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Unit 4

Paper 3 Oct/Nov 2002


Section A : Families and Households
1. (a) Describe the functions of the family. (9)

(b) Evaluate the view that the family in modern industrial


societies has lost some of its functions.
(16)

2. (a) Describe, with examples, how the structure of the family has
been affected by industrialization.
(9)

(b) Assess the contribution of feminist theories to an


understanding of relationships in families.
(16)

Paper 3 Oct/Nov2003
Section A : Families and Households
1. (a) Describe, with examples, the ways in which the family is
linked to the economy in society.
(9)

(b) Evaluate the claim that the process of industrialization leads


to the decline of the extended family.
(16)

2. (a) Describe the main changes that have occurred in the


distribution of power within families in the last 100 years.
(9)

(b) Outline and assess the implications for society of the


changes you have outlined in your answer to part (a).

Paper 3 Oct/Nov2004
Section A : Families and Households
1. (a) Describe, with examples, the diversity of family forms that
may be found in societies today.
(9)
(b) Evaluate the claim that the extended family is of declining
importance in modern industrial societies.
(16)

2. (a) Describe, wit examples, changing fertility patterns in modern


industrial societies over the last 100 years.
(9)

(b) Evaluate the view that control of female fertility is the key to
the status of women in the family and the wider society
(16)

Paper 3 Oct/Nov2005
Section A : Families and Households
1. (a) Describe, with examples, the meaning of kinship.
(9)

(b) ‘In modern industrial societies functions that were once


carried out by the family are now carried out by the state’
Evaluate this claim. (16)

2. (a) describe the factors that influence fertility rates.


(9)

(b) Assess the view that in modern societies matrifocal family


types are becoming the norm.
(16)

Paper 3 Oct/Nov2006
Section A : Families and Households
1. (a) Describe, with examples, what is meant by status in relation
to the family. (9)

(b) ‘The family is an institution of the state ideological


apparatus’. Assess this view.(16)

2. (a) Describe, with two examples, what is meant by structure in


relation to the family.(9)
(b) Evaluate the view that high levels of divorce in modern
industrial societies are the result of a decline in the status of
marriage. (16)

Paper 3 Oct/Nov2007
Section A : Families and Households
1. (a) (i) Define the term household.
(3)
(ii) Identify and describe two types of household
(6)

(b) Evaluate the view that in modern societies family life is


characterized by diversity(16)

2. (a) (i) Define the term canalization


(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of
canalization. (6)

(b) Evaluate the view that in modern societies family life is no


longer patriarchal. (16)

Paper 3 Oct/Nov 2008


Section A : Families and Households
1. (a) (i) Define the term patriarchy.
(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of
patriarchal family structures.(6)

(b) Evaluate the clam that families in modern industrial


societies are increasingly democratic
(16)

2. (a) (i) Define the term cohabitation.


(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of socially
approved living arrangements between adults, other than
cohabitation. (6)
(b) Evaluate the claim that industrialization has resulted in the
formation of nuclear family structures.
(16)

Paper 3 Oct/Nov 2002


Section B : Education
1. (a) Describe the effects of poverty on educational achievement.
(9)

(b) ‘The role of education is to legitimize inequality’. Assess this


view. (16)

2. (a) Describe, with examples, the types of pupil subcultures that


can be found in schools

(b) ‘Factors within schools are the main influence on educational


achievement’. Assess this view.(16)

Paper 3 Oct/Nov 2003


Section B : Education
1. (a) What are the major influences on female education?
(9)

(b) Evaluate the proposition that the educational achievements


of females are based on their socialization.
(16)

2. (a) Describe the role of two different education systems with


which you are familiar. (9)

(b) Evaluate the proposition that education systems


disproportionately benefit the most powerful in society.
(16)
Paper 3 Oct/Nov 2004
Section B : Education
1. (a) Describe, with examples, how education may lead to social
mobility (9)

(b) Evaluate the view that education helps maintain ruling class
domination (16)

2. (a) Describe, with examples, the ways in which cultural


background may limit the educational achievements of some
pupils. (9)

(b) Evaluate the extent to which factors within schools may


influence educational outcomes.
(16)

Paper 3 Oct/Nov 2005


Section B : Education
1. (a) Describe the ways in which schools can help form of a pupil’s
identity (9)

(b) Evaluate the importance of factors outside of school in


influencing pupils’ educational achievements
(16)

2. (a) Describe, with examples the way in which the hidden


curriculum operates within schools. (9)

(b) ‘The most influential factor in determining a pupil’s


educational achievements is their school sub-culture’. Assess this
statement. (16)

Paper 3 Oct/Nov 2006


Section B : Education
1. (a) Describe, with two examples, what is meant by cultural
deprivation in the context of education.
(9)
(b) Evaluate the claim that ethnicity is the most significant
factor in determining educational achievements in modern
industrial societies. (16)

2. (a) describe, with two examples, what is meant by pupil sub-


culture (9)

(b) ‘In modern industrial societies the groups who control


knowledge determine which pupils will achieve academic
success.’ Assess this view . (16)

Paper 3 Oct/Nov 2007


Section B : Education
1. (a) (i) Define the term cultural capital. (3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of cultural
capital in relation to education.(6)

(b) Evaluate the view that the most significant influence on


educational achievement is social class.
(16)

2. (a) (i) Define the term hidden curriculum (3)


(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of the way
the hidden curriculum can influence educational achievements.
(6)

(b) Evaluate the claim that girls are disadvantaged in the


education system in modern industrial societies.
(16)

Paper 3 Oct/Nov 2002


Section C : Religion
1. (a) Describe the sociological explanations of how religion may
legitimize social order (9)

(b) Evaluate the view that religion is the means by which the
poor are controlled in society. (16)

2. (a) Describe, with examples, the features of religious sects and


cults. (9)
(b) Assess sociological explanations for the existence of sects in
apparently secular societies. (16)

Paper 3 Oct/Nov 2003


Section C : Religion
1. (a) Describe the role of religion in maintaining social order. (9)

(b) Assess the view that religion promotes social change.


(16)

2. (a) Describe two religious movements and the social


composition of their membership. (9)

(b) Assess the proposition that religious movements have less


power in societies than in the past. (16)

Paper 3 Oct/Nov 2005


Section C : Religion
1. (a) Describe the Functionalist perspective on the way in which
religion helps maintain social order.(9)

(b) Assess the view that religious faith is a feature of the


marginalized. (16)

2. (a) Describe, with examples, what sociologists mean by a church.


(9)

(b) Assess sociological explanations for the continuation of


worship in apparently secular societies. (16)

Paper 3 Oct/Nov 2006


Section C : Religion
1. (a) Describe, with two examples, what is meant by
disengagement in relation to religion. (9)

(b) Evaluate the view that ethnic minority groups use religion as
a means of cultural defense. (16)

2. (a) Describe, with two examples, what is meant by a religious


sect. (9)
(b) ‘The decline of religious influence is inevitable in modern
industrial societies.’ Assess this view. (16)

Paper 3 Oct/Nov 2007


Section C : Religion
1. (a) (i) define the term religious disenchantment. (3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of religious
disenchantment. (6)

(b) Evaluate the view that in modern industrial societies religious


observance is practiced primarily by the marginalized. (16)

2. (a) (i) define the term religious pluralism. (3)


(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of religious
pluralism from different societies. (6)

(b) Evaluate the view that in modern industrial societies religious


organizations no longer have any power. (16)

Paper 3 Oct/Nov 2008


Section C : Religion
1. (a) (i) Define the term disengagementnin relation to religion.
(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of religious
disengagement. (6)

(b)Evaluate the claim that religious organizations attract and


recruit the less powerful (16)

2. (a) (i) Define the term church.(3)


(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of religious
organizations, other than church. (6)
(b)Evaluate the claim that secularisation is occurring in modern
industrial societies. (16)

Paper 3 Oct/Nov 2002


Section D : Crime and Deviance
1. (a) Describe two reasons why official crime statistics
may not reflect the true level of crime in society. (9)
(b)Assess the view that ‘low levels of recorded female crime are
a reflection of their lack of criminal activity.’ (16)

2. (a) Explain, with examples, the meaning of anomie. (9)

(b)Evaluate the usefulness of the ‘New Criminology’ in explaining


why people commit crime. (16)

Paper 3 Oct/Nov 2003


Section D : Crime and Deviance
1. (a) Explain, with examples, how ‘the self-fulfilling prophecy’ may
contribute to levels of crime in society.
(9)

(b) ‘Crime is an activity undertake by the powerless in the


society’. How valid is this as a description of he perpetrators of
crime in society. (16)

2. (a) Explain, with examples, the limitations of official crime


statistics. (9)

(b) Assess the usefulness of self-report and victim studies in


explaining the nature of crime statistics.
(16)

Paper 3 Oct/Nov 2004


Section D : Crime and Deviance
1. (a) Describe, with examples, the process by which an individual
accepts a master status. (9)

(b) ‘the mass media plays a key role in labeling certain acts as
deviant.’ Explain and assess this statement.
(16)
2. (a) Describe, with examples, the reasons why the old apparently
commit fewer crimes than the young.
(9)

(b) Evaluate the usefulness of Marxist theories in understanding


levels of crime in society. (16)

Paper 3 Oct/Nov 2005


Section D : Crime and Deviance
1. (a) Describe, with examples how sociologists carry out victim
surveys. (9)

(b) Evaluate the usefulness of New Left Realism in explaining


the nature of crime. (16)

2. (a) Describe, with examples, the types of delinquent sub-cultures


that can be found in societies.
(9)

(b) Evaluate the contribution of feminist theories to the study of


rime and deviance (16)

Paper 3 Oct/Nov 2006


Section D : Crime and Deviance
1. (a) describe, with two examples, what is meant by master status
in relation to crime and deviance. (9)

(b) Evaluate the view that some groups, such as the elderly and
females, may have little involvement in criminal activity. (16)

2. (a) Describe, with two examples, what is meant by anomie in


relation to crime and deviance (9)

(b) Evaluate the view that crime and deviance is a necessary and
inevitable feature o society (16)
Paper 3 Oct/Nov 2007
Section D : Crime and Deviance
1. (a) (i) Define the term white collar crime. (3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of white
collar. (6)

(b) Evaluate the view that in modern industrial societies


criminal behaviour is primarily working class activity.
(16)

2. (a) (i) Define the term labeling.


(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of labeling in
relation to crime and deviance.

(b) Evaluate the view that official statistics tell us more about
the processes of law enforcement than they do about who commits
crime. (16)

Paper 3 Oct/Nov 2008


Section D : Crime and Deviance
1. (a) (i) Define the term stigma.
(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of the way in
which a stigmatization may influence levels of crime and deviance.

(b) Evaluate the claim that crime is the result of labeling by


powerful groups. (16)

2. (a) (i) Define the term anomie.


(3)
(ii) Identify and describe two examples of anomie in
relation to crime and deviance

(b) Evaluate the claim that deviant behaviour is the result of


dysfunctional socialization.(16)

Paper3 Oct/Nov 2002


Section E : Work and Leisure
1. (a) Describe, with examples, the main features of bureaucracy.
(9)
(b) Evaluate the claim made by some sociologists that
organizations are inevitably undemocratic.
(16)

2. (a) Describe, with examples, the possible, consequences of


workforce deskilling. (9)

(b) ‘The type of work people do is the main influence on their choice of
leisure activities’. Assess this claim.
(16)

Paper3 Oct/Nov 2003


Section E : Work and Leisure
1. (a) Describe, with examples, how the position of females in paid
employment has changed in the last 100 years.
(9)

(b) Assess the social consequences of the changes that have


occurred in female employment in the last 100 years.
(16)

2. (a) Outline the main social consequences of unemployment.


(9)

(b) ‘The nature of a person’s employment determines the nature


of their non-work activities’. Assess this statement.
(16)

Paper3 Oct/Nov 2004


Section E : Work and Leisure
1. (a) Describe, with examples, the types of conflict that may occur
in organizations. (9)

(b) ‘Bureaucracy is the most efficient type of organization.’


Evaluate this view. (16)

2. (a) Describe, with examples, the difficulties involved in


measuring unemployment levels.(9)
(b) ‘Unemployment is a necessary and inevitable part of modern
industrial society’. Evaluate this view.
(16)

Paper3 Oct/Nov 2005


Section E : Work and Leisure
1. (a) Describe the post-industrial society thesis.
(9)

(b) ‘Gender equality is a feature of the modern industrial


workplace’. Assess this view, making reference to sociological
studies f the workplace. (16)

2. (a) Explain, with examples, what sociologists mean by leisure.


(9)

(b) ‘Alienation is no longer a feature of the modern industrial


workplace’. Assess this view.(16)

Paper3 Oct/Nov 2006


Section E : Work and Leisure
1. (a) Describe, with two examples, what is meant by deskilling in
relation to work. (9)

(b) Evaluate the view that patterns of unemployment reflect


ethnic divisions in modern industrial societies.
(16)

2. (a) Describe, with two examples, what is meant by alienation in


the workplace. (9)

(b) Evaluate the view that the use of new technology in the
workplace improves the lives of employees.
(16)

Paper3 Oct/Nov 2007


Section E : Work and Leisure
1. (a) (i) Define the term work.
(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of the way
that patterns of employment are changing in modern industrial
societies. (6)

(b) Evaluate the post-industrial society thesis. (16)

2. (a) (i) Define the term industrial conflict.


(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of industrial
conflict. (6)

(b) Evaluate the view that modern management systems have


made industrial conflict unnecessary.
(16)

Paper3 Oct/Nov 2008


Section E : Work and Leisure
1. (a) (i) Define the term ageism.
(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of the way in
which ageism may influence patterns of employment.
(6)

(b) ‘Systems of management have made industrial conflict


unnecessary in modern industrial societies.’ Evaluate this claim.
(16)

2. (a) (i) Define the term unemployment.


(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two problems associated
with measuring unemployment.
(6)

(b) Evaluate the claim that technological changes have ended


the need for repetitive and unsatisfying labour in modern societies.
(16)

Paper3 Oct/Nov 2002


Section F : Mass Media
1. (a) Describe how the mass media may influence the outcome of
elections. (9)

(b) Assess the view that mass media only serve the interests of
the ruling class. (16)

2. (a) Describe, with examples, the meaning of the term media


representation. (9)

(b) Assess the view that the mass media are a major source of
stereotypes of ethnic minorities.
(16)

Paper3 Oct/Nov 2003


Section F : Mass Media
1. (a) Describe the Pluralist and Marxist theories of the role of the
mass media in modern industrial societies.
(9)

(b) Assess the usefulness of Pluralist and Marxist theories in


explaining the role of the mass media in political process.
(16)

2. (a) Describe, with examples, how the mass media can effect
levels of deviance in societies. (9)
(b) Assess the usefulness of the ‘Hypodermic Syringe Model’ for
explaining the ways in which audiences react to the mass media.
(16)

Paper3 Oct/Nov 2004


Section F : Mass Media
1. (a) Describe, with examples, the ways that the state may
influence the content of the mass media.
(9)

(b) ‘The contents of the mass media reflect the norms and
values of the wider society.’ Explain and assess this view.
(16)

2. (a) Describe, with examples the problems faced by sociologists


in researching the effects of the mass media on audiences.
(9)

(b) Evaluate the usefulness of cultural effects theories in


understanding the influence of the mass media on audiences.
(16)

Paper3 Oct/Nov 2005


Section F : Mass Media
1. (a) Describe the role of the mass media in political process.
(9)

(b) ‘The mass media is a means of ideological control’. Assess


this view. (16)

2. (a) describe, with examples, the ways in which different age


groups use the mass media.(9)

(b) Evaluate the usefulness of cultural effects studies of the


mass media. (16)