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Heat Exchangers

A heat exchanger is a heat-transfer device that is used for

transfer of internal thermal energy between two or more
fluids available at different temperatures. In most heat
exchangers, the fluids are separated by a heat-transfer surface,
and ideally they do not mix. Heat exchangers are used in the
process, power, petroleum, transportation, air conditioning,
refrigeration, cryogenic, heat recovery, alternate fuels, and other
industries. Common examples of heat exchangers familiar to us
in day-to-day use are automobile radiators, condensers,
evaporators, air pre-heaters, and oil coolers.

Selection Guide to Heat Exchanger Types:

relative cost
Significant Applications best
Type Limitations in carbon
feature suited
Condensers; Temperature
liquid-liquid; gas- difference at
Fixed gas; gas-liquid; extremes of
Both tube sheets
tube cooling and about 200oF 1.0
fixed to shell.
sheet heating, Due to
horizontal or differential
vertical, reboiling. expansion.
Floating One tubesheet High temperature Internal gaskets 1.28
head or “floats” in shell or differentials, offer danger of
with shell, tube above about 200
tubesheet bundle may or F extremes; dirty
of fluids on
(removab may not be fluids requiring
le and removable from cleaning of inside
floating parts.
nonremo shell, but back as well as outside
vable cover can be of shell,
confined to
bundles) removed to horizontal or
expose tube ends. vertical.
Bends must be
carefully made,
or mechanical
High temperature
damage and
danger of
which might
Only one tube rupture can
require provision
sheet required. result. Tube
U-tube; for expansion in
Tubes bent in U- side velocities 0.9-1.1
U-Bundle fixed tube units.
shape. Bundle is can cause
Easily cleaned
removable. erosion of
conditions on
inside of bends.
both tube and
Fluid should be
shell side.
free of
Double Each tube has Relatively small Services 0.8-1.4
pipe own shell forming transfer area suitable for
annular space for service, or in finned tube.
banks for larger
shell side fluid. applications. Piping-up a
Usually use Especially suited large number
externally finned for high pressures often requires
tube. in tube (greater cost and space.
than 400 psig).
Pipe coil for Transfer
submersion in Condensing, or coefficient is
coil-box of water relatively low low, requires
Pipe coil 0.5-0.7
or sprayed with heat loads on relatively large
water is simplest sensible transfer. space if heat
type of exchanger. load is high.
Not well suited
for boiling or
Composed of
metal-formed thin Viscous fluids,
limit 350-500
Plate and plates separated corrosive fluids, o
F by gaskets. 0.8-1.5
frame by gaskets. slurries, high heat
Used for
Compact, easy to transfer.
only; not gas-
concentric plates; Cross-flow,
Spiral no bypassing, condensing, 0.8-1.5
high turbulence. heating.
In process
industries, shell and tube exchangers are used in great numbers, far
more than any other type of exchanger. More than 90% of heat
exchangers used in industry are of the shell and tube type. The shell
and tube heat exchangers are the “work horses” of industrial process
heat transfer. They are the first choice because of well-established
procedures for design and manufacture from a wide variety of
materials, many years of satisfactory service, and availability of
codes and standards for design and fabrication. They are produced in
the widest variety of sizes and styles. There is virtually no limit on
the operating temperature and pressure.

Classification of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

are four basic considerations in choosing a mechanical
arrangement that provides for efficient heat transfer between the
two fluids while taking care of such practical matters as
preventing leakage from one into the other.

 Consideration for differential thermal expansion of tubes

and shell.
 Means of directing fluid through the tubes.
 Means of controlling fluid flow through the shell.
 Consideration for ease of maintenance and servicing.
Heat exchangers have been developed with different
approaches to these four fundamental design factors. Three principal
types of heat exchangers

 Fixed tube-sheet exchangers

 U-tube exchangers and
 Floating head exchangers—satisfy these design
Design procedure for shell-and-tube heat exchangers:

Step 1:


T1 (190C)  T2 (110C) Process Fluid

t2 (80C)  t1 (30C) Dowtherm

Mass flow rate of Process Fluid = 5850 kg/hr

Heat duty, Q = 5850  2.13  (190-110)

= 998631 KJ/hr

Mass flow rate of Dowtherm = 11284 Kg/hr

Step 2:

Overall heat transfer coefficient:

For an exchanger of this type and for this system the overall heat transfer
coefficient is given in Fig 12.1 Coulson and Richardson volume 6.

Let’s start with 750 W/m2 o C

Step 3:

Exchanger type and dimensions:

An even number of tubes is usually the preferred arrangement. Start
with 2 shell and 8 tube passes.

Corrected LMTD = 91C

Average Temperature of Process Fluid = 150C

Average Temperature of Dowtherm = 55C

Assumed UD = 750 W/m2 C

Step 4:

Heat transfer area:

Area required A = Q/UD LMTD = 998631/750  91

= 15 m2

No. of tubes required = 400/12  0.2618 = 127

Using split ring and floating head exchanger for efficiency and
ease of cleaning. As the process fluid is corrosive so it is kept on the
tube side. Also hot acid is there so zirconium is used as material of
construction for our heat exchanger.

Step 5;
Layout and tube size:
Standard sizes are;
Outside diameter (Do) = 0.01905 m
Inside diameter (Di) = 0.01483 m
oooLength of tubes (L) =5 m
Pitch (triangular) =0.02381 m

Step 6:
Number of tubes:
Area of one tube is = Π * Do * L
A1 = 0.30 m2
Number of tubes (n’) = A/A1
n' = 48.675
Say approximately:
(n) = 56 tubes

As there are 8 tube passes this means that there will be 7 tubes in
each pass.

Step 7:
Tube side velocity:
Tube cross sectional area (At) = Π /4Di2 = 0.000173
Area per pass= number of tubes per pass * At = 0.0012
Volumetric flow rate = V = Ma/ρ*3600 = 0.0017 m3/s
Velocity (Vt) = 1.42 m/s

Step 8:
Bundle and shell diameter:
From table 12.4 for 8 tube passes K1 and n1 are:
K1 = 0.037
n1 = 2.675
Db = 0.3
For split ring floating head exchanger the typical shell clearance
from figure 12.10 Coulson and Richardson Vol.6 is 56 mm so the
shell inside diameter is

Ds = 0.35 m

Step 9:

Tube side heat transfer coefficient

Re = 80095.8

Pr = 4.15

L/di = 337.15

From fig 12.23 Coulson and Richardson Vol.6 jh is

jh = 0.0034

Nu = jh Re Pr0.33

Nu = 435.6

Nu = hi di / kf


hi = 3755.780 W/m2.C

Step 10:

Shell side heat transfer coefficient:

As a first trial take baffle spacing as

lb (baffle spacing) = 80 mm
= 0.08 m

As = area of shell = 0.005625191 m2

de = equivalent diameter = 0.0124 m

Volumetric flow rate= Vs = 0.0034 m3/s

Velocity on shell side Us = 0.596 m/s

Re = 4013.3

Pr = 26

Use 25 percent cut segmental baffle this will give reasonable heat
transfer coefficient with less presure drop

From fig 12.29 Coulson and Richardson Vol.6

Jh = 0.01

hs = 1110.4

Step 11:
Overall heat transfer coefficient:

Kw = 22

1/Uo = 0.001351005

Uo = 741

This is very close to the supposed value so design is correct

Step 12:

Tube side pressure drop:

From fig. 12.24 Coulson and Richardson Vol.6

Jf = 0.0021

Tube side pressure drop = 62091.3

= 0.6
= 9 psi

Step 13:

Shell side pressure drop:

From relation 12.26 Coulson and Richardson Vol.6

Pressure Drop in Shell Side = 8 jf (Ds/de) (L/lb) (ρ*Us2/2)

From figure 12.30 Coulson and Richardson Vol.6

We have,

jf = 0.0055

Pressure Drop in Shell Side = 12963.8

= 1.88 psi