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1 Appendix chapter 12

1.1 Introduction
This appendix describes the state 3 from chapter 12 in detail. When the reverse current from the
upper freewheeling diode D1 stops turning on T2 the equivalent diagram in Figure A 1-1 is valid.

IL1 I L2

+ -
L1 UL1 L2 UL2
+ - D4 +
UDC + +
- C1 UC1 C2 UC2
- -
IC1 IC2

Figure A 1-1 Simplified diagram for state 3 in chapter 12.

In state 3 the negative side of U1 is connected to Gnd by T1. The appendix contains 2 parts charging
up C1 and charting C1||C2 later named C12. In the first part the diode D4 is blocking, only L1 and C1
are active. In the second part D4 conducts and C1 is in parallel with C2. The size of UDC, L1, C1 and
C2 are in practical given from previous calculations.

1.2 Charging of C1
The diagram for charging C1 is shown in Figure A 1-2. The time t runs from t = t0 = 0s to t = t1
where the voltage across C1 reach UDC.

IL1

+
L1 UL1
+ -
UDC +
- C1 UC1
IL1 -

Figure A 1-2 Diagram forsetup the differential equations for charging C1.

The initial conditions for t0 = 0 are according to Figure A 1-1 and Figure A 1-2 given as follow:

Course 31756 Appendix 1-12 Page 1 of 8


 IL1 = Ir The reverse current from the freewheeling diode D1.
 IL2 = 0 Not active.
 UC1 = 0 From the previous off period of T2.
 UC2 = UDC Not active but charged to UDC.

1.2.1 Differential equations charging up C1


First C1 has to be charged up to UDC. The following equations are used:

𝑈𝐶1 + 𝑈𝐿1 = 𝑈𝐷𝐶

𝐼𝐿1 = 𝐼𝐶1
(1-1)
𝑑𝐼𝐿1 𝑑𝑈𝑐1
𝑈𝐿1 = 𝐿1 𝐼𝐶1 = 𝐶1
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
The mask law gives with

(1-1):

𝑈𝐶1 = 𝑈𝐷𝐶 − 𝑈𝐿1

𝑑𝐼𝑙
𝑈𝐶1 = 𝑈𝐷𝐶 − 𝐿
𝑑𝑡
(1-2)
𝑑𝐶1 2
𝑈𝐶1 = 𝑈𝐷𝐶 − 𝐶𝐿 2
𝑑𝑡

𝑑𝐶1 2
0 = 𝐶𝐿 2 + 𝑈𝐶1
𝑑𝑡
The solution for the second order differential equation is the sum of all solutions for the homogeny
equation and a solution for the in homogeny equation. The solution is seen in
(1-3).

1 1
𝑈𝐶1 = 𝐾1 ∙ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ( ∙ 𝑡) + 𝐾2 ∙ 𝑐𝑜𝑠 ( ∙ 𝑡) + 𝑈𝐷𝐶 (1-3)
√𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶1 √𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶1

The constants K1 and K2 have to be found to fulfill the condition for t = t0. Here

 UC1 = 0V
 IC1 = IR

The final solution is found in

Page 2 of 8 Appendix 1-12 Course 31756


(1-4).

𝐾2 = −𝑈𝐷𝐶 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑡 = 0

𝐿1
𝐾1 = 𝐼𝑅 ∙ √ 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑡 = 0
𝐶1
(1-4)

𝐿1 1 1
𝑈𝐶1 = 𝐼𝑅 ∙ √ ∙ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ( ∙ 𝑡) − 𝑈𝐷𝐶 ∙ 𝑐𝑜𝑠 ( ∙ 𝑡) + 𝑈𝐷𝐶
𝐶1 √𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶1 √𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶1

From this solution the time to charge C1 up to UDC has to be find together with the current in L1 to
the time t1.

1.2.2 Time to charge up C1


The solution from

(1-4) is given the value UC1 = UDC and the time t is isolated.

𝐿1 1 1
𝑈𝐷𝐶 = 𝐼𝑅 ∙ √ ∙ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ( ∙ 𝑡1 ) − 𝑈𝐷𝐶 ∙ 𝑐𝑜𝑠 ( ∙ 𝑡1 ) + 𝑈𝐷𝐶
𝐶1 √𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶1 √𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶1

𝑡 𝐿1 𝑡
𝑈𝐷𝐶 ∙ 𝑐𝑜𝑠 ( ) = 𝐼𝑅 ∙ √ ∙ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ( )
√𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶1 𝐶1 √𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶1

𝑡
𝑠𝑖𝑛 ( ) (1-5)
𝑈𝐷𝐶 √𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶1
=
𝐿 𝑡
𝐼𝑅 ∙ √𝐶1 𝑐𝑜𝑠 ( )
1 √𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶1

𝑈𝐷𝐶
𝑡1 = 𝐴𝑡𝑎𝑛 ∙ √𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶1
𝐿
𝐼 ∙ √𝐶1
(𝑅 1)

To find IL1(t1) the inductor equation is used and integrated as seen in

Course 31756 Appendix 1-12 Page 3 of 8


(1-6). The integration constant K is found from IL1(t0) = IR.
𝑑𝑖𝐿1
𝑈𝐿1 = 𝐿1
𝑑𝑡

𝑈𝐷𝐶 − 𝑈𝐶1 𝑑𝑖𝐿1


=
𝐿1 𝑑𝑡

𝐿1 1 1
𝑈𝐷𝐶 − 𝐼𝑅 ∙ √ ∙ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ( ∙ 𝑡) + 𝑈𝐷𝐶 ∙ 𝑐𝑜𝑠 ( ∙ 𝑡) − 𝑈𝐷𝐶
𝑡1 𝐶1 √𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶1 √𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶1 𝐼𝐿1
∫ ∙ 𝑑𝑡 = ∫ 𝑑𝑖𝐿1
0 𝐿1 𝐼𝑅

𝑡1
√𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶1 𝐿1 𝑡 𝑈𝐷𝐶 ∙ √𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶1 𝑡
𝑖𝐿1 (𝑡1 ) − 𝐼𝑅 = [ ∙ 𝐼𝑅 ∙ √ ∙ 𝑐𝑜𝑠 ( )+ ∙ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ( )] + 𝐾
𝐿1 𝐶1 √𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶1 𝐿1 √𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶1 (1-6)
0

𝑡1 𝐶1 𝑡1
𝑖𝐿1 (𝑡1 ) = (𝐼𝑅 ∙ 𝑐𝑜𝑠 ( ) + 𝑈𝐷𝐶 ∙ √ ∙ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ( ) − 𝐼𝑅 ) + 𝐼𝑅 + 𝑘
√𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶1 𝐿1 √𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶1

𝑡1 𝐶1 𝑡1
𝑖𝐿1 (𝑡1 ) = 𝐼𝑅 ∙ 𝑐𝑜𝑠 ( ) + 𝑈𝐷𝐶 ∙ √ ∙ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ( )
√𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶1 𝐿1 √𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶1
𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒

𝑈𝐷𝐶
𝑡1 = 𝐴𝑡𝑎𝑛 ∙ √𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶1
𝐿
𝐼 ∙√ 1
(𝑅 𝐶1 )

The known value of IL1(t1) can be used as border condition in the next section.

1.3 Charging of C12


The equivalent circuit for charging the parallel connection of C1 and C2 hereafter called C12 is seen
in Figure A 1-3. The active diode D4 is not shown. With the timing t = t0 = t1 from the previous state
the inertial conditions for the circuit are:

IL1 I L2

+ -
L1 UL1 L2 UL2
+ - +
UDC +
- C12 UC12
-
IC12

Figure A 1-3 Diagram forsetup the differential equations for charging C12.

Page 4 of 8 Appendix 1-12 Course 31756


 IL1(0) = IL1(t1’) From the previous state
 IL2(0) = 0 As in the previous state
 UC12 = UDC From the previous state

Here t1’ is the t1 from the previous state.

1.3.1 Differential equations for charging C12.


The mask and note equations are:

𝑈𝐿1 = −𝑈𝐿2

𝑈𝐶12 = 𝑈𝐷𝐶 − 𝑈𝐿1


(1-7)
𝐼𝐶12 = 𝐼𝐿1 − 𝐼𝐿2

Together with the component equations the differential equation is set up.

𝑈𝐶12 = 𝑈𝐷𝐶 − 𝑈𝐿1

𝑑𝑖𝐿1 𝑑𝑖𝐶12 𝑑𝑖𝐿2


𝑈𝐶12 = 𝑈𝐷𝐶 − 𝐿1 = 𝑈𝐷𝐶 − 𝐿 ( + )
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡

𝑑𝑖𝐶12 𝑈𝐶12 − 𝑈𝐷𝐶


𝑈𝐶12 = 𝑈𝐷𝐶 − 𝐿1 ( + )
𝑑𝑡 𝐿2
(1-8)
𝑑𝑖𝐶12 𝐿1 ∙ 𝑈𝐶12 − 𝐿1 ∙ 𝑈𝐷𝐶
𝑈𝐶12 = 𝑈𝐷𝐶 − 𝐿1 −
𝑑𝑡 𝐿2

2
𝑑𝑢𝐶12 𝐿1 ∙ 𝑈𝐶12 𝐿1
−𝑈𝐶12 = −𝑈𝐷𝐶 + 𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶12 2
+ − ∙ 𝑈𝐷𝐶
𝑑𝑡 𝐿2 𝐿2

2
𝐿1 𝑑𝑢𝐶12 𝐿1
𝑈𝐷𝐶 (1 + ) = 𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶12 ∙ + 𝑈𝐶12 ( + 1)
𝐿2 𝑑𝑡 2 𝐿2

The differential equation for the circuit in Figure A 1-3 is seen in

(1-8). This is an inhomogeneous differential equation of second order.

The equation is solved in

Course 31756 Appendix 1-12 Page 5 of 8


(1-8) including the constants K3 and K4 found from the border conditions.
2
𝑑𝑢𝐶12 𝐿1
0 = 𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶12 ∙ 2
+ 𝑈𝐶12 ( + 1)
𝑑𝑡 𝐿2

𝐿1 𝐿1
+1 +1
√ 𝐿2 √ 𝐿2
𝑈𝐶12 = 𝐾3 ∙ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ∙𝑡 + 𝐾4 ∙ 𝑐𝑜𝑠 ∙𝑡
𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶12 𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶12
( ) ( )
2
𝐿1 𝑑𝑢𝐶12 𝐿1
𝑈𝐷𝐶 (1 + ) = 𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶12 ∙ 2
+ 𝑈𝐶12 ( + 1)
𝐿2 𝑑𝑡 𝐿2

𝑈𝐶12 = 𝑈𝐷𝐶

𝐿1 𝐿1
+1 +1
𝐿
√ 2 𝐿
√ 2
𝑈𝐶12 = 𝐾3 ∙ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ∙𝑡 + 𝐾4 ∙ 𝑐𝑜𝑠 ∙ 𝑡 + 𝑈𝐷𝐶
𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶12 𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶12
(1-9)
( ) ( )

𝐾4 = 0 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑡 = "0"

𝐿1
𝑑𝑢𝐶12 +1
𝐿
√ 2
𝐶12 ∙ = 𝐶12 ∙ 𝐾3 ∙ = 𝐼𝐿1 (𝑡1 )
𝑑𝑡 𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶12

𝐼𝐿1 (𝑡1 )
𝐾3 =
𝐿1
+1
√ 𝐿2
𝐶12 ∙ 𝐿 ∙ 𝐶
1 12

𝐿1
𝐼𝐿1 (𝑡1 ) +1
√ 𝐿2
𝑈𝐶12 = ∙ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ∙𝑡 + 𝑈𝐷𝐶
𝐿1 𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶12
+1
√ 𝐿2
𝐶12 ∙ 𝐿 ∙ 𝐶 ( )
1 12

With this equation the maximum voltage can be find.

Page 6 of 8 Appendix 1-12 Course 31756


1.3.2 Finding the time t1 for the maximum voltage
For the maximum voltage du/dt = 0. This is found and solved for t1

(1-10).

𝐿1
𝐼𝐿1 (𝑡1 ) +1
𝐿
√ 2
𝑈𝐶12 = ∙ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ∙𝑡 + 𝑈𝐷𝐶
𝐿1 𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶12
+1
√ 𝐿2
𝐶12 ∙ 𝐿 ∙ 𝐶 ( )
1 12

𝐿1
𝑑𝑢𝐶12 𝐼𝐿1 (𝑡1 ) +1
√ 𝐿2
= ∙ 𝑐𝑜𝑠 ∙𝑡
𝑑𝑡 𝐶12 𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶12 (1-10)
( )

𝑑𝑢𝐶12
𝑓𝑜𝑟 =0
𝑑𝑡

𝐿1
+1 𝜋 2 𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶12
𝐿
√ 2
∙𝑡 = → 𝑡= ∙
𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶12 2 𝜋 √ 𝐿1 + 1
𝐿2

The value t1 is used to find the maximum voltage of the capacitor C12.

Course 31756 Appendix 1-12 Page 7 of 8


𝐿1 + 1
𝐼𝐿1(𝑡1) √ 𝐿2
𝑈𝐶12,𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ∙ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ∙ 𝑡 + 𝑈𝐷𝐶
𝐿1 + 1 𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶12
√ 𝐿2 ( )
𝐶12 ∙
𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶12

𝐿1 + 1
𝐼𝐿1(𝑡1) √ 𝐿2 2 𝐿 ∙𝐶 (1-11)
𝑈𝐶12,𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ∙ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ∙ ∙ 1 12 + 𝑈𝐷𝐶
𝐿1 + 1 𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶12 𝜋 √ 𝐿1 + 1
√ 𝐿2
𝐿2
( )
𝐶12 ∙
𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶12

𝐼𝐿1(𝑡1) 2
𝑈𝐶12,𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ∙ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 (𝜋) + 𝑈𝐷𝐶
𝐿1 + 1
√ 𝐿2
𝐶12 ∙
𝐿1 ∙ 𝐶12

Page 8 of 8 Appendix 1-12 Course 31756