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A spoon containing baking soda, cocaine, and a small amount of water. Used in a "poorman's" crack-cocaine production Many users rub the powder along the gum line, or onto a cigarette filter which is then smoked, which numbs the gums and teeth - hence the colloquial names of "numbies", "gummers" or "cocoa puffs" for this type of administration. This is mostly done with the small amounts of cocaine remaining on a surface after insufflation. Another oral method is to wrap up some cocaine in rolling paper and swallow it. This is sometimes called a "snow bomb."
Coca leaves are typically mixed with an alkaline substance (such as lime) and chewed into a wad that is retained in the mouth between gum and cheek (much in the same as chewing tobacco is chewed) and sucked of its juices. The juices are absorbed slowly by the mucous membrane of the inner cheek and by the gastrointestinal tract when swallowed. Alternatively, coca leaves can be infused in liquid and consumed like tea. Ingesting coca leaves generally is an inefficient means of administering cocaine. Advocates of the consumption of the coca leaf state that coca leaf consumption should not be criminalized as it is not actual cocaine, and consequently it is not properly the illicit drug. Because cocaine is hydrolyzed and rendered inactive in the acidic stomach, it is not readily absorbed when ingested alone. Only when mixed with a highly alkaline substance (such as lime) can it be absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach. The efficiency of absorption of orally administered cocaine is limited by two additional factors. First, the drug is partly catabolized by the liver. Second, capillaries in the mouth and esophagus constrict after contact with the drug, reducing the surface area over which the drug can be absorbed. Nevertheless, cocaine metabolites can be detected in the urine of subjects that have sipped even one cup of coca leaf infusion. Therefore, this is an actual additional form of administration of cocaine, albeit an inefficient one. Orally administered cocaine takes approximately 30 minutes to enter the bloodstream. Typically, only a third of an oral dose is absorbed, although absorption has been shown to reach 60% in controlled settings. Given the slow rate of absorption, maximum physiological and psychotropic effects are attained approximately 60 minutes after cocaine is administered by ingestion. While the onset of these effects is slow, the effects are sustained for approximately 60 minutes after their peak is attained. Contrary to popular belief, both ingestion and insufflation result in approximately the same proportion of the drug being absorbed: 30 to 60%. Compared to ingestion, the faster absorption of insufflated cocaine results in quicker attainment of maximum drug effects. Snorting cocaine produces maximum physiological effects within 40 minutes and maximum psychotropic effects within 20 minutes, however, a more realistic activation period is closer to 5 to 10 minutes, which is similar to ingestion of cocaine. Physiological and psychotropic effects from nasally insufflated cocaine are sustained for approximately 40 – 60 minutes after the peak effects are attained.
the average time taken to reach peak subjective effects was 14. hollowed-out pens. hard surface (such as a mirror. As tolerance builds rapidly in the short-term (hours). with higher doses leading to increased absorption efficiency. cocaine powder must be divided into very fine particles. and then insufflated." or "blowing") is the most common method of ingestion of recreational powdered cocaine in the Western world. just like shared needles. "lines" or "rails". more Hispanics than nonHispanic White and non-Hispanic Black people received sentences for crimes related to powder cocaine. the DEA seized several shipments in Hawaii. Georgia. and (clean) tampon applicators are often used to insufflate cocaine.6 minutes.” no such process had actually taken place. Injection . and the tea was essentially harmless." "sniffing. Such devices are often called "tooters" by users. In 1986 an article in the Journal of the American Medical Association revealed that U. This method of consumption has been practiced for many centuries by the native tribes of South America. CD case or book) and divided into "bumps". Cocaine of high purity breaks into fine dust very easily. The article stated that drinking two cups of the tea per day gave a mild stimulation. When insufflating cocaine.Mate de coca or coca-leaf infusion is also a traditional method of consumption and is often recommended in coca producing countries. Chicago. In a study of cocaine users. The drug coats and is absorbed through the mucous membranes lining the sinuses. Any material not directly absorbed through the mucous membranes is collected in mucus and swallowed (this "drip" is considered pleasant by some and unpleasant by others). cut straws. Illinois. and several locations on the East Coast of the United States. to ameliorate some symptoms of altitude sickness. and mood elevation. as far back as 1992 many of the people sentenced by federal authorities for charges related to powder cocaine were Hispanic American. specialized spoons. Any damage to the inside of the nose is because cocaine highly constricts blood vessels – and therefore blood and oxygen/nutrient flow – to that area. Prior to insufflation. increased heart rate." which reduces the efficiency of nasal absorption. like Peru and Bolivia. long fingernails. One specific purpose of ancient coca leaf consumption was to increase energy and reduce fatigue in messengers who made multi-day quests to other settlements. many lines are often snorted to produce greater effects. Insufflation Insufflation (known colloquially as "snorting. pointed ends of keys.S. Rolled up banknotes.” While the packaging claimed it had been “decocainized. absorption through the nasal membranes is approximately 30–60%. Despite this. In the United States. and the product was removed from the shelves. A study by Bonkovsky and Mehta reported that. the sharing of straws used to "snort" cocaine can spread blood diseases such as Hepatitis C. health food stores were selling dried coca leaves to be prepared as an infusion as “Health Inca Tea. The cocaine typically is poured onto a flat. except when it is moist (not well stored) and forms "chunks.
felt almost immediately after smoking. Inhalation See also: Crack cocaine Inhalation or smoking is one of the several means cocaine is administered. Powdered cocaine is also sometimes smoked. a flame held close to it produces vapor. or "chore". cocaine is sometimes combined with other drugs. such as cannabis.4min +/.1 minutes. A small piece of clean heavy copper or occasionally stainless steel scouring pad – often called a "brillo" (actual Brillo pads contain soap. Subjective effects not commonly shared with other methods of administration include a ringing in the ears moments after injection (usually when in excess of 120 milligrams) lasting 2 to 5 minutes including tinnitus & audio distortion. there is a risk of the user contracting blood-borne infections if sterile injecting equipment is not available or used. The euphoria passes quickly. and are not used). Aside from the toxic effects of cocaine. known as “speedball” is a particularly dangerous combination. Mitch Hedberg. "horns". Experimentally. there is also danger of circulatory emboli from the insoluble substances that may be used to cut the drug. River Phoenix and Layne Staley.Drug injection provides the highest blood levels of drug in the shortest amount of time. Smoking freebase or crack cocaine is most often accomplished using a pipe made from a small glass tube. often rolled into a joint or blunt. as do the packaging methods in the street level sale. including celebrities such as John Belushi. often taken from "Love roses. The effects. Cocaine is smoked by inhaling the vapor by sublimating solid cocaine by heating. In a study of cocaine users.0. It has been responsible for numerous deaths. "blasters" and "straight shooters". Crack smokers also sometimes smoke through a soda can with small holes in the bottom. . cocaine injections can be delivered to animals such as fruit flies to study the mechanisms of cocaine addiction." small glass tubes with a paper rose that are promoted as romantic gifts. the average time taken to reach peak subjective effects was 3. When smoked. The language referring to paraphernalia and practices of smoking cocaine vary. named for Chore Boy brand copper scouring pads. but may also mask the symptoms of an overdose. smokers often sprinkle it on cannabis. which is then inhaled by the smoker. based on self reports of 32 abusers who participated in the study. Chris Farley.5 minutes. as the converse effects of the drugs actually complement each other. – serves as a reduction base and flow modulator in which the "rock" can be melted and boiled to vapor."peak high" was found at mean of 1. These are sometimes called "stems". In a 2000 Brookhaven National Laboratory medical department study. As with all injected illicit substances. An injected mixture of cocaine and heroin. though heat destroys much of the chemical. Crack is smoked by placing it at the end of the pipe. This is colloquially referred to as a "bell ringer". are very intense and do not last long – usually five to fifteen minutes.
Even in this area. including Sigmund Freud (see below). Soon after it was isolated. When combined with alcohol. which is placed in the nostril for the 10–15 minutes immediately prior to the procedure. It wasn't long after the isolation of pure cocaine until people became aware of the addictive potential of the drug. In Australia it is currently prescribed for use as a local anesthetic for conditions such as mouth and lung ulcers. notably Vin Mariani. One of its first non medical uses was military. Cocaine has since been largely replaced in Western medicine by synthetic local anesthetics such as benzocaine. In 1883 Theodor Aschenbrandt administered cocaine to members of the Bavarian army. and tetracaine though it remains available for use if specified. it yielded a further potently reinforcing compound. and render the sufferer insensitive to pain". although it is now predominantly used for nasal and lacrimal duct surgery. and chocolate cocaine tablets. cocaine was sold over-the-counter until 1914. he extracted pure cocaine powder from the leaves of Erythroxylum coca (more commonly known as the coca plant). cocaine was used to try to cure almost all the illnesses and maladies that were known to man. royalty and even the Pope. In 1860. which brought the effects of this wonder drug to a wider medical audience. patent medicines. proparacaine. In 2005. now known to be cocaethylene. In this scenario dissolved cocaine is soaked into a ball of cotton wool. The major disadvantages of this use are cocaine's intense vasoconstrictor activity and potential for cardiovascular toxicity. Thus cocaine was a popular ingredient in wines. Some ENT specialists occasionally use cocaine within the practice when performing procedures such as nasal cauterization. thus performing the dual role of both numbing the area to be cauterized and also vasoconstriction. . Prospective buyers were advised (in the words of pharmaceutical firm Parke-Davis) that cocaine "could make the coward brave. In the USA. Medical use has been largely restricted to producing local anesthesia. Today. Coca wine received endorsement from prime-ministers.Cocaine hydrochloride for medical use. His positive findings were published in a German medical journal. Toothache Cures and Patent Medicines Cocaine was first synthesized in pure form by Albert Niemann. some of the used cocaine may be absorbed through oral or nasal mucosa and give systemic effects. It was found that the drug enhanced their endurance on manoeuvre. lignocaine/xylocaine/lidocaine. the dangers of cocaine led to the early development of safer drugs. Cocaine was historically useful as a topical anesthetic in eye and nasal surgery. researchers from Kyoto University Hospital proposed the use of cocaine in conjunction with phenylephrine administered in the form of an eye drop as a diagnostic test for Parkinson's disease. the anesthetic is combined with a vasoconstrictor such as phenylephrine or epinephrine. If vasoconstriction is desired for a procedure (as it reduces bleeding). the silent eloquent. It was widely used in tonics. toothache cures. use in medicine had been tempered by experience. Even when used this way.
to see if surgery could be performed using cocaine as a local anesthetic. A habit that probably lasted the rest of his life. Besides being an anesthetic. and has been replaced by other local anesthetics. he became addicted. specifically). and which the drug is still used for today (rarely). is that of a good surface anesthetic. This was due to experiments that were conducted by William Halstead. it also is a potent vasoconstrictor (constricts the blood vessels around the area where injected [eye or nose]). He stopped shooting cocaine and began taking morphine instead. The addiction grew so bad it put his career on the line. Unfortunately William experimented on himself by injecting cocaine.One medical use that was found early in the history of cocaine. After experimenting for a time. . He is often referred to as the Father of American Surgery. the need for it to be available is still there. Beginning in the late 1880s surgical procedures using local anesthetics (numbing a specific area to pain) were starting to be used instead of general anesthesia (rendering a person unconscious). Pharmaceutical grade cocaine is available in a 4% solution for injection. The vasoconstriction helps reduce bleeding and the systemic circulation of cocaine (into the heart. using cocaine. Cocaine has been used as a local anesthetic for eye and nasal surgery. William Halstead was one of the four founders of The Johns Hopkins Medical School. Studies comparing cocaine to other local anesthetics most often reveal that newer local anesthetics are more effective in reducing pain during surgeries and safer. It is generally accepted by the medical community that the use of cocaine for medical procedures should be limited. More recently. However. cocaine has some medicinal use. These newer (and safer) local anesthetics have to be combined with a vasoconstrictor in order to do the same effect as cocaine. the use of cocaine as an anesthetic for eye and nasal surgery has diminished. Medical use Besides being an extremely addictive and dangerous narcotic.