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CSE402: Artificial Intelligence
Submitted by:Monika Dogra Roll no.-R B1803 B57 Reg. no.- 10801186
1. Discuss and compare between deduction, reasoning and problem solving approaches. answer:-Deduction:deductive methods involve beginning with a general concept or given rule and moving on to a more specific . Deduction approaches were the most ancient techniques. Resoning:- Reasoning is the cognitive process of looking for reasons, beliefs, conclusions, actions or feelings. They challenge you to clearly understand a problem and to think through the solution. Problem solving approaches:- There are many approaches to problem solving, depending on the nature of the problem and the people involved in the problem. It includes state space approach. To understand what exactly artificial intelligence is, we illustrate some common problems. Problems dealt with in artificial intelligence generally use a common term called 'state'. A state represents a status of the solution at a given step of the problem solving procedure. The solution of a problem, thus, is a collection of the problem states. The problem solving procedure applies an operator to a state to get the next state. Then it applies another operator to the resulting state to derive a new state. The process of applying an operator to a state and its subsequent transition to the next state, thus, is continued until the goal (desired) state is derived. Such a method of solving a problem is generally referred to as statespace approach.
2. The Turing test has often been incorrectly interpreted as being a test of whether or not a person could distinguish between responses from a computer and responses from a person. Make 10 questions through which we can differ a system and a Human. Answer all those questions according to system and a Human. Answer:Turing test:- Alan Turing, in a 1951 paper, proposed a test called "The Imitation Game" that might finally settle the issue of machine intelligence. The first version of the game he explained involved no computer intelligence whatsoever. Imagine three rooms, each connected via computer screen and keyboard to the others. In one room sits a man, in the second a woman, and in the third sits a person - call him or her the "judge". The judge's job is to decide which of the two people talking to him through the computer is the man. The man will attempt to help the judge, offering whatever evidence he can (the computer terminals are used so that physical clues cannot be used) to prove his man-hood.
The woman's job is to trick the judge, so she will attempt to deceive him, and counteract her opponent's claims, in hopes that the judge will erroneously identify her as the male.
10 questions through which we can differ a system and a Human:-
Q1:- what is the length of your hair? Human:- My hairs are about 9 inches long. Computer: machine will definitely give the wrong answer because it’s a personal question that is known only by that person. Q2:-at what time we start our conversation? Human:- human will wait for a while and will answer after a pause. Computer:- system will definitely answer quickly and correctly. Q3:-are you a male or female? Human:- will answer quickly as they know what they are. Computer:- now the problem arises here for computer as computer is a machine how can it tell whether it is a male or female. Q4:-add 1000235 and 1045478. Human:(after a pause will answer) 1045713. Computer:- will answer at once 1045713. Q5:-what is your parent’s name? Human:- human will answer this question with ease and correctly suppose he answer’s mr. rana and mrs. Rana. Computer:- this is a big problem for computer . it will give wrong answer. Q6:- what is your profession? Human:- (quickly answer’s) I am a student of b. tech. Computer:- computer don’t know about it’s profession and will answer incorrectly. Q7:- who is your best friend? Human:- (will answer this question at once) monika. Computer:-will answer this incorrectly. Q8:-what is your age? Human:- (immediately answer’s ) 19. Computer:- system is unable to answer correctly to this question. Q9:- what you did last night? Human:- will answer immediately suppose he answered , I was tired a lot so took rest. Computer:-compter would have problem in answering this question.
Q10:- in which college do you study? Human:- human will answer immediately lovely professional university. Computer:-computer can’t answer this question correctly.
3. Discuss state space representation for the following problem a. Suppose we have a tower which has five disks of different sizes on it, with largest at the bottom and smallest on the top. We have two more towers. How will these disks be placed on third disk in the same order in which they were on the first? Do take care that only one disk can be moved at a time. Solution:Objective:- our aim is to move all the three discs from 1st ower to 3rd in such a way that are placed in the same manner as they were before. Solution is below:-
Steps to solve this:Step1:-Move the red disc to the 3rd tower. Step2:-Now move the black disc to the 2nd tower Step3:-Now in 1st tower we have white disc, in 2nd we have black and in 3rd we have red disc. Move red from 3rd and placed it on black in tower 2nd. Step4:-Now remove the white disc from 1st tower and place it on 3rd tower. Step5:-Now place the red disc on the 1st tower. Step6:-Next task is to move black disc on white in tower 3rd. Finally, place red over black and we get , all the discs in the same manner as they were earlier.
b. Four persons are standing on one end of the river from which two are children and one is mother and another one is father. Both of children having wait of 40kg and mother is of 60kg and father is of 80kg.where a boat is available in which maximum 100kg weight can cross the river. How will they arrange to cross the river? Answer:-to solve this problem consider father as A Mother as B. 1st children as C. And, 2nd children as D. Step 1:- B and C goes in boat and cross river. Step 2:-B remains there and C comes back. Step 3:-now A sits in boat and cross the river. Step 4:- now A remains at the river bank and B sits in boat and comes back. Step 5:-now both the children i.e. C and D Sit in boat and cross boat.
Step 6:- one of the child come in boat to another side and takes his mother and cross the river. Finally all have reached the another side of river safely.
4. Provide the definition of the word “heuristic”. In what ways can heuristic be useful in search? Name three ways in which you use heuristic in your everyday Life. Answer: heuristic:an educational method in which learning takes place through discoveries that result from investigations made by the student. It is a problem-solving technique in which the most appropriate solution of several found by alternative methods is selected at successive stages of a program for use in the next step of the program. How heuristic is useful in search:A heuristic is a method that • might not always find the best solution but is guaranteed to find a good solution in reasonable time. • By sacrificing completeness heuristic search increases efficiency. • Useful in solving tough problems which o Could not be solved any other way. o Solutions take an infinite time or very long time to compute. • Heuristic search provides the best method suited for our problem. The classic example of heuristic search methods is the travelling salesman problem. Eg; 1) While choosing a bus to go anywhere we choose the best path and that bus which will provide much luxury. 2) While we go out for shopping , suppose we have to buy a laptop then we would see which company will be best , what qualities we want in our laptop and which one fulfill our requirements.
5. Given a 5-litre jug filled with water and an empty 2-litre jug, how can one obtain precisely 1-litre in the 2-litre jug? Water may either be discarded or poured from one jug to another; however, no more than the initial 5 liters is available. answer:Water jugs problem: We have one 2 litre jug, one 5 litre jug(filled with water) . The goal is to get exactly one litre of water into 2-litre jug. Either jug can be emptied or poured into the other.
The operators for this problem could include: Initial state:-(5,0) 1. pour 5 litre jug’s water into 2-litre jug to its capacity.(3,2) 2. empty the 2-litre jug.(3,0) 3. Fill the 2-litre jug to capacity by pouring water from 5-litre jug. (1,2) 4. Empty the 2-litre jug into a drain(1,0) 5. Now 5-litre jug has 1-litre water in it and 2-litre jug is empty.(1,0) 6. Pour from the 5-litre jug into 2- litre jug .(0,1) 7. Thus we get 1-litre water in 2-litre jug.
6. Given the following graph: 1
a. Find the path from node 1 to node 7 using depth first search. Answer:- Depth search:1.first we will traverse root node i.e 1 2.than child nodes of root node i.e 1234 3.further we will traverse childs of node 3 i.e 123457 So we have achieve goal state 7 through path 123457
b. Find the path from node 1 to node 7 using breadth first search. Solution:1.first we will traverse root node i.e 1 2. than further child nodes of root node are traverse i.e1234 3.than next level nodes are traverse i.e 567 and path will be 1234567
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