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BV SUSlll1ifI Ell ,Davis

I'~~ you think all 'the masters oJ Un.~· drawing UV1edl. in 3\ b.:~t.g·~J!nle era, 'tldrdoJ: agah~. At this '~l~ry .moment, wrnth '[pencils, and cr,~)\v' q~jll pens ~n han~l' 80)n<:1: artis:1;s are crut.rnying o:ffL ·~.e tradition of' expressive line wQr[k. ~idst the ll~b~ zap., and beep ,[.'IIIM.l'l, 'Vid.eo, grun.e.s~ and multimedia, some artists ecnnnne 'til). energise and Invigorate ·that time-honored a~tfOl1:tl l~tJh all tn!@; t~pi{:ru censeiousness ,of t~l.i@: :~ate 20iltJ1.-centu:ry· a,

• I .

Peter dl@· S~~ is one such artist. :FDl" more than ,~ decade, his .d.raw~n,gs,

have commented on-:the OClnte':mpol"u·y scene with, a g:up'erb combmation ,~)f: ~,afty in't~Ul~:eru::·e and wI"y·luUllQr.', Take the 1994 N~) Yorker' cover that i'ie·a:tll.u'~S! a d,€!t~iI!'mined. raccoon stalki ng .~ vel"'j'r .pro:~er· matron stM'oUing through Centrat Park. Or a piece :f,Ol' ,U.S: N~$ a 'Wor,tdBe:por',t tha:t.portr-ays, P}'l@'si(ill.€!At C]iiti.'liCHIIJ as ·t!:u~ Pled Piper of Hamlin, summoning all tffiie rats with his Sib". Or an Ilfustranon for Four Seasons·.HQt·{;~ ~n.4Resor't8'.iM"a~li'1e of an evU. ·ch~f holding .81 knHe and sharpener lik·e cressbones whi[~·:his white h~'~ :illillilr~18hi[DO.HlJS jnto a osk'lllU,

De Sl!§'ve traces. his interest in line iHustl'atioll roo t11;e horror comic boeks he ~.ov,ed at 13~, drawn. by Berm ·Wl"~.glrt50l1~ 'MIke Peluga, and J!~f J ones, Later be discav'C:H'ed ·iIJl.(DSe artists 'Weire ]iHke.~ to '!<v,ery dal;k~, .he~vy black, very :m,@i~ty kind of ROID"3.n'tici:.s1i;.} Pr,e.-Raph:a.elite work."

"'My 'work has a v~ry definite progression," ~ays d~· S~~e. 'Ii Eve:n. 'though J .m·OVB :a,t.8\ snail's patCe'jo :it~s always been doggedJly in t:h,~ same direction" :Eve:r' since I. 'was in high school, the characters have been b~ical~y the S8Jm.'e·- the :Une es:ta]b]isbes, the ch.N:·acw'l" - I W~ aJ~rays a big, p,.~~(;iipon·e1ti:t 'o:f.:iUustratioEl as

art eVeim when I was 'ru:n co neg'e a ~ '.

In '[k' "v~th this. beUef. de Si~' has amassed ,;lli valuable collection of books by SUJd"t renowned illnsteetors as R~cl:uu"d Doyle~, :Ed.mlllnd d~ Lac, AritlilJlllf l~:8!cklu~l:nl, W'.,. Heath Robi[iIJSlO.[1J., Thomas, :Ro]a]])dsol1l.~, and, 'il):f course,

'Wll~ki Ii1lg 'wirth jlil~ :alnd w;a'tell'i[t1lJ I mr'~ Pete r de Seve c mated .a rog ue '.S galM~ ry of pi rates for sn arti~~e i ~ the Aug ust 19 94 issue of: ~slarj,(J$.,

11 After d mwitl1l 9 ill1l [tnal sketches free~aJrl d 0 n tr,aCi illig paper~ de SC~\fe pl~t ,alii tne stud ii€S tog ~~m ~ r ill1ll a. U ruif~€d1 coml~osiUon., ExlJ,ti.~O~ II atingl froml nluglh sou roe: Imrm!a.ttelri~ all'$, U, at 15~andtf art d irect:Olr Allbert Ctt~ang s13!nt him the alctlls~ also ~xmslui~ed hls ex:~ensive' m:arary for g IlJlid~Ult~e CD ~I pe'r~od enstu mes,

2' After 'Ch~afrlllQ1 ,app liOVe:d a iP'ho~o~ copry of the Icom~ osite sklereh" de Sevie did a n:~f~ned ~m~iQi'll dir,aWli ~g':

T,a~pi[il'Q1 the p ~lotODOPY to hii s board and iCQrwriWTIigl i~: 'wi~~: 'two sheets of; 'tra~hlg Ipiajp elr b) create' I~ismnce!, ne drew wilh a Net S,BI bmlwlJ1t pencill! WS~ Intg 'the photo,copy as a g []ide.

,3 As he l1efiiine's UH~ 'd[raw~ng~, de:

Seve comme mts,! ~!'lh i:s Slolt~,

b ~wn!sh l~ielrH:li ~ tha.t rCn~ate,s t(jJpere~ ~i[rn es ~$, Q,IJ1'e secret [I do et 'W,a IJ1ft 'to cm.Jglh up, Tim ere aJrelmJ'~!: maJny thii'ngs: ,ffiIlil ostly rm pre'tty op elm ~ [I] nJrt it: took me ages. to find thii's pIEmci[I.;~




HCIiI:UJrn Daumier. ""I buy' ,a.ny boO:~,'~;Ellt ~Ilttel~8:St me," '~'le s8!Y,s,,, ~T,he:y'te:[1IJd to be o~.d., but i[tffile:re is, som.eb-od.:y new' lli~t J.[ U~t)e - tbern'm-e alotofpeap.J.e o:utt~JiIJ,ere' llIJO'w -. I'Il p,i,ek. up 'th@irn:" stuff. But ~: ,re'mm more to the olde'r sm:ff. And]: eollectoriglnal U~.'U15- tration when I can affor.d. ]to ]. also tr.2hdie '!,iV, friends. I've be-

.... 0- 'rn- - a ..... o .. m - pulsiv ~ ~'~_'"'''I'~'iI''' ~."'i" ill'

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:Dl"a!wiD,gS, ara eVI@~ThlE~:re in 'the Brooklyn townhouse wlllJe'l"'e de iSe've Uve.s Sind works .. Pieces 'lby WbIl;SIO([ 'McKay" J'ilmm1!JeS :Mont-, gom.'ery :F,rn~gg~ Oe,G:H"ge Harri:MB:n ~ and Thomas ~!Qlandson Iina one side- alI the thing 'r.'Oomj, 'wh'il.>e On 'the other are works de S'eve: has gotten EIlIJ, tr ad e :r.roml, CIOll'[em.pora(ry· artists. Cartee G~JQd.r.i.'C:h~, David Johnson, Lewis I' C ..IF,. Payue j' R,onald Sear.:rne~ :~lwOQd Sm:iUt, and i~Jal'rY' Trude-au. M:'ij;:r,e McKays li ne ;a,\ St:I)]rw.~'e'nj and a Daumier poster d(l!WIDliiWllaites the wall behbtd de SeVie!s dram..l1!!g board,

~'I 'tb:wn'k there is 8, common deno:.hllJ::il'OCl'rin alotcftfue older :iJlutSt[,ator,s, tb;:ji't I collect:in that they l--e:~ly knew how to dr,~w" but t~,ey drew' with tlielr own point of view, ~ sa_y;s de Seve, "Tb.'eir characters h'adJ a 'Wot o,f' ebaracter," ID1d 'tJha~, ill a. nutshell, is, wh8;Jfl; gives, his work. i'ts enormous '~P[leaJ1. 'In a, tane !~,f ill stantaneous gillo'bal cemmuni,c:~ti'~nl! butp.':re;ci,~,us; Uttrne hu~a:~ ,o(l!<lliJnecti'~,ni' de S6'v,e~,s, eharseters ;speak to UlS! ill wittYj :sligI)tly ,~ddbaJI, and o,:ilen. wise ways.

IOlgue':s llailiery

!!l,~. Ut@ught Peter w~rtw]_d be pert\e'e:t,for this partiC'"tlilJar jobl:" says Albert eb -'al1g~ M"'&· dir€~;oor ~~'f lsla'nlb mag:a.zb'iJJ,e~ ~ travel biro~nthlY,.Tlho~n tb~mag:~~n@:~s WUM fare ts f'o'iLU" ... ol;)<l{H'· ph.()tos~, Clhiang occasio':nalmy' needs 'to illustrate ,a.'n. e&say Or book excerptl, in '&h18 (;M~: ,~ W@,U~l-esearched, tongu~in . -eheekpiece

t-" .i:-_11 - AI '''Pl" - + .... ",'! 'H~:I'I ~ 'JE1I...~, A' . Jlw.Ii3I,lJ11.. :r,~~, ! i!:ill.. o:~. JIi:" ii±U.i,D.e~~ . '.

:1 0 gu e.j s Gallery of Scoundrels :from. t~,e' Go'}d,e:m, A.@,e of Ph;,a~

PhiDilos b~' IMarianml! IBarUleIlOli'l;i!1

fora tlite:me issue on Great T!reaSlime lslands

'"'P.~l;@r\s sty[,e was re<all~y what ] was ad't@l' ~ n' says eh'~afllg.t who 'WE. :ij!JIIT@:ailY famlliar with de' seve's: '~jfo:rk. rAWe wanted the :U~~ustratu,oIil. t!ll be a; caricature, 'but to' 1001\ realistte. \\f'e'didn.!t w,:~;nt it to 1}~, earteonv," ,Afte;r a phone c-a]] i:n W'll lch de' Sev,e agreoo, to take O~ the Jolbjo Chiang sent him reterence material for each of 'MiL(,:' ten pirates; ,S,I'mom:lJg the [·u~]m~ti.'U'ul' e;tcl'dllgs, 'from thelate l600s and rUi}e l1IOOswa.s, 31, '%',SIJfllted, '[3 oster. Cld~Ulg~:s only ~tnipl~.]flJti.on, W~~ ~'h:at each face ln the grniilp portrailt bad to be distililot~ so ~i't eould ,&]:50 be inset, PO£tf1ift.-SW-nP slse, nex1t to the pirate's bt,ogrnphy-

Mer k~!tatk.g some illustrations of :p,]r, in hls books, de

(li,;!; .. i:i, ",",c.!lJi'lil'n"· .. sketc 'k 0'1"'. traei i""",d' Ill;: ~~ lU..::~~ .. [~. ~JI1J':; I ~.i ~., _ ,'~ .. I,!Il.16

papi3l". ro;HlJad,th,e 10 {!lki:n my mind rlItd a couple @f'IPir,~ilre' motifs 'to g@ by~"' Sfl(ys de S~V'e., "The refertfltt;leJ swfi' ttH~Y sene me Vi,faS 1]1-' teresting" but primitive. It had no real infol':mat:l,on~ but. it did gh've me it Sems;@' of w'hat ell,€' pi= rates :IlIIi;gb.t l1L~V€ looked ]iik'e, ~

O.m~.e dB S,~:v,~ worked out $ 0eillltral! groUP]Dg of three char$rs~ hE' @'x:pelfim'~nred wtth the plaeement of the other ~ftg.. iUles, d:r,8l;wlng ttmel'rl on separate shee~ of tracmg :pa:~e1', Io!Th.$t ~tl\I)\VS me 'to, draw freely witll,~ ~ut being too self-conscious ~bout it," sa.:.'iffl de S~w~, "It's alWfilJS a problem to captm re the t'ne.~gy of the first ,sketcll and get tburt into the p~,ee,e" That\s mJ:Y stff:og_gle" A lot of' other "']1 ustrntors Ive spoken 'to have: the !Saxtle' problem, Sometimes ~rQU ~[;it:r.ighttth.e fil"'sttime and the' rlest, ~s a d,espc:r.a:te attempt to presen1't the :flrst ski&;'tidi, ii> Afwr f~llaJ.I]zillg the ov~rruI comp esitiO:Pl die' S@!'1ile purt five laye:rs of drawings under one sheet of tracing paper and drew them, m :a: 5~[,]g[le illustrarion, 0

H',e then pho't!l}.co.lP i ed the \\i"Ql"K a~d, faxed it 'to Clliarug in S$'nJtadJaY'b~JJ,ra~ Cru~f~ Mter'ide'n~



4, Whle ~ he: fin:j shed the d~aWijlng, die Sew tu m ad ~t ov~n aJnu ta!P eo ~t to h'i s b mud. Cove mj ng ij,t wuth tracingl paper ~ two sh eets aJS, be:foIF!1 ~ e d ~d a 1l~'Vlelrne, IP enl1,cij i dlFaw'jing [Jls,~ng the same p€:~c~l. iii! do tnlis te kleep whaf:s fresh jin U1! e S,kEtC:hll i<I !hi e sa.ys,.

5, Tnen de Seve ta pled the (iBV'8 rse Ire:nfi"u~d dw,awlng to a sheet of 140= II b", cold press wat~H'coll~ r pap e rj, eoveir,ed 'iit wi~ih1 Ewio more shsets ,of tradng IPla~pe u.11 .amid trnnsbu,ed the drawiing to the paper ~y

bu rnlishii ng it nlard five or six tim,es wrrth a bla~ k pel neil.

16 ~ 80m!!! people! d r,a,w' rig h~: on the

Po:. nO"! r ~, f'''~fII~ d;lijj il:" ;i:;',~il:i OJ'!;:, Ih ill . a~~l ~ ~6JII'~ IJJ~ l~cr'r·~I~ ~~ ~ ~I~

h\lleaked the 'tr,a~s!f'8 ned imago w1lth 'the b mWFlI pe:~cil,. ~'T~ 8 reason I dlj]'mll~[ is be[:'BJuse I hattl: dir,aw~ rna c ni wJ3jler~lolor paper, ~

ti1fyi'ng eaeh ph·,~te = blC'[lI,ldh1i(g, Charles v'al:u.e:I's, dangUng feet - Chb:u:1iJg'~s, ,ttl,n]y reservation was the treatment of Bhckbe.a!fcl. ~H~s bead was chop~ed off' and lylin;g in.,s,u,cll a w,ay thavf1:'E tlu}ught my editor mjgl!Lt 0 bjee:t to it~ ~ says !Cltruam1;g. "But when she saw i'~ she thought i't was ,~UllIDY'. ~ De Stv~ guilt the, go-ahead.

w:futh wila.iIi. he eatls ~,a!l1L ,admit!"' te dly over-complex tran s'[e:r method. !3 Ta,phlg the photocopy t~} his drawing board, de S~e' covered ilt 'with ~IO layers {d~ tractug pape'f allld did a r,~11~}ed pencil dl',awing~, " T11.e a-rt.i9t works with asott N'o", 6,B brown pe'llLdl that, allows hun to draw rich 'tap,€:_w:ed lines.

'!,!;I d"' --~ -'-,~,1'i1 jiij;",EI 'I'io - "1'"': 11 0"

.[(.10 'iV Wh .. ,t'L t.'.L,~;I,:,' .Ii',el eu on

tJh.e ,sid.;@· If)~)l' tlil.;€: MOS!& ,1P®.:r~, n' ex,plmns d€l: S~€:, as he connnned to refine the drawing • ~ltis

Yra n:sfe rein c:e ,rle!~:i [I a m e nt To renne 'l~lh.i@; sk,etch w,hi[e mainw1iL.]ng,it~ ,~n~l~ ~ de· Seve works

looser and I getthe 'tap ered line, If I want '00 get in more inc!· s~v€:~y ~ ,I use the poi ['!J I er I can go into it n,@."rmaUy, This is tlH~ l'll.ffj,}' I do Ufe dlllViofing 'li@' get a more expresstve nne, I started doi!~g it when :~y work was lio~,kJmg dead, Itma)' betJ!'~e'~~ Dammer drew, 'b1lltrm notsure. His Mack· and-white stnff. has a. very e.\:. pressrve, Uqukllin,e ,th~'t I ha'lfe.

",., llr.r. ,- ,- - .. r.,~, '.'.' .oJ1 n'

cl,JI. W,~ Y.8 '~],lIi.l[lllali@:1UI '"

F,IDopping tl'i.e finished. dr-a.w" iUl on hts board, fie Se-V'I@ eov

H d d B"'" . I.

. .... . . .

, an ' ani \ " _' ,'raIn

When PIl~r de ~e1ffl~ts II! ~II frOID, an art dlr.eeml. wbQ. has

an idj,e>a he or she Wl,il'f1fts de S eve to illsistrate, the aro;st says~ iil Ju sol

send Ule msterlal to me, I'Il read it and see "if I can co.e up W~jtll, soroething:., Then if you don.'1t; Uke it, [ell me what you. lWaG ,mn .m~nd" Tl.'l:ru1t 'WRY,t t~e' art dlir.-ector ~em, :my brain and 'My hand, MY strongest stuff is when I de both, ~

That's whyed]itoIiam clients account fur most of de Serv1Ei:s business these ~s. T,iloug'h :h.e has done adlVie'lr:tisil'rtg, lIDo,It:' all the big name ad as well as fur AT&T ~ M:illtsulbisbi, ,Motoro]a~ and NYNEX~ .he I(!Urrelltilly counts Esq1:l)irl~ ForlJes1' New~week~ The- ,New Yii/;rk Times' M a,gazinB" Roning 8lon~, SpOO'1;s 1l~'u$tra:t;.6ri, nme~ U S N~ & WOt'td; g~part, the 'Wm-hiltgton P~stj Knopf, and, Bandem House among; 'his cU,ents". And be has, an infolr.a~ "open doer" agreement-with, Ti1l8 New Yorr"lcGT 1f;o submit skerebes, for subjects of his ehoosrnng fO'I!!.l[ tinTIJes a y,es.'r.'.

.... ][ Mv'e turned. down a ,]nt of edttorial jobs th~t are 'wI"Ong ,lDo:r' ,nTIJe-~ It tfu.e il.JrtLs;t admlts, "In fa.c~, the first oppru;,:tuni~''I had to. do ,81 CQ'V'Er for 'I'he New YO~'keJ"~ tbe:y ealled 'wrutb an "idea '~ wasn't crazy about, ill had '00 turn it down, iiVnd]l had been \:v,atting fOf'yea.J,"$ to. do OIU;~. \Vhij\t ,mak;es a. J\f~ Yorker 0O"VeT:!Sip eelal is that it's seU-ge:tleJ".aJted

and. indep endent o:f 'w]:uat~s inside the ITl~-z;ine. I've :ffij!l]luud :it hurts ma :nl0re than. [It helps ifI do 3· pleee that is not me. Wfu,e:ne'ver l do take a job that I don't :~ee~ ,f]ght about, I: ,always regret it, W. a,lw~s b.-y. 'to remind myse~f tbat s(1.ethin~ MI~ eome alang nextweek, Ttu:ni rug down ,9.] Olb can be done d].p'~o- 1)1a!Ucai]]yand poli'te,]y ... :~!ve fQlUld, that most art directors appreciate :m_y be]ou@,honesil!.;"Aftoera]]1 the qm2l.nty ofthe 'work reflects on them, "

,f.\. 1980 graduate of Parsons School ofI) in New York City~ die Selli,!eJ,g flrstjob was as a g'o:fer fo'w' .J .C. S,u.ares~ tbe iUusrtradwr ,~nd maguhllfe/boQk designer, 'He also dld freelance w'ijirk.,A, spoilt inf' ,Ne:t.t}: York lll~ga'z.i,n,e i~ JJ;9i84 landed hi m enougbjo bs so he could do iIrnu str,atiOJl fu'm;] ti.M.e~ In. addUion toO hills other wnrlr, de S<6ve ll;al;:5, itlustrated r.;:F:i.nlll. :~teiCo111l~ ~ ,S! H.a.JD'bit EaiJ'$ video proJect tor children Olatreq~i,red more th:iu]I[ 150 \v,~tel'e-oJ,oh~. Th~.scp,s!St:s.Pirhlg~ the artist worked 011 character' developm,e:ru~ fo~~' 9. [Hsne';y,a11lim.ated fe~\w~''e of ~ Hun:c-hbCM)k Qj.Notf"e .Daxme.

~Tl1Lel"e are a Eat oJ HI,ustramrs ~I!lrt there whe are apologetic about bei~g in this buslnessand feel the need to dID other wOlrk on the rSiidJe 'to ],eg~ti'Mi:ze themselves as artists, ~ s~ys de Seve'bOlkv~ 'newr bad that })roblfi_~", This is my art, and. I'm, proud ofit,"


ered "it with two piee s of traeing . paper. "I'his ls where tihe scrt''i,\I'Y part eomes in, says U~,e artist, ,~S be began drawlng a reverse refl ned. pencil drewing ~ ith 'the same' pencil. 0 "I draw it again backward to preserve C}w loose 'I lne, T,hat,m~eaUy allows me to refi ne the line and the ex])l-ess.i{~11 s and get all the in(olrmatio['i!" I've found that. using at ]tgllt box almost aJw,~,s produces a dead d rawing, It's diffieu tto see which ]i nes h ave been

traced, 'VI,'IL,en I worry about tbat 1. can't be tnsnnenve."

\Vlr~el:1JJ he, 'lV'8,S, fj rllaU:~r satisfied W[' h, the reverse drawing, de ',€ive to ',k out an ' '8 x 20 hr'-Thli shee Qi,f W,~' , reolor paler and taped f'le' dra'\iring to 'i _ 5'0 the' pencil srde faced the paper. Then h,@ laid. 't,VQ sheets oftreemg paper OV'''-I" tha -, til]' P event marin zand wentovertnedrawJ.[ g many times with a black _ 0", 6Bpen.·U,,8

J do tim', m~- ~ :rrl:allj~ t1 mes

- it's vler:y 'tedious and .y teast :r1!l(vo:rkl;@ part of the pI"O~~SS - until I :free], the dr,awing Is .r.@aUy transferred, says. 'the artist ~'11rostt; people transfee lit So they get the basic outline, but there 5 no character in. it; itjust ,Jives them the shape, I've already worked out't!he drawing, so I d,o 11tOt W,arllt to. have ro do it ~gain. By diojng it this 'way. ~ line by line, w haveto really Iean on it 'to ransfer tile alreadyexpressrve d ~"\';' ~ngii so it doesn 't end up dead" - '

From Ie.ft tOI wight, g~ editorial jlllUlstra:il'on fOIf South Point mag aIlne~ de~ Save!l,s fa n d€iri __ ;1 Of a scene to r nUJI Age at ,inntJCI]'RC6 h~ r a moyj e reviefl.'1 ii III Rt)mn{), Stone, and an illll~:st:rnrt;lon of thei Fin n McColu ~ :story [0 r a R,abb ilt: Ea rs vid ~H).

7 Ihen del S~ve sOaJk!ed trnle' IPl31pie r ~ stretched ii'l on a bOaJn:I" amj

sta pled it: ~ fI1l p~ace,,, ,A frer leU] mig

'tlh e paper Iclry t~o roug h~y ove r-

n i glnt, h e '~aJped 'Un,e borders to

p rote,ct: th e mn from tllei WBlh3!nJQlcu to cem e. FiinaIIIY"11 he bu rmlished 'tlh e 'tape w:ith a ~neade:d erase r to p'revent se:8,pl(i,g e.

8 ,!.~ put water on thiEl' d nlg ~ wh~c~ ii's nH1W part off ttlh,e pap-elF l to create a blmwli1lish u m:lerpai ntln g'I"' Salys 'tJrn e artlst.


91 iLTlh s,nl I :5~ra,yed the wll1loll e 'tjh ingl 'With water aim d laid In ,3. warm 'Yle~ Ilowij"stn was,hil r' says die Seve, !~T1ma] g i~es it: a base' tone. I Idlo most l(lIf my w,olrk like that, Ilik.'e e tm,e loolk O'f it;~

'R-' d . .:gl iIJ.., '. r

rre c ~Vl:S e'lJ,JI! tnis 't:n,iIIN1Js:"er

method b eC8i,1l1Se' be doesn't U~ 00' drs:w em, watere 01 or.' paper. 'lIT.he line doasn'tbreathe (H1OOld pRSS. 'wiil'itereolor paper, and if yuu k@ep' ,e:nu;;in:gl' you,'re g,Ql'l1Ig 00' tear :~1t up, ~ sa;y:s the artist, ''''Tihis. 'mlLethod, gives me a deaN dr3.',wing and. unbruised :p~pe1"~ so I ean jltlst paint. I g~t a :muc'h l'~cher' dr,a\V]lIlg'tilal'n: w,~. "- As ~n aside, de Seve ,addJsj ~m suspeet du 'La\C worked in when he was cnmpo:,sjng" HIe cer'b,ill.11]Y used 'V>en,lnDlJ~. but ru: don 't knowta Wl~Blt extent."

De Seve· refined some of tile transferred lines agaJIrlJ '\~I''('l,dt~ :in,g, with, his ,sQf~ bl"Q,wn pe~dt ":~ ,go into the 'w'hQ'j,E;= tl.lil\g,to add :nllllan~es,~ndldeepe\_l1t thevalues,' says the lllrij;s;t, "I dlOll!t start tm, paint unti! I knowI halve it co'm'" posed and I am h~p'~" 'With ev'e.r.y' IriIll;U9l'llCe j n the characters :and], the]l' e,x_P)"'e'SsiiQns. I ll.3,lve ,a!, pretty rich d:r,Sbwh\g when '~I'm

tl ,'II;." !~ A nrougn, v

T,ililen, 'he sQa\ked 'tllile' p:aupe':r face down in a large basin of water forsbout 15 minutea ~The browndsh dra;wiug soaks into the paper, ,sQfw'ning Ul'e Imes," rsays the 8'ftist" ,lIThelY' are' not dm:sty a1WY moreene ean'tsmear, 1rhe drawing is ,actuaUy p:9!rt of the :pa,S'e.,~

,Arter p[epa~ri:ng a beard, de Sev;e stretched 'the' 'wet drawiDlg ve':ry ti_gltitly over 'itj s:tapUng it ~n place, ~] r-ealiy pull rut tight-~ th~' way you sereteh a canvas, Inch by Ineh, ~ ~ay:s, de S~ve,;, Theili'll, he let the paper ,$ir~ry ,o~niglh:t, ,som etimes, 'w'h.e'n he 's ],n a :huxryj be~lllietth~ pall€:r'arnl'·dry [(iiI' tw'O 01' tbxee' l1:@lUrs} th~l\ he blew-dries it tho.ro1l1gtlly,. N ~.1rt de S~,v,e taped ehe berders 'with

W'~,i',r, ... , ''li¥,r,i!C:rf.'~;:; tane and 'F:;:_-", -.~

__ JLI~='~ _.. i!d>2I!.o ~ .n,it;" '!.:r ~,~, .1 ,131]1

forced it with a. ru~y~~r' of' 3M Scotch '~pe, FinaUy, he burnisbedJ " he ta~~ ~ri'tJn a" kneaded eraser, 'working on 'top ora hy'~r ,®.f traeing pape.l" b) P'l"IOi[.~~t the dra;lvill;g, -.

~I burnish it M hard as .I can so Ulat. when ]I eV~TilfmaJJy '!Peel

the tape .aw,ay'~ nome 'ijf the wa-

ter .,....,~ 1"I,]·dTI;ie""~" has ilkl' 1£1,~ under

ILC ~~ ,If' ~_IlJ" .Il'.'~" _~ IIJJJ~ U ' __ .11, .!UI;~

]'14 "' iS~V'5 tile <'aJ'ltist ~I usually get ap~Ity'e[,ea'JIiIJ edge:~ but it doesn It al:w:-ays 'work If :1: am, working v~l¥ wet, ].t sometimes leaks Ul[nD~sJm. 11'

Laye IrS O~: wa,s;h Ptcldn:g up a No" 6 Winsor .& N~lvton series 7 sahrn,~, waterGO['iDlf brush de Seve loaded it ly,iJtIit water a:ndi, went over eertain areas to' ~t-e a brownish mll(ie[1Jairilltillngl' or S:hSid,aw' undj@1leofllt " ~'rve' been. using 'Ml"e brown line :forever; ,]t goes back t'O tr.aditiolt~[ on 'PQrnnt,]jng~ !II ~a.ys de Sev'e. "Brown is an ,e.an1by cDllor,:8.S opposed. to graJoY" so it's G [ri,filil.dUer. It ~O[:p5 ,.e work out tJhiB [i;g"hrti.'ng. ~

With (1 SP([~~ botUe in hmld ~ de fSiev@: 8;i:mUIJ~ta"'@O'usly 'wet the pape']' and, rni'llld :i[IJ, his flrst, wash in. sel~[:t~d ,areas ~ a, v~ di-

~ililt . .;;.,,4, ,"",'Ivhl' y.~ ~~If:~ '\~~"11I'i;.c!'n .... &' N:' oDw-'

I.~~tll! ,tLlJ!LLA.lI-!J..I,JJ, '!;r v. , ~rf ,IL.Il,lfWI!!J.'JJ, . . ~ .'

ton raW sienna and burnt '!1lmt~€l't., usin~ a No,,, 9, W:insor' & :N'Q:iAi1tO:i:iJ, series "'l sable brush, • ,After dl)?i~S th.'e P.lJpi~1t. w[;1t;h a ~[mv' drier and patting it 'with, it ]ltar~J' ;wwel~ the U]:ustl'almr ,re,il1'['O~dJ the same areas w,rnth, another l;a:ytu' ,~):f the 'warm Y'fl!nr.Hrisb ,c[!!]ocr.

N'(n¥ lite fiiw~Jkhed, '00 a 'wash of alisarm brown ,madden. m ~,ne brown Hne li:v'es the :iU.1lStHltion, an, antiquaeed f@leHllg" ltrut it also helps ~l1ti(y th.e' coD.ars,I,l! adds de Seve. ~W:ith that 'base tone, none cd 'Ui.e eolors jlim~. I don't 'work: wall wrutlt l!irig'mt, pr.i'i:na~' eokirs, "Vhen, :rn: do go 'Vel~y br~gi~t ~ some art di[[1ecoon;, ~ay they want colors dtat are rn~I]]Y' p1l.lJ:ndly~ lit looks ~h t.o, me."

Working ~t into, d3i]]iIJp~ de ~ve ad.ded JiElO,~e Hght washes (If'i,I,~r1io:us hu~ t~)8Ugg\iE'St w:heI'1@ 'fu~rf'mru, eelors will. go. 'Y;I almost 'ilm~I' do aeoloe s1m.dy~ ~ ~y.s th@ ,a.rtis~, a:pp'lylng an ulteamarine blll~:,m]x:oo 'W]Jth Pay]],e:f~, gra;y" !!i][ don 't lcr!Lm:v wllat :Pm gohlg '00 do: Ijust let it g,O,,,, It's !pa]:"~ ,O'f 1t:h,~

11m Tu rnlil~,gl h~:s atte nnon to '~~e!

i mldliviidual p~r.ates~ de :8evle laJid lin Ii olht wBJs,he,s of tOG-a!1 eolo rs to f'stab ~ish an i[] utiaJl co~ or 'Scheme. j~11 had at sense of wh,at C~~ crs tlhe, eostumes 'we re~ but: II d ~d.lM1 ~t: p'l ami tJmeWFlI, I iust ~e't them devle~op,i'

""''IUS' ili.'lI:i, .gl ..... lst ~~.f"'1 u ~~, QA fLll~IL.J

I'll AiffWr ,add~~g a iight. w.ash O'f faW slen n a and cadm ~Ulml ye:UIO'w WErt int,o wet i ~ the :slky are~~, de Sevl~ d ~i n'sd ,off sem e of the l300tr8! paJirnt by angll~ ~g the board ul~si'de dOWinl,

112~ ihen he ,dro pped i nl teue tH~S ~f IcobaJt: billue aJnd a~ [lza r~ n c,miimslln wet ilr.UO 'wet jr,~ PaIt the paper wuth p~pe r 'IDwe~s an d USI3~ a hai r d rye!r to stop a tone from ,mig r,at~ng :80 I cam'll Icomrli Inue, IiJ BUYS, U~I3~ aJrtfi:st

'113 F~ r s,klj n to n es de Se,ve! UIi1 ba~d r,aw S~8 nina 'Wu~h a 'sinn alii amo unt of cad mil urn red and bu mt urn be r ~ IUt the p~ Qilrirn1elrnt iin welt ~nto dry.

14 After die ep en ingl 'the colors wilhl rna re w,ash,eS5 t:hie artist

i nrtn)diUC8 dl s h'a:d:oW' tones usl n,g a grayish P ILJlrp I e In iixture: ot sepia

~ ~k, IU r~ ramarin e ~ Ilue~ aind ,all ~zarj'n crimson.

15 IB'l~t the ,ed ges 0,1 the shad ows, were, too ha rsh ~ S(~ the arnst wet the p61~:un amdl bllntted ~t wah towe!1i ~g. "N OW' me d rnrwin,gl 10 oks rna re u ~i1ftedl! fl says, d e SI~Vle"

~ .,

tU'll and part of the horror of pru,nting ....

Sp!,r~y]ng: ~.e sky area wet, de S~v,e ,addled a light ye]lo","l wash, ~'Now Ym s:t.a.rttrl~, 00 see how eh lngs are going 1X} relate to €' other," sa;ys de S~ve" "''I know I 'want '00 have very 'warm clouds \vi'trn1 blue around them, so I' m washing in the warmtn first Uk'~· an. open field, not wor,[j1ing MOI!J.l:t the shape'S of me' clouds. That "ray], whenl put in tih.e w,~h orblue to VJebl1eate '&he' douds" ~1; won't be a. separate thtng, Theyill meld." But ~1,1@· h~t1, a:ppHi@d 000 much paint, 80 }-1(;:]. nlted th.!€ board rl:p~id@: down. and. drained off the exeess. m

Allier blowing 'the skY area dry and pattiing it with 'paper toweling, de Seve introduced. more colors wet in't~) wet .. e ~11 ru,'''i''~ reach apoint with aplece where ,I want to throw tt out the 'wi['ldo·w ~ ~ says de S~¥,~, "l 't~lJ:ink h'ts. ,all rob] disas ter and I w,ant to ,kU.l mysell Mild. 'then. ifs a ma:tter ,~,f tryir!Jg to rescue it l!Thati s where the s;iirngg[e Is,

'!!irlo make tl'i!Ji~p more rliifJi~ cult, theY' changed 'tll"tie· formula for 'the watercolor ~;a.:v-er 1 h~~1_ been using, and :suddeinly i:t \ as u ["!l,"vo'[·~able,. It was lil~e working on ,paper towels. F!~,r a very 1@'11g time 1 mayb e three years, :l113'Worksullered and I ,5 ULffe re d.

, started to work on watercolor board, and the same" ehlngs started to. happen. I would, all 'too often, gij' thl.iOU-\gThl this whole ,]#ifOOeSS and flnd the p~'i~lt was going .on like ,8 stain and the ln k would turn b~ig'ht yellcw a~:;J,d spread. lt~'.s only rec€'rtf'tly that I found 3,,00Id press loiO-UD .. watercolorpaper that I can work with, 'but it;"'s -still not Tight., T~Je 'fE~rY' .fine pen poir!!t:~ work with ean tear tbe paper., so I have '00 j nk it very carm,IU01l1 sJY.,:tl1

The artist kept lntrod ucing colors ~ warm over co ol ave r \'V~rif![1i, in a SPQ;ntaID.'eOUs, man:n,er j so the cotors became more saturated, F,ol:' skin t~i!rIJeSj die Seve worke{i ""vet into dIy., e

Fiir11 j'nk

'De stood back: to ,MSo@'SS the ~rort" The color _p,laee'm"ent pl€~~d, him, so ,",QW he eould ju~t,f()now ~h~ colors Uk,® a map tlllLd 11[ui,k~ U!IJ@1I1 bcld,€:[f.'", ~Th@ lines sbut '00 f~,@ aw,ay' a bit ~Ioo:r :m~:rI;y washes, 80 m: alwaya ke~p 'my refmed drawing, in ~nnt,ofD1I!~ to, refer to as I work," ~YcS.'~tL~ M"list, ~ FQr:rirH~ the drawing is evcryth.wng. Lean cihange th~' arch of an @y,@bl'1[)iW, the ~lIT] of a ]ip\~ and H; eompletely ~b;ai1LBle~ 'I:llt~ tone of. th,e, piece. [t~s a ~e':ry subtle thing"D'

De S~'V~: s,pr.,~~d the board wt(!h IryLowc W,~n;"kab.h~ ,F:~~tive la06 to b',ap 'Ch~ eolor, WlItEl~ he COOl stm remove cO[OI" ,~t 'this, 8w;ge'ifhe'wisb€'s~ rhe ,~tLs~:Uk:es. e ~te.' .fact 'th®Jt the filxati ve makes ~-~,~ ,~'iptllent !:lJlgb'Uy 'w,a'te,r.' ,rB-

,d,c;j',.;, .... t. ~~~v~·ll,"1; m ·'~r'!i.f.i!"!AI ... 'J;. ~n,,", d ;If~

!;Y~~I,. __ 1,~I~'li- _~ I 1tAr.~IUl hI,LlE.-!Ci~ "_ .w.,

ii11\]~, is certai 11 ly the mos t oolJfip]ica'lled. p,i,e0~ I've d([t,ne,'~ts, y~r'i';; comments d,e S~ve'. "But my W'(]dLt: bas been g€!ttillIlg: more d!~lanOO allul complex IlO'W that r1l.fe tound semeth ~~g: 1 enjio;y ~rorki~ 0 -1. ;;

Then de S~"V,e concentratad on shadow tones worldng 'wet hloo try' for a. W!i'LOf'~: seulptasral edge. im' 'But tbe ,~'®C't W,ilIDS just 000 stark, so '~b~ anlst '~'ret; 'tfue' el~tU]"ie: b oard and blotted the, J~,perr with 'lx:nN'@iUng" ;6) That ]J~ct~d '~p' some of'the eoler ,and

~ oo£t.@li1Iied 'tlle edges of tlli1,e' S:had},owS1 bdnging: the values closer oo,w~tber",

l~l'IitS:bades,o:finik ito.~@th@Jr'a;nd gO& 01Llt a peitiIJ 'Wwth a. Hunts 102, crow '[j].llU] pOil'llrt. 81

~TI'lis is an illnportanilt stag,e~,~ saas de S~:vel as 1 e lightly reinfor,eed snd added lines with'tlll,e pen, m !!Illt1s ~s ,¥'h,el"i~ ], eommit to Itl~JC~ ili~~~~ng~ '00' tbe expressiens The f~~8 are ,ru,W,~8 'Ule: ~'e3' to 'the pi,e~e. If I got '~b'is. guJ'~~ f~ 'wrong~ t:he iUu.strath~[~ would CMJ apa.rt, rVl€ sooted. ~v~]" on some p'h~~,~~s at this. ~fi~t:" If I reru]y :fee~, l~;'s, g(Hlle" blrt it has JPoten:ti~!l and if'tm,~re




116 After s,pr;ayi n g th e p~ilnlti no with a II ~g hit coat of 'fixatiV1e, de Se~e m nXled U~n~ e (Htfen~ Mlit In ks ._ ~e~ 1ik311 se piaJl FW antelope

'brown. a~d IH~'g1g i1ns Blac:k Mag ~c'

I ~dJa i uuk ,_ so hel can re iint10rce the! Illinewo mk.

"'1'7' ~~ll"'" ~ ":~ "!i'n - ~ p .... ·rt· ... 1il1t' "'*"'1I"!i I\'ii ~,

I' flll,j; h::!!lit 111'lIil. u .'!:l,1 L ;;:i!'kI~v"

says Irrjel Seve!. "lh e ~ i1newolFlk 'thart II ~ut down IllOW is thel beglilfil!n~ IiIlg of wh'att the! II inlewo rk win be: for 'the rest of th e p liecel! ~hlOilJ g~ I'~II make :s~i'II d.a mke u II ~nes, Ilatler" ~I'

118, INow d e S~~v)e app I ie!d more' nn~elfTI'se eoio rs 'wet ii nto dry ~ ljl eshDngl mjt the' tones !he had ~aud i fI"U 1E!3JrUle r, ~ An '~~Ie. plrates h3Jve

..n··ft··;m rent sto '-"ii'fI ~ ~I' ;roO'j.- i'ir" the ~~" st

1!i,JlI ~ II!, ~ :'IL,uH~:;):" :~riJJy.jj . ~ '[].I1 ~~,;),,~

as hel paiintre£l Ca~ltajiin Kii(IJ(I'i's, cloak rad ~ Each (line ls d o~ ng sOlmethiing tor (1 spe[::iific reason."




'119 o Vie r ·tl~,8 dad~)B r eelor, d 8 S~V!B ao CIle ell ,gJll1IloWml®'r ~~lyle u orf iinkilnl~l~

pu rpos~Hullty aU10wiWlIgi the two mediia to Ibilend ~ 0'001 one ~tUl!.o~jh er, "This its IBII:acld)eard,j~' noi,es the artist. .~ l€g'Erwu:l has iit that wno:n he 'w,as knll!~o, ~~a, ~'~aJd w,as ~llilllt (lIn: dlllO rirnlg a 'IDi,gIU, and liMa bodiy' ,~um pe,d ov€:rboard and sw.a,m ·arOIIill nd Um Sil~P '~I~lrlee tim'es. ~

20 After wQlrk~ngl ba'ck 3lmJ:d wUlrth between the: ~nlk ;amli'(l 'Ulil~ p iiglm emlit, de Se:\fe co mil II e!tledl the fig ~res+ Tl~ elli1l hie: 3!dij~edl a. b ~ue wash i[1]1 th~ s.~ ~ wet ~ntlO daJmp.

21' Hie mii[)(ed Qr~aQlue whi1De goualc;rue: with cad mlilu m :J1e! low'

:3Jnd ~ sed '~~Iis; ~~chlro'milmt[t' mii:dtmn~' _

f,or highll igl~U,.

22 IFoir s,tllill nTlIO!Je ~ig ~lii.gh1tS." dB S!~'ve: went ~ n 10 r a Unal tilm B' 'wi~hl a. y1elllluw' Qich r~ pe:nciL

:rns tsme, I'll §,o back and do it'wn. I usu!ii]]y kn,o,w' '~1alt; by th is pl!):~nt.·"

:Fo:rtunate~~r~ de S~VH didn't h~v,e 'to SmA ov~r.'. Alter re:finhi! the Un,es, :h1lJ. ttrn.e d]rawi:ng, tig:hf!t1y~. the artist switched back '00 the brush, '\Vorki:in:g w,et· dIY, .be :frnlled Inl!liJOM sanerated C(Jrnor inte the .aw.Ba$!· be bad rur--oody ImLapped out, I. T.h,e-n he sp'r~y'et:l the beard withwaterto let ·the prngment ,spre8!d. ~dilhtly im,'OO, the Ink and blew-dried lit befor,e ~ddm:rng: B'!n.otbef.' 13(fle:r.' o~" punt.

M. A friend. once COMm<E!lfllred t'"at someone W$ a~ways .a.ftI!gwy :rnn an my pieces :8iJ1dl'~3lt ,some'thing. is allJwatYl8: :ha:ppe:rning at ,Si(!l,:me{)'I1Ile else's expense, II!' obSi> de ,Be-Vie. "In a 'way that's 'whalt :huMo:r' 15; - Y{aU 're :illaugltlug at ~o..e{body else's p~ight. But I a].w,ay;s, try ·to avoid be~ng m1JMn~ph·rnted,. Ev'en 'the 'u;~Jly chu·~hH"Sl:1 Uke til]; i.·bll!l'e wUh soma kind ofwarmth OJ<hUlTIL=;lnness, R~'~ important :iIDo:r me to .• alntaln an 'e:d~ge in my humor ·wiJ.thout cruel. ~

The artist ylet added ·auo~e'r layer o:f~Ilk ove'r~,e dia;!It':ke'r'itu;es, I), [1;1 go [back: inoo sa:nrue of ·lI)h·e llne ~BU:rn and. that mixes with the' iColo:r'.81 UWe b~!ltJ' :SQ 'iflte line :i~n.l\tt separate from the color t ~ ,says de S~'V,e., .... 1 t-ry to 'Ibumd :Hr; 1],P

ru]. mgether = a little p]grtu~n.t here} 3 darker' ]in@ there,"

Tbe ~ky' was the ](;1St area de Seve painted, After :s:prayii[1l]g it lightly and ~lotling,:i~ the ,[U"trnS!t. w'0rked 'w·et ]:0.00 damp, p]:adllg '~11je',s inoo the '[pru.@ ~{'eno!w sky f~l' a lu~:i.not[l~- ene~t. fJ Th~E!'n he biow:-drted tile ,entir.e hoard,

B'I!.D"t he wasn't nn~S:h~d.. To

, 'b," '~, '~" b~,.. F, '[W

ereate n]g!L'h.~g.JI.I:~ OIl I[lIl!El:"a de

obj~(',jts ,and. areas o:f. special impootaRce~ 'Ml,le',aJrV]s,t;'w'ent:i.]1with a !!'duorrri ng" mixture on his

- brfiSlt" I. Then be' "tlekled or ~J1e,cik,e(]!!! selected surfaces with E-~r.i.srn!~i~o!or penclls '~Q:r' addita~)ru1!l, text1!lre .•

10m i M g '10 p1rli fit

'l~te:r had '~O 'Ol.k'e a. lot of arilti5- 't;lc license, which he dld wl th

iiJ~.l'!I# ~,.n:Q"'if~~H' "'!:!I(V'''' C: ' .... ,]·' .. n';:1 ''''!'J'IIII...A ~ ~~ 'i_.~J)~"'!~;I [~~' ~ . ,1,lu, u-" 'e" I . .Il-I,'U

p,i~,e :i][ustrates the sto:ry,~ bnt g~es oft ~,n ~t.s awn. d:irectlol:rL.. By ooml)Ie~ue.ntiIl,g iustead of just

"~I' --:il" ~"-ii~"i'~ld ,",~,,Q; 'Iffl;; O:;;;i'1o;il;_ ~it· takes Ua l.its",rg.!;,,!~_;5 IW! ~o;:;: ,!:",~"''''''i;i~:!d, ~.!tJI;i~

w~hru; e~U~or.ila!l did to the nth de,grec'. It makes the story more :~ bJr meshing out tbe ideas,. Fm e:mm:pleJ, En. the t;e'x,t ].t sa~s {:I,h,~liili B"'~I~';;:;'+-' 'W'Q,;;' ,""'lut;"":hirn.o :a iJlI.JStI,~ , ,vu~'~"'1!. ,go;I ..... -, II.. il;i'-

aoa~gary when be 'was hanged. P~t@ft took. that and had the g:uy SJi~Hb~ a. ]i~tle flower. He was aIb~.e 00 ):ea.d tllile a:rtWde' :a;n.d ,g,et Ute: ~~tst as:peds O'U1[; 'ij,:f U"H'

The mu_~'tl',~tion cre.atedl:qldte, '! stir among the l~m~ds ,5:taJff-

" ;P-- ... ~ ll1oc.l1I eral :m a,n '!!i<O.c.r Th' 0

:10. ,lIia-....~ 6 .... ~"',,_,·!.:,--- =."~I!i~'!;.,;='! ~

:~ F:f£vorib~' wanted 'to buy the WQd~! bll,t, ~t wasn't m,it)r s;aJle',

Cl:iang felt de, S~~le~"5 work a:_lTocted the whole' :i$~UJ~; ~Tl'tis, was a good eaance to use a little' bit tJ[ humor in the :rnagazi.ll!e - '~l¥fe:1's, u.81!utlly not a tot o;f hu:m(U:" - and. Ugh'ten ~_lp the other anid~., w'1)kll ~~'e more phooo.,grlllphy-drl ven, Peter's fllustratio:n madeanlce grace peint,"

Ileloeksforward '_0 workio'g lfJ:~h de Seve again, ''''The reason 'I' 'I~~"'- P,~il"L:.'r~';:;: w .... ",,11 "'. J.p, +h, at j'it-

,. ~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ __ .. ~~ Al .;J " _ _ _ _ ~~

il8 ve~ wen cempesed, wni!cliL makes tlll:~;rj~h mueheasler, :II Chiang;, !!lHYID'U, get am, artlst who ~~ r~a:Uy g'Ood a't wl'1a~t he does,

:y~u j1l.lSt need '00' let him do ~t. ~ A.nii 'tJha;t~'g 'wh~fl; die s,eve' en-

joys most, Surrounded by chee-

- hed b ks d drawi t

~ , . ," _" - "_ • 1 . - I' -. _ I - .", - .

lB ' _-' ~o ' ,a.n " !"',alMllgS, PM

and .p'f'es,€nt 'jj'.e: artist l[«'~l'es '00' w,~,rk, ~p~dalWY lvbe-u ~ll~k and P]gffi@r.t ,low w,e~l '~,IDiiJ pape1' and he cam exercise his !~!w,m il'na~~·' naeion. Through his; gr@,wing body of work, Peter de S~, i'S

23 Here's ~oW' the i~ ~ustlra,'~Il on wa;s use [j i~ tmle'

c pe,~iIR,g s,pread! and In ow ~t was, cut ~ P ilr1lto i nset

~ n~ stralbi OrBS iln thle: aJrUcle 'lihHdf.

S'-- - 'M' :0 .... ,.,..""'1'"" .::... ;:;,_,~~ .............. 11" ....... ' ~,~\[> U!Ur!V~ ~I ,a;~I!I.''®IU';I' ',w,,·!!i'~'"

for 8~ep-Hy=Step G·r~pbi(;s.




~~"""'!'II~III!! • .... I...I...FI"._ 1I'i!''= __ 1o-,,"iIo!''lii!..i.o-i..I; ... ....,.. ... !1. .... lI!'iII=Il~ 1Ii'-'" _,..,,1

--. .. -~ '~.d.."_


1Ir1"l'l~~!i!1II:.! iilw:i1lil~1i.!iiL., ~~~IJ~


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