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SOFTWARE TESTING AND QUALITY ASSURANCE Submitted to – Jiteshwer Anand Submitted bySurendra MCA 4th SEM D3804A15 10806601

Q1. Start the Window Calculator. Type 5,00,000 – 1,000=(the comma is Important). Look at the result. Is this a Bug? If yes why if not justify? Ans: - Yes, it is a bug. In windows vista calculator, when the user tries to insert a comma, the system takes it as a point by default. For example, if we try to write 5,00,000 the system will read it as 5.00.000. and if we try to perform the operation 5,00,000 - 1,00,000, the result is 4 which is definitely a bug.

Q2. How can you combine features of code & fix model and waterfall model to get better output while implementing a project. Also give an appropriate reason to support your answer?

ANs: The code and fix model contains following steps: • Write some code • Fix the problems in the code. Some of the features of this model are: • It is not really a model; it is more “lack of model”. • It is probably the model which is used theoretically. • It is only suitable for short programs which do not require maintenance. • It is unsatisfactory for large projects. •

Q3. Is it Possible to have High Quality and Low-Reliability Product? What might an example be?

Ans: Quality is associated with the degree of conformance of the product to customer requirements, and thus, in a sense, with the degree of customer satisfaction. Implicit in Japanese quality products is an acceptable amount of reliability; that is, the product performs its intended function over its intended life under normal environmental and operating conditions. Reliability assessments are incorporated through simulation and qualification functions at the design and prototyping stages. With basic reliability designed in, quality control functions are then incorporated into the production line using in-line process controls and reduced human intervention through automation. Reliability assurance tasks such as qualification are conducted during the product design phase using analytical simulation methods and design-for-assembly software, and during development using prototype or pilot hardware. Once again, it is the role of quality assurance to ensure reliability. Qualification includes activities to ensure that the nominal design and manufacturing specifications meet the reliability targets. In some cases, such as the Yamagata Fujitsu hard disk drive plant, qualification of the manufacturing processes and of the pilot lots is conducted together. Quality conformance for qualified products is accomplished through monitoring and control of critical parameters within the acceptable variations already established, perhaps during qualification. Quality conformance, therefore, helps to increase product yield and consequently to lower product cost.

Q4. Elaborate the relation between effectiveness of testing with other phases of software development, Verify? Ans: 1> In

analysis phase the requirements of user is collects first and identifies it. in this phase the documentation is done. that the designing or architecture model of system is structured. it is called the designing phase. next level is coding where the product is coded into the programming language. The testing is done after every phase .So that way the testing effect the all other phases. The testing is the major activity in these all phases. software testing is investigation conducted to provide a information about quality of product or service under test with respect to the context. The intention of software testing is to find the bugs more earlier than the user. software testing is the process to measure the quality of developed software.

2> After

3> The

4> Testing:

Part – B Q6. Taking a real life example compare and contrast two models waterfall and spiral, write the situation in which it is difficult to use these models? Ans: WATERFALL MODEL The waterfall model is a sequential software development process, in which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall) through the phases of Conception, Initiation, Analysis, Design (validation), Construction, Testing and Maintenance. The waterfall development model has its origins in the manufacturing and construction industries; highly structured physical environments in which after-thefact changes are prohibitively costly, if not impossible. Since no formal software

development methodologies existed at the time, this hardware-oriented model was simply adapted for software development. SPIRAL MODEL Spiral model consists of 5 iterative cycles. It can be considered as the generalization of other process models. Each cycle consists of 4 steps: 1 (a) Identify the objectives (b) Identify the alternative means of implementing this portion of the product. (c) Identify the constraints imposed on the application of the alternatives. 2 (a) Evaluate the alternatives relative to objects and constraints (b) Evaluate the risks involved with each alternative. (c) Resolve the risks using prototyping, simulation, benchmarking, requirement analysis etc. 3 (a) Develop and verify the product (b) Product can be software requirements specification, the design of the specification, etc. 4 (a) Plan for the next phase. (b) Depending on the next phase. This could be a requirement plan, an integration and test plan etc.
Q7. ”Software testing is a trade-off between Quality, Time and Budget.” Verify? ANS: Yes, we can say that software testing is a trade-off between quality, time and budget because all these three factors are dependent on each other if we talk in terms of software testing. During software testing, we check for the bugs present in the software. Good software is one that contains minimum number of bugs or errors. In order to reduce the number of bugs in the software, we need to test it again and again. This continuous testing requires a lot of time and budget. The more a tester is available of time and budget, the better the quality of the software is produced. If the tester is not

available of any of the constraint i.e. time or budget, then he might not be able to test the software properly and the resultant software is of poor quality. So, in order to get a good quality product, there should be a compromise with time and money.

Q8. Name Several Tasks that should be performed by a programmer before writing first line of code? Ans: - Several Tasks that should be performed by a programmer before writing first line of code are:1) Start with a plan. 2) Figure out how to access your stuff. 3) He should keep in mind that things are always as they appear. 4) There is not just one right way. 5) Discuss with the team.