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Submitted To– Submitted By-

Lect. Gargi Sharma Surendra

I declare that this assignment is my individual work. I have not

copied from any other student’s work or from any other source
except where due acknowledgment is made explicitly in the text,
nor has any part been written for me by another person.


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Ques:1 The bandwidth of a priority-based token ring network (IEEE 802.5) is

100 mbps. Assume that the propagation time of the network is 10 mSec.
Determine the fraction of bandwidth wasted during every frame transmission,
when the frame size is 2 kbps (kilobytes per second) Under what condition
would the wasted bandwidth be zero?

Ans :-

Bandwidth of network = 100 mbps

Propagation time of the network=10msec

Frame size=2 kbps

Min time for complete transmission of a frame is max(f,a )

Therefore Minimum Time Required for Transmission=10

Bandwidth wasted in frame transmission=10/100=0.1

Wasted bandwidth will be zero if Propagation time & Frame size are zero. But this
is not possible.

Ques 2:-Consider the use of timed token protocol (IEEE 802.4) in the
following situation. We have four nodes in the system. The real time
requirement is that node Ni be able to transmit up to bi bits over each period
of duration pi milliseconds, where bi and pi are given in the table below.

Node bi pi
N1 IK 10,000

N2 4K 50,000

N3 16 K 90,000

N4 16 K 90,000

Choose suitable Target Token rotation Time (TTRT) and obtain suitable
values of fi (total number of bits that can be transmitted by node Ni over every
cycle). Assume that the propagation time is negligible compared to TTRT and
that the system bandwidth is 1 mbps.

Ans :- From an examination of the messages, it can be seen that the shortest
deadline among all the messages is 10,000 msec. Therefore we can select

The value of fi

N1=C1/T1=1/10000 b/msec

N2=C2/T2=4/50000 b/msec

N3=C3/T3=16/90000 b/msec

N4=C4/T4=16/90000 b/msec

N1+N2+N3+N4=1/10000+1/50000+1/90000+1/90000=64/45000 b/msec

Therefore Bits that can be transmitted by node Ni in every cycle

F1=5000*1/10000=1/2=0.5 msec

F2= 5000*4/50000= 0.4 msec

F3=5000*16/90000=0.89 msec

F4=5000*16/90000=0.89 msec
Ques 3:-In a real time packet switched network, explain the roles of a traffic
police and a traffic shaper, explain one popular traffic shaping and one traffic
policing techniques.

Ans:- Maximizing bandwidth utilization and providing performance guarantees,

in the context of multimedia networking, are two incompatible goals.
Heterogeneity of the multimedia sources calls for effective traffic control schemes
to satisfy their diverse Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. These include
admission control at connection set up, traffic control at the source ends and
efficient scheduling schemes at the switches. The emphasis in this paper is on
traffic control at the source end.

We propose a new traffic shaper which can adjust the burstiness of the input traffic
to obtain reasonable bandwidth utilization while maintaining statistical service
guarantees. The performance study is conducted in two parts. In the first part, we
study the effect of varying the shaper parameters on the input characteristics. In the
second part, we dimension our scheme and a LB equivalently and compare the
mean and peak rate policing behavior with delay and loss as the performance
parameters. Adopting a less stringent attitude towards short term burstiness is
shown to result in considerable advantage while policing real-time traffic. Future
research possibilities in this topic are explored.

Traffic Shaping :- Traffic shaping provides a means to control the volume of

traffic being sent into a network in a specified period (bandwidth throttling), or the
maximum rate at which the traffic is sent (rate limiting), or more complex criteria
such as GCRA.
This control can be accomplished in many ways and for many reasons; however
traffic shaping is always achieved by delaying packets. Traffic shaping is
commonly applied at the network edges to control traffic entering the network, but
can also be applied by the traffic source.

For example:- Computer or Network Card

Traffic Policing :- Traffic policing allows you to control the maximum rate of
traffic sent or received on an interface, and to partition a network into multiple
priority levels or class of service (CoS).

Traffic policing manages the maximum rate of traffic through a token bucket
algorithm. The token bucket algorithm can use the user-configured values to
determine the maximum rate of traffic allowed on an interface at a given moment
in time. The token bucket algorithm is affected by all traffic entering or leaving
(depending on where the traffic policy with traffic policing is configured) and is
useful in managing network bandwidth in cases in which several large packets are
sent in the same traffic stream.


Ques 4;-Would it be advisable to use an Ethernet LAN in a hard real-time

application such as factory automation? Justify your answer. Evaluate the
pros and cons of using an Ethernet-based protocol in such an application.

Ans :- In real time system it is not feasible to use Ethernet LAN. The Logical ring
Architecture possesses significant advantages over Ethernet due to inherent
deterministic access arbitration mechanism in contrast to the collision to the based
mechanism of Ethernet.

1) EtherNet/IP is an application layer protocol that is transferred inside a TCP/IP

Packet. That means that EtherNet/IP is simply the way data is organized in a TCP
or UDP packet. For information on what TCP or UDP is get my Industrial Ethernet
2) All devices on an EtherNet/IP network present their data to the network as a
series of data values called attributes grouped with other similar data values into
sets of attributes called Objects.

3) There are EtherNet/IP Required Objects – Identity, TCP, Router that every
device must have. The EtherNet/IP Specification defines those objects.

4) There are EtherNet/IP Application Objects that have the data for your specific
device. For example, an EtherNet/IP Drive device has a Motor Object. EtherNet/IP
devices that support specific devices all have the same set of EtherNet/IP
application objects.

Pros Of Ethernet based protocol are :-

a. High-speed: Physical Layer bit rates up to 54Mbps, application throughput >
b. QoS support: Suitable for real-time applications such as video, voice, and
other multimedia.
c. OFDM modulation scheme is robust in highly dispersive environment,
eliminating the need of complicated equalization.
d. Interoperability: with Ethernet, 3G, FireWire (IEEE 1394), ATM
e. Flexibility: link adaptation; dynamic frequency selection; power control
Security and authentication mechanism.

Cons Of Ethernet based protocol are: --

a. Higher cost (mainly due to the highly-linear amplifier for OFDM)
b. Tedious protocol specification.
c. Delay in message transmission.

Ques 5:-Identify the factors which contribute to delay jitter in real-time

communication. Assume that a certain real time applications receive data at
the rate of 10 mbps. The QoS guarantee to the application permits a delay
jitter of 20 mSec. Compute the buffer requirements at the receiver.
Ans :- Real Time Communications
 In most data communications, important that data arrives reliably

• Would like it to be fast, but prefer reliable

• E.g. web, email, p2p, etc.

• Timeliness may be more important than reliability

• Messages may have priority

 Examples:

• A “drive by wire” system in a car

• Packet voice and telephony applications

Modelling Real Time Traffic

 Assume a packet-based network

Real-time traffic on circuit switched network trivial after connection setup

 Traffic falls into two categories:

Synchronous periodic flows

 Produced and consumed in a continuous basis, according to some schedule

 Generally require some performance guarantee

 Can be generated by periodic tasks

 No deadline, best effort delivery, but want to keep delays small

Peak = 10mbps

Jitter = 20mbps

Required buffer size =peak * jitter

= 10 * 20

Ans is=200mbps

Ques 6;-Traditional 2 phase locking (2PL) based concurrency control protocol

may nat be suitable for use in real time databases. Why? Explain how the
traditional 2PL protocol can be extend to make it suitable for use in real time
database applications.

Ans:-Traditional databases, hereafter referred to as databases, deal with persistent

data. Transactions access this data while maintaining its consistency. The goal of
transaction and query processing in databases is to get a good throughput or
response time. In contrast, real-time systems can also deal with temporal data, i.e.,
data that becomes outdated after a certain time. Due to the temporal character of
the data and the response-time requirements forced by the environment, tasks in
real-time systems have time constraints, e.g., periods or deadlines. The important
difference is that the goal of real-time systems is to meet the time constraints of the


Concurrency control is one of the main issues in the studies of real-time

database systems. With a strict consistency requirement defined by serializability,
most real-time concurrency control schemes considered in the literature are based
on two phase locking (2PL). 2PL has been studied extensively in traditional
database systems and is being widely used in commercial databases. In recent
years, various real-time concurrency control protocols have been proposed for
single-site RTDBS by modifying 2PL. However, 2PL has some inherent problems
such as the possibility of deadlocks as well as long and unpredictable blocking