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Bauxite Deposits in World

Mineral Map of the World


Aluminium does not occur in free state, but it is
widely distributed in nature in the form of compounds. The
chief minerals of aluminum are either silicates or oxides.
SILICATES:
Kaolin Al2O3.2SiO2.2H2O
Potash felspar K2O. Al2O3.6SiO2
Potash mica K2O.3Al2O3.6SiO2.2H2O
OXIDES:
Bauxite Al2O3.nH2O
Gibbisite Al2O3.3H3O
Diaspore Al2O3.H2O
Corundum Al2O3
FLOURIDES:
Cryolite Na3AlF6
SULPHATES:
Alunite K2SO4.Al2(SO)3.4Al(OH)3

The ore of aluminium in which it exists abundantly is Bauxite .

Bauxite Deposits in India


Geology of bauxite
Composition
Bauxite occurs in three main forms depending on both the number of molecules of water of
hydration and the crystalline structure. The three structural forms of bauxite are Gibbsite,
Böhmite and Diaspore.

Gibbsite is a true aluminium hydroxide and Böhmite and Diaspore are both aluminium-oxide-
hydroxides. The main difference between the latter two is that Diaspore has a different
crystalline structure to Böhmite, and requires even higher temperatures for rapid dehydration.
As can be seen from the table below Gibbsite exists in trihydrate form and the latter two are
monohydrate.

Unit
Gibbsite Böhmite Diaspore
Composition Al(OH)3 AlO(OH) AlO(OH)
Maximum Alumina Content % 65.4 85.0 85.0
Crystal System Monoclinic Orthorhombic Orthorhombic
Density gcm-3 2.42 3.01 3.44
Temp. for Rapid Dehydration °C 150 350 450

Of the bauxite ores currently being mined the dominant form is Gibbsite, followed by a
mixed ore of Gibbsite and Böhmite. Differences in ore composition influence their
subsequent processing. Processing conditions are also affected by impurities, chiefly
compounds of iron, silicon and titanium.

Deposits
The major bauxite deposits are to be found in the tropics and in the Caribbean and
Mediterranean regions. Today most bauxite mines are in the Caribbean area, South America,
Australia and Africa. Bauxite is found in four types of deposit: blanket, pocket, interlayered
and detrital.

 Blanket deposit

Large blanket deposits occur in West Africa, Australia, South America and India.
These deposits occur as flat layers lying near the surface and may extend over an area
covering many kilometres. Thickness may vary from a metre or less to 40 metres in
exceptional cases although 4-6 metres is average.

 Pocket deposits

In both Jamaica and Hispaniola, as well as in Southern Europe, bauxite is found in


pocket deposits. The size of these depressions range in depth from less than one metre
to more than thirty. In some cases each pocket is isolated, while in others areas the
depressions overlap and compose one large deposit.
 Interlayered deposits

Interlayered deposits are found in the United States, Suriname, Brazil, Guyana,
Russia, China, Hungary and the Mediterranean area. They originally existed at the
surface as other types of rocks or volcanics. These formations are usually more
compact than in other deposits because of the additional weight of the overburden.

 Detrital deposits

The term "detrital" refers to deposits that form as a result of accumulation of bauxite
that has eroded from other deposits. Arkansas bauxite in the USA is mined from
detrital deposits.

Aluminium Extraction Plants in World

Shutdown
Capacity
Country City State Company Capacity
(tpy)
(tpy)
Argentina Puerto Madryn Aluar (Aluminio Argentino) 470,000
Rio Tinto Alcan (Bell Bay)
Australia Bell Bay 177,000
Ltd.
Australia Boyne Island Boyne Smelters Ltd. (BSL) 545,000
Hydro Aluminium Kurri
Australia Kurri Kurri 170,000
Kurri Pty Ltd.
Alcoa World Alumina
Australia Point Henry 225,000
Australia Ltd.
Alcoa World Alumina
Australia Portland Australia Ltd. - Portland 388,000
Aluminium
Tomago Aluminium
Australia Tomago 540,000
Company Pty. Ltd.
Sumgait Aluminium
Azerbaijan Sumgait 61,000
Works-Saz
Bahrain Askar Alba (Aluminium Bahrain) 872,000
Bosnia Mostar Aluminij d.d. Mostar 140,000
Albras (Aluminio Brasileiro
Brazil Belem 470,000 23,000
S.A.)
Alcominas (Alcoa Aluminio
Brazil Poços de Caldas 106,000
SA)
Alumar (Consorcio de
Brazil São Louis Aluminio do Maranhano 460,000 30,000
SA)
Brazil Santa Cruz Metalisul 95,000 95,000
Brazil Saramenha Novelis do Brasil S.A. 51,000 5,000
CBA (Companhia Brasileira
Brazil Sorocaba 485,000
de Aluminio)
Alucam (Compagnie
Cameroon Edéa Camerounaise de 100,000 50,000
l'Aluminium)
Canada Alma Rio Tinto Alcan - Alma 443,000
A.B.I. (Aluminerie de
Canada Bécancour 420,000
Bécancour Incorporée)
Alcoa Aluminerie de Baie-
Canada Baie Comeau 440,000 50,000
Comeau
Rio Tinto Alcan-
Canada Beauharnois 50,000
Beauharnois
Alcoa Aluminerie de
Canada Deschambault 260,000
Deschambault
Rio Tinto Alcan - Usine de
Canada Grande Baie 207,000
Grande-Baie
Canada Jonquière Rio Tinto Alcan - Jonquière 163,000
Canada Kitimat Rio Tinto Alcan - Kitimat 210,000
Rio Tinto Alcan - Usine
Canada Laterrière 235,000
Laterrière
Canada Sept-Îles Aluminerie Alouette Inc. 575,000
Shawinigan Rio Tinto Alcan -
Canada 91,000
Falls Shawinigan Falls
Egyptalum (Aluminium
Egypt Nag Hammadi 280,000
Company of Egypt)
France Dunkerque Aluminium Dunkerque SA 273,000 29,000
St. Jean de Rio Tinto Alcan - St.-Jean-
France 135,000 36,000
Maurienne de-Maurienne
Trimet Aluminium AG -
Germany Essen 170,000
Niederlassung Essen
Trimet Aluminium AG -
Germany Hamburg 135,000
Primary Products Hamburg
Hydro Aluminium
Germany Neuss Deutschland GmbH -Neuss 230,000 180,000
(Rheinwerk)
Germany Voerde Voerdal GmbH 90,000 45,000
Ghana Tema Valco (Volta Aluminium 200,000 200,000
Company)
Aluminium de Grèce SA
Greece St. Nicolas 166,000 31,000
(AdG)
Iceland Fjardaal Alcoa Fjardaal 346,000
Nordic Aluminum Co
Iceland Grundartangi 276,000
(Nordural)
Iceland Straumsvik Alcan Iceland Co Ltd. (Isal) 187,000
National Aluminium Co.
India Angul 475,000
(Nalco)
Hindalco Industries Ltd. -
India Hirakud 161,000
Hirakud Smelter
India Jharsuguda Vedanta Resources 250,000
Bharat Aluminium Co.
India Korba 350,000 50,000
(Balco)
Madras Aluminium Co.
India Madras 65,000 65,000
(Malco)
Hindustan Aluminium Co.
India Renukoot 345,000
(Hindalco Industries Ltd))
PT Indonesia Asahan
Indonesia Kuala Tanjung 265,000
Aluminium (Inalum)
Iranian Aluminium Co
Iran Arak 90,000
(Iralco)
Iranian Aluminium Co
Iran Arak (2) 110,000
(Iralco)
Al-Mahdi Aluminium Corp.
Iran Bandar Abbas 110,000 55,000
(AAC)
Bandar Abbas Hormozgan Aluminium
Iran 147,000
(2) (Hormozal)
Alcoa Italia SpA- Fusina
Italy Fusina 44,000 44,000
Works
Alcoa Italia SpA-
Italy Portoscuso 159,000
Portovesme Works
Nippon Light Metals Co
Japan Kambara 20,000
Ltd.
Kazakhstan Aluminium
Kazakhstan Pavlodar 250,000
Works (KAZ)
Malaysia Sarawak Press Metal 120,000
DP Kombinat Aluminijuma
Montenegro Podgorica 120,000 60,000
Podgorica (KAP)
Mozal (Mozambique
Mozambique Maputo 562,000
Aluminium Smelter)
Netherlands Delfzijl Aluminium Delfzijl BV 115,000
(Aldel)
Zeeland Aluminium Co
Netherlands Vlissingen 223,000 18,000
(Zalco)
New Zealand Aluminium
New Zealand Tiwai Point 351,000 18,000
Smelters (NZAS)
Alscon (Aluminium Smelter
Nigeria Ikot Abasi 197,000 180,000
Co of Nigeria)
Ardal Primary Production
Norway Aardal 233,000
(Haas)
Hoyanger Primary
Norway Hoyanger 60,000
Production (Haas)
Sor-Norge Aluminium AS
Norway Husnes 176,000 86,000
(Soral)
Karmoy Primary Production
Norway Karmoy 290,000 120,000
(Haas)
Alcoa Norway - Lista
Norway Lista 127,500
Works
Alcoa Norway - Mosjoen
Norway Mosjoen 221,500
Works
Sunndal Primary Production
Norway Sunndalsora 400,000 100,000
(Haas)
Oman Sohar Sohar Aluminium Company 360,000
PR China Aba Aba Aluminium Works 100,000
PR China Anlu Shi Hubei Aluminium Plant 22,000
PR China Baiding Baiding Aluminium Plant 21,000
Baise Yinhai Aluminium
PR China Baise Yinhai 100,000 40,000
Co
PR China Baotou Shi Baotou Aluminum Co. 100,000
Changjiang Aluminium
PR China Changjiang 62,000
Smelter
PR China Chiping Xinfa Chiping Xinfa Power Co 320,000
Chongqing Dongsheng Aluminium
PR China 50,000
Dongsheng Works
Chongqing
PR China Chongqing Aluminium Co 55,000
Tiantai
Changyuan Aluminum
PR China Chuangyuan 100,000
Works
Danjiangkou Water
PR China Danjiankou Shi Conservancy Aluminium 50,000
Factory
PR China Datong Xian Qinhai Aluminium Smelter 260,000
PR China Dengfeng Dengfeng Aluminium 65,000 20,000
Works
Dianneng Gejiu Aluminium
PR China Dianneng Gejiu 50,000
Works
Emeishan Aluminium
PR China Emeishan 355,000
Industry Clique Co. Ltd.
PR China Faxiang Faxiang Aluminium Works 70,000
Fushun Aluminium
PR China Fushun Shi 210,000 70,000
Reduction Plant
PR China Gongyi Gongyi Aluminium Plant 25,000
Guangyuan
PR China Qimingxing Aluminium Co. 114,000
Qimingxing
PR China Guanlu (new) Shanxi Guanlu Co. Ltd. 220,000 220,000
Shanxi Guanlu Aluminium
PR China Guanlu (old) 110,000
Plant
Guanyuan Sichuan Aostar Guangyuan
PR China 250,000
Aostar Aluminium Smelter
Guiyang Aluminium
PR China Guiyang Shi 240,000
Smelter
PR China Guizhou Guizhou Aluminum Plant 410,000
PR China Haizhou HaizhouAluminium Smelter 40,000
PR China Hejin Xian Long Men Aluminum Plant 120,000
Hongjun Aluminium
PR China Hongjun 122,000 60,000
Smelter
Honglu
PR China Honglu Aluminium Co 150,000
Aluminium
Huadong Aluminium
PR China Huadong 70,000
Works
PR China Huanghe Huanghe Aluminum Co. 80,000
Huasheng Huasheng Jiangquan
PR China 112,000
Jiangquan Aluminum Co.
Huaxin Aluminum
PR China Huaxin 70,000
Industries
PR China Huayu Huayu Aluminium Works 100,000
Jiaozuo Wanfang
PR China Jiaozuo Shi 420,000 30,000
Aluminium Smelter
PR China Jilin Jilin Aluminium Company 65,000
PR China Jnneng Jnning Aluminium Smelter 80,000
Shandong Yankuang Ke-au
PR China Ke'ao 135,000
Aluminium
PR China Lanjiang Shi Lanjiang Aluminium Works 30,000
PR China Lanzhou Lanzhou Liancheng 260,000
Liancheng Aluminium Plant
Lanzhou Aluminium
PR China Lanzhou Shi 170,000
Smelter
PR China Lintao Lintao Aluminium Plant 50,000
PR China Linzhou Lifeng Aluminium Co. Ltd. 240,000
PR China Longlin Longlin Aluminium Smelter 50,000
Longquan Longquan Aluminium
PR China 400,000
Aluminium Smelter
Longxiang Aluminium
PR China Longxiang 55,000
Works
Meishan Sichuan Meishan
PR China 130,000
Qimingxing Qimingxin Aluminium Co
Mianchi
PR China Mianchi Aluminium Plant 80,000
Aluminium
PR China Nanping Shi Nanping Aluminium Group 73,000 20,000
Nanshan Group Aluminum
PR China Nanshan 295,000 159,000
Co., Ltd.
PR China Ningxia Ningxia Jinjiang Group 370,000
PR China Panshi Xian Panshi Aluminium Works 25,000
PR China Pingguo Xian Pingguo Aluminum Co. 140,000
Shandong Pingyin
PR China Pingyin 26,000
Aluminium Plant
PR China Qiaotou Qiatou Aluminium Works 350,000
PR China Qinao Qinao Aluminium Smelter 90,000
PR China Qinghai Qinghai Aluminium Plant 436,000
PR China Qingtongxia Shi Qingtongxia Aluminum Co. 430,000
PR China Qinyang Qin Yang Aluminium 120,000 70,000
Sanmenxia Tianyuan
PR China Sanmenxia Shi 120,000 20,000
Aluminum Co.
Shandong Shandong Aluminium
PR China 78,000
Aluminium smelter
Shangdian Aluminium Co.
PR China Shangdian 125,000
Ltd.
Shanxi-Huaze Aluminium
PR China Shanxi-Huaze 210,000
& Power Co.
Henan Shenhuo Orient
PR China Shenhuo (new) 210,000 110,000
Aluminium Company
Henan Shenhuo Aluminium
PR China Shenhuo (old) 160,000 32,000
Company
PR China Taian Taian Aluminium Works 50,000
PR China Taiyuan Shi Taiyuan Aluminium Works 100,000
Tianyuan Aluminium
PR China Tianyuan 130,000 40,000
Group
Tongshuan Aluminium
PR China Tongshuan 150,000
Smelter
Tongshuan Tongchuan Xinguang
PR China 110,000
Xinguang Aluminium Co. Ltd.
PR China Tongshun Tongshun Aluminium Plant 50,000
Wanji Henan Wanji Aluminum
PR China 480,000
Aluminium Smelter Co. Ltd.
PR China Xichuan Xichuan Ferro-Alloy Works 90,000
PR China Xiezhou Xiezhou Aluminium Works 330,000
PR China Xinfa Xinfa Xiwang Al & Power 175,000
Xinjiang Yihe Aluminium
PR China Xinjang Yihe 400,000
Smelter
PR China Xinjiang Xinfa Group 370,000
Henan Xinwang Aluminium
PR China Xinwang 76,000
Co. Ltd.
Shanxi Yangquan
PR China Yangquan 68,000
Aluminium Co. Ltd.
Yangquan Aluminium
PR China Yangquan Shi 60,000
Works
Henan Hong KongYugang
PR China Yichuan Longquan Aluminium Co., 400,000 60,000
Ltd.
PR China Yinhai Yinhai Aluminium Co. 100,000
PR China Yongan Yongan Aluminum Co. 60,000
PR China Yongcheng City Yong He Aluminium 140,000
Yongcheng
PR China Yong He Aluminium 60,000
Xian
Yugang Henan Yugang Longquan
PR China 200,000
Longquan Aluminium Co. Ltd.
Henan Yulian Power
PR China Yulian Power 120,000
Group.
Shanxi Yungcheng Xiezhou
PR China Yuncheng Shi 30,000
Aluminium Works
Yungcheng Yungcheng Shanhe
PR China 65,000
Shanhe Aluminium Co.
Yunnan Aluminium Co.
PR China Yunnan 500,000
Ltd.
Yunnan Runxin Aluminium
PR China Yunnan Runxin 50,000
Works
PR China Yunnan Yunnan Yongxin Metals 35,000
Yongxin Processing Co.
Zhaofeng Aluminium
PR China Zhaofeng 61,000
Smelting Co
Zheijiang Zhejiang Huadong
PR China 70,000
Huadong Aluminium Co. Ltd.
Zhenxing Aluminium
PR China Zhengxing 120,000 70,000
Smelter
Zhengzhuo Aluminium
PR China Zhengzhuo Shi 58,000
Smelter
PR China Zhongfu Zhongfu Industry Group 308,000
Zhongning Aluminium
PR China Zhongning 370,000
Smelter
Shandong Aluminum
PR China Zibo Shi 55,000
Industries
Zouping Aluminium
PR China Zouping 141,000
Smelter
PR China Zunyi Xian Zunyi Aluminium Works 110,000
Qatalum (Qatar Aluminium
Qatar Mesaieed 625,000
Co)
Romania Slatina SC Alro SA Slatina 265,000 65,000
Bratsk Aluminium Works-
Russia Bratsk 1,000,000
BrAZ
Ural Aluminium Works –
Russia Kamensk 134,000 62,000
UAZ
Kandalaksha Aluminium
Russia Kandalaksha 90,000 26,000
Works –KAZ
Bogoslovsk Aluminium
Russia Krasnoturinsk 190,000 75,000
Works-BAZ
Krasnoyarsk Aluminium
Russia Krasnoyarsk 1,000,000
Works – KrAZ
Nadvoitsy Aluminium
Russia Nadvoitsy 90,000 29,000
Works – NkAZ
Novokuznetsk Aluminim
Russia Novokuznetsk 330,000 74,000
Works – NAZ
Sayan Aluminium Works –
Russia Sayanogorsk 540,000
SaAZ
Khakass Aluminium Works
Russia Sayanogorsk II 370,000 70,000
– KhAZ
Irkutsk Aluminium Works –
Russia Shelekhovo 470,000 110,000
IrkAZ
Thaishet Aluminium Works
Russia Taishet 10,000 10,000
– ThAZ
Volgograd Aluminium
Russia Volgograd 170,000 11,000
Works – VgAZ
Volkhov Aluminium Works
Russia Volkhov 24,000 5,000
– VAZ
Ziar nad Slovak Aluminium Co –
Slovakia 160,000 16,000
Hronom SLOVALCO
Slovenia Kidricevo Talum dd Kidricevo 85,000
Richards Bay,
South Africa Bayside Aluminium 195,000 120,000
Bayside
Richards Bay,
South Africa Hillside Aluminium 710,000
Hillside
Alcoa Inespal- Aviles
Spain Aviles 93,000 93,000
Works
Alcoa Inespal- La Coruna
Spain La Coruña 87,000 16,000
Works
Alcoa Inespal -San Ciprian
Spain San Ciprian 228,000 41,000
Works
Kubikenborg Aluminium
Sweden Sundsvall 120,000 35,000
AB (Kubal)
Tajikistan Aluminium
Tajikistan Regar 450,000 100,000
Company (Talco)
Turkey Seydisehir Eti Alüminyum AS 60,000
U.S.A. Evansville IN Alcoa - Warrick Operations 310,000 41,000
Century Aluminum of
U.S.A. Hawesville KY 250,000
Kentucky LLC
Rio Tinto Alcan Sebree
U.S.A. Sebree KY 200,000
Works
U.S.A. New Madrid MO Noranda Aluminum Inc. 280,000
CFAC (Columbia Falls
U.S.A. Columbia Falls MT 180,000 180,000
Aluminum Co.)
U.S.A. Massena NY Alcoa - Massena Operations 130,000
Alcoa - St. Lawrence
U.S.A. St. Lawrence NY 125,000 125,000
Reduction
Ormet Primary Aluminum
U.S.A. Hannibal OH 270,000
Corporation
U.S.A. Mount Holly SC Alcoa - Mt Holly Works 229,000
U.S.A. Alcoa TN Alcoa - Alcoa Works 215,000 215,000
U.S.A. Rockdale TX Alcoa - Rockdale Works 270,000 270,000
Alcoa - Intalco Aluminum
U.S.A. Ferndale WA 280,000 115,000
Corp.
U.S.A. Goldendale WA Goldendale Aluminum Co 172,000 172,000
U.S.A. Wenatchee WA Alcoa - Wenatchee Works 184,000 84,000
Century Aluminum of West
U.S.A. Ravenswood WV 180,000 180,000
Virginia Inc. (RAC)
Dubal (Dubai Aluminium
UAE Jebel Ali 1,010,000
Co)
Taweelah, Abu Emal (Emirates
UAE 700,000
Dhabi Aluminium)
Zaporizhsky Alyuminievy
Ukraine Zaporozhye 120,000 95,000
Kominat (Zalk)
United Rio Tinto Alcan - Lochaber
Fort William 42,000
Kingdom Smelter
United Rio Tinto Alcan -
Lynemouth 176,000
Kingdom Lynemouth Smelter
Venezuela Mantanzas CVG Venalum 448,000 190,000
Alcasa - (Aluminios del
Venezuela Puerto Ordaz 200,000 108,000
Caroni C.A.)

Extraction of Aluminium from Bauxite


Although aluminium is the most abundant metallic element in the Earth's crust, it is never
found in free, metallic form.

Bauxite
Aluminium forms strong chemical bonds with oxygen. Compared to
most other metals, it is difficult to extract from ore, such as bauxite,
due to the energy required to reduce aluminium oxide (Al2O3).
Aluminum is extracted from its oxide ore "Bauxite". The extraction of
aluminum involves the following steps.
Purification of Bauxite.
Electrolysis of Alumina.
Refining.

PURIFICATION OF BAUXITE TO ALUMINA


Bauxite contains two main impurities Fe2O3 and SiO2. These
impurities must be removed in order to get good quality aluminum.
These impurities make the aluminum brittle and liable to
corrosion.Depending upon the nature of impurity in bauxite any one
of the following methods can be used for the purification of bauxite.

HALL’S METHOD
Hall’s method is used for the purification of bauxite if it contains
both Fe2O3 and SiO2 in excess.

DETAILS OF THE PROCESS:

When finely divided bauxite is fused with sodium carbonate it


dissolved to form sodium aluminate,while the impurities of
Fe2O3 and SiO2 are left unaffected.
Al2O3.nH2O + Na2CO3 ® 2NaAlO2 + CO2 + (n) H2O
The fused mass is extracted with water leaving behind both
impurities. Sodium aluminate is then heated up to 50oC to 60oC
in the presence of CO2. The precipitates of aluminum hydroxide
are formed.
2NaAlO2 + 3H2O + CO2 ® 2Al(OH)3 + Na2CO3
The precipitates of Al(OH)3 are washed to remove Na2CO3,
dried and ignited at about 1500oC to get pure alumina.
2Al(OH)3 ® Al2O3 + 3H2O
BAEYER’S METHOD
Baeyer’s method is suitable for the purification of bauxite if it
contains excess of iron oxide Fe2O3.

DETAIL OF THE PROCESS


When finely divided bauxite is treated with strong caustic soda, then
bauxite is converted into sodium aluminate.
Al2O3.nH2O + 2NaOH ® 2NaAlO2 + 2(n)H2O
NaOH = 45%
The solution is filtered to remove Fe2O3.The fused mass is extracted
with water leaving behind both impurities. Sodium aluminate is then
heated up to 50oC to 60oC in the presence of CO2. The precipitates of
aluminum hydroxide are formed.
2NaAlO2 + 3H2O + CO2 ® 2Al(OH)3 + Na2CO3
The precipitates of Al(OH)3 are washed to remove Na2CO3, dried
and ignited at about 1500oC to get pure alumina.
2Al(OH)3 ® Al2O3 + 3H2O

SERPEK’S METHOD
Serpek’s method is used for the purification of bauxite if it
contains excess amount of silica (SiO2).

DETAILS OF THE PROCESS:

The powdered bauxite is mixed with carbon and heated up to


1800oC and a current of nitrogen is passed, aluminum nitride is
obtained.
Al2O3.nH2O + 3C + N2 ® 2AlN + 3CO + (n)H2O
Silica is converted in to silicon (Si).
SiO2 + 2C ® Si + 2CO
Aluminum nitride on hydrolysis with hot water produces
precipitates of Al(OH)3.
AlN + 3H2O ® Al(OH)3 + NH3
The precipitates of Al(OH)3 are washed to remove Na2CO3, dried
and ignited at about 1500oC to get pure alumina.
2Al(OH)3 ® Al2O3 + 3H2O

ELECTROLYSIS OF ALUMINA

The electrolysis of alumina is carried out in a steel tank lined inside


with graphite. The graphite lining serves as cathode. Anode is also
made of graphite rods hanging in the molten mass.

The electrolyte consists of alumina dissolved in fused


cryolite(Na3AlF6) and fluospar(CaF2).

Cryolite lowers the melting point of alumina to 950C and fluospar


increases the fluidity of the mass so that the liberated aluminum
metal may sink at the bottom of the cell.

When electric current is passed through this mixture, the


aluminum is collected at the cathode in molten state and sinks at
the bottom and is tapped off.
IONIZATION OF ALUMINA:
2Al2O3 ® 6O-2 + 4Al+3
AT THE CATHODE:
4Al+3 + 12e- ®4Al
AT THE ANODE:
6O-2 ® 3O2 + 12e-
C + O2 ®CO2

REFINING OF ALUMINIUM
Aluminum metal produced by the electrolysis of alumina is 99%
pure but contains impurities of Fe, Si and Al2O3. Aluminum is
further refined by hoop’s method.

HOOPE’S METHOD
This is an electrolytic process. Electrolytic cell is made of iron,
which is lined with carbon at the bottom. Itcontains three layers of
fused mass. The lower layer consists of an alloy of impure
aluminum with copper. This layer serves as anode. The middle
layer consists of a solution of cryolite (Na3AlF6) and barium
fluoride. The upper layer consists of pure aluminum and serves as
cathode. These three layers are separated from each other due to
difference in specific gravity.
During electrolysis Al+3 ions from the middle layer migrate to the
upper layer where they are reduced to aluminum by gaining 3
electrons. Equal numbers of Al+3 ions are produced in the lower
layer. These ions migrate to the middle layer. Pure aluminum is
tapped off from time to time. Hoope’s method gives 99.99% pure
aluminum.
ELECTRO-CHEMICAL CHANGES:
Na3AlF6 ® 3NaF + AlF3

AlF3 ® Al+3 + 3F-


At the cathode:

Al+3 + 3e- ®Al

At the anode:

Al ®Al+3 + 3e-

Overall reaction:

Al+3 + Al ®Al + Al+3

Extraction Plant at Renukoot,India

Hindalco's Alumina Plant employs the conventional Bayer’s


process was commissioned with an initial capacity of 40,000 MTPA
which has now increased to 660,000 MTPA. The Company has
been inducting new technology from time to time and the most
recent initiative in this regard is the adoption of Alusuisse
Precipitation Technology for energy efficiency and capacity
enhancement. The major raw materials for the Alumina Plant are
Bauxite, Steam and Caustic Soda. Bauxite is procured from the
Company's Mines in Jharkhand and Chhatisgarh, as well as
through market purchases and requirement of steam is met thru
Cogeneration plant at Renukoot.

Aluminium Smelter

The Company's Smelter commenced operations in 1962 with 1


Potline having a capacity of 20,000 MTPA. The smelter now has 11
Potlines with 2038 Pots installed with annual capacity of
production of 3,42,000 MT. The Smelter employs the Hall Heroult
Electrolysis Process for the extraction of Aluminium from Alumina.
Basic raw materials for the smelter are Alumina, Power, Anodes
and Aluminium Fluoride. Alumina is produced by the Company's
Alumina Refinery at Renukoot, Power is made available from the
Company's Captive Power Plant at Renusagar and Cogeneration
plant at Renukoot and Anodes are produced at the Carbon Plant
located in the Renukoot . Aluminium Fluoride is sourced from the
Company’s JV, amongst other sources.

ENERGY CONSUMPTION

Manufacturing of Aluminium is a one of the most energy


intensive process. The cost of Energy comprises about 41 % of
the total input costs for producing Aluminium. Hindalco use 3
type of Energy resources to manufacture Aluminium i.e. Coal,
Oil and Electricity. Out of these three, electricity has the
highest share almost 83 % of total energy consumption. Total
cost of energy for last year was Rs. 790.31 crore which includes
Rs 80.87 crore for Fuel oil , Rs 656.46 crore for Electricity and
Rs 52.98 crore for Coal. Last year company consumed 397172
MT of Coal , 73270 KL of Fuel Oil and 53670 Lakh KWH of
Electricity. Due to sincere efforts in the direction of Energy
Efficiency by the company there has been significant reduction
in the consumption of energy as depicted in the attached
graphs.