beams and fl oor units
Type 6
In-situ columns with lattice girder slabs with
optional spherical void formers
Figure 2.2
Type 1 construction,
twin wall erection.
Photo: John Doyle Construction Ltd

2 Overview of hybrid solutions


9
Often the twin wall system is combined with the use of lattice girder precast soffi t
slabs,
with or without spherical void formers. These provide permanent shuttering for an in-situ
slab that can be relatively easily fi tted to the wall system. Spans up to 8 m are common
and spans up to 14 m are possible. (The manufacturer should be consulted early on to
ensure the longer spans are viable.)
Potential structural uses of the twin wall system include:
􀂄 cellular type structures for residential use
􀂄 walls carrying vertical loads only
􀂄 shear and core walls; this has significant implications for the design, as discussed in
Section 5.1
􀂄 retaining walls; this has significant implications for the design, as discussed in
Section 5.1
􀂄 ‘single sided’ formwork situations, where there is no access to one side of the wall
to erect
formwork, for example wall construction on a party wall line against neighbouring
buildings.
The major advantage is that it is an ‘in-situ structure’, fully continuous and tied
together,
but without the need for shuttering on site. Twin wall can also be cast with fully trimmed
openings and with ducts for cables and other services.
Advantages:
􀂄 Quality finish for walls and soffits.
􀂄 No formwork for vertical structure and horizontal structure when lattice girder slabs
are
used.
􀂄 Structural connection between wall and slabs is by standard reinforced concrete detail
and inherently robust.
􀂄 Reduced propping.
Disadvantages:
􀂄 Propping of precast required prior to sufficient strength gain of in-situ concrete.
􀂄 The smaller dimension of the precast units is typically a maximum of 3.6 m, so joints
in walls and soffits must be dealt with: expressed or concealed.
􀂄 Reduced flexibility of layout as this option requires walls rather than columns.
The combination of an in-situ slab, e.g. post-tensioned fl at slab, with precast columns
can provide an economic and fast construction system. Precast concrete edge beams
may also be used to avoid edge shutters on site and to allow perimeter reinforcement,
cladding fi xings or prestressing anchorages to be cast in. This reduces the time required
for reinforcement fi xing and erecting the formwork.
The maximum span for this form of construction depends largely on whether the in-situ
slab is post-tensioned. For fl at slabs with spans greater than 10 m punching shear is
likely
to be a critical design issue.

Overview of hybrid solutions 2


2.2 Type 2: Precast column
with in-situ fl oor slab
10

2 Overview of hybrid solutions


Where long-span thin slabs are used vibration limits should be checked, see A Design Guide
for Footfall Induced Vibration of Structures15.
This form of construction relies on the structure being braced. This is achieved by the
lift
core(s) or separate shear walls.
Advantages:
􀂄 Columns can be erected quickly.
􀂄 Quality finish for columns.
􀂄 Precast edge beam contains post-tensioning anchorages (if required), slab edge
reinforcement and cladding fixings, and avoids need for slab edge shuttering.
􀂄 Can be used with a variety of in-situ slabs, selected to suit individual project
requirements.
􀂄 More flexible for late changes.
Disadvantages:
􀂄 In-situ slab requires falsework, formwork and curing time.
This form of construction allows a high proportion of the structure to be manufactured in
quality controlled factory conditions off site leading to fast construction on site.
A variety of precast fl oor products could be used with this type of construction,
including
hollowcore units, double tees or lattice girder slabs (with or without spherical void
formers)
or bespoke cofferred fl oor units, see Figures 2.3a and 2.3b. The latter have successfully
been used in high quality buildings designed for energy effi ciency, where the light fi
ttings,
architectural features and cooling systems have all been incorporated into the unit.
Advantages:
􀂄 Vertical structure can be erected quickly; no formwork required.
􀂄 Precast floor structure can be erected quickly; no formwork required.
􀂄 Quality finish for columns and soffits (although this is not always possible with
hollowcore units).
􀂄 Structural connection between precast elements is via standard reinforced or
posttensioned
concrete.
Disadvantages:
􀂄 Precast flooring must be temporarily propped.
􀂄 Sealing between precast units is required.
2.3 Type 3: Precast column
and fl oor units with cast
in-situ beams
11
Figure 2.3a
Example of type 3 projects.
Paternoster Square and offi ce building.
Photo: John Doyle Construction Ltd

Overview of hybrid solutions 2


Figure 2.3b
Example of type 3 projects.
Homer Road, Solihull.
Photo: Foggo Associates
12

2 Overview of hybrid solutions


Figure 2.4
Example of type 4 project, car park, West
Quay, Southampton
Photo: Hanson Concrete Products

This is a similar form to type 3 discussed above, the key difference being that the
columns
are cast in-situ rather than being precast, see Figure 2.4.
The advantage of this form of construction over a fully in-situ concrete structure is the
ability to use long spans (up to 16 m) precast fl oor units, e.g. hollowcore slabs, double
tees.
These obviate the need for slab formwork and provide a relatively lightweight fl oor. This
construction system does not require the involvement of a specialist subcontractor beyond
the manufacture and supply of the standard precast units.
2.4 Type 4: In-situ columns
or walls and beams with
precast fl oor units
Advantages:
􀂄 Precast floor structure can be erected quickly.
􀂄 Quality finish for soffits (although this is not always possible with hollowcore units).
􀂄 Short lead time for standard precast products.
Disadvantages:
􀂄 Precast flooring must be temporarily propped.
􀂄 Sealing between precast units is required.
13

Overview of hybrid solutions 2


In this form of construction the fl oor consists entirely of precast elements, which are
tied
together with an in-situ structural topping, see Figure 2.5. (A structural topping is now
defi ned as wearing screed in BS 8204 16.) The column formwork can be designed as a
temporary support for the precast beams and slabs to reduce the requirement for propping
of the precast fl oor. The joint between the beam and columns and any structural screed is
concreted with the columns to form a monolithic, robust structure.
This system requires particular attention to the connection details between the precast
beam and fl oor units. It should be ensured that adequate structural ties are provided to
achieve a robust structure.
Advantages:
􀂄 Precast floor structure can be erected quickly.
􀂄 Precast beams support precast floor units, minimising floor propping.
􀂄 Precast quality finish for soffits.
􀂄 Formwork for in-situ columns can be used to prop precast beams.
􀂄 Structural connection between precast elements is via standard reinforced concrete.
􀂄 In-situ structural topping to beam permits beams to be continuous over columns.
Disadvantages:
􀂄 Downstand beams need to be coordinated with the services distribution.
2.5 Type 5: In-situ column
and structural topping with
precast beams and fl oor
units
Figure 2.5
Example type 5 project, Home Offi ce
Headquarters, London.
Photo: Pell Frischmann Consulting Engineers Ltd and Bouygues (UK) Ltd
14

2 Overview of hybrid solutions


The main feature of this system is the use of the lattice girder panels to act as
permanent
formwork for a fl at slab. A variation is to include spherical void formers, which reduce
the
self-weight of the slab, for only a small reduction in fl exural strength and stiffness.
Lattice
girders and void former cages are cast into (usually class C40/50) concrete panels
containing reinforcement in two directions, providing a precast panel that acts as the
permanent formwork, see Figure 2.6. The slab may be designed as a fl at slab. If the
spherical void formers are used, they are removed in areas of high shear where a solid
section provides greater shear resistance.
The slab may be designed as a fl at slab, although propping of the panels will be
required,
to reduce the overall fl oor zone of the building and to simplify installation of
services. The
quality of the factory produced soffi ts provides the opportunity to take advantage of the
thermal mass properties of the concrete slab by exposing them.
Advantages:
􀂄 Precast floor structure can be erected quickly; no formwork required.
􀂄 Structural connection between precast elements is via standard reinforced concrete.
􀂄 Quality finish for soffits.
􀂄 More flexible for late changes.
Disadvantages:
􀂄 Precast flooring must be temporarily propped.
2.6 Type 6: In-situ columns
with lattice girder slabs
with optional spherical void
formers
Figure 2.6
Type 6: Lattice girder soffi t panels used as
permanent formwork.
Photo: John Doyle Construction Ltd
15

Overall structural design 3


3. Overall structural design
This section gives specifi c guidance on the aspects of structural design that will apply
to
most forms of hybrid concrete construction (HCC). HCC requires special design care
because the connections of elements within the structure are unlikely to use standard
in-situ reinforcement details; more detailed guidance is given in Sections 4 and 5 on
bearings,
movement joints, various elements and their connections. The designer must be confi dent
that the details will work satisfactory for all situations that the structure is likely to
experience.
The introduction to this design guide emphasizes the importance of a single named
engineer responsible for the design of a hybrid concrete structure. This is particularly
important in the design of the connection details.
The design and detailing advice provided in this guide assumes that the structure falls
into Approved Document A17, class 2B (risk group 2B in Scotland) or above. It is
essential to
create a robust structure and this may require special details to be developed to allow
the
precast elements to be properly integrated.
The UK Building Regulations18 through Approved Document A refers to BS EN 1991-7,
Actions on Structures – Accidental Actions19 and Eurocode 2. The full requirements are
given in Eurocode 2, Cl. 9.10, its UK National Annex 20 and PD 6687, Background Paper to
the UK National Annexes to BS EN 1992-121. The design of ties should take account of the
minimum reinforcement requirements (related to the tensile strength of concrete) and
the anchorage capacity of the bars.
Continuity of ties
A tie may be considered effectively continuous if the rules for anchoring and lapping bars
given in Eurocode 2, Cl. 8.4 and 8.7 are followed and the minimum dimension of any in-situ
concrete section in which tie bars are provided is not less than the sum of the bar size
(or
twice the bar size at laps), twice the maximum aggregate size and 10 mm.
The tie should also satisfy one of the following conditions:
􀂄 A bar or tendon in a precast member lapped with a bar in connecting in-situ concrete,
bounded on two opposite sides, by rough faces of the same precast member, see
Figure 3.1.
􀂄 A bar or tendon in a precast concrete member lapped with a bar in in-situ structural
topping or connecting concrete anchored to the precast member by enclosing links.
The combined ultimate tensile resistance of the links should be not less than the
ultimate tension in the tie, see Figure 3.2.
􀂄 Bars projecting from the ends of precast members joined by any method conforming
with Eurocode 2, Cl. 8.7.
􀂄 Bars lapped within in-situ structural topping or connecting concrete to form a
continuous
reinforcement with projecting links from the support of the precast floor or roof
members to anchor such support to the topping or connecting concrete, see Figure 3.3.
3.1 Robustness
16

3 Overall structural design


Figure 3.1
Continuity of ties: Bars in precast member
lapped with bar in in-situ concrete.
Figure 3.3
Continuity of ties: Bars lapped within in-situ
concrete.
Tie
Tie Tie
Figure 3.2
Continuity of ties: Anchorage by enclosing
links.
Tie

Peripheral ties
The peripheral tie should be capable of resisting a design tensile force:
Ftie,per = (20 + 4n0) ≤ 60 kN
where
n0 = number of storeys
Internal ties
The internal tie should be capable of resisting a design tensile force:
Ftie,int = [(qk + gk)/7.5](lr /5)(Ft) ≥ Ft kN/m
where
(qk + gk) = sum of the average permanent and variable floor loads (in kN/m 2)
lr = greater of the distances (in metres) between the centres of the columns,
frames or walls supporting any two adjacent floor spans in the direction of
the tie under consideration, and
Ft = (20 + 4n0) ≤ 60 kN
Maximum spacing of internal ties = 1.5 lr
17

Overall structural design 3


Horizontal ties to columns and/or walls
Edge columns and walls should be tied horizontally to the structure at each fl oor and
roof
level. The tie should be capable of resisting a design tensile force:
Ftie, fac = Ftie, col = Maximum (Minimum (2Ft; lsFt/2.5); 0.03 NEd)
where
Ftie,fac = in kN/m run of wall
Ftie,col = in kN/column
Ft = as defined in above
ls = floor to ceiling height (in metres)
NEd = total design ultimate vertical load in wall or column at the level considered
Tying of external walls is only required if the peripheral tie is not located in the wall.
Vertical ties
For class 2B and 3 buildings Approved Document A (and similarly the Technical Handbooks
for Scotland for risk group 2B and 3 buildings) has the following requirements:
a) Each column and each wall carrying vertical load should be tied continuously from the
lowest to the highest level. The tie should be capable of carrying a tensile force equal
to
the design load carried by the column or wall from any one storey under accidental design
situation (that is loading calculated using BS EN 1990, Eurocode: Basis of Structural
Design22, Expression (6.11b)).
b) Where ties described in a) are not provided a check should be carried out to show that
upon notional removal of each supporting column and wall, and each beam supporting
columns or walls (one at a time in each storey of the building) that the building remains
stable and that the area of floor at any storey at risk of collapse does not exceed 15 per
cent of the floor area of that storey or 70 m 2, whichever is the smaller, and does not
extend further than the immediate adjacent storeys.
c) Where the notional removal of such elements would result in damage or is in excess of
the
limit above then these elements should be designed as ‘key elements’. A key element
should be capable of withstanding a design load of 34 kN/m 2 at ultimate limit state
applied from any direction to the projected area of the member together with the reaction
from the attached components, which should also be assumed to be subject to 34 kN/m 2.
The latter may be reduced to the maximum reaction that can be transmitted by the
attached component and its connections.
Anchorage of precast fl oor and roof units and stair members
PD 6687, Background Paper to the UK National Annexes to BS EN 1992-1-1 and BS EN
1992-1-221, Cl. 2.20.2 Anchorage of precast fl oor and roof units and stair members states
that:
a) In buildings that fall into class 2B and 3 as defined in Section 5 of Approved Document
A
all precast floor, roof and stair members should be effectively anchored whether or
not such members are used to provide other ties required in Eurocode 2, Cl. 9.10.2.
(Similar requirements apply in Scotland.)
b) The anchorage described in a) should be capable of carrying the dead weight of the
member to that part of the structure that contains the ties.
18

3 Overall structural design


HCC frames may be designed as either braced or unbraced. The design of unbraced frames
requires extra care to ensure that the joint details can resist the applied moments
without
excessive rotation.
Where fl oor diaphragm action is used in the design, type 3 and 4 structures have the
precast elements carrying horizontal shears for diaphragm action to take place. Types 2
and
6 structures have the in-situ fl oor acting as a diaphragm, and type 1 and 5 structures
can
have the diaphragm action shared by the precast units and the in-situ structural topping.
Multi Storey Precast Concrete Framed Structures23 describes the design approaches for
fl oor diaphragm action formed from different types of precast units supported by tests.

One sasc 3
BS EN 1168, Precast Concrete Products – Hollowcore Slabs3 has an informative annex that
gives some advice on the design of horizontal diaphragms to carry lateral loads, usually
wind
loading. This, in turn, refers to Eurocode 2, Cl. 10.9.3 where the maximum longitudinal
shear stress for grouted connections vRdi is limited to 0.15 MPa for smooth and rough
surfaces, as found at the edges of hollowcore, and 0.1 MPa for very smooth surfaces as
found in the ex-mould fi nish of bounding edge beams, see Figure 3.2.
A considerable amount of test work has also been carried out on hollowcore diaphragms
and is discussed by Elliott23.
Eurocode 2, Cl. 6.2.5 also covers the design approach for shear at the interface between
concrete cast at different times. A design example (worked example 1) is included here to
illustrate the process, as it is required in many areas of hybrid design where precast and
in-situ concretes are combined to produce composite sections. The example using
hollowcore without structural topping is a useful one as it is more critical than
diaphragms
with any topping.
A further consideration is the shear connection between the hollowcore units and also
between the end unit and the bounding beam. In this case, the connection to the main
support beams and the longitudinal steel in the support beams is usually suffi cient to
ensure that the hollowcore units cannot move apart and so the structural model used in
worked example 1 remains valid.
3.4 Shear at interface of
concrete cast at different
times
20

3 Overall structural design


Project details

Worked example 1
Hollowcore floor acting as a diaphragm
Calculated by Job No.
Checked by Sheet No.
Client Date
Check the design of the hollowcore diaphragm, without structural topping, carrying wind load to
walls at each end, as shown below.
Plan: 15 m x 9 m with 250 mm thick hollowcore unit
Section A - A
vs - Very smooth surface
s - Smooth surface
vs
s
vs
vs vs
s
A
A
Edge beam
Hollowcore
unit
KEY
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Overall structural design 3


Project details

Worked example 1
Hollowcore floor acting as a diaphragm
Calculated by Job No.
Checked by Sheet No.
Client Date
Wind load: 2 kN/m2 (A high wind load)
Assume a 3 m high storey, calculate maximum moment, MEd, from the diaphragm edge wind load/m
run.
wd = 1.5 x 3 x 2 = 9 kN/m γQ is taken as 1.5
MEd = 9 x 152/8 = 253 kNm
Calculate shear reaction at the diaphragm edges, VEd.
VEd = 9 x 15/2= 67.5 kN
Assume 2 No. hairpins (U bars), 12 mm diameter, in each 1.2 m wide hollowcore unit.
Check shear at interface: vEdi < vRdi
gives:
vEdi = β VEd/(z bi)
where
β =1
VEd = 67.5 kN at end of diaphragm
d = 0.83 h and z = 0.67 h (assuming elastic stress distribution)
Hence:
z = 0.67 x 9 = 6 m
bi = 250 – 50 (say) = 200 mm
∴ vEdi = 67.5 x 1000/(6000 x 200 ) = 0.056 MPa
rRdi is limited to 0.10 MPa (> 0.056 MPa → OK)
Check vRdi (which is unlikely to control); for this example the first and second terms are small and
may be ignored as a first estimate.
vRdi = ρfyd (μ sin α + cos α) ≤ 0.5 υ fcd
where
ρ = As/Ai
μ = 0.5 (very smooth surface)
fyd = the design yield strength of reinforcement
As = the area of reinforcement crossing the interface
Ai = the area of the joint
α = 90􀂄 for reinforcement perpendicular to the joint
υ = 0.6 (1 – fck/250)
Eurocode 2, Cl. 6.2.5
Eurocode 2, Exp.(6.24)
Eurocode 2, Figure 6.8
Eurocode 2, Cl.10.9.3(12)
Eurocode 2, Exp.(6.25)
Eurocode 2, Cl.6.2.5 (2)
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3 Overall structural design
Project details

Worked example 1
Hollowcore floor acting as a diaphragm
Calculated by Job No.
Checked by Sheet No.
Client Date
For this example:
As = 2 x 2 x 113 = 452 mm 2
Ai = 1200 x 200 = 240 000 mm2
Hence:
ρ = 452/240 000 = 0.00188
and:
vRdi = 0.00188 x 500 x (0.5 x 1 + 0)/1.15 ≤ 0.5 x 0.6(1 - 25/250) x 1 x 25/1.5
= 0.41 ≤ 4.5 MPa
Use 2 No. hairpins (U bars) - 12 mm diameter
This check demonstrates that Exp. (6.25) is not usually a limiting control.
The design would now normally continue to calculate the tensile steel required in the edge beam to
carry the diaphragm tensile boom force, taking into account that this calculation must also
consider the other actions for the appropriate combination of actions.
For many beams in HCC there is an interface between concrete cast at different times. The
interface may be between precast and in-situ, two precast elements or in-situ concrete
with
a construction joint. All interfaces and critical sections in the composite section must
be
considered in accordance with Eurocode 2, Cl. 6.2.4 and 6.2.5 (see example in Section
3.4).
Typical interfaces are shown in the Figure 3.5, and typical calculations are presented in
worked example 2.
3.5 Interface shear
Interface 3 Interface 2
Interface 1
Interface 4
Figure 3.5
Typical interfaces between precast and in-situ
joints.
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Overall structural design 3


Project details

Worked example 2
Interface shear between hollowcore slab
and edge beam
Calculated by Job No.
Checked by Sheet No.
Client Date
Consider Example 13.7 in the Precast Eurocode 2: Design Manual24. Interface shear check is
between
the edge beam and in-situ concrete provided in the joint (see figure). In this example the contribution
of the horizontal surface is ignored. The shear resistance of the interface between the upstand of
the precast unit and the main body below should also be checked.
The flange over each hollowcore is cut out and therefore the units should be temporarily propped.
1 No. H16 U-bar is placed in each void to interlock with projecting reinforcement in the edge beam
as shown.
Assume that the compression flange of the edge beam is 600 + 175 + 110 = 885 mm wide.
Check shear at interface according to Eurocode 2, Cl. 6.2.5.
fck = 35 MPa
fy = 500 MPa
Maximum sagging moment, MEd = 267 kNm
Maximum design shear, VEd = 223 kN
bi = 200 mm
d = 540 mm
MEd/bd2fck = 267 x 1000000/(885 x 5402 x 35) = 0.0296
600 175 110
200
In-situ concrete
Shear interface
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3 Overall structural design


Project details

Worked example 2
Interface shear between hollowcore slab
and edge beam
Calculated by Job No.
Checked by Sheet No.
Client Date

From Figure B1 of the Precast Eurocode 2: Design Manual24 find value of z (alternatively find z by
calculation or with any suitable design aid):
z = 0.97
vEdi = βVEd /z bi
where
β = ratio of the longitudinal force in the new concrete and the total
longitudinal force
= width of new concrete/total flange width
= 775/885 = 0.88
bi = 200 mm
Hence:
vEdi = 0.88 x 223 x 1000/(0.97 x 540 x 200) = 1.87 MPa
vRdi = c fctd + μ σn + ρfyd (μ sinα + cosα) ≤ 0.5 υfcd
where
c = 0.35 and μ = 0.6 for a smooth surface
σn = 0
α = 90º
fctd = 1 x 2.2/1.5 = 1.47 MPa
υ = 0.6(1 – 35/250) = 0.52
vRdi = 0.35 x 1.47 + 0 + ρ x 0.6 x 500/1.15 ≤ 0.5 x 0.52 x 1 x 35/1.5 (= 6.07 MPa)
vEdi ≤ vRdi ≤ 0.515 + 260.9 ρ
Hence:
ρ ≥ (1.87 – 0.515)/260.9 = 0.005
Now:
ρ = As /Ai
∴ As,req = ρ Ai = 0.005 x 1200 x 200 = 1200 mm 2
Using 3 No. voids each containing 1 No. H16 U bar.
As,prov = 3 x 2 x 162 π/4 = 1210 mm 2 OK
Eurocode 2, Exp (6.24)
Eurocode 2, Exp (6.25)
Eurocode 2, Exp (6.6N)
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Overall structural design 3


Shear and torsion are predominately critical at the ultimate limit state and the composite
sections can be considered to be monolithic if the interface shear calculations have been
carried out appropriately, as discussed in Section 3.4 (see Eurocode 2, Cl. 6.2.4 and
6.2.5).
The variable strut inclination method used in Eurocode 2 is based on the shear load being
applied at the top of the beam element. When it is applied near to the bottom, the load
must be ‘carried up’ to the top with vertical reinforcement additional to the vertical
reinforcement required by the shear calculation. This is sometimes called ‘hang up
steel’,
as its effect is to hang up the applied load to the top compression chord of the beam
(Eurocode 2, Cl. 6.2.1(9)), see Figure 3.6.
3.6 Shear and torsion
design
Figure 3.6
‘Hang up steel’ requirement.
Slab shear strut
Beam shear strut
“Hang up steel” additional to
reinforcement required to carry
shear Eurocode 2, Cl 6.2.1 (9)
Slab shear strut
Types 2, 3 and 4 apply the fl oor permanent actions to the spine beams at the bottom of
the section and this element of the load must be carried by hang up steel. Whether the
subsequent variable actions should also be covered in this way depends on the form of
the composite connection. In any event, the load only needs to be carried up once to the
top of the truss and the extra link requirement is not onerous.
Where type 5 is used a further check is required for edge beams or where there is out-
ofbalance
loading on an internal beam.
The edge beam and internal spine beam with unequal loading in this form of construction
must be designed to resist the torsion set up by the eccentric loading. Both the transient
situation during construction and the ultimate limit state must be considered. The joint
between the beam and its support must also be designed to take this torsion, see Figure
3.7.
26

3 Overall structural design


Figure 3.7
Design for torsional restraint. Centre of resistance
of column
Shear centre of beam
V
h1
h2
For the torsional design of the edge beam, the design torque is equal to the load
multiplied
by the distance from its line of action to the shear centre of the edge element Vh1. For
the
design of the temporary support system to give equilibrium, the overturning torque is
equal to the torsional force multiplied by the distance from the line of action of the
force
to that of the restraining system Vh2.
Many prestressed precast elements are produced by the long-line pre-tensioning system
on prestressing beds of up to 200 m in length with built-in jack heads at each end, see
Figure 3.8. The normal construction procedure is as follows:
􀂄 The moulds are placed in a continuous line along the bed (the number depending on
the length of each unit) and end plates are fitted to the required dimensions of the
units to be cast.
􀂄 The tendons are laid out and stressed from fixed external jack heads. They pass
through each unit as straight horizontal tendons.
􀂄 The secondary reinforcement is then fixed within each mould.
􀂄 The concrete is poured into each mould.
􀂄 When the concrete reaches the required transfer strength (confirmed by test cubes),
the stress is gradually released from the jack heads and is transferred into the concrete
by anchorage bond.
A typical detail of the placing of moulds on the long-line system is shown in Figure 3.9.
3.7 Long-line prestressing
system
27

Overall structural design 3


Gradual detensioning
mechanism
Stressed strands
Unit moulds or continuously
extruded units
Jack blocks and embedded
cantilever upright in
concrete strong floor
Figure 3.8
The long-line pre-tensioning system.
Strand Mould end plate
Detail of gap between moulds
Unit in mould
Figure 3.9
Typical detail of placing of moulds on the
long-line system.
Debonding tendons
The position of the strands in the section is normally determined by the length of the
unit
and the design loading at mid-span. Stress limits are set for the serviceability limit
state
(for further information see Precast Eurocode 2: Design Manual24 and Post-tensioned
Concrete Floors Design Handbook25).
Since the tendons are straight the prestress is the same at the end of the units as it is
at
mid-span (apart from within the transmission zone), but there is little balance from the
stresses due to permanent actions at the ends. This creates high-tension stresses at the
top of the section that will be a maximum immediately after transfer of prestress. In
order
to reduce these stresses locally some of the tendons are debonded by placing tubing over
them at the end of the unit for the required length, see Figure 3.10.
It should be noted that the bottom strand should not be debonded, as it ensures that the
concrete near the end of the unit has less chance of being damaged. It is advisable to
provide two links just beyond the debonding point in the beam span to restrain anchorage
stresses. Two 10 mm diameter links, the fi rst at 100 mm from the debonding point and
the second 40 mm beyond that, are typically suffi cient. The proximity of the links to the
bonding position ensures suffi cient restraint to bursting even if the transmission zone
is
less than that assumed in design in accordance with Eurocode 2.
28

3 Overall structural design


Figure 3.10
Typical detail showing the debonding of a
strand.
Typically 7 - 8 protruding links
Extra links at
debonding point
Fully bonded stressed strand Debonded strand
Debonding is used in double tee design because it is such a simple and cost-effective
option. An alternative to debonding some of the tendons is to defl ect them at the ends of
the unit. This method is very seldom adopted, as it requires special features to be built
into
the long-line system to take account of the vertical forces involved.
The difference between the effects of straight bonded and debonded tendons is shown in
Figure 3.11.
Balance of moments
Unit with straight bonded tendons Unit with straight debonded tendons
Moments from quasi-permanent loading
Moments from prestress
Resulting camber
Figure 3.11
Comparison between straight bonded,
debonded and defl ected tendons.
29

Overall structural design 3


Prestressed units camber because of the hogging moment provided by the prestress. A
pretensioned
prestressed beam with no camber, unless it has a very short span or is debonded,
should be viewed with caution. Camber is equivalent to the defl ection of a reinforced
concrete beam; in fact for a permanent and variable action balanced by prestress, the
upwards camber would be less than the downward defl ection of the reinforced section.
This is because the prestressed section would be uncracked and stiffer than the cracked
reinforced beam. Thus, camber should not be a problem but should be allowed for when
setting fl oor levels. An estimate of camber should be obtained from the manufacturer of
the prestressed unit. It will be affected by the strength of concrete at the time of
transfer.
Debonding has the advantage of reducing camber, as the debonded prestressed moment
diagram is closer to the permanent load diagram than the fully bonded one. The typical
camber of a fully bonded 16 m double tee beam carrying car park loading is 35 to 45 mm
and this can be reduced by debonding to the range of 10 to 25 mm. Debonding, however,
reduces the net prestress at the support and this reduces the design shear strength, but
for double tees this reduction is seldom a critical design issue.
The occasions where secondary effects (sometimes referred to as parasitic effects) need to
be considered relate to indeterminate frames and continuous beams/slabs. The most likely
example for HCC is where post-tensioned slabs are used. Section 5.6 of the Post-tensioned
Concrete Floors Design Handbook25 describes the phenomena and the use of the equivalent
load method.
The defl ection of a fl oor in response to a temperature gradient can be large and this
can
result in rotational movements at supports, which can produce unwanted local damage
such as cracking and spalling. This problem is particularly acute in uninsulated roofs,
often
found in car parks. The following simple calculation, worked example 3, gives an idea of
the
magnitude of the displacements. Further guidance can be found in Movement, Restraint and
Cracking in Concrete Structures26.
When an in-situ screed is added onto a fi rst stage cast fl oor of either reinforced or
prestressed
construction, the shrinkage of the screed after its initial hydration will develop a
compressive strain in the top of the fi rst stage cast and will induce a downwards defl
ection
in the span of the composite unit and, if the fl oor is of continuous construction, a
hogging
moment at the supports. Note that these effects are of importance at the serviceability
limit state only, as at the ultimate limit state these imposed strains will have little
effect.
Figure 3.12 shows how the strains are built up through the height of the composite section
for a given free differential shrinkage strain, εfds. The fi nal curvature, φ, is
constant across
the section. Design equations can be developed as follows:
3.8 Secondary effects of
prestressing and the
equivalent load method
3.9 Temperature effects
3.10 Differential shrinkage
30

3 Overall structural design


Project details

Worked example 3
Upwards camber on slab due to
temperature gradient
Calculated by Job No.
Checked by Sheet No.
Client Date
Calculate the upwards deflection of a 16 m span 300 mm deep simply supported floor resulting from
a temperature gradient of 20ºC with the upper surface being the hotter. Assume that the gradient
is linear and steady state, and that the temperature coefficient for concrete, α, is 10 x 10-6.
The curvature, φ, from this temperature gradient is
= 20 x α/300
= 20 x 10 x 10-6/300
= 0.67 x 10-6
The curvature is constant along the length of the unit.
From the second moment area theorem, the mid-span deflection:
δ = φ x l2/8
= 0.67 x 8000 x 4000/1000000
= 21.4 mm
Force equilibrium:
εi Ei Ai = εp Ep Ap (1)
εp = εi Ei Ai /Ep Ap
Section equilibrium (φEI = M):
φ (Ei Ii + Ep Ip) = εi Ei Ai ( yi,b + yp,t) (2)
Strain equilibrium:
εfds = εi + εci + εcp + εp = εi + φ yi,b + φ yp,t + εp
φ = (εfds - (εi + εp))/(yi,b + yp,t)
φ = (εfds - (εi + εi Ei Ai /Ep Ap))/(yi,b + yp,t) (3)
In-situ
Precast
yp,t
yi,b
εfds
εcp
εp
εci
εi
φ
Figure 3.12
The effect of differential shrinkage across a
section.
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Overall structural design 3


Combining (2) and (3):
φ{yi,b + yp,t + (εfds - (Ei Ii + Ep Ip)) (1/Ei Ai + 1/Ep Ap)/(yi,b + yp,t)} = εfds
φ = εfds /{yi,b + yp,t + (Ei Ii + Ep Ip) (1/Ei Ai + 1/Ep Ap)/(yi,b + yp,t)} (4)
εi = εfds /{1 + Ei Ai /Ep Ap + (yi,b + yp,t)2 Ei Ai /(Ei Ii + Ep Ip)} (5)
εp = εfds /{1 + Ep Ap /Ei Ai + (yi,b + yp,t)2 Ei Ai /(Ei Ii + Ep Ip)} (6)
From equations (4) to (6) all the strains, stresses and forces can be determined.
Worked example 4 describes the method for determining the effect of differential
shrinkage where in-situ concrete is placed on a precast concrete T section.
Project details

Worked example 4
Differential shrinkage
Calculated by Job No.
Checked by Sheet No.
Client Date
Calculate the effect of differential shrinkage in a beam constructed in two stages as shown below.
The element is simply supported and 20 m span. The free differential shrinkage strain is 0.0002.
B785 fabric in in-situ concrete
B283 fabric in precast concrete flange
2 x 2 No. 7.9 mm super strand in precast rib
In-situ concrete
Precast concrete
150
1000
100
50
300
B785 mesh
B283 mesh
2 x 2 No 7.9 super strand
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Project details

Worked example 4
Differential shrinkage
Calculated by Job No.
Checked by Sheet No.
Client Date

In-situ concrete
fck,in = 25 MPa, fcm,in = 33 MPa, creep coefficient, ϕ = 1.5
Ec,in,long = 22 [fcm,in/10]0.3/(1 + ϕ)
= 22 x (33/10)0.3/(1 + 1.5)
= 12.59 GPa
Section properties, including the reinforcement, are as follows:
Ain = 112 x 103 mm2
Iin = bd3/12 = 1000 x 1003/12
= 87.5 x 106 mm4
yinbar,b = 52.1 mm
zin,b = 1680 x 103 mm3
Precast concrete
fck,p = 50 MPa, fcm,p = 58 MPa, Creep coeficient, ϕ = 1
Ec,p,long = 22 x (58/10)0.3/(1 + 1)
= 18.64 GPa
Section properties, including the tendons and reinforcement, are as follows:
Ap = 101.5 x 103 mm2
Ip = 1220 x 106 mm4
ypbar,b = 237.4 mm
ypbar,t = 112.6 mm
zp,t = 10900 x 103 mm3
Curvature
Using expression (4) above:
Curvature:
φ =
1000 x 0.0002
52.1 + 112.6 + (12.59 x 87.5 x 106 + 18.64 x 1.22 x 109) x (1/(12.6 x 112 x 103) + 1/(18.6 x 101.5 x 103))
50 + 112.6
= 0.00058/m
Defl ection
Deflection from differential shrinkage
δ = φ l 2/8
= 0.00058 x 202/8
= 29 mm
Eurocode 2, Table 3.1
and Cl.3.1.4
Eurocode 2, Table 3.1
and Cl.3.1.4
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Overall structural design 3


Designers should take into account the stability of the structure during construction:
􀂄 Precast elements are heavy. Bearings must be adequate and be robust enough to
withstand normal unit fixing operations including landing and ‘barring’ (see Section
6.7).
􀂄 Beams must be securely fixed and have adequate safe bearing at each end to avoid
overturning, excessive deflection or collapse when the precast elements are placed.
􀂄 Consideration must be given to the unequal loading when precast elements are being
placed.
􀂄 Where precast elements are tilted or twisted to allow them to be placed in their final
position consideration should be given to ensuring there is sufficient clearance to
place the unit and achieving the minimum end bearing required in the final position.
􀂄 Special requirements, such as special fixing techniques, temporary measures or
sequencing,
should be clearly conveyed.
3.11 Designing for
construction
34

4 Bearings and movement joints


4. Bearings and movement joints
The design of bearings and joints for hybrid concrete construction (HCC) is critical to
the
serviceability and lasting integrity of the structure. Careful design can avoid problems
which lead to deterioration of joints, which ultimately compromise the whole safety of
the structure.
Where a bearing is introduced between precast elements or between precast and in-situ
elements great care is required to take account of all the forces and movements that may
be imposed on the elements connected to the bearing. In addition consideration must be
given to:
􀂄 how the robustness of the structure is attained
􀂄 effects of composite action
􀂄 practical tolerances
􀂄 temperature changes
􀂄 shrinkage
􀂄 differential settlement
􀂄 effects of repeated changes in imposed deformations
􀂄 ensuring construction meets the assumption made in design.
The decision to design a full continuity joint or one that allows some movement is
critical.
The design must then follow the decision to reach a practical and lasting solution. The
joint
detail must be robust and must not deteriorate with time due to the effects of movement.
Joints that are designed to be monolithic are considered in Chapter 5.
Horizontal forces at a bearing can reduce the load carrying capacity of the supporting
member considerably by causing premature splitting or shearing. The forces may be due to
creep, shrinkage and temperature effects or may result from misalignment, lack of plumb
or other causes. Allowance should be made for these forces in designing and detailing by
the provision of:
a) bearings that allow limited movement or
b) suitable lateral reinforcement in both the supporting and supported members or
c) sufficient continuity reinforcement through the joint to resist the lateral forces.
Where type a) bearings are used then conservatively the horizontal design force should
be taken as 20 per cent of the vertical force. A more detailed assessment may show this
force can be reduced. For type b) and c) bearings the design horizontal force should be
not less than half of the design vertical force on the bearing.
Unless top and bottom continuity reinforcement is provided precast fl oor slabs, e.g.
hollowcore
slabs, spanning more than 8 m should be supported on elastomeric bearings, e.g. neoprene.
4.1 Horizontal forces at
bearings
35

Bearings and movement joints 4


These can normally be attached to the support surface. They allow:
􀂄 the forces resulting from variation of bearing surfaces to be absorbed
􀂄 any small horizontal movements to be absorbed without causing cracking and
􀂄 limited rotation (as a result of cyclic upward and downward deflection) of the precast
slab.
Where top and bottom continuity reinforcement is provided, to make a homogenous
joint it may be acceptable not to provide elastomeric bearings. In this case great care
must be taken in construction to ensure that the precast element is not damaged during
placing and that it can absorb the movements that take place during and after construction
without damage.
For bearings that offer signifi cant restraint to sliding or rotation, e.g. dry bearing on
concrete
or mortar bedding, actions due to creep, shrinkage, temperature, misalignment, lack of
plumb and other things must be taken into account in the design of adjacent members.
Further guidance on creep, shrinkage and temperature effects can be found in Movement,
Restraint and Cracking in Concrete Structures26.
The effect of such actions may require transverse reinforcement in supporting and
supported
members, and/or continuity reinforcement for tying elements together. They may also
infl uence the design of the main reinforcement in such members. Such joints are not
considered
suitable for external situations or for spans greater than 8 m for internal situations.
It should be noted that it is unlikely that a dry connection without bedding material will
have a uniform contact surface and that concentrated loading will result that may cause
local cracking.
For joints with bedding material, e.g. mortar, concrete, polymers, relative movement
between the connected surfaces should be prevented during hardening of the material.
The bearing width should not be greater than 600 mm unless specifi c measures are taken
to obtain a uniform distribution of the bearing pressure.
In the absence of other specifi cations, the bearing strength, fRd, of a dry connection
should
not exceed 0.4 fcd and the average bearing stress between plane surfaces should not
exceed 0.3 fcd.
The bearing strength for joints with bedding material should not exceed the design
strength
of the bedding material, fbed ≤ 0.85 fcd where fcd is the lower of the design strengths for
supported and supporting members.
4.2 Restrained bearings
36

4 Bearings and movement joints


Expanding material
to plug gap
Friction can
cause cracking
Movement
Rotation
If no plug, hard material
can prevent rotation
Rotation
Rotation can
cause spalling
Figure 4.1
Examples of potential failures at movement
joints.
It is possible to deal with movement at bearings using movement joints, and care should
be given to the design and construction, as for bridge decks, to minimise the risk of
failures. In general it is recommended to seek solutions that do not require movement
joints. Figure 4.1 describes potential failure mechanisms that can occur even with a
structural topping.
4.3 Movement joints
If the bearing material creates large friction
forces (use neoprene or similar to avoid
this), this can lead to large tension stresses
in both the support and the precast slab
or beam.
If the space between the precast slab or
beam and the face of the supporting
member is not adequate for the required
movement or if in time it it fi lls up with
hard material, then cracking can occur.
If the effects of movement and/rotation
cause the line of action to move too close
to the edge of the support, local spalling
can occur.
4.4 Actions and restraints
4.4.1 Action effects In addition to the effects of direct loading (imposed
variable and permanent actions) the
following action effects on the elements supported by the bearing must be considered:
􀂄 shrinkage (both long term and early thermal)
􀂄 temperature changes (both seasonal and short term)
􀂄 creep.
37

Bearings and movement joints 4


In addition to the above action effects the following restraints must be considered:
􀂄 internal, e.g. from reinforcement, differential shrinkage
􀂄 edge restraints
􀂄 end restraints.
For detailed consideration of these effects and restraints refer to Movement, Restraint
and
Cracking in Concrete Structures26.
When designing bearings the following details should be checked:
􀂄 calculation of the bearing area
􀂄 bearing layout
􀂄 the detail of the reinforcement in the end of the supported member
􀂄 the detail of the reinforcement in the supporting member
􀂄 tolerances
􀂄 construction issues – especially any additional forces imposed on the bearing through
‘barring’ the units into final position, see Section 6.8.
The design and detailing of the reinforcement at supports is critical. The supported
member
has to be designed to bear safely onto the support without spalling of the end cover and
also to sustain any forces that may come from shrinkage of the fl oor, through shortening
of the fl oor, if prestressed, and from thermal, live and further dead load movements, see
also Section 4.1.
Prestressed members used for fl ooring are commonly pre-tensioned and the main prestressed
steel continues to the end of the member. Reinforcement in supporting and supported
members should be detailed to ensure effective anchorage, allowing for deviations, see
Figure 4.2.
di = ci + Δai with horizontal loop bars
di = ci + Δai + ri with vertically bent bars
ci = nominal concrete cover
Δai = a deviation (see Section 4.8)
ri = radius of bend (see Table 4.1)
4.4.2 Restraints
4.5 Design considerations
4.6 Allowance for
anchorage of reinforcement
at supports
38

4 Bearings and movement joints


c2 > a + a 1 2 d3
r2
r3
d2 > a + a 1 3 c3
Figure 4.2
Effect of reinforcement on bearing
dimensions.
Table 4.1
Minimum bend radii for reinforcement to
avoid damage to reinforcement.
Bar diameter Minimum radius of bend
φ ≤ 16 mm 2 φ
φ > 16 mm 3.5 φ
Bearings that allow limited movement, e.g. neoprene pads, not only distribute the bearing
forces over uneven supports but also allow limited rotational and longitudinal movement
of the supported member to take place. The bearing pad also defi nes the area of load
transfer and thus has a direct effect on the detailed design of the ends of the supporting
and supported members.
In the absence of other specifi cations, the bearing strength, fRd = fbed ≤ 0.85 fcd where fbed
is
the design strength of the bearing material may be used.
The layout of a bearing is critical to its successful execution. The concrete surfaces
must be
separated in areas where load transfer is not intended and must be bedded appropriately
where load transfer is required. To ensure that spalling does not take place in the
contact
area at the end of the supported and supporting concrete, the provision of suffi cient
bearing
length must be provided. This should allow for constructional tolerances and ensure the
overlap of reinforcement between the supporting and supported concrete. The required
allowances are shown in the Figure 4.3 and are described in Eurocode 2, Cl. 10.9.5.2.
These
will lead to the design of minimum bearing shelf and nib sizes.
4.7.1 Design of the bearing
area
4.7.2 Bearing layout
4.7 Bearings that allow
limited movement
39

Bearings and movement joints 4


The nominal length, a, of a simple bearing may be calculated as:
a = a1 + a2 + a3 + √(Δa2
2 + Δa3

2)

where
a1 = net bearing length with regard to bearing stress = FEd /(b1fRd) but not less
than the values in Table 4.2
FEd = design value of the support reaction
b1 = net bearing width
fRd = design value of the bearing strength
= 0.85fcd
a2 = distance assumed ineffective beyond outer end of supporting member
(see Table 4.3)
a3 = distance assumed ineffective beyond outer end of supporting member
(see Table 4.4)
Δa2 = allowance for distance between supporting members (see Table 4.5)
Δa3 = allowance for deviation of the length of the supported member
= ln /2500
ln = length of member in mm
b1
a1
> a + a 2 3
a a 3 3 + 
a1
a
a a 2 2 + 
Figure 4.3
Critical dimensions for bearings.
Relative bearing stress, σEd
a/fcd ≤ 0.15 0.15 to 0.4 > 0.4
Line supports (fl oors and roofs) 25 30 40
Ribbed fl oors and purlins 55 70 80
Concentrated supports (beams) 90 110 140
Key:
a σEd is the design bearing stress
Table 4.2
Minimum value of a1 (mm).
40

4 Bearings and movement joints


Relative bearing stress, σEd
a/fcd ≤ 0.15 0.15 to 0.4 > 0.4
Reinforced concrete ≥ C30/37
Line
Concentrated
5
10
10
15
15
25
Reinforced concrete < C30/37
Line
Concentrated
10
20
15
25
25
35
Key
a σEd is the design bearing stress

Detailing of reinforcement Type of support


Line Concentrated
Continuous bars over support
(restrained or not)
0 0
Straight bars, horizontal loops,
close to end of member
5 15, but not less than end cover
Tendons or straight bars
exposed at end of member
5 15
Vertical loop reinforcement 15 End cover + inner radius of bend
Support material Δa2
Precast concrete 10 ≤ l /1200 ≤ 30 mm
Cast in-situ concrete 15 ≤ l /1200 + 5 ≤ 40 mm
Note:
l is clear distance between supports in mm
An example calculation is shown in worked example 5.
Table 4.4
Distance a3 (mm) assumed ineffective from
outer end of supported member.
Table 4.5
Allowance for deviations for the clear distance
between the face of the supports.
Table 4.3
Distance a2 (mm) assumed ineffective from
outer end of supporting member.
41

Bearings and movement joints 4


Project details

Worked example 5
Bearing of a hollowcore unit
Calculated by Job No.
Checked by Sheet No.
Client Date
A 1.2 m wide hollowcore slab seated on an in-situ concrete nib, treated as a non-isolated member.
The length of hollowcore unit is 9 m. The in-situ concrete beam is class C35/45 concrete.
Actions
Self weight = 3.33 kN/m 2
Variable load = 4 kN/m 2
Partitions = 1 kN/m2
Finishes = 0.7 kN/m2
Bearing stress
FEd = 9 x 1.2 x {1.35 (3.33 + 0.7) + 1.5(4 + 1)}/2 = 69.9 kN
Assume a 30 mm wide neoprene bearing.
σEd = 69.9 x 1000/(30 x 1200) = 1.94 MPa
σEd/fcd = 1.94/(0.85 x 35/1.5) = 0.098
Geometry
Minimum value of a1 from Table 4.1 for a line support is 25 mm.
Hence:
a1 = 30 mm OK
a2 = 5 mm
a3 = 5 mm
Δa2 = 15 mm
Δa3 = 9000/2500 = 4 mm say 5 mm
The reinforcement in the in-situ concrete nib is assumed to be 20 mm vertically bent with a
nominal cover of 20 mm.
d2 = c2 + Δa2 + r2
= 20 + 15 + 3.5 x 20 = 105 mm
a2 + Δa2 ≥ d2
∴ a2 + Δa2 = 105 mm
Allowance for clearance at end of unit
Δa2 + Δa3 ≥ 15 + 4 mm = 19 mm say 20 mm
The bearing stress should also be checked for the hollowcore unit.
Table 4.2
Table 4.3
Table 4.4
20
10 30 105
20
H20 bar
RW
OB
TCC
CCIP-030
WE 5/1
April 08
42

4 Bearings and movement joints


Figure 4.4
Typical methods to avoid spalling of bearing
corners.
Chamfer option Lowered support area option
Spalling of the support is avoided if a large chamfer is provided on the outer corner or
alternatively a local part of the bearing shelf is lowered, see Figure 4.4.
This and the compressed thickness of any bedding material in the bearing must be suffi
cient
to avoid contact, taking into account any long-term movements, defl ection, hogging and
if the fl oor is laid to a fall for any reason, the difference in angle of the fl oor
soffi ts at its
end and that of the bearer beam. Neoprene is recommended as a suitable material for
bearings but other materials may be used (see also PCI Design Handbook27).
In an HCC situation, the bearing may be in a different state when it carries construction
actions and when it is fully constructed and carries superimposed permanent actions and
variable actions. These interactions should be considered and very soft bearing materials
may be inappropriate if the fi nal objective is to have a fully continuous connection.
Type 3 and 4 systems that use precast fl oors with in-situ beams do not always have a
direct bearing since the in-situ concrete is often cast against the precast unit. The fl
oor is
propped and the formwork for the edge beam is fi xed. The steel protruding from the fl oor
units is incorporated into the reinforcement of the edge beam that is then cast. The
continuity
steel must be fully anchored in both the in-situ and precast concrete. Consideration
should be given to the possibility of tension occurring in the bottom steel at the
support.
This can be caused by temperature and shrinkage effects. The design of the interface for
shear requires the provision of ‘hang-up steel’ as the shear load in the fl oor is
concentrated
near to the bottom of the section. This is described in Eurocode 2, Cl. 6.2.1 (9) and is
also
shown in Figure 3.6.
4.8 Connections between
precast fl oors and in-situ
concrete beams
43

Structural elements and connections 5


5. Structural elements and connections
Twin wall panels comprise two skins of precast concrete, connected by steel trusses,
which hold the precast skins apart at a constant spacing to produce a wall of a particular
thickness. Figure 5.1 shows a typical view of a twin wall panel system.
5.1 Twin wall construction
(type 1)
Figure 5.1
Typical example of a twin wall panel.
Photo: John Doyle Construction Ltd

The panels are supplied to site, erected and then fi lled with in-situ concrete to form a
solid concrete wall. The trusses, therefore, also act to hold the skins together against
the
pressure exerted by the in-situ concrete before this has cured. A typical layout is shown
in
Figure 5.2. The precast skins function as permanent formwork.
The precast skins contain the main horizontal and vertical reinforcement for the wall, in
the form of a cross-sectional area of fabric or bars, which can be specifi ed by the
designer.
However, starter bars and continuity reinforcement must be provided within the in-situ
concrete.
The precast skins are
connected and spaced
by steel lattice
Main horizontal and
vertical reinforcement
for the wall is fitted
within the precast skins
Figure 5.2
Simple layout of a twin wall system.
44

5 Structural elements and connections


The twin wall system is often combined with a precast concrete permanent shuttering
system, e.g. lattice girder slabs. This allows the minimum use of temporary formwork on
site. The wall system is ideally combined with a precast lattice or composite slab fl oor,
as
the in-situ element of both the wall and fl oor can be combined to produce a monolithic
structure.
The precast skin on one side of the panel is cast horizontally on a steel mould, with the
trusses projecting. After curing, the assembly is rotated so that the trusses face down
and
can be cast into the pour for the precast skin on the other side, see Figure 5.3.
5.1.1 Manufacturing process
Figure 5.3
Precasting sequence for twin wall
manufacture.
a) One side of panel cast with outer face down with trusses projecting upwards
b) Assembly then turned over and the second side of panel cast with outer face down
Fabric reinforcement, which can be specifi ed by the designer, is cast into each precast
skin, see Figure 5.4. A 60 mm thick precast skin could accommodate, for example:
􀂄 25 mm cover to external face (or as appropriate to meet durability bond and fire
requirements)
􀂄 16 mm vertical bar
􀂄 8 mm horizontal bar
􀂄 10 mm cover to internal face (whilst not required for durability in the permanent
condition, some cover here is advisable).
Clearly, walls that require larger bar sizes to achieve required levels of reinforcement,
or
walls in exposed conditions, will in turn need thicker precast skins to achieve required
covers.
Overall panel thickness
The fi nal wall thickness can range typically from 200 to 350 mm in total width, although
thicker walls are possible. A typical 250 mm panel thickness may comprise:
􀂄 60 mm precast skin
􀂄 130 mm gap for in-situ concrete, starter bars, continuity reinforcement
􀂄 60 mm precast skin.
45

Structural elements and connections 5


Precast concrete
Lattice reinforcement
In-situ concrete
Vertical reinforcement
Slab reinforcement
In-situ concrete
Vertical reinforcement
Tie reinforcement
Lap length
Figure 5.4
Twin wall connection with a lattice girder slab.
With two layers of reinforcement an overall wall thickness less than 250 mm is diffi cult
to achieve. This is because the precast skin thickness is typically 50-70 mm each side
(plus tolerance), and the thickness of the in-situ concrete in between must accommodate
starter and continuity reinforcement with suffi cient space for the concrete to fl ow
around
the bars, see Figure 5.5. With one layer of reinforcement it is possible to reduce the
overall
section thickness to 200 mm. It is worth noting that, due to the manufacturing process,
tolerances on the inside faces of the precast skin are easily controlled and can reduce
the
space available for in-situ concrete or starter bars by 10-15 mm each side. Tolerance for
the hybrid panel to be erected over the starters is a related issue and it is advisable to
use a
single row of starters, rather than one row each side as for a traditional in-situ wall.
46
Figure 5.5
The available space for vertical continuity
reinforcement is restricted.
Photo: Hanson Concrete Products

Overall panel sizes


Typically the maximum panel dimensions are 10 m x 3.5 m as shown in Figure 5.6. These
dimensions are often limited by the capacity of the lifting equipment, transportation or
size of moulds. The minimum dimension of a panel is typically 1.20 m.
10 m max.
3.5 m max. 10 m max.
3.5 m max.
Figure 5.6
Typical twin wall maximum panel dimensions.

5 Structural elements and connections


47
A key impact of introducing twin wall panels, as with many prefabricated forms of
construction, is to increase the amount of coordination required early in the programme.
To assist in this planning it is advised that the points below are considered.
Which walls are twin walls?
Agreement on the extent of twin walls is likely to involve architect, client, contractor,
and
structural and services engineers. Until fully defi ned, this decision may have an impact
on
the design programme – an issue that should be communicated to the proposer of the
system (often the contractor).
Manufacturers’ requirements and their impact on co-ordination
Often the twin wall manufacturer will require the following to be fully defi ned before
commencing manufacture:
􀂄 dimensioned CAD wall elevations showing all walls to be manufactured
􀂄 locations of all cast-ins (e.g. junction boxes, conduit)
􀂄 locations and sizes of all holes and cut-outs (e.g. for services, drainage, builders
work,
windows, downstand beams)
􀂄 reinforcement to be cast into the precast skins
􀂄 locations and details of any bend-out bars required
􀂄 information showing which side of the panel is to be propped (to permit the prop
attachments to be cast in).
To produce CAD elevations showing this level of detail, the design of the services must be
well progressed (and any builders’ work holes assumptions agreed and recorded); the
architect must have frozen the wall layout; all suspended and ground slab levels, soffi t
levels and upstands/downstands must be fully defi ned and frozen; and the contractor
must have defi ned a pour sequence so that the side to be propped can be identifi ed. The
designer should allow for the additional time required to coordinate the work.
Detailing continuity rebar at joints
The catalogues of the twin wall manufacturer often show a number of typical joint details
where fabric or loose bars are used, within the in-situ concrete, to provide reinforcement
continuity. It is important to realise that the designer is responsible for detailing and
scheduling such bars despite what may be implied in the catalogues.
Checking of fabrication drawings
It is important that the designer checks the key panel layout drawings. The twin wall
manufacturer produces shop drawings for each panel. They are likely to be presented to
the designer just as the project begins on site. A plan for checking these should be set
up
in advance to avoid the confl uence of site queries with panel drawing checking creating
possible resourcing diffi culties at a key project stage.
5.1.2 Planning implications
Structural elements and connections 5
48
The panels are typically propped on one side only, using typically two ‘push–pull’ props
to
achieve verticality. This requires a cast base slab on at least one side of the wall. If
panels
are being erected before the whole slab is cast, coordination with the contractor’s pour
sequence will be required. Where no slab is adjacent, e.g. walls inside lift shafts, there
should be a clear method statement on how these panels will be safely erected.
The methods of fi xing the continuity reinforcement, particularly if the walls are acting
as
shear walls, should be clearly stated. The contractor should provide a method statement
for the following:
􀂄 At panel base level, how the panel is fitted over the projecting reinforcement in the
lower slab taking account of the accepted tolerances. Figure 5.7 indicates other points
that should be considered.
􀂄 At top of panel, how the vertical continuity reinforcement is fixed. One method may
be to tie horizontal fixing bars onto the trusses (say two each side) and tie the vertical
projecting bars onto those. The alternative proposal of pushing them into the wet in-situ
concrete is not recommended. A template for the vertical bars should be considered to
ensure that the next lift of wall panel will fit over them correctly.
􀂄 For the fabric reinforcement at joints between adjacent panels at the same level, how
this is held in position within the pour (see Figure 5.8).
5.1.3 Site erection and fi lling
Decide from which level
the wall should spring
Consider tolerances
for starter bars
Decide which side props
should be positioned
Figure 5.7
Typical issues to consider in the layout design.

5 Structural elements and connections


49
Distance to 1st truss
is typically 340 mm
Check sufficient lap length
with reinforcement in skin
Use of U-bars or links recommended
to ensure reinforcement remains
in correct position during concreting
Figure 5.8
Plan view showing horizontal continuity
reinforcement.
As the precast skins take up a fair proportion of the overall width of the wall, the gap
between them is often very narrow in comparison to their height. This may make it diffi
cult
to remove all the air when concreting (‘blowing out’) and the contractor should provide
specifi c proposals for this. Due to the very low volume of in-situ concrete required to
fi ll
the walls on site, the contractor’s preference may be to erect a large number of wall
panels
at one level, before arranging a concrete pour to fi ll them. As the precast skins are
functioning
as permanent formwork, resisting the pressure of the wet in-situ concrete, the wall
manufacturer’s
catalogue may have rate of rise limits – typically less than 1 m/hr. Coupled with
the low fi ll volume, this leads to a relatively slow fi lling process on site, and one
that the
operatives may be tempted to speed up! The operatives should be made aware of and
respect the wall manufacturer’s rate of rise limits. The panels are typically erected on
chocks to leave a gap at the base of around 30 mm. This is the principal means of checking
that the in-situ concrete reaches the base of the pour. Timbers acting as grout checks are
placed along each side at the base of the panel.
Precast lattice girder slab units
Figure 5.9 shows a typical section of a composite fl oor using precast lattice girder
units.
The lattice girder is cast into (usually class C40/50) concrete reinforced with high-yield
reinforcement. The width of the precast slab is typically 2.4 m with a depth of 50 mm or
75 mm. They are used for spans of up to 10 m (larger spans are possible with careful
planning).
Lattice
Precast
concrete
slab
In-situ
concrete
Distribution steel
Main steel
Figure 5.9
Section showing typical lattice girder fl oor.

Structural elements and connections 5


50
Top bar 8 mm to 14 mm dia.
Diagonal bar 4.5 mm to 7 mm dia.
Bottom bar typically 5 mm dia.
Figure 5.10
Typical details of a lattice girder.
The design of the lattice girder is dependant on the thickness of the composite fl oor, fi
nal
loading and propping system. Typical details of a lattice girder are shown in Figure 5.10.
Figure 5.10 shows a typical layout of a 2.4 m wide unit containing four sets of lattice
girders.
Propping to support the self-weight and in-situ concrete can be reduced or eliminated by
increasing the stiffness of the slabs through increasing the diameter of the reinforcement
to
the top of the lattices and/or reducing the spacing of the lattices. Unpropped spans of up
to 5 m can be achieved depending upon the design loads and the overall depth of the slab.
Temporary propping is required where the end bearing is small. An example of this is at
end supports where the slab unit is seated on just one leaf of the wall.
Normally the minimum cover to the reinforcement will be 20 mm; however, the cover to
the reinforcement can be adjusted to meet the specifi c bond, durability and fi re
resistance
requirements for individual contracts.
Design moments
Design moments about the minor axis of a wall should be considered even where central
bars are placed in the joint, as these do not represent a hinge.
Flexural, shear and axial design
When checking the strength of a section of a wall more than a full lap length from a joint
the full width of section may be included. Otherwise just the in-situ part should be
considered.
If the whole section is in compression, it is reasonable to assume that the full section
can
provide axial resistance.
Lap lengths
At the top and bottom of the wall there will be a lap between the main vertical
reinforcement and the vertical continuity reinforcement, see Figure 5.4. When the
distance between these bars is greater than 4φ or 50 mm the lap length should be
increased by a length equal to the space between the bars (Eurocode 2, Cl. 8.7.2(3)).
5.1.4 Design of panels
5 Structural elements and connections
51
Minor axis bending
If the decision to use a single row of starters has been adopted, minor axis bending on
such
walls should be checked. If signifi cant, the decision should be revisited – with
potential
impacts on wall thickness, as noted above.
Horizontal joint between panels stacked one above the other (no slab
adjacent)
Horizontal joints commonly occur, for example, in lift shaft walls, or in walls adjacent
to
risers, stairs, or double-height spaces. At the panel joint level, effective design to
resist
minor axis buckling moments would tend towards the use of two rows of vertical continuity
reinforcement (one layer on each face) within the in-situ portion of the wall. Due to the
position of the continuity bar within the in-situ portion, and the possible tolerance and
positional control issues, a realistic effective depth should be used in assessing the
moment
capacity of the wall at this point, see Figure 5.11.
5.1.5 Concrete and fi nishes Concrete mix
The nature of the in-situ concrete mix used to fi ll the panels on site should be
considered.
As the gap between the precast skins may be as little as 100 mm for a 250 mm wall, and
starters and continuity reinforcement may protrude into this gap, using a vibrator poker
may be diffi cult or impossible. The use of self-compacting concrete should be considered.
A smaller aggregate size, for example 10 mm, may also be appropriate.
Surface fi nish
Typically, the use of steel moulds gives the external faces of the panels a smooth fi
nish.
The fi nish quality is suitable to receive a plaster fi nish or, on request, wallpaper. It
should be
noted, however, that the fi nish is not ‘architectural’ concrete as colour is not
consistent
or easily specifi ed.
Figure 5.11
Detail at an unrestrained horizontal panel
joint in compression.
The tendency to buckle
under compression at an
unrestrained horizontal
joint, is resisted by the
vertical continuity
reinforcement, acting at
a reduced lever arm.
C
d

Structural elements and connections 5


52
Horizontal continuity reinforcement
lowered into position after placing
twin walls. This must be detailed to
miss the wall trusses
Figure 5.12
Horizontal continuity reinforcement to fi t
with twin wall reinforcement.
Vertical joints between adjacent panels at same level
At junctions between adjacent panels and at corner junctions, horizontal continuity
reinforcement is recommended within the in-situ portion. Detailing this reinforcement in
the form of fabric or prefabricated cages is likely to be the easiest way of fi xing it
within the
pour. As noted above, the designer should be responsible for detailing this reinforcement.
It should be noted that the presence of the trusses at a typical distance of 340 mm from
the ends of each panel effectively constrains the volume in which continuity reinforcement
can be provided. If the forces applied to the wall are such that they cause signifi cant
shear
or tensile forces to develop at the vertical panel joints, the suitability of twin wall
panels
as a design solution may need to be revisited.
Interface with reinforced concrete ground slab.
It is important to obtain the contractor’s pour sequence for the ground slab – at
locations
where the ground slab steps (changes level) this will often defi ne the panel base level.
Agree with the contractor whether the panel will sit on the higher-level slab, or on the
lower-level slab with the higher-level slab poured up against the wall. Also agree details
at the edge of slabs or at lift pits. Agree from which side the panels are to be propped.
It is
likely that the twin wall panels will need to be installed over projecting starter bars
cast into
the foundations. As well as the use of a template and the consideration for using a single
row of starters, as noted above, the starters will need to coordinate with the horizontal
continuity reinforcement provided at locations of vertical joints between panels. This
means fi ve or six layers of reinforcement locally overlapping within the gap between the
panels – a potential congestion issue, see Figure 5.12.
5.1.6 Detailing
The type 2 system uses precast columns and edge beams, often with a prestressed in-situ
fl oor slab. The complex fi xing of steel and anchorages in the edge strips is more safely
and accurately carried out in the precast concrete factory. The use of precast concrete
columns speeds up the time between the casting of the fl oor plates. The precast edge
strip is supported on the same shutter system that is used for the fl oor.
5.2 Precast columns, edge
beams and in-situ slabs
(type 2)
5 Structural elements and connections
53
The column to fl oor joint in this form of construction is assumed to be semi-monolithic,
i.e. the in-situ concrete is cast up to the surface of the column or a fully grouted
connection
is made.
It may be desirable that levelling devices, for example nuts and wedges, having no load
bearing function in the completed structure should be slackened, released or removed as
necessary. Where this is necessary, the details should be such that inspection (to ensure
that this has been done) can be carried out without undue diffi culty.
The design of the vertical continuity or tying reinforcement requires careful
consideration.
Three examples are shown in Figure 5.13.
Where a central dowel bar, as shown in Figure 5.13, is also acting as a vertical tie, the
load
on the grouted connection between the slab and the dowel bar can be signifi cant. The
designer should ensure that the detail can carry this load either by design or through
testing.
Bearing under the precast column
In the absence of more accurate information (derived from a comprehensive programme of
suitable tests), the area of concrete that should be considered in calculating the
strength of
the joint should not be greater than 90 per cent of the area of column assumed to be in
contact with the joint, unless specifi c means are taken to ensure that no voids exist in
the
grout. The strength of the concrete in the precast column may be taken as fcd (=
0.85fck/1.5).
The area of any bar passing through the joint should be deducted from the bearing area.
The
design force of such a bar may be deducted from the applied force on the bearing when
calculating the capacity of the concrete provided that the bar has suffi cient anchorage
beyond the joint.
Grouting
The contractor should provide a method statement for the grouting work. This should
ensure that no pockets of air are trapped in the ducts and that the interface between the
base of the column and support is fully grouted. Trials may be necessary to demonstrate
the method.
Maximum compression through fl oor
For axial load with moment transfer Eurocode 2, Cl. 6.7 limits the compression within the
slab. Exp. (6.63) is modifi ed to:
FRdu = Ac0,eff fcd √(Ac1/Ac0,eff) ≤ 3.0 fcd Ac0,eff
where
Ac0,eff = 0.9 x Ac0
Ac0 = area of precast column
fcd = design strength of the slab
Ac1 = (h/2 + b1) (h/2 + d1)
h = depth of slab
b1 = breadth of the precast column
d1 = depth of the precast column
5.2.1 Column to fl oor joint
Structural elements and connections 5
54
Figure 5.13
Typical column fl oor connections.
a) Column shoe
b) Column bar coupler
c) Central dowel bar

5 Structural elements and connections


Bars welded to dowel
table and column
reinforcement
Grouting ring
Hole grouted before
placing column
55
Where moment is transmitted through the joint Ac0,eff should be reduced to 0.9 x the
area of the stress block shown in Figure 5.14, where Ac0,eff = 0.9 b1 x 2(d1/2 - e).
2 x (d - e) 1/2
fcd
e = M/N
C
C
L
L
of column
of compression
block
d1
Figure 5.14
Stress block in slab where moment is
transmitted from column.
For class 2B and 3 buildings (risk group 2B and 3 in Scotland) the vertical tie must be
designed to take the full fl oor load in tension under ‘accidental’ loading conditions.
The
partial factors for the accidental combination of actions are equal to 1 (see BS EN 1990,
and UK National Annex, Table NA.A1.3), see worked example 6.
If a central dowel bar system is considered for such a fl oor, i.e. span > 7 m, it should
be
effectively continuous throughout the height of the building. Full tension mechanical
couplers should be used where joints are required.
Figure 5.15 shows a typical section of a composite fl oor using precast lattice girder
units with
spherical void fomers (biaxial voided slabs). The lattice girder and the void former cages
are cast into a (usually class C40/50) concrete panel containing reinforcement in two
directions. The width of the precast slab is typically 2.4 m with a depth of 50 mm or 70
mm.
Normally the minimum cover to the reinforcement will be 20 mm; however, the cover to
the reinforcement can be adjusted to meet the specifi c bond durability and fi re
resistance
requirements for individual projects.
5.2.2 Vertical tie
5.3 Biaxial voided slabs
Figure 5.15
Typical layout of biaxial voided slab.
Photo: Cobiax Technologies Ltd

Structural elements and connections 5


56
Project details

Worked example 6
Vertical tie
Calculated by Job No.
Checked by Sheet No.
Client Date
Consider a 9 m x 9 m flat slab floor 300 mm thick with imposed variable load of 3 kN/m 2 and
finishes of 1 kN/m2.
Actions
The total design force in vertical tie
FEd = Gk + Ad
= 9 x 9 x {(25 x 0.3 + 1.0) + (0.5 x 4) = 851 kN.
Resistance
Using a column shoe system: 4 No 25 mm bars will provide a resistance of
FRd = γs fyk As
= 1.0 x 500 x 252 x 4 x π/4/1000 = 981 kN
FRd > FEd → OK
Use 4 No 25 mm bars
Eurocode, Table NA.A1.3
RW
OB
TCC
CCIP-030
WE 6/1
April 08
Initial sizing can be determined from manufacturers literature. The manufacturer
literature
will also advise the size of the spheres available, the spacing requirements and the
general
confi guration of the slab.
The benefi t of the reduced self-weight should be taken into account in the design. The
design may assume a fl at slab model, which has been demonstrated as appropriate through
testing of the slabs. A check should be carried out to ensure that the concrete
compression
zone remains outside of the depth of spherical void formers. Where this is not the case,
as
in heavily loaded slabs, the manufacturers will be able to offer appropriate guidance on
determining the permissible compression zone that can be used in the calculation of the
fl exural strength.
Testing has been carried out to determine the shear strength of this type of slab,
alongside a
theoretical assessment of the reduction in the shear plane due to the inclusion of the
voids.
The manufacturers recommend that shear strength of a solid slab of the same depth should
be reduced by a factor of between 0.55 and 0.6 to obtain the design shear resistance for
the voided slab, see Figure 5.16.
For punching shear it is recommended that the void formers are left out where the design
shear stress exceeds the reduced shear resistance of a voided slab, see Figure 5.16.
Punching
shear checks may then be carried out on the solid slab areas around the columns.
5.3.1 Slab geometry
5.3.2 Flexural design
5.3.3 Shear design
5 Structural elements and connections
57
Figure 5.16
Typical layout with fi nal reinforcement in
place.
Photo: Cobiax Technologies Ltd

Manufacturers have carried out testing to determine the reduced stiffness of the slabs due
to the voids. Conservatively, the stiffness of the voided slab may be taken as 0.87 times
the stiffness of a solid slab, although in some confi gurations the factor may be
increased
to 0.96. The manufacturers have data available to take advantage of these situations.
When using a fi nite element analysis, the stiffness of the slab (by adjusting the modulus
elasticity) can be reduced accordingly. The use of the span-to-effective depth rules of
Eurocode 2 is not valid for this form of construction since it is not clear how the slab
stiffness is incorporated in the manufacturers design expressions.
Splice bars are used across the panel joints so that the slab may be designed as a
continuous
member. Figure 5.16 shows a typical layout including the fi nal reinforcement.
Buoyancy of voids
Whilst the concrete is being place and vibrated, the buoyancy force can reach the
displaced
weight. The void formers are held in place by:
􀂄 firm tying of the void former to the lower and upper reinforcement
􀂄 casting of concrete in several stages (normally two, but three may be required where
the voids are larger than 360 mm).
Slab edges
Voids are not normally provided near slab edges to ensure a robust and continuous edge
detail.
5.3.4 Defl ection control
5.3.5 General considerations
Structural elements and connections 5
58
Prestressed hollowcore units are produced by an extrusion or slipform process with a
typical width of 1200 mm, in lengths of up to 200 m. Each length is prestressed before
casting. After curing, the units are sawn to the required length. Figure 5.17 shows a
typical
production layout.
It should be noted that where the only reinforcement in the units is the prestressing
strands, as is common, it makes the support zone particularly vulnerable since this is
where the maximum stresses due to bearing, shear and anchorage occur. The design
should be in accordance with Eurocode 2.
5.4 Prestressed hollowcore
units
Figure 5.17
Typical hollowcore unit production.
Hollowcore units have lateral edges provided with a longitudinal profi le in order to make
a shear key for transfer of vertical shear through joints between contiguous elements. For
diaphragm action these joints are designed to resist horizontal shear.
Hollowcore units are often specifi ed from manufacturers’ tables rather than designed
from
fi rst principles. These tables are based on assumed loading, support and reinforcement
details, and where the actual situation varies from that assumed in the tables, e.g. the
existence of concentrated loads or different fi re rating, detailed calculations should be
made to verify such units are appropriate.
BS EN 11683 describes the requirements and the basic performance criteria and specifi es
minimum values where appropriate. It covers terminology, performance criteria, tolerances,
relevant physical properties, special test methods and special aspects of transport and
erection. Reference should also be made to Precast Prestressed Hollowcore Floors28.
An example of the design of a hollowcore unit is given in Precast Eurocode 2: Worked
Examples29.
Resistance at the end of the hollowcore unit relies on the interaction of shear and bond,
therefore it is very important to understand the end prestressing conditions of hollowcore
units. Figure 5.18 shows how the stress in the prestressing wires or strands and the
moment
of resistance, builds up from the end of a unit and further guidance is given in Eurocode
2,
Cl. 8.10.2.2.
5.4.1 Anchorage of
prestressing tendons
5 Structural elements and connections
59
The transmission length, lpt, for the prestressing wires or strands is that length required
to
transmit the full prestress, σp. lpt is defi ned in Eurocode 2, Cl. 8.10.2.3 where σpt1 and
lpt1
are the values at ‘transfer’ and σpt2 and lpt2 are the values after all losses (as shown
in
Figure 5.18). The ultimate design strength of the tendon requires further anchorage
length.
The slope of the line between σpt2 and σpd is less than that for the transmission length,
lpt2,
because the tendon reduces in size as it is stressed. The reverse is true within the
transmission
length over which there is a wedging effect. One reason for assuming a linear build-up of
stress is because any fl exural stress in this region will tend to reduce the section size
and
nullify the wedge effects.
5.4.2 Transmission length
Tendon stress
Distance from
end of unit
Ipt1
Ipt2
Ibpd
pd
pt1
pt2

Figure 5.18
Build-up of stress in prestressing wires or
strands from end of unit.
The cracking length, lcr, is the distance from the end of the unit to the point where the
bottom fi bre stress resulting from all actions (bending, prestress and horizontal forces
at
the bearings) equals fctd. Figure 5.18 shows the components of actions and the net effect
on
the bottom fi bre stress. Note that if lcr is less than lpt2, the prestress is reduced.
Figure 5.19 indicates the results from the example given in the Precast Eurocode 2: Worked
Examples29.
The following points are of particular note:
􀂄 Consider all action effects to determine where the unit is likely to crack.
􀂄 Where dry or mortar bearings are used large horizontal forces may arise from
temperature and shrinkage effects.
􀂄 In this example the horizontal force at the bearing may cause cracking close to the end
of the unit, before lcr is reached, see Figure 5.19(d).
If cracking does occur close to the support, the shear resistance is likely to be
exceeded.
5.4.3 Cracking length
σ
σ
σ

Structural elements and connections 5


60
a) Stress due to flexure b) Stress due to prestress
c) Stress due to horizontal force at support
d) Net bottom fibre stress showing cracking length, lcr
Support
CL
of unit
Bottom
fibre
stress
CL
Support
of unit
Bottom
fibre
stress
CL
Support of unit
Bottom
fibre
stress
Bottom
fibre
stress
0
fctd
lcr
Tension
Compression
CL
of unit
Possible overstress
near end of unit
fb,m = Mx/Zb
fb,P = P/Ac + Pe/Zb
fb,H = H/Ac + Hyb/Zb
fb,Net = fb, M + fb,P + fb,H
Figure 5.19
Build-up of bottom fi bre stress in concrete
from end of unit.
The total anchorage length, lbpd, is the distance from the end of the unit to the point
beyond which the full design resistance of the wires or strands can be obtained, as shown
in Figure 5.18.
When the prestress is transferred from the anchor blocks to the hollowcore units, there is
anchorage bond along the full length of the strand, apart from the transmission length at
each end of the prestressing line. The concrete is then cut into the required lengths and
at
each end a further transmission length is introduced. Although expressions have been
developed to determine the relationship between the end slip of the strands and the
transmission length, it has been shown 27 that, for hollowcore units that have been sawn,
there is no simple relationship between transmission length and initial slip at these
positions.
This is discussed further in Section 6.6.
5.4.4 Total anchorage length
5.4.5 Tendon slip at ends of
units
5 Structural elements and connections
61
Figure 5.20 shows the three typical types of end failure that may occur. It should be
noted that types a) and b) can interact, one reducing the resistance of the other.
Anchorage bond failure, see Figure 5.20a, may occur due to cracking close to the support
which does not allow the full anchorage resistance to develop and strands start to slip.
This causes the crack to grow until the unit fails. The most common cause of anchorage
failure is when the end of the unit is subject to movement relative to its bearing. This
may
be the result of the effects of one or more of the following:
􀂄 shrinkage
􀂄 temperature changes
􀂄 humidity changes
􀂄 vertical loading.
It is important that the designer considers each of these possible effects. This is
especially
important for units with spans greater than 8 m. Reference should be made to
Movement, Restraint and Cracking in Concrete Structures 26.
Cracked sections
The cracked shear resistance should be checked at positions likely to be cracked at the
ultimate limit state. The position at which this check should be carried out is at a
distance
lcr from the end of the unit, see Section 5.4.3. The shear tension resistance is calculated
in
accordance with Eurocode 2, Exp (6.2a and b) together with UK National Annex:
VRd,c = [0.12k(100ρl fck)1/3 + 0.15σcp]bwd
with a minimum of
VRd,c = (0.035k3/2 fck
1/2 + 0.15σcp)bwd

5.4.6 Types of end failure


Large crack
close to
support
Anchorage
slip
Shear tension
crack
Horizontal splitting cracks
a) Anchorage bond failure b) Shear tension failure c) Horizontal splitting cracks
Figure 5.20
Types of end failure.

5.4.7 Anchorage bond failure


5.4.8 Shear resistance
Structural elements and connections 5
62
where
k = 1 + (200/d)0.5 ≤ 2.0
ρl = Asl /bwd ≤ 0.02 (normally = 0 since the distance to the end of the unit
< lbpd + d)
σcp = NEd/Ac < 0.2fcd (NEd should be taken as γp times the prestress force)
Uncracked sections
Shear tension failure, see Figure 5.20, occurs when the tension in the webs of the slab
becomes too high causing a sudden failure. For a circular core section the critical
section
for a shear tension failure is likely to be at h/2 from the inner face of the support, see
Figure 5.21. For oval core shapes the critical section is likely to be closer to the
bottom of
the section.
Critical position
For circular core shapes = /2
For oval core shapes say /3
h
sh
Figure 5.21
Critical section for shear tension failure.
The shear tension resistance is calculated in accordance with Eurocode 2, Exp (6.4):
VRd,c = I bw/S {(fctd)2 + αlσcp fctd }0.5
where
I = second moment of area
bw = width of the cross-section at the centroidal axis
S = first moment of area above and about the centroidal axis
αl = lx/lpt2 ≤ 1.0
lx = distance of the section considered from the starting point of the transmission
length
lpt2 = upper bound value of the transmission length of the prestressing element
according to Exp (8.18) of Eurocode 2
σcp = concrete compressive stress at the centroidal axis due to prestress (this
should include γp = 0.9)
For cross-sections where the width varies over the height, the maximum principal stress
may
occur on an axis other than the centroidal axis. In such cases the minimum value of the
shear resistance should be found by calculating VRd,c at various axes in the cross-section.
(Note: At the time of writing a revision to this expression was being considered by the
Eurocode 2 Committee in discussion with the Committee for BS EN 1168.)

5 Structural elements and connections


63
BS EN 1168, Precast concrete products – Hollowcore slabs3 sets out further design checks
that are required:
􀂄 Prevention of horizontal splitting cracks (Cl. 4.3.3.2.1)
􀂄 Combined shear and torsion (Cl. 4.3.3.2.2)
􀂄 Shear capacity of longitudinal joints (Cl. 4.3.3.2.3)
􀂄 Punching shear capacity (Cl. 4.3.3.2.4)
􀂄 Transverse bending caused by concentrated loads (Cl. 4.3.3.2.5)
􀂄 Additional torsion where one long edge cannot deflect (Cl. 4.3.3.2.6)
It is also critical that the requirments for bearings, see Section 4, are fully satisfi
ed,
otherwise there is a danger of deterioration of the supporting nibs and ends of the
hollowcore units that could lead to a shear and anchorage failure of the hollowcore units.
Floors are not always uniformly loaded; they often are required to carry point loads and
line loads from partitions to supporting beams. BS EN 1168, Appendix C, Transverse Load
Distribution, charts factors that can be used to determine the loads on units adjacent to
the loaded unit. These charts are for use with units in fl oors with no or one free edge.
They
apply to units without structural topping and are therefore conservative for units with
structural topping. BS EN 1168, Cl. 4.3.3.2 provides a method of assessing transverse
tensile stresses in the hollowcore units that are un-reinforced in the transverse
direction.
Longitudinal tie bars
Hollowcore units should be connected to the supports or to the adjacent fl oor bay by
means
of longitudinal tie bars. Tie arrangements should realise the structural integrity and
meet
the requirements with regard to:
􀂄 diaphragm action
􀂄 transverse distribution of vertical loads
􀂄 differential settlements
􀂄 restrained deformation
􀂄 robustness (in accordance with Section 3.2).
The longitudinal tie bars should be equally distributed and their spacing should not
normally
exceed 0.6 m at edge supports and 1.2 m at intermediate supports.
The ties pass through grouted longitudinal joints between units, see Figure 5.22, provided
that they are anchored into the members supporting those units (see also section 3.1), or
in the concreted cores of the units, see Figure 5.23; in either case it important that the
bars are fi xed in the correct position, as shown. If the latter method is used, note that
it is
essential that, after removing the top fl ange, the open core is thoroughly cleaned to
allow
good bonding of the new and old concrete.
5.4.9 Further design checks
5.4.10 Lateral distribution of
vertical loads
5.4.11 Multi-span without
structural topping
Structural elements and connections 5
64
h/2
Limits to the
placing of tie
bar
Limits to the
placing of tie
bar
40 mm
a) With grouting key at top b) With grouting key at bottom
≤ 2φ,
≤ 25 mm
≤ 2φ,
≤ 25 mm
Figure 5.22
Placing tie bars between hollowcore units.
h/2
Normal limits to
placing of tie bar
φ
Figure 5.23
Placing tie bars in hollowcore unit.
The yield load of the tie bars anchored in any core of a unit or between units should not
exceed 80 kN and the total yield load per unit should not exceed 160 kN. If the yield load
for a tie bar between units is greater than 30 kN, hooked bars should be used. In such
cases
the anchorage length should not be less than 75φ, as shown in Figure 5.24. Otherwise
straight bars may be used with a minimum anchorage length of 100φ.
h/2
≤ 75 φ ≥ lcr
Figure 5.24
Minimum length of tie bar between units.
The anchorage length of a tie bar should not be less than lcr (see Section 5.4.3). The
anchorage
length should normally be suffi cient to anchor the yield load of the tie bar (see also
Precast
Prestressed Hollowcore Floors28). In order to prevent progressive collapse the anchorage
length should be increased by Δlb in accordance with Table 5.1 (see worked example 7).
Concrete grade
C20/25 C30/37
Grout 13φ 10φ
Concrete 11φ 9φ
Table 5.1
Additional anchorage length, Δlb, for ribbed tie
bars with regard to design against progressive
collapse.

5 Structural elements and connections


65
Where further strengthening of the support zone is required the tie bars should be
anchored
to transfer their yield load at any cracked section within the critical support zone. In
such
situations the tie bar should be placed above the mid-height of the hollowcore unit to
provide moment capacity and should be anchored with a hook. An additional anchorage
length, ladd, should be provided to ensure the shear transfer between the in-situ concrete
or grout and the hollowcore unit.
ladd = Fst/fctu
where
Fst = tensile capacity of the tie arrangement in one core or joint
fct = tensile strength of the in-situ concrete or grout
u = perimeter is of the core or 2h for anchorage in joints (h is height of the
hollowcore unit)
Alternatively, straight bars may be used. In this case the anchorage length should be
increased to lcr + lbd (see Eurocode 2, Cl. 8.4.4) (+Δlb) for anchorage in concreted cores
and to lcr + 100φ for anchorage in grouted joints.
Connections to walls
If the wall supports more than three fl oors, it is advisable to provide hollowcore units
with
slanted ends and for the ties to be anchored in the concrete cores (not between units) as
shown in Figure 5.25. It is important that the reinforcement is detailed to interlock as
shown.
If the wall supports less than three fl oors, it will normally be satisfactory for the
units to
have a square cut, but the reinforcement details should be as shown in Figure 5.25.
Details
that do not provide a mechanical link should not be used.
Project details

Worked example 7
Anchorage length of longitudinal tie bar
Calculated by Job No.
Checked by Sheet No.
Client Date
Consider the use of 20 mm size straight bars with C30/37 grout.
lcr = 1080 + 10 x 20 = 1280 mm
Minimum length of 10φ = 10 x 20 = 200 mm.
Use anchorage length = 1280 mm
For example 10 of
Precast Eurocode 2:
Worked Examples29
RW
OB
TCC
CCIP-030
WE 7/1
April 08

Structural elements and connections 5


66
a) Edge support b) Intermediate support
Figure 5.25
Connections to walls.
a) Edge support b) Internal support
In-situ concrete
In-situ
concrete
Figure 5.26
Connections to beams.
Connections to beams
Typical connections to beams are shown in Figure 5.26.
Connections to ledge beams
The continuity tie reinforcement should interlock with the reinforcement of the supporting
beam. A typical detail is shown in Figure 5.27. The fl ange width of the supporting ledge
beam should be limited to the continuous solid section at the ends of the hollowcore
units or confi ned to the depth of their top fl anges.

5 Structural elements and connections


67
Transverse tie bars
/ (+/ ) / b b cr
Figure 5.27
Typical detail for connections to ledge beam.

5.4.12 Multi-span with


structural screed
Tie reinforcement within hollowcores
Tension lap length
Tie reinforcement within structural screed
Figure 5.28
Typical detail showing the tie reinforcement
within the structural screed.
a) For Class 2A structures b) For Class 2B and over structures
Tension lap length
Tying reinforcement within hollowcores
a) For Class 2A structures b) For Class 2B structures
Figure 5.29
Typical detail showing connection of tying
reinforcement to an edge beam.
Figure 5.28 shows a typical detail where the tie/fl exural reinforcement is placed within
the structural screed.
Where the structural screed is used to provide the tie and fl exural continuity
reinforcement
it should be adequately tied to the perimeter ties. Figure 5.29 shows a typical detail
for this.
The permitted deviations are specifi ed in BS EN 1168, which are complementary to those
given in Eurocode 2. BS EN 1168 provides further restrictions with respect to cover based
on the geometry of the hollowcore units. The following are extracts from that standard.
5.4.13 Dimensions
Structural elements and connections 5
68
The maximum deviations, unless declared by the manufacturer, shall satisfy the following:
􀂄 slab length } 25 mm
􀂄 slab width } 5 mm
􀂄 slab width for longitudinally sawn slabs } 25 mm
The minimum cover cmin to the nearest concrete surface and to the nearest edge of the
core, as stated in BS EN 1168 shall be:
􀂄 for the exposed face, the one determined in accordance with Eurocode 2, Cl. 4.4.1.2;
􀂄 for preventing longitudinal cracking due to bursting or splitting and in the absence of
specific calculations and/or tests as follows:
􀂄 when the nominal centre to centre distance of the strands ≥ 3φ: cmin = 1.5φ;
􀂄 when the nominal centre to centre distance of the strands < 2.5φ: cmin = 2.5φ;
􀂄 cmin may be derived by linear interpolation between the values of above
where φ is the strand diameter (mm). In the case of different diameters of strand, the
average value shall be used for φ.
Double tee beams are ribbed units, usually with two ribs in each 2.4 m wide unit. Other
widths can be provided. It is also possible to obtain an inverted trough unit with the
ribs at
each unit edge. The double tee is the lightest precast unit for spans in the 9 to 20 m
range
thus requiring a lighter support structure than hollowcore, for example, see Figure 5.30.
Alternatives to double tees exist in the form of multi-rib units, usually with three ribs.
5.4.14 Tolerances for
construction purposes
5.4.15 Minimum concrete
cover and axis distances of
prestressing steel
5.5 Double tee beams
a) Without structural screed b) With structural screed
Figure 5.30
Typical double tee units.

5 Structural elements and connections


69
The shape of the of the double tee unit is particularly suitable and economical for
prestressing
because of the high position of the neutral axis, which maximises the lever arm,
and because the ratio of the top and bottom fi bre modulus is similar to the concrete to
steel modular ratio.
Double tee units can be procured in a variety of depths, from 300 to 800 mm and even
beyond, but the most common unit is 600 mm deep as this conveniently carries offi ce
loading to 12 m and car park loading to 16 m. The most common application of double
tee units is in car park structures. The top fl ange is usually 50 or 60 mm deep and the
ribs
taper from a minimum of 140 mm at the base, widening towards the underside of the top
table, the taper of 1 in 20 each side allowing for easy lifting out of a fi xed mould.
There are
variations to dimensions as some manufacturers have fi xed moulds set for the full depth,
e.g. 800 mm, and fi t pallets inside to make units of less depth; thus the shallower the
unit is,
the wider the bottom of the web. It is advisable to check what dimensions are available
from
the manufacturers at the time of design, although these variations are not usually
critical.
In order to achieve maximum economy, grids should be at 2.4 m modules, 7.2 m being the
most common. Specially shaped units, to cover irregular grid areas, narrow or tapering
units, units with splayed ends and notched units to fi t round columns and others, can be
supplied.
Double tee units are normally designed by the precast manufacturer and a typical example
of this is given in the Precast Eurocode 2: Worked Examples29.
BS EN 13224, Precast Concrete Products – Ribbed Floor Elements5 provides the specifi cation
for materials, production, properties, requirements and methods of testing for ribbed fl
oor
elements. This includes a section on permitted deviations and minimum dimensions.
A less common system for manufacturing double tees is by using self-stressing moulds.
These can incorporate defl ected strands (see Taylor 30).
Welding is commonly used in double tee construction as tests and experience show that
the welded connection between fl anges is the only method of connection that is positive,
taking account of differential camber, and that gives excellent long-term performance
with respect to controlling cracking at the fl ange joints in car park construction from
the
rolling loads (see Figure 5.31).
In car parks it is common for the weld plates and the welded cross-bar to be in stainless
steel with the anchor bars beneath the concrete surface in mild steel. Manufacturers have
procedures for ensuring the stainless to mild steel welds are made correctly, and account
for the higher temperatures required with stainless steel. This can result in more
expansion
of surface mounted plates and spalling on site.
5.5.1 Self-stressing moulds
5.5.2 Welded joints
Structural elements and connections 5
70
Where welding is permitted it should be the responsibility of an erection subcontractor
and carried out before the structure, including any areas immediately below, is released
for access by other trades. Thus safety issues with respect to personnel (arc eye) and fi
re
in debris beneath are controlled.
It is essential to ensure that the erection subcontractor is experienced in welding work,
that modern gas shielded weld procedures are used by trained and tested welders and
that site procedures take account of welding hazards with respect to shielding from arcs
and in the removal of any fl ammable material from the workplace.
Weld inspection procedures should be agreed with the welder. End connectors are critical
and should all be de-slagged and inspected. The number of fl ange connectors usually
allows inspection to be on an agreed statistical basis.
Double tee secondary reinforcement usually consists of end cages, which commonly protrude
from the top surface of the unit to bond into the structural topping, and a special
light fabric in the top table (fl ange), sometimes held in place by fi ve or seven
stressed
wires. To assist shear fl ow from the rib to fl ange at the ends, it is also usual to
provide
some transverse steel in the fl ange at the end, see Figure 5.32.
100 x 40 shear connector
with 25 φ bar in welded
connection
100 x 100 steel plate
anchored into double tee unit
(The plate should be welded
to the anchorage bar)
Figure 5.31
Typical double tee connection details.

5.5.3 Structural topping


5 Structural elements and connections
71
Where the designer has designed the double tee fl oor as a slab in accordance with
Eurocode 2,
Cl. 6.2.1 (4) minimum shear reinforcement is not required when V Ed ≤ VRd,c. Apart from the
main stressed strands, double tee beams often only have reinforcement in the form of a
light fabric in the top fl ange to control shrinkage and transportation stresses and a
light
end cage in the web to control transfer transmission zone stresses.
Structural concrete screed with fabric reinforcement is often provided for the fi nal
structure.
This is also used to augment the welded connections between units. The lateral shear
connectors,
which should be welded, provide lateral continuity between the double tee units
and can spread concentrated loads from one unit to another. The fabric size is defi ned by
the need for transverse ties (they augment the welded shear connection tie capacity) and
in some cases for load distribution of point loads on the fl oor to adjacent units.
Floors are often required to carry point loads and line loads from partitions to
supporting
beams. Eurocode 2, Cl. 10.9.3 (5) states that transverse distribution of loads should be
based upon analysis or tests. The designer should check any test report carefully to
ensure
that it covers the specifi c design situation. It is not recommended that differences
between
the defl ection of units are removed by jacking and then welding the shear keys. Any shear
forces resulting from such an operation or any other load variation should be considered
in the design of the connections.
Lifter position decided
by supplier
May protrude into
structural topping
Steel end plate with
internal anchor for
tie to support
Transverse bars for
shear flow with flange
U-bars to close links
at end of web.
Upper strand layer
may be debonded
Lower strand layer
should never be
debonded
End U-bar or anchored
angle to restrain spall
potential at end of rib
Link cage nominally
10 mm at 50, 100 &
200 ctrs in end 2 of
unit to aid anchorage
of strands
d
Figure 5.32
Typical double tee end detail.

5.5.4 Transverse distribution


of concentrated loads
Structural elements and connections 5
72
It is recommended that the width of slab assumed to contribute to the support of
concentrated
loads (including partitions in the direction of the span) should not exceed the width
of three precast units and joints, plus the width of the loaded area, or extend more than
a
quarter of the span on either side of the loaded area. In some forms of construction, for
example long span wide units, these limits may be inappropriate and more detailed
considerations
should be made. Where there is a reinforced structural topping the width of
four precast units and joints may be allowed to contribute. Elliott 23 gives further
information.
Double tee fl oors can be designed either to carry line partition loads by providing extra
strength in the unit beneath or by a 2D elastic analysis. The double tee deck can be taken
as being comprised of a two-way beam grillage with the beam stiffness in one direction
and the fl ange stiffness from the full fl ange depth in the other, even where the fl
anges
between adjacent double tees meet.
Double tee beams can be provided with additional reinforcement, for example links and
additional longitudinal steel for more than the normal one hour of fi re resistance, shear
reinforcement for exceptionally heavily loaded cases and top steel for cantilever ends.
Typical end and side connections are shown in Figure 5.33; these connections can be part
of the tying strategy of the complete design.
Free standing double tee beams with end and side shear connectors should always be put on
elastomeric bearings. A mortar bed may only be used if suffi cient reinforcement is
provided
through the joint to ensure that it behaves monolithically as shown in Figure 5.33, see
also Section 4.1. The welded connection in Figure 5.33a is formed from two surface plates
with anchoring reinforcement welded to it cast into and anchoring around the beam
longitudinal steel, and in the double tee rib anchoring to the end cage. A surface plate
is
then placed on top and welded down with fi llet welds. This anchorage can be used as part
of the transverse tying of the structure.
5.5.5 Tying requirements
End connector with
welded tie bar
Structural
topping
Double tee
a) Standard double tee support
with welded connection
b) Support of double tee with full continuity.
Note: Temporary support of beam may be required
End of web End of flange
Figure 5.33
Typical double tee connection detail.

5 Structural elements and connections


73
Double tees cast into in-situ edge beams should have protruding steel as a tie and this
steel should be taken far enough into the double tee to ensure that it is fully lapped
with
the stressed reinforcement.
To create half joints the ends of double tee units may be scarfed, as shown in Figure
5.34.
Ends should not be scarfed to more than two-thirds of their depth, for example a 600 mm
deep unit may be scarfed to 400 mm. Scarfi ng allows the edge beams to still support the
double tee in the temporary situation and be no deeper than the double tee itself. The
scarf
may also be extended so as to provide a convenient path for services between double tee
ribs. Figure 5.34 shows typical reinforcement in a scarfed end. Debonding should never
be applied to the bottom strands in the rib or to the strands immediately above a scarf.
5.5.6 Half joints
Strut and tie (1) Strut and tie (2)
Reinforcement and anchorage provided for struts and tie layouts 1 and 2
Chamfer allows inclined tie to
be in optimum position
Only additional reinforcement for the mechanism of strut
This figure is to be read with Figure 5.32
and tie is shown.
Strand must not be debonded
Strand must not be debonded
Strand must be
present and must
not be debonded
Figure 5.34
Double tee with scarfed end.
A variant of the half joint support is to use a billet protruding from the rib at the end
of
the double tee at a high level, as shown conceptually in Figure 5.35.
This has the advantage that a nibbed bearer beam is not required and that the bearer beam
does not need ‘hang up steel’. A disadvantage is that the bearer beam has no restraint
to
rotation from the bearing force of the double tee at its soffi t. This lack of restraint
should
be considered in the temporary condition, when there may be out-of-balance moments
on the bearer beam and in the permanent condition for edge beams, or beams supporting
5.5.7 Billet support of double
tee units
Structural elements and connections 5
74
fl oor spans of varying length on each side. Where there is a permanent torsion applied to
the beam, the connection to the supporting column should be capable of providing torsional
fi xity. This should not be a problem if the bearer beam and column are in-situ concrete,
but this would be an important design consideration if the bearer beams are precast.
The billet assembly can be purchased as a proprietary item. The designer should ensure
that the fi tting is adequate, meets the specifi cation and is suitable for use in the UK.
Galvanised fi ttings can have corrosion problems in chloride bearing environments so
expert advice should be sought before the fi ttings are used in swimming pool roofs, car
parks and exposed coastal locations.
Finally, the fi tting has to be incorporated into the double tee in such a way that it
interacts
with the other reinforcement in the unit to develop the strut and tie action, conceptually
illustrated in Figure 5.35. Internal tie forces required for robustness may also have to
be
carried by the fi tting. These may not have been considered in the development of the
fi tting, particularly if it was manufactured overseas where the traditions of tying
structures
may not be the same as in the UK.
Two beams are usually supplied in a load and should be secured in such a way that
holdingdown
straps do not bear on the top fl ange edges. The site access must be fi rm without
irregularity. Careless handling and the loading of the top fl anges with site construction
material can crack the top fl ange of a unit, typically at the ends at the interface
between
the fl ange and web. Such cracking is unsightly rather than hazardous in the long term and
the manufacturer can be consulted to suggest repair procedures that should be carried
out before the structural topping is cast.
Precast concrete stairs are produced to be incorporated within many forms of
construction. This section considers their use within in-situ and precast concrete frames.
Their use has become common, especially within ‘design and build’ contracts, where the
speed of construction is a benefi t.
Tie
Tie
Strut
Double tee
The tension in the vertical tie will be about
double the value of the compression forces
Figure 5.35
Support of double unit using billet connection.

5.5.8 Transportation of long


double tee beams
5.6 Stairs
5 Structural elements and connections
75
It should be noted that stairfl ights are the primary means of escape if a building is
subject
to fi re or explosion and thus the robustness of the structure is vital.
BS EN 14843, Precast Concrete Products – Stairs8 provides the specifi cation for materials,
production, properties, requirements and methods of testing for precast stairs. This
includes
a section on production tolerances and minimum dimensions. It also describes terms and
defi nitions that are used. With regard to detailing it requires the technical
documentation
to include the construction data, such as the dimensions, the tolerances, the layout of
reinforcement, the concrete cover, the expected transient and fi nal support conditions,
and
lifting conditions. In particular, the technical documentation must include the maximum
acceptable gap between components when erected to ensure the design overlap of the
reinforcement is achieved, see Eurocode 2, Cl. 10.9.4.7.
When considering the use of any proprietary system it is essential to consider:
􀂄 how the stairflight is adequately tied to the adjacent parts of the structure
􀂄 sequence of construction
􀂄 temporary works involved
􀂄 chain of responsibility in achieving the final structure (often the temporary actions,
say
due to props, are the critical design condition).
The following procedure and points should be followed.
􀂄 The working drawings should include complete propping instructions related to the
cube strength of the in-situ concrete (in any event a minimum of four floors should be
propped).
􀂄 The sequence of construction and grouting-up instructions (if required) should be stated
on the drawings. The method of levelling should be determined and agreed with the
contractor and the method stated on the drawing.
􀂄 The waist dimension should not be less than 100 mm.
􀂄 For a precast stair flight on an in-situ landing nib section the precast flight should
be
positioned first before the in-situ landing is cast up against it.
5.6.1 Single stair fl ights Figure 5.36 shows the main features of a typical
single stair fl ight.
Tread
Going
Riser Waist
Figure 5.36
Typical single stair fl ight.

Structural elements and connections 5


76
Production tolerances
The tolerances are given in BS EN 13369, Common Rules for Precast Concrete Products2
and BS EN 148438, table 1, see Table 5.2. Unless stricter tolerances are given in the
project specifi cation these should apply.
Target dimension of the cross-section in the direction
to be checked
ΔLa
(mm)
Δcb
(mm)
L ≤ 150 mm +10
L ≥ 400 mm -5
}15
} 5
+15
-10
Key:
a The difference between two consecutive risers must not exceed 6 mm.
b The minimum concrete cover defi ned in BS EN 14843, Cl. 4.3.7 must take into account the depth of any concrete removed by a fi nishing
process. The positioning of reinforcement shall ensure that the minimum cover defi ned in BS EN 14843, Cl. 4.3.7 is achieved.

Minimum dimensions
The minimum dimensions given in Table 5.3 should apply.
Dimension Minimum dimension (mm)
Thickness of a step or landing 45a
Thickness of a wall 80
Thickness of a parapet 60
Wall thickness of a hollow element 45
Plan dimension of a column 120
Key:
a Special care should be taken to ensure the correct position of the reinforcement
Where precast stair fl ights are used supported on in-situ landings, the landings should
be
cast against the precast fl ight. This avoids the problems of tolerances where precast fl
ights
are placed on in-situ landings previously cast. Temporary propping will also be required
for
the precast stairs, see Figure 5.37. Figure 5.38 shows alternative preferred arrangements
of the reinforcement at the joints.
Table 5.2
Tolerances for stairs.
Table 5.3
Minimum dimensions for stairs.

5.6.2 Top and bottom


supports with in-situ
connections
In-situ concrete
Precast stair flight
Temporary 2 way
braced props
In-situ concrete
Precast stair flight
Temporary 2-way
braced props
Figure 5.37
Temporary support of precast stairs.
Note: It is important that the temporary braced props are supported by a permanent structure.

5 Structural elements and connections


77
H12 bar
Screed
Screed
Screed
H12 bar
H12 bar
a) Connection with dowel bar only
b) Connection with hanging and dowel bar
Figure 5.38
Preferred arrangements of reinforcement for
connection with in-situ concrete.

5.6.3 Top and bottom


supports with precast
concrete
Layout
Figure 5.39 shows the preferred dimensions for the detailing of the top joint between a
precast stair fl ight and a precast support.
The design of the bearings shall be in accordance with Eurocode 2, Cl. 10.9.5 and due
allowance shall be made for erection tolerances. For the application of this rule, two
classes of stair nibs are defi ned:
Class A: The stair nib is manufactured with the design end cover in accordance with
BS EN 14843, Cl. 4.3.1.1.
Class B: The stair nib is similar to Class A but with reduced end cover. In this case the
full
concrete cover is achieved on site with a non shrink mortar. The result shall be in
accordance
with Eurocode 2, Section 4.
Recommended bearing type
The recommended bearing type for precast stairs to precast concrete supports is a 10 mm
thick mortar bedding.

Structural elements and connections 5


78
90 15
100 min
15 90
100 min
10
90 15
10
100 min
15 90
90
90 min
15 90
100 min
15
10
a) Landing with sloping interface
b) Landing with square interface c) Wall with square interface
Figure 5.39
Preferred dimensions for top joint between
stairfl ight and precast support.
Design and supervision considerations
The following should be considered during the design and construction process:
􀂄 an allowance for a very generous impact factor on self-weight (say 2 or 3) of the
precast flight
􀂄 checking the consequence if the support is assumed to be at the edge of the in-situ nib
(or designing seating layer to even out the loading)
􀂄 failure mode in shear and hanging tension behind the nib
􀂄 the construction procedure and temporary propping loads are properly understood
􀂄 ensuring that the concrete reaches the required strength
􀂄 no shims are included
􀂄 the reinforcement is checked prior to concreting.
Lapped horizontal connection
Figure 5.40 shows a preferred layout of reinforcement. This may not be the easiest way
to construct an acceptable cage but ensures that the dimensions and the positioning of
the loop and link reinforcement is correct.
5 Structural elements and connections
79
Tie reinforcement in structural topping
Tie reinforcement in structural topping
375 15
15 375
Figure 5.40
Preferred layout of reinforcement for precast
joints.
120
35
40
Screed
70
120
375 15
Screed
15 375

Dowel connection
To provide suffi cient room for a dowel hole the dimensions of the nib need to be as shown
in Figure 5.41.
Figure 5.42 shows the preferred layout of reinforcement for dowel connections, and
worked example 8 shows a typical calculation.
Figure 5.41
Dimensions to allow for dowel hole.
Figure 5.42
Reinforcement arrangement for dowel
connection.

Structural elements and connections 5


80
Project details

Worked example 8
Dowel bar for connection of precast stairs
Calculated by Job No.
Checked by Sheet No.
Client Date
Consider a 1.5 m wide stair flight spanning 4 m, with a vertical spacing between precast units of 10
mm
and using a 20 mm diameter bar for the dowel. The tying force, FEd required should be at least the
permanent action of the stair flight.
Actions
Assume average vertical thickness of stair flight is (150 + 100)√2 = 350 mm
Self weight of stair flight
FEd = 25 x 0.35 x 1.5 x 4 = 52.5 kN
Resistance
It can be shown that the maximum dowel force, FRd, is
FRd = φb
2.√(fcd.fyd).{√(1 + ε2) - ε}

≤ Asfyd/√3 (shear resistance of the dowel)


where
ε = 3(e/φb) x √(fcd/fyd)
e = equal to half the vertical spacing between the units
Hence:
e = 10/2 = 5 mm
ε = 3 x (5/20) x √{(0.85 x 40/1.5)/(500/1.15)} = 0.171
and
FRd = 202 x √(0.85 x 40/1.5 x 500/1.15) x {√(1 + 0.1712) – 0.171}/1000 = 33.5 kN
≤ (π x 202/4) x (500/1.15)/(√3 x 1000) = 78 kN
∴ FRd = 33.5 kN
No req’d = 52.5/33.5 = 1.57
Use 2 No. 20 mm dia. dowel bars
Steel angles are used to allow the stair fl ight to rest directly onto walls or fl oor
units, see
Figure 5.43.
5.6.4 Top and bottom
supports using steel angles
Figure 5.43
Support using steel angles.
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5 Structural elements and connections


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Structural topping
Structural
reinforcement
Full strength weld of reinforcement to angle.
Lap with structural reinforcement.
Full strength weld to
reinforcement to angle.
Lap with structural
reinforcement.
Structural screed
Structural
reinforcement
In-situ structure
The angle provides the bearing onto the supporting structure but often does not have any
joint continuity reinforcement. The designer should ensure that the design of the precast
unit incorporating such a steel angle is adequate for the particular situation and
provides
an adequate tie to the structure. One method of achieving this is to weld reinforcement to
the steel angle and anchor it to the structure through the screed. Typical top and bottom
details are shown in Figure 5.44.
The tension forces transmitted from the angle to the reinforcement within the precast
unit in the top joint requires links welded to the bottom of the top angle. These should
be
designed to resist the forces from the angle with the force of the support at the worst
possible position, i.e. when the joint between units is the widest permitted by the
tolerances.
The stability of the staircase before the screed has been cast is not normally considered
by the manufacturer. It is essential to ensure that any temporary supports are provided
and clearly identifi ed in the construction sequence. One example is to provide a positive
tie between the fl ight and the landing by reinforcement welded to the bearing angle (at
the precast factory) to lap with the fabric in the structural topping.
Stair fl ights can be provided with an upper or lower integral landing as shown in Figure
5.45.
It is important that an insert (typically 50 mm) is provided on the top surface of the
landing. This allows the top fi nish to be laid uniformly over the whole of the landing
surface, avoiding any steps, due to construction and installation tolerances. In order to
establish an adequate tie to the supporting structure the reinforcement projecting from
the precast unit should interlock with that of the support.
Figure 5.44
Bottom and top support details using steel
angles.

5.6.5 Stairs with integral


landings
Structural elements and connections 5
82
Temporary 2 way
braced props
50 mm recess for
finish surface
In-situ wall
Bar inserted to lap with
wall reinforcement
Two horizontal bars inserted
within ‘U’ bar to lap with
wall reinforcement
b) Stair flight with integral upper landing
Bar inserted to lap with
wall reinforcement
50 mm recess for
finish surface
In-situ wall
Two horizontal bars
inserted within
‘U’ bar to lap with
wall reinforcement
Temporary 2 way
braced props
a) Stair flight with integral lower landing
Figure 5.45
Stairs with integral landings.
Corbels, nibs and half joints are common to many forms of hybrid concrete construction.
The correct position of and cover to the reinforcement is critical to the performance of
this type of element. The design should carefully specify the requirements through the
layout and reinforcement detail drawings.
Corbels should be designed using strut and tie models when 0.4 hc ≤ ac ≤ hc or as cantilevers
when ac > hc, see Figure 5.46 for defi nitions of hc and ac. Unless special provision is
made
to limit the horizontal forces on the support, a minimum horizontal force of HEd should be
combined with the vertical force FEd. Reference should be made to Section 4.1 concerning
the value of HEd.
Corbels, nibs and half joints are examples where non-linear strain distribution exists.
For
such situations design using strut and tie models is appropriate. Eurocode 2, Cl. 6.5
provides
advice and stress limitations for the struts and nodes.
5.7 Corbels, nibs and half
joints
5.7.1 Design by strut and tie
model
5 Structural elements and connections
83
Strut and tie model for a corbel
Figure 5.46 shows the layout of the strut and tie layout for a corbel.
The following procedure may be adopted to check the strength of the corbel:
􀂄 The stress σ in the strut of width x should be limited to σRd,max = 0.34fck(1-(fck /250)),
see Eurocode 2, Exp (6.56). The value of x effects the angle of the strut and hence the
force in the strut.
􀂄 The position of the top of the strut should be determined by the resolution of FEd and
HEd, and the depth to Ftd (aH), as shown in Figure 5.46.
􀂄 The angle and width of strut may be found by iteration or by use of the charts given in
Figure 5.36 of the Manual for the Design of Concrete Building Structures to Eurocode 2 31.
􀂄 It is recommended that z0 should not exceed 0.75d.
􀂄 The bearing stress under the load should not exceed 0.48 fck(1- (fck /250)), see Eurocode
2, Exp (6.61).
􀂄 Check the tie force, Ftd = Ftd’ + HEd where Ftd’ is the horizontal component of the strut
force caused by FEd.
􀂄 The total area of secondary links should be at least 0.5 area required to resist Ftd, see
worked example 9.
hc d
z0
aH HEd
FEd
ac
Ftd
ac’
x

Figure 5.46
Layout of strut and tie for a typical corbel.

Structural elements and connections 5


84
Project details

Worked example 9
Corbel design
Calculated by Job No.
Checked by Sheet No.
Client Date

Design ultimate load FEd = 300 kN, fck = 40 MPa, distance to the centre of the tension reinforcement
is assumed to be 45 mm. The width of the corbel is 300 mm, other details are as shown below.
Actions
HEd = 0.2 FEd = 0.2 x 300 = 60 kN
Geometry
y = 175 + 60/300 x 45 = 184 mm
z = √(1842 + 6052) = 632.4 mm
α = sin -1 (120/(2 x 632.4)) = 5.44º
β = tan -1 (184/605) = 16.92º
γ = 90 – 5.44 – 16.92 = 67.6º
z0/d = (184 tan 67.6)/605 = 0.73 < 0.75 ➝ OK
Strut design
Maximum stress in the strut is:
σRd,max = 0.34 fck(1-(fck 250)) = 0.34 x 40 x (1 – 40/250) = 11.4 MPa
For an angle of strut to the horizontal of 67.6º and strut force is:
FEd = 300/sin 67.6º = 325 kN
Hence the stress:
σEd = 326 x 1000/(120 x 300) = 9.1 MPa
σRd,max > σEd ➝ OK
Note: Further iteration could be carried out to maximise the strut efficiency.
Eurocode 2, Exp.(6.56)
300 kN
175
160
60 kN
bc = 300
45
650
400
300
x = 120
Z0
Ftd
67.64
o 605
a) Chosen solution b) Geometry of solution


605
x/2 y
Z
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Project details

Worked example 9
Corbel design
Calculated by Job No.
Checked by Sheet No.
Client Date
Reinforcement
The tension force in the reinforcement:
Ftd = Ftd’ + HEd = 300 cot 67.6º + 60 = 183 kN
Area of reinforcement required:
As,req = 183 x 1000/(500/1.15) = 421 mm 2
Try H20 bars:
No. req’d = 421/(π x 202/4) = 1.34
Use 2 H20 bars
Area of secondary links required = 421/2 = 211 mm 2
Try H8 links:
No. req’d = 211/(82 x π/4) = 5.2
Use 5 H8 links
See the figure below for layout of reinforcement in accordance with The Standard Method of
Detailing Structural Concrete32.
2 H20 bars
H32 bar
5 No
H8 links

Strut and tie model for nibs


Where a nib is connected to the bottom of a beam, Figure 5.47 shows the arrangement
of strut and ties for a given arrangement of reinforcement.
The angle of the strut should be determined by the position of the centre of the bottom
corner bar of the beam, up to the point of intersection of the resultant of the applied
forces and the centre of the tension bar in the nib.
It should be noted that the reaction, Ft2d in the link bar is FEd (zb + ac)/ zb. The value of
zb
may be taken as 0.8 db. Note this force is in addition to any shear force in the beam
link.
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Structural elements and connections 5


86
db
ac
FEd
HEd
Ft1d
Ft2d
Zb
Zn
Figure 5.47
Nib connected to bottom of beam.
Strut and tie model for half joints
Figure 5.48 shows the arrangement of struts and ties for a typical half joint. The
addition
of a diagonal bar is not considered essential but does provide a more direct route for the
forces and better crack control (see also PD 6687 21 and The Standard Method of Detailing
Structural Concrete32).
Distance between edge of bearing
and inside of bar to be a minimum
of the bar diameter or 0.75 x cover,
whichever is greater
Cranked bars improve crack control
Horizontal ‘U’ bar with
standard mandrel size
Tension lap
Nominal links at 150
Tension anchorage h
h
Full depth links to resist total
reaction equally spaced
a) Section
b) Plan
Figure 5.48
Layout of strut and ties for a typical half joint.

5 Structural elements and connections


87

Construction issues 6
6. Construction issues
The performance of an HCC structure may be affected signifi cantly by the construction
method. In order to achieve consistency between design and construction of structures it
is
important for the designer to include a method statement as part of the project specifi
cation
indicating the assumptions regarding construction. This will bring clarity to the project
and set a benchmark for pricing. The contractor is, of course, free to submit an
alternative
price based on different assumptions, if any, from the original design. In this process,
the
performance criteria agreed with the client should not be compromised.
Although precast elements generally require less propping than in-situ elements, it is
important to note that the forces in the props are also generally higher and therefore
more care is required when considering the temporary works.
Static equilibrium during construction
BS EN 1991-1-6 Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures – Part 1-6: General Actions – Actions
during Execution33 and BS 5975, Code of Practice for Formwork34 provide information on
the design of temporary works. The designer should also consider transient situations, for
example the effect of temporary overturning forces during construction. BS EN 1990,
Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design22, Table A1.2(A) describes the load factors that should
be used. Figure 6.1 shows the single arrangement that includes both equilibrium (EQU)
and structural resistance (STR).
6.1 Method of construction
Overturning 1.35* G + 1.5 Q k,f k, c
Resisting 1.15* Gk,b
Gk,b
Qk,c Construction
Gk,f floor
Resistance
beam
* Check that using a factor of 1.0 for both favourable and unfavourable
does not give a more unfavourable effect
Figure 6.1
Temporary loading during construction.
88

6 Construction issues
For type 5 form of construction (see Figure 2.1) the in-situ concrete is used to knit the
precast fl oor and beams together. The support of the precast fl oor should be designed as
a
bearing in the temporary case and, even though the bearing will eventually be part of an
integral system, it will benefi t from neoprene pads beneath the fl oor elements. The
outer
edge of the supporting beam should include a chamfer to eliminate spalling when the
fl oor is loaded onto the precast beam and the full load comes onto the combined system.
The chamfer also gives a visually clean edge to the joint between the precast and in-situ
concrete if the precast unit is ribbed – a double tee for example. The support and
restraint
of the beam onto the column should also be considered in the temporary situation, as
this connection may not be fully made before the in-situ composite concrete is placed.
For construction types 3 and 4, see Figure 2.1, the precast fl oor is supported on some
form of propped system before the in-situ edge beam is poured. The props should be
designed for the construction loading and a means to gradually release the supported load
onto the composite fl oor should be devised with back propping if necessary to support
the fl oors above.
The defl ection of the shuttering of the in-situ edge beam during casting should be
considered.
If the fl oor and edge beam shuttering are supported from separate propping systems
during the pouring of the in-situ concrete the support struts of the in-situ area will
take
up load and may shorten slightly. The fl oor is on a different set of props and will not
shorten as no extra load is applied to it. This can result in cracking of the top of the
fl oor
near to the support as the moment from the wet concrete is applied. To avoid this risk
entirely, the same support system should be used for the fl oor and edge beam shutter,
see Figure 6.2.
A neat lower end to an embedded fl oor unit can be achieved by forming a small groove
in the in-situ concrete. This allows the edge of the in-situ to fi ll properly, avoids the
likelihood of spalling and masks any slight difference in the soffi t level, see Figure
6.3.
a) Separate support systems can cause cracking in precast unit. b) Common support of precast floor and insitu beam.
Figure 6.2
Support for connection.
89
Construction joint
Groove detail
Figure 6.3
In-situ/precast joint showing groove detail.
The preparation of the base is of paramount importance. The surface of the precast units
should be left rough during production and contained shot blasting equipment (which will
avoid damaging the unit) used to prepare the surface, unless it can be shown that there
will be adequate bond. All loose debris should be removed. Where required, the joints
between the units should be grouted at least one day before the screed is placed.
Hollowcore units are manufactured to a 1200 mm module and double tees are normally to
a 2400 mm module. It is possible to introduce narrow units into a layout or units tapered
in plan if the building layout requires it. In the case of hollowcore, these are cut after
manufacture,
but double tees are cast to the required dimensions. In such cases, the manufacturer
will be able to advise on how to detail the special units so that they are suffi ciently
robust
to be delivered and incorporated into the building successfully and to ensure that exposed
soffi ts look acceptable. In the case of long span units, for example, it may be
preferable
to take up a required taper in the last two units rather than have the last unit tapering
excessively. Double tees can also be cast as single tees allowing a greater taper in plan
than can be provided in a double tee unit, see Figure 6.4.
In situations where long and short units are side by side, for example where lift and
stair
cores shorten spans, differential cambers can produce diffi culties. This is particularly
the
case with long span double tees, for example in car parks. A clear span double tee car
park
unit may have a camber of 30 mm whereas the unit next to it, spanning from a common
bearing position at one end to a ramp or stair core, may be 12 m long and have a camber
of 10 mm. This difference in level is usually accommodated in practice by bearing the
non-common end of the shorter span at a higher level than the long span unit, as shown
in Figure 6.5. The designer should consult with the manufacturer to obtain an estimate of
these cambers and mark the drawings accordingly.
6.2 Composite action
between precast units and
in-situ structural topping
6.3 Specially shaped
standard units
Construction issues 6
6.4 Long and short units
adjacent to each other
90
Web
beneath
Key
Figure 6.4
Specially shaped standard units.

6 Construction issues
15 mm camber
30 mm camber
Outer supports at same level
Inner supports set approx. 15 mm
higher to reduce camber step
between long and shorter unit
Figure 6.5
Long and short unit adjacent to each other.
91

Construction issues 6
In some countries, it is considered good practice to jack double tee fl anges at mid-span
to
even out camber differences. This is sometimes carried out by casting loops of
reinforcement
that protrude from the fl anges, vertically at mid-span, which are then used as purchase
points for a crowbar or jack. While the built-in stresses from this process do not affect
the
ultimate strength of the structural system because of plasticity at the ultimate limit
state, it
is not recommended, as it can induce local cracking in the fl anges, see also Section
5.5.4.
Double tee units should always be de-tensioned using release jacks that release all of the
tendons simultaneously and gradually. This is standard practice in the UK, but not
throughout
the world. Engineers should be aware of the different practices and ensure that gradual
release is specifi ed and carried out. Otherwise bond checks should be carried out.
Hollowcore units are almost unique in that they are manufactured in a continuous length
and are sawn to the required length only after the concrete has reached the appropriate
strength. The de-tensioning process only de-tensions the strands at each end gradually
whereas at the saw cuts a gradual release of tendon stress is not possible. The integrity
of
the anchorage bond of the tendons can be checked by examining the ‘pull-in’ of the
strands
at the ends of the unit. Assuming that the anchorage length is in the order of 1000 mm
and that the build-up of strain is linear in that length, as stated in Eurocode 2, a pull-
in
design value of 2 mm can be calculated. However, this does not allow for the thickness of
the saw-cut and in practice the measured pull-in is normally less than 1 mm. Manufacturers
should check pull-in on units routinely and reject any with excessive pull-ins.
On site, hollowcore units are often lifted into their fi nal position using clamp lifting
devices
that clamp onto the sides of the unit near to each end. The clamp arms are of such a width
that a unit cannot be placed exactly next to an already erected adjoining unit; thus, when
the lifting device is removed, the unit has to be moved laterally to close up the gap.
This
is often accomplished by moving the unit, or ‘barring’ it with a crowbar. While this may
not cause damage to a short span light unit, there is a risk of breaking a corner of a
long
span unit.
Manufacturers recognise that barring of long span and heavy units is not good practice and
provide other means of lifting hollowcore units for this situation, e.g. ‘L’ shaped
lifting
arms or lifting loops cast into the hollowcore units. Lifting loops should be used for the
last unit that has to fi t into an exact space. If lifting clamps are used, the unit would
have
to be placed at an angle, resting on the edge of the previously placed unit, while the
clamps
are removed and then barred until it drops into place.
Guidance on the safe practice of barring is given in Code of Practice: For the Safe Erection
of Precast Concrete Flooring and Associated Components 35.
6.5 Differences of camber
in double tees
6.6 Method of de-tensioning
double tee units
6.7 Checking strand or wire
pull-in for hollowcore units
6.8 Placing hollowcore
units into the correct
position
92

6 Construction issues
Production tolerances are specifi ed in BS EN 13369, Common Rules for Precast Concrete
Products2, Cl. 4.3.1.1. For cross–sectional dimensions L, the permitted deviation is ΔL,
and
for position of reinforcing steel, prestressing steel and for the design cover c the
permitted
deviation is Δc. The permitted deviations of cross-sections for structural elements are
reproduced in Table 6.1.
Target dimension of the cross-section in the direction
to be checked
ΔL
(mm)
Δc
(mm)
L ≤ 150 mm + 10
- 5
} 5
L = 400 mm } 15 + 15
- 10
L ≥ 2500 mm } 30 + 30
- 10
Notes:
1. Linear interpolation may be used for intermediate values.
2. ΔL and the positive values of Δc (upper permitted deviation) are given to ensure that deviations in cross-sectional dimensions and in position
of the reinforcement do not exceed values covered by the relevant safety factors in the Eurocodes.
3. The negative values of Δc (lower permitted deviation) are given for durability purposes.
4. In particular, functional specifi cities of the products may require tighter tolerances.
5. The given values may be modifi ed by product standards.

The upper permitted deviation for the location of the reinforcement may be determined as
the mean value of the bars or strands in a cross-section over 1 m in width, e.g. slabs and
walls.
The design cover c of the reinforcement shall be at least the minimum cover, cmin, plus
the permitted deviation , Δcdev, or the producer’s guaranteed deviation, whichever is
lower.
For principal dimensions other than cross-sectional dimensions:
ΔL = } (10 + L/1000) ≤ } 40 mm
where
L is the target size of the linear measure expressed in millimetres
Other types of tolerances may be given by product standards together with the values of
the related permitted deviations, e.g. camber of beams. These values will not include the
deformation effects of any applied load or of prestressing. In the verifi cation of the
measured
deviations, such deviations shall be taken into account by computing their value for the
test situation, including all the relevant time-related effects.
6.9 Production tolerances
Table 6.1
Permitted deviations of cross-section.
93

Special structures - case studies 7


7. Special structures - case studies
This chapter describes two projects that relied upon hybrid concrete construction to
realise an architectural requirement: Lloyd’s of London36, 1986, and Bracken House37,
1992.
Both these buildings were constructed within a traditional contract procedure led by the
architect. The design engineers and contractors found solutions to ensure that the
architect’s
intent was achieved with the most suitable use of materials. This required very close
cooperation between engineer and architect, with a particular contribution from the
specialist precaster. The input of the contractor to the design solution was small on
these
projects.
One of the most important themes common to both projects related to the design of the
structural joints. These were designed either to be:
􀂄 made of in-situ concrete that connected precast elements to in-situ elements or other
precast elements, allowing for reasonably large construction tolerances or
􀂄 made with close tolerance templates that ensured that great care had to be taken to
construct them correctly.
In 1977 the Committee of Lloyd’s decided to redevelop their site located either side of
Lime Street, London. Architects Richard Rogers & Partners, with Ove Arup & Partners as
structural and service engineers, won a competition by defi ning a design strategy rather
than a building. The key points were that it:
􀂄 allowed for maximum flexibility of use
􀂄 gave continuity of trading and preserved the Lloyd’s tradition
􀂄 did not rely exclusively on providing a new ‘Room’ as quickly as possible but gave
Lloyd’s a means of maintaining expansion of business in the short term. The Room is
the heart of Lloyd’s and is where the underwriters work.
Two important architectural features included in the design brief were:
􀂄 to show the columns cleanly throughout their height both on the external face and
within the atrium as shown in Figure 7.1.
􀂄 to show an exposed soffit of diagrid beams at 1.8 m centres.
The resulting design produced a rectangular ring fl oor with a central atrium. The span of
the fl oor was 16.2 m (9 x 1.8 m) with a fl oor-to-fl oor height of 4.5 m. The fl oor
depth was
1500 mm of which 1150 mm was structural. Prestressed in-situ beams span between
external columns and those at the atrium as shown in Figure 7.2. Further prestressed
beams were required in the corner areas of the building and precast concrete was used for
the column brackets, bearing yokes and stub columns.
7.1 Lloyd’s of London
The design included in-situ columns with precast brackets to support the fl oors, see
Figure 7.3a and 7.3b.
7.1.1 Achieving a clean column
appearance
94

7 Special structures - case studies


Figure 7.1a
Lloyd’s of London redevelopment, external view.
Photo: Copyright Arup
Figure 7.1b
Lloyd’s of London redevelopment, internal view.
Photo: Copyright Arup
95

Special structures - case studies 7


Precast yoke
Structural topping Prestressed inverted U beam
Stub column
Steel permanent formwork panels
Precast bracket
Figure 7.2
Layout of the fl oor components.
Steel dowel
Tolerance pocket with
steel inserts
Precast yoke
Precast
bracket
Dip groove
Stainless steel
flange
Steel plate with
shear studs under
Elastomeric bearings
Waterproofing detail
In-situ node
Prefabricated bracing

Figure 7.3a left


Precast concrete bracket connection.
Schematic layout of brackets.
Figure 7.3b above
Precast concrete bracket connection.
Precast bracket and yoke.
Photo: Copyright Arup
96

7 Special structures - case studies


The design of the bearing had to fulfi l a number of functions:
􀂄 to carry the vertical load from the floor while allowing for relative rotation as the
floor
and bracket deflected, see Figure 7.4a
􀂄 to transmit the wind and stability forces from the main building into the bracing
system via the bracket, see Figure 7.4b
􀂄 to restrain the bracket from rotating in plan because this provided stability restraint
to
the column at each level, see Figure 7.4c
􀂄 to allow construction tolerance.
7.1.2 Precast brackets
a) Bearing allowing rotation between filter
and bracket
b) Bearing restrains column c) Bearing transmits shear from building
into bracing
Figure 7.4
Design of bearings.
It was decided that all the forces should be carried on the top face of the bracket. The
vertical loads were transmitted through elastomeric bearings. The bearing was bonded to
a plate that was screwed down on an epoxy levelling bed and so could be replaced if
necessary. The horizontal forces were transmitted through four steel dowels. The load on
the dowels was too great to transmit directly into the concrete, so steel bearing-plates
were cast into the top surface of the bracket with welded shear studs projecting down to
transmit horizontal load into the brackets, see Figure 7.3a.
97

Special structures - case studies 7


Connection of precast bearing to column
The way the bracket was connected to the column was one of the key points in its design.
It was essential that this provided a straightforward construction operation, and the
details
had to have a proper architectural quality. The solution chosen was to make the bracket an
extension of a ring that would be formwork for the column at that point. The ring would
identify the bracket on the column, visually, and express the connection. The main bracket
reinforcement passed into the column zone within the ring where it turned up and down,
while the ring itself contained nominal reinforcement.
The ring gave two possible sequences of construction:
􀂄 The bracket could be placed on the column formwork and the columns and the bracket
filled together.
􀂄 The column could be cast first up to the soffit of the bracket, then the bracket placed
and concreted.
The second solution was chosen because it was thought that it would be too diffi cult to
hold the fi ve tonne bracket and column form in place with suffi cient accuracy, since
this
took place outside the slab. The details of the bracket and column profi le were worked
out
with the contractor to give grout tight joints while having the necessary visual
articulation.
The top of the column was slightly tapered to draw the bracket into the correct position
on a sealing strip.
Because the brackets and some of the columns were heavily reinforced, great care had to
be taken in the design and detailing to ensure that there was no clash. The fact that the
columns were circular made the problem worse. The steel was detailed and fi xed, with
templates, to precise dimensions that gave a clearance of a few millimetres. As is often
the case with such a sensitive and potentially disruptive detail, so much care was taken
that all went well.
A precast yoke was designed to transmit the loads from the in-situ prestressed beam to
the precast bracket, see Figure 7.3b. The bearing and pockets in the precast bearing were
designed to allow the elastic shortening of the prestressed U-beams to take place before
grouting the precast yoke. However, the action of prestressing relieved the props of some
of
the load of the beam grid and transferred it to the bracket. This applied a moment to the
column that caused an inward horizontal displacement. It was found to be better to grout
the dowels before prestressing, which restrained the column against this displacement. The
columns were pre-cambered outwards to allow for the prestress shortening of the U-beam.
When a fl oor was cast it was propped down through two levels to limit the amount of load
applied to the bracket and hence rotation.
7.1.3 Connection of precast
bearing to in-situ prestressed
inverted U-beams
98

7 Special structures - case studies


The main building contains none of the usual lift, stair and riser cores that can be used
for
stability, as these were provided through the satellite towers. A form of bracing between
some of the columns was chosen, see Figure 7.5.
Where the bracing was required extra connections were built into the precast brackets.
Floor grid construction
The fl oor-to-fl oor height is 4.5 m, of which 1.5 m is the fl oor itself. Both the
structure and
the services are exposed, with no false ceilings. Air is supplied through the raised fl
oor and
extracted at high level through the light fi ttings. The return air is taken out through
ducts
at stub column level. The permanent formwork panels were made of profi led metal sheets
welded to pressed channels, see Figure 7.6. The channels were lipped on the underside to
support the anchors for service hangers in the zone of the stub columns. A typical section
through the fl oor is shown in Figure 7.7.
7.1.4 Stability
T3 T4
T5
T6
T1
T2
Figure 7.5
Main building stability system.
99

Special structures - case studies 7


Stub columns
Diagrid beams
1800
300
550
440 1500
60
100
300
50
Structural slab Floor finish
Permanent formwork
& acoustic insulation
Figure 7.6
Permanent formwork panel with acoustic trays.
Photo: Copyright Arup
Figure 7.7
Typical section through fl oor.
The subcontractor developed a formwork system to produce the diagrid beams, see
Figure 7.8. Their design was based on folded and welded steel frames with ply faces.
Neoprene gaskets were built into the metal sections that also formed rebates at joint
lines.
The components were fi xed together with bolts and wedges with adjustment for tolerance.
The reinforcement cages were supported on purpose-made plastic cradles bolted down to
the soffi t form. These ensured accurate cover, and the threaded insert could be used
later to
restrain the top of partitions. This formwork was excellent; it gave a fi rst-class fi
nish and could
be put together and taken apart very quickly. It was the key to success of this
subcontract.
100

7 Special structures - case studies


􀂄 This was a bespoke building and although time of construction was of the essence, the
budget was generous.
􀂄 The interaction between client, architect and engineer was crucial and favoured the
‘traditional’ form of contract.
􀂄 Much time and effort was spent to provide the most suitable form of construction and
materials, but the contractor provided very little input to the development.
􀂄 The subcontractor developed a very efficient formwork system.
􀂄 Precast and in-situ concretes were used appropriately to ensure maximum benefit to
the aesthetics, speed of construction and accuracy of construction.
􀂄 Considerable effort and money was spent on setting up mock-ups and prototypes to
identify the most appropriate form of construction.
􀂄 Where it was made clear that great accuracy was required in construction it was
achieved without fuss.
Bracken house is on Cannon Street close to St Paul’s Cathedral, London. In 1986 Obayashi
appointed Michael Hopkins as architect and Ove Arup as structural and service engineers to
redevelop a building designed by Sir Albert Richardson. When this was listed it was
decided
to retain the two wings of the building and rebuild the centre block. From an engineering
point of view one of the main features of the design was the integration of the structure
and services in the centre block and the way this linked to the construction of the
facade.
The design was based on the principle of a wheel in which circumferential primary services
routes around the outside of the building and inside the atrium connect to radial
secondary
routes running between radial beams, see Figure 7.9.
7.1.5 Points of interest
7.2 Bracken House
Figure 7.8
Diagrid beam formwork system.
Photo: Copyright Arup
101

Special structures - case studies 7


Structural organisation
Ceiling
extract
The concept wheel
Extract
Supply
Floor services supply
between structure
Figure 7.9
Combined structure and services concept.
The outer circumferential route is supplied from risers located in the cores between the
wings and the centre block. The inner circumferential ring connects to air exhaust risers
contained within quadrant shaped columns in the corners of the atrium, see Figure 7.10.
For speed of construction the beams were precast, whereas the columns were cast in-situ
because their construction had no time penalty. Alternating in-situ and precast permitted
a
very simple connection detail; the beam swelled out at the column position and a pocket
was
left out at this point: the column reinforcement passed through the pocket (see Figure
7.11),
which was concreted up before casting the next lift of column. The beams are 650 mm
deep and span 12 m from a column at the atrium to a column that is set back 4.2 m from
the facade, and then continue with a reduced depth of 350 mm on to a support at the
facade. In each of the quadrant corners, eight radial beams are supported on a continuous
corbel that springs from the quadrant columns. There are no circumferential beams. The
structural slab is in-situ concrete placed on metal decking permanent formwork between
the precast beams.
102

7 Special structures - case studies


Above: Figure 7.10
Radial beams and quadrant-shaped column at
atrium corner.
Photo: Copyright Arup
Above right: Figure 7.11
Column beam connection.
Photo: Copyright Arup

The soffi t of the slab is above the soffi t of the beam and this zone is used for false
ceiling,
sprinklers, lighting, and the extract air plenum, see Figure 7.12. The zone above the 150
mm
slab is used for the fl oor-based air supply, electrical power and communications. The
raised
fl oor is 300 mm above the beam.
Figure 7.13 shows the fl oor layout during construction.
Floor finish
False ceiling
Lighting, sprinkers and air extraction
Precast concrete radial beams
Air supply, electrical services and communications
950
300
150 650
250
In-situ concrete slab on metal decking
Figure 7.12
Typical section through fl oor zone.
103

Special structures - case studies 7


Figure 7.13
Floor layout during construction.
Photo: Copyright Arup
􀂄 Apart from the plan of the site and the retention of the wings, the most important
factor
governing the design was the St Paul’s height rule, which restricted the height of the
building to that of the wings to avoid obstructing the view of the cathedral. To fit six
floors within the superstructure height available, while maintaining the clear heights
and raised floor depth required of a modern City office, the depth of the floor zone had
to be as small as possible. The result is a 12 m clear span, with a 950 mm overall, which
provides a clear zone of 300 mm for telecommunications and small power.
􀂄 By placing the slab towards the middle of the beams the benefit of T-beam action is
lost, but it is this, combined with the radial interleaving of structure and services,
that
leads to the minimum possible depth of the structural and services zone. The financial
benefit of the extra floor that this allowed far outweighed the reduction in structural
efficiency.
􀂄 Similar to the Lloyd’s contract, the interaction between client, architect and engineer
was crucial and favoured the ‘traditional’ form of contract.
􀂄 Precast and in-situ concretes were used appropriately to ensure maximum benefit to
the aesthetics, speed of construction and accuracy of construction. Metal decking
permanent formwork for the slab was chosen for its simplicity and ease of construction.
As the structural slab was in the middle of the floor zone, the metal decking was hidden
by the false ceiling.
􀂄 There was a strong belief that the joints between precast concrete units should be in
in-situ concrete and that the architecture should reflect this principle.
7.2.1 Points of interest
104

References
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5 BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION, BS EN 13224, Precast concrete products - Ribbed fl oor
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26 CONCRETE SOCIETY. Technical Report 67: Movement, restraint and cracking in concrete structures.
CS, 2008.
27 MARTIN, L. and PERRY, C. PCI design handbook, sixth edition. Precast/Prestressed Concrete
Institute, 2004.
105

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30 TAYLOR, H. Strand defl ection systems in pretensioned, prestressed concrete. The Structural
Engineer, Vol. 70, No. 5, March 1992.
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to Eurocode 2. IStructE, 2006.
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Detailing Structural Concrete, third edition. IStructE, 2006.
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General actions – Actions during execution, BSI, 2005.
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A cement and concrete industry publication


Type 1
Precast twin wall and lattice girder slab with
in-situ concrete
Type 2
Precast column and edge beam with in-situ
fl oor slab
Type 3
Precast column and fl oor units with cast in-situ
beams
Type 4
In-situ columns or walls and beams with precast
fl oor units
Type 5
In-situ column and structural topping with precast
beams and fl oor units
Type 6
In-situ columns with lattice girder slabs with
optional spherical void formers
Typical hybrid concrete options.
Please note this diagram is a repeat of Figure 2.1, page 8.
Design of Hybrid Concrete Buildings
This design guide is intended to provide the structural
engineer with essential guidance for the design of structures
that combine precast and in-situ concrete in a hybrid
concrete structure. It introduces the options available for
hybrid concrete structures, and goes on to explain the key
considerations in the design of this type of structure.
Bearings, interface details, consideration of movement, composite
action, robustness and the effects of prestressing are all explained in
this guide and design examples are included where appropriate. The
importance of overall responsibility and construction aspects are also
described.
CCIP-030
Published January 2009
ISBN 978-1-904482-55-0
Price Group P
© The Concrete Centre
Riverside House, 4 Meadows Business Park,
Station Approach, Blackwater, Camberley, Surrey, GU17 9AB
Tel: +44 (0)1276 606 800
www.concretecentre.com
CI/Sfb
UDC
624.072.33:624.012.3/.4
Robin Whittle has extensive knowledge and experience of designing
all types of concrete buildings. He regular contributes to concrete
industry publications and is a consultant to Arup. He was a member
of the project team which drafted Eurocode 2.
Howard Taylor has extensive knowledge and experience of
designing precast concrete elements and buildings, including
developing alternative production methods. He is a past president
of the Institution of Structural Engineers and is currently chairman
of the British Standards Institution Building and civil engineering
structures Technical Committee B/525.