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Steam Turbine Materials for Advanced

Ultrasupercritical (AUSC) Coal Power Plants

J. Shingledecker, Ph.D
Principal Project Manager, EPRI
U.S. DOE/OCDO A-USC Consortium Technical Lead
R. Purgert
President, Energy Industries of Ohio
2014 NETL Crosscutting Research Review Meeting
May 22, 2014: Pittsburg, PA USA
Acknowledgements: U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) / Ohio Coal
Development Office (OCDO) A-USC Steam Boiler and Turbine Consortia
Federal – State – National Laboratory

Welding
Cost Sharing Consortium
Non Profit – For Profit

New Materials

Castings

Fabrication

Forging Field Test

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Accomplishments
A-USC Fact Book - EPRI 1022770 Fabrication Processes
(download free at: www.epri.com)
General design studies show
favorable economics

Welding Technology Developments

Steam-Side
Oxidation

Fireside Corrosion (High-Sulfur Coal Turbine Component Scale-up


& In-Plant Testing)
© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 3
Outline

• A-USC Steam Turbine (This Talk)


– General motivation for A-USC
– Results from Phase I study
– Current project approach and results (Phase II)
– Next Steps
• A-USC Boiler (Next Talk)
– Project Approach
– Successes and Recent Activities
– A-USC Economics and Future Applications

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Increasing Steam Temperature and Pressure Increases
Thermal Efficiency and Decreases Emissions

Note:
HHV Basis

“Least Regret” Strategy for CO2 Reduction

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Materials Limit the Current Technology
o
Average Temperature for Rupture in 100,000 hours ( F)
1100 1200 1300 1400
500 70
Inconel 740 Nickel-Based
Alloys 50
300
Haynes 282
CCA617 Std. 617
Age Hardenable = A-USC 30
760°C (1400°F)
°
Stress (MPa)

Stress (ksi)
100

80
10
60
9-12Cr Creep-Strength
Steels = USC 8
Solid Soln’ = A-USC
Enhanced Ferritic Advanced Austenitic Minimum
620°CSteels
(1150°F) ~700°C (1300°F)
40 (Gr. 91, 92, 122) Alloys (Super 304H, 6 Desired
347HFG, NF709, etc.) Haynes 230
Strength at
Application
550 600 650 700 750 800
o Temperature
Average Temperature for Rupture in 100,000 hours ( C)

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Primary Technical Goals of US A-USC Materials
Programs
• Materials Technology Evaluation
– Focus on nickel-based alloys
– Development of fabrication and joining technology for
new alloys
• Unique Conditions for US Program Considerations
– Higher-temperatures than Other International Programs
(760°C versus 700°C) means additional alloys are being
evaluated
– For Boiler:
• Corrosion resistance for US coals
• Data for ASME code acceptance of new materials
• Phase II Boiler work includes Oxycombustion

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A-USC Steam Turbine Program: Phase I
(complete: 2005-2009)

Design & Econ Studies Review State of the Art Material property data characterization,
(ALSTOM) and Identify Candidates microstructural and steam oxidation
Assistance (Siemens & for 760oC Application studies
GE Energy) (All) (ORNL)
Task 12. 5

Rotors, Buckets Oxidation & SPE Castings (Siemens)


Bolting Studies Task 12. 4
Task 12. 3 (Siemens, ALSTOM)
Task 12.1

Non Welded Welded


Rotors (GE) Rotors (Siemens,
Task 12. 3 Alstom
Task 12. 2

Mechanical
Weldability Studies Mechanical Properties Mechanical
Properties of
(Siemens, ALSTOM) (Siemens,ALSTOM) Properties
Materials (GE)
Task 12. 2 Task 12. 2 (Siemens)
Task 12. 3
Task 12. 4

• Scoping Studies – Downselect Materials


• Key Issues – Air Casting
– Welded rotors materials – Erosion resistance
– Non-welded rotor materials
– Oxidation resistance
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Initial Material Selection for A-USC Turbine:
Behavior of HP/IP Rotor Alloys (Phase I) Waspaloy
52 IN 740
Udimet 720Li
5 50 Haynes 282

4.5 H282-P e a k a g e d Nimonic 105


48
4
Microstructure
1450F , 32.5ksi
1450F , 27.5ksi

LMP (C = 20)
46
3.5

3
44
Strain (%)

2.5 42
2
40 Creep-Rupture
1.5
38
1

0.5 36

0
1 10 100
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
Stress (ksi)
T im e (h ) 120

Forging Cooling 100

Fatigue Behavior
( )
Nimonic 105 - 760C
Simulations 80

Strength (ksi)
10.00 Haynes 282 - 760C
Udimet 720 - 750C
Alloy 617 - 750C 60
Total Strain Range (%)

40

1.00 Haynes 282SA-0.2% YS


20
Tensile Strength
Haynes 282PA-0.2%YS

Haynes 282OV-0.2%YS

0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
Temperature (F)
0.10
100 1,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000
Cycles to Initiation (Ni)

Best Candidates: Nimonic 105, Haynes 282, Waspalloy

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Successes: Large Forgings Research Requires an
Understanding of Microstructure & Properties as a
Function of Heat-Treatment

50 nm 50 nm

Solution Annealed PA = SA + 8h @ 790°C OV = PA + 250h @ 775°C


Studies on Haynes 282:
•Creep-rupture strength was relatively insensitive to heat-treatment
•Detailed microstructural studies on gamma prime precipitates after
heat-treatment and creep were conducted
•Both mechanical property data and microstructure studies suggest
the alloy has a large processing window making it attractive for steam
turbine forgings
Source: R. Viswanathan, J. Shingledecker, J. Hawk, S. Goodstine. “Effect of Creep in Advanced Materials for Use in Ultrasupercritical
Power Plants.” Proceedings: Creep & Fracture in High Temperature Components, 2nd ECCC Creep Conference, April 21-23, 2009,
Zurich, Switzerland.” © 2009 DEStech Publications, Inc. 31-43
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Erosion and Oxidation of Blade Materials and
Coatings
• Oxidation studies
•Oxidation rates/kinetics
•Scale morphology
•Internal penetration vs.
oxide thickness Cross-section of bare metal after steam exposure

•Bare metals
(substrates)
and coatings • Erosion Testing
• High-temperature
erosion tests were
conducted at
1400°F (760°C)
• Coating and
substrates
• 12 Coatings
Program Start evaluated

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T400C (Tribaloy)
good resistance
Coating Conclusions
760°C Erosion Test Results for Coatings

Stellic 6B
visible erosion

• Oxidation rates (both internal penetration and


mass gain) of candidate bare metal substrates
were acceptable based on laboratory studies
– Oxidation testing showed unacceptable rates
for some coatings including top performing
erosion resistant coatings Surface morphology of
coatings after
T400C (Tribaloy) was only coating to perform 760°C erosion tests
well in oxidation and erosion at 760°C with magnetite

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Phase I casting work helped guide the program
• A casting sub-team of OEM and National Laboratories (ORNL & NETL)
was formed to address potential issues with nickel-based casing/shells
– Seven trial alloys were cast
– An innovative homogenization heat-treatment cycle was developed
– Mechanical property testing identified the best performing alloys
– Some alloys were eliminated due to lower strength or ductility
compared to the wrought alloy counterpart
Alloy 263 casting –
• Haynes 282, 263, and N105 were judged the fluidity trial
best alloys for casting and castability trials
were performed

Range of microstructures in a
slow-cooled casting

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Phase I Welded Rotor Trials

• Successfully produced a thick-section


263-617-Ferritic Steel joint concept using
traditional welding techniques.
– Joint toughness was acceptable after
aging (simulated service exposure)
• A second welded rotor configuration was
evaluated for Haynes 282 to Udimet
Trial I Trial II Trial III
720Li.
– Welding development was successful
and heat-treatment studies showed no
evidence of strain age cracking after
welding
– Non destructive evaluation capability of
joint was verified

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DOE/OCDO A-USC Steam Turbine Consortium
Phase II
• Selected Materials from Phase I
• Rotor/Disc Testing (full-size forgings, environmental interaction)
• Blade Alloy Testing (and erosion resistant coatings)
• Cast Casing Scale-Up Alloy Testing
• Casing Welding and Repair
Pipe-to-casing
1400°F (760°C) Casing
Steam Turbine
Conceptual
Design (HP) –
Bolted
Construction
Rotor/Disc

Blading Bolting
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Casting scale-up and turbine casing welding is
progressing
Haynes 282
centrifugal
casting: 635kg
(1,400lbs)
300mm3

Haynes 282 and Alloy 263 Step Castings Long-term


135-450kg sizes (300 to 1,000 lbs) creep of
weldments &
microstructural
assessment

Simulated casting weld defect repair

Properties: tensile, creep,


aging/toughness, fatigue, weldments
740H Pipe to 282 Casting Weld
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Casting Modeling and Next Steps

• Casting simulation are being


utilized for nickel-based alloys
• Cooling rate and secondary
dendrite arm spacing
predictions are being validated
for different cooling rates

~2700kg (6,000lb) ½ Valve body


(simulate full-size valve)
Casting planned for mid 2014
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Casing to Pipe Weld

• Boiler to turbine
connection
• Leverage A-USC
boiler knowledge
from Inconel 740H
welding
• Successful weld
completed

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Two ingots now produced:
A-USC Turbine Highlight
1. Chemical homogeneity /
Haynes 282 Rotor Scale-Up grain size / defects evaluation
2. Disc forging

World’s First Haynes 282 Triple Melt Ingot

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Haynes 282 (Triple Melt) has been successfully
forged into a disc for detailed evaluations

Characterization Plan:
Tensile, Creep, LCF,
Disc meets criteria for HCF, FCGR and
largest Toughness + fatigue in
A-USC forging needed
steam (ORNL)
(IP turbine)
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Next Steps: ComTest 1400

• Evaluation of advanced materials and components under


coal fired, A-USC conditions.

• Minimize risk for a utility desiring to build an A-USC Plant.


– Demonstrate turbine operation
– Demonstrate reliability and safety
– Understand manufacturing and cost

• Evaluation of the constraints in the supply chain

• Validation of fabrication techniques, and the ability to


construct, install and repair ComTest with on-site labor.

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Specific Goals
• Boiler: Design, install, start-up, operate and cycle high
temperature nickel components (740H & others)
• Large diameter piping
• Header and tubes (gas fired heater)
• Superheater materials exposure (at pressure)
• Turbine: Design, install, start-up, operate and cycle full size
Steam Valves & COMTEST steam turbine for 760°C (1400°F).
– Periodic testing of steam valves at high temperature
– Materials & coatings
– Turbine architecture
– Oxidation, deposits, SPE
– NDE/NDT
• Fabrication methods &
supply chain for super-alloys Proposed ComTest 1400 Turbine

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ComTest 1400 Schematic
BYPASS EXHAUST BYPASS

HP, HT VALVE TEST


1400F, 2400-3500 PSIA
100,000 LB/HR THICK WALL PRESSURE LET- AUXILLIARY
DESUPER
SECTION DOWN SYSTEM REHEATER
SV CV 1400F, 700 PSIA

SV CV NATURAL
BFW DESUPERHEATER AND GAS
THICK WALL SECTION

COMTEST TURBINE

MAIN STEAM
TO TURBINE
1400F, 2400-3500 PSIA
100,000 LB/HR
WATER
BRAKE

EXHAUST TO
CONDENSER
OR TURBINE
CROSSOVER

BFW
Unique feature compared to other component tests:
•Higher-Temperature operation 760°C (1400°F)
•Turbine Demonstration
•Aux. Heaters for cycling / control independent from boiler
•Innovative membrane wall concept
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ComTest 1400

TO EXISTING MAIN STEAM


AQCS

COMTEST
SUPERHEATER

GAS FIRED
REHEATER
VALVE
TEST

Membrane wall
(not shown)

GAS FIRED
TURBINE
SUPERHEATER

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ComTest 1400 - Schedule

Task 1 is underway and has proven to be challenging

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Major shift from Coal to Gas in the United States
impacted opportunities for testing/demonstration
Electricity Production in United States
Shift from coal to gas

Plant Retirements in U.S.


Accelerating Retirements for Coal

Source: FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION Coal


www.ferc.gov/oversight
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ComTest approach for first A-USC turbine

• Host identified: municipal steam source (coal-fired)


• Advantages:
– Coal + Natural Gas onsite for gas-fired heater to
maintain desired temperature/cycling
– Favorable options for layout including existing building
for turbine
– Staff for operation
• Disadvantages
– Pressure will be lower than desired (turbine test was
planned to be at lower pressure)
– No membrane wall or heavy wall cyclic header test
Exploring options to split into 2 projects but achieve same objectives

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Summary

• A-USC = Least Regret Strategy


• Materials are key enabling technology
• U.S. Program continues to make excellent progress on the
materials technology for A-USC Turbines
– Rotor scale-up and testing
– Casing scale-up
• Planning work for a 760°C (1400°F) test facility is ongoing
– New possibilities including a host site for a portion of the
test program have been identified

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Together…Shaping the Future of Electricity

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