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Plan3 Worksheet: Teacher’s union

Interest—Teachers union
1.Individual interests
 Maintain employment security
 Higher salary
 Better work conditions that maintain work-life
 Self-achievement
 Improve career path
2. Team interests
 Maintain reputation
 Establish long-term and friendly relationship with
board of education and community
 Team harmony
 Seek reasonable and positive solutions
3.Constituency interests
 Guarantee all teachers receive fair treatments
 Prevent imminent strike
 Higher quality education system
 Maintain long-term relationship with all teachers,
board of education and community.

1.End negotiation with reasonable and positive solutions
2.Improve work conditions (Such as, higher salary; reduce
workload; More benefits; Work-life balance)
3.Ensure the job security (prevent the reduction of staffs)
4.Develop long-term relationship and with board of
education and community.
5.Maintain the reputation
Interest of other side Personal
 Keep the job
 Self-achievement

 Balance the projected budget
 Reach a positive agreement
 Avoid a strike
 Reduce the numbers of teachers
 Minimize the expenditure

 Establish long-term and friendship
 Maintain reputation
Objectives  Conclude an agreement with teacher’s
 Avoid a system-wide strike
BATNA  Exercising strict control over the
 Dismissing a certain amount of
teaching staff
 Looking for another job
Different types of framing  Offer concessions

 Maintain both party interests

 The supervisor of state commissioners


 Balance budget and provide more benefits

BATNA Go on a system-wide strike; Take industrial action;
Higher officials to intervene (e.g. State Commissioner)
Strategy Collaborative: Integrative negotiation
Tactics  Show understanding and respect
 Honest communication (share information in trust)
 Concessions planning
 Win-win outcome
 Logrolling
Bargaining  Employment security (1. Written notice best
Mix possible 180 days; Target: 160 days; least
acceptable: 90 days)
 Salary (Cost-of-living increase best possible: 2.3%
increase; target: 2.2%incearse Least acceptable:
2.1% increase)
 Workload (1.Pupil/Teacher ratio Best possible
below 32:1; Target: 32:1; Least acceptable 33:1
2.Workday best possible: 7hours5minutes; Target:
7hours15minutes; Least acceptable: 7hours20
minutes 3. Pre-Time best possible: 50 minutes;
Target: 40 minutes; Least possible: 30minutes
4.Duty-free-time best possible:
50minutes-25lunch/25duty free Target 40
minutes-20/20; least acceptable: 30 minutes-15/15)
 Evaluation of teachers (best possible: specified
criteria and rules; Target: specified criteria; least
acceptable: Not specified)
 Benefits (1.paid sick leave best possible: 12 days;
Target: 10 days; least acceptable: 6 days’leave best possible: 8 days; Target: 7 days;
least acceptable: 5 days 3. Childbirth leave
(women/men) best possible: 12weeks/4weeks;
Target: 8weeks/2weeks; least acceptable:
 Length of contract (best possible: 1 year target: 2
year; least acceptable: 3 years)
Planning  Offer concessions
Points  Seek the balance between the best possible and
resistance point

Concession  Accepting reduce some benefits (e.g. shorten period

Steps of paid sick leave, career’ leave and childbirth leave
within least acceptable)
 Accepting reasonable and acceptable higher
 Extension the length of contract
 Call off a strike
Different  Interest (better work conditions)
Types of  Gain (salary and benefits)
framing  Aspiration (accept the length of contract—3 years)
 Offer concessions

Planned 1. Do u think highly of the quality of education?

tough 2. Are there have other reasonable alternatives to solve
questions the projected budget?
for the 3. Do u care about the intervention of state
other side commissioner?
4. If teachers go on strike, how to continue the
education and solve the pressure on community?
5. If cannot reach an agreement, the immediate strike
or take other industrial action will without pay?

Plan3 Explanation: Teacher’s union

Priorities of personal and career interests
I am the representative of the teacher’s union to
negotiate with other party. Before the negotiation, it is
necessary to priorities of personal and career
interests. The board of education want reduces the
number of teaching staffs. Therefore, my primary
interest is keeping the job. Salaries guarantee the
quality of life and motivate work performance. Higher
salary is second important part for personal. The
elements of career’s leave and duty-free time and
other benefits are related to the quality of work-life
balance. The better work conditions will inspire me
and balance the work-life. If I reach a positive
agreement that will inspire self-achievement improve
career path. The interest of career path is more
important than self-achievement. The reason is the
improved career path will bring more benefits and
even higher positions and salaries.

Objectives serve the interest

The objectives ought to satisfy all of the interests on
your side. The main objective of the negotiation is to
seek positive and reasonable solutions that match the
interest of conclude an agreement. The objective of
better work conditions satisfies the interests of
individual and team. For long- period, It is necessary
to re-establish the long-term and friendly relationship
with other party and maintain reputation in terms of
team and constituency. The objective of ensures the
job security is satisfying the interest of keeping job for
individual perspectives.
Priorities of the other side
The primary interest of board of education is
reducing the projected budget. According to shared
information, the board is under notice that if it fails to
balance the projected budge, all board members may
be removed. Therefore, I rank the keep position is
second important interest. In order to balance the
projected budget, to reduce the expenditures will be
useful way. The teacher’s union and the board of
education ought to establish long-term relationship to
maintain win-win outcome. For education system, the
board of education also will interest on higher quality
education system. In negotiation, the interest
including the tangible interests and intangible
interests (. In terms of intangible interests, the board
of education also cares about the reputation

Core structure
Bargaining Mix serves interests on your side
Bargaining mix is important elements in the
negotiation (O’ Connor, K. M., Arnold, J. A. & Burris, E. R.
2005). In this negotiation, there are have five items
need to be bargaining, including salary, employment
security, evaluation of teachers, benefits, workload
and length of contract. The length of contract is less
important item in these five factors. Our party can
satisfy the other party the requirement of 3 years
contracts to maintain the better work conditions. The
better work conditions are main interests in the team
and individual. Moreover, the workload and salary is
also related to the interests of better work conditions.
These are most important bargaining mix to negotiate.
Another less important factor is evaluation of
teachers. Our party do not have specific requirements
and can as concession to satisfy more important
requirements and interests.

1.Planning points and concessions sere interest on

your side 2.core structure serve interests of your

Bargaining mix Valuable or not Comments related to

(comment) constitutes
Workload (22%) The workload is most The one interest of
important item. It is constitutes is guarantee
close related to the the all teachers receive
daily work conditions. fair treatment. The item
can modify the
treatment for teachers.
Therefore, it is most
important item in terms
of constitutes.
Evaluation of It is not really This item is also less
teachers (7%) important part need to important to match the
stubborn persistence. interest of constitutes.
It can as concessions to
negotiate with other.
Salary (18%) Salary is fundamental The salary is the main
requirements for interest of individual,
workers. The higher not close related to
salary will provide constituents.
better life and inspire
the job performance.
Therefore, it is valuable
Employment of The employment of The employment of
security (20%) security is valuable, security will influence
because the sense of the performance of
security can inspire the teachers; this will highly
job performance and influence the interest of
improve job higher quality of
satisfaction. education.
Length of contract It is not valuable and The constituents do not
(5%) can as a concessions really care the length of
for the board of contract, therefore, it is
education. Our party also less important
can accept the 3 years
Benefits (28%) The benefits including The benefit is another
a series of rules to important items in the
balance work-life. It is negotiation in terms of
important to satisfy the constituents. The
interest of better work benefits related to the
conditions. treatment and the
performance of
workers. Therefore, it is
valuable for

Bundles make no sense to the other side

In the negotiation, there exist the bundles we
assemble address the interests of the other side.
Firstly, the length of contract can be connecting with
the workload. The board of education want the 3
years contract, we can accept the long-period contract
in replace with reduce workload. It will improve the
job satisfaction and establish long-term relationship.
Secondly, the benefits can combine with the salary.
Because the board of education wants reduce the
expenditure, we can accept the lower cost living of
increase to help the board reduce the financial burden.
It wills both satisfy the interest of better work
conditions in terms of teachers and the interest of
reduce the expenditure of the board. Lastly, the
evaluation of teachers connects with the employment
security. In some extent, the evaluation of education is
less important item for the teacher’s union can as a
concession to guarantee the job security.

Budget analyze according to the interest on your

The main issue of board of education is the projected
budget. The projected budget will result a series of
actions in order to balance it. The board of education
will increase workload and reduce salary and even
put more pressure on the teacher’s union to balance
the budget. In order to maintain the better work
conditions, the two parties will start hard negotiation.
The budget is really serious issues for the board and if
fail to solve will result in dismiss all board members.
In order to concern the other party interests, we will
offer some concessions to reach the balance the
projected budget. However, it will influence the
satisfaction of interests. The integrative strategy will
result in win-win outcome.

BATNA satisfies interest of your side
If the negotiation could not occur at all, we will start
on system-wide strike to put pressure on the board of
education. It is best alternatives to satisfy our side
interests. Under state law, striking is legal during new
contract negotiation. During legal strike, employers
are not permitted to dismiss striking workers. The
bad impact of strike is maybe without salary. The
damage is minor and the alternative is effective to
conclude positive agreement at end. The best
alternative is going on system-wide strike if cannot
reach a positive agreement. Strike will cause huge
pressure on other party and influence their decisions.
Moreover, Teacher’s union has right to take other
industrial action In this case, the state commissioner
for education can intervene. There are also have other
alternatives including take another industrial action
and let the state commissioner to intervene. However,
these are week alternatives and need rejected them, It
will make thing worse and even waste more time and
expenditure to take another industrial action and
maybe face to dismiss. When the state commissioners
intervene, the other party will face the remove the
whole board members, it will delays the time and
have more potential challenges.

How other side’s BATNA influenced your planning

If the board of education fails to reach an agreement,
the projected budget also will fail to balance. The
state commissioners will dismiss all members at
current. Therefore, the BATNA of other party is
exercise strict control over the budget to avoid
dismissal. The BATNA will satisfy the interest of
balance the budget and keep the job. There still other
alternatives, including looking for other job and
dismiss the teachers in order balance the budget.
However, the alternative of other party will result
without teachers in school, more pressure on
community. The BATNA will influence the
work-condition of teachers. Therefore, The teacher’s
union will offer more concessions that will influence
our planning in a way.

Strategy and tactics

The strategy the teacher’s union will select for this
negotiation is integrative bargaining strategy. Because
if fail to reach an agreement, it will bring more harm
impacts on each party (the board of education can not
keep position and teacher’s union need pay more
times to negotiate with new team). The both party
want gain benefits from the negotiation within
integrative strategy (Thompson, L., Peterson, E. &
Brodt, S. E 1996). Therefor, it is more suitable apply
the integrative strategy. The tactics will intend to
support your negotiation. In the negotiation, Grudger
states that each party ought to show understanding
and respect to each other and honest communication
(e.g. share information in trust) in order to build trust
environment. Moreover, Logrolling is beneficial to
establish friendly relationship and appropriate for
this negotiation. Logrolling allows each one to gain
the positive agreement (Lewicky, Barry & Sauder’s
2010, pp. 85-86). Each party offers the concessions
are necessary part within this strategy. Each party
need more concern the interests of other party. It will
easy to maintain the win-win outcome.

Usefulness of communication
1.Chitchat explores other sides’ motives
Questions To find out
Do u have any expectations plans In order to know the negotiator’s
for your career path? interests
What kind of job did u have before Know the person better (e.g.
enter the board of education? demographic background;
Do u think that the teacher’s In order to gain information about
union receives fair and equal the possible concessions within the
treatment? board of education
What the board of education
plans to maintain fair treatment?
If we cannot reach an agreement, In order to know BATNA of the
what would u (board of board of education
education) do?

Note: Through the chitchat table, it is easy to explore

other side motive, such as individual and team
interests, demographics background and acceptable
concessions. During the effective communication,
both parties need share information in trust and
respect each other.

2. Framing
The interests of both party Framing statement
For teacher’s union---better work  The Commissioner is facing
conditions (reduce workload, more re-election in a six months’ time
benefits, higher salary / Fair and and this may make him more
equal treatment / Establish the sensitive to these issues than
long-term relationship with the normal.
board / maintain reputation
 The common goal is to reach a
positive agreement.

 The Board is under notice that if it

fails to balance the projected
budget, all Board members may be
For the board of removed.
education---Balance the projected
budget / establish long-term  Under state law, striking is legal
relationship/ maintain reputation during new contract negotiation
/ avoid a strike / reduce the periods. During legal strikes,
numbers of teaching staffs employers are not permitted to
dismiss striking workers.

 The employer has the right to

choose whether or not to pay
salary to employees while they are
on strike.

3.Tough questions for the other side

Through the tough questions we can undermined the
arguments of the other side. Let the other party give
more concessions to reach an acceptable agreement.
Tough questions Damage the arguments of the other side

Do u think highly of For board of education, it is need more focus on

the quality of the quality of education, not only the profits.
education? (Damage the reduce teachers’ salary and press
Are there have other The main issues of other party is projected
reasonable budget, It is necessary seek other acceptable
alternatives to solve solutions from other aspects, not only put
the projected pressure on teachers.

Do u care about the The board of education worries about the

intervention of state intervention of state commissioners (if it is fail
commissioner? to balance budget, they will remove whole
board members). Therefore, they will provide
more concessions.
If teachers go on The community also keep an eye on this
strike, how to negotiation, the board of education want
continue the maintain reputation in community, it will
education and solve damage the agreements of their party
the pressure on

If cannot reach an The question just mention the party, if it is fail

agreement, the to reach an agreement, our party will take
immediate strike or action on strike. It wills worse the issues at
take other industrial current. And they will receive more pressure on
action will without community (parents and students)
Grudger, C. L. 1971, ‘Relationships with Opponent and
Partner in Mixed-Motive Bargaining’, Journal of Conflict
Resolution, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 413-414.

Haden J. 2012, 7 Undeniable Truths of Employee Pay, media

release, Feb 1 2012,
Viewed 17th April 2015,

O’ Connor, K. M., Arnold, J. A. & Burris, E. R. 2005,

‘Negotiators’ bargaining experiences over time and
their effects on future negotiations,’ Journal of Applied
Psychology, Vol. 90, No. 2, pp. 350-362.
Lewicki, R. J., Barry, B. & Saunders, D. M. 2010,
Negotiation, 6th Edition, McGraw-Hill/Irwin, Boston,
pp. 53-55; 85-86

Thompson, L., Peterson, E. & Brodt, S. E. (1996), ‘Team

Negotiation: An Examination
Integrative and Distributive Bargaining’, Journal
of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 70, No. 1,
pp. 66-78