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IN!RC')33PATIAL!NALYST

By Colin Childs, ESRI Education Services

Editorʼs note: In addition to supplying tools for spatial analysis (i.e.,

for modeling suitability, distance, or hydrology), the ArcGIS 9 Spatial

Analyst extension provides tools for spatial data analysis that apply sta- -ETHODSOF3URFACE2EPRESENTATION

tistical theory and techniques to the modeling of spatially referenced data.

Elevation, temperature, and contamination concentrations are types of

data that can be represented by surfaces. Each raster cell represents a mea-

surement such as a cellʼs relationship to a ﬁxed point or speciﬁc concentra-

tion level. Because obtaining values for each cell in a raster is typically

not practical, sample points are used to derive the intervening values using

the interpolation tools in ArcGIS Spatial Analyst. This article provides an

introduction to the interpolation methods used by these tools.

GIS is all about spatial data and the tools for managing, compiling,

and analyzing that data. ArcGIS Spatial Analyst extension provides a

toolset for analyzing and modeling spatial data. A set of sample points 0OINTS #ONTOURS

representing changes in landscape, population, or environment can be

used to visualize the continuity and variability of observed data across a

surface through the use of interpolation tools. These changes can be ex-

trapolated across geographic space. The morphology and characteristics

of these changes can be described. The ability to create surfaces from

sample data makes interpolation both powerful and useful.

5NDERSTANDING3URFACES

Before discussing different interpolation techniques, the differences in

the methods used for surface representation need to be discussed. Each

representation is useful for speciﬁc situations. This discussion concen-

trates on the creation of a surface in the native ArcGIS grid format.

4).S 'RIDS

A grid representation of a surface is considered to be a functional sur-

face because for any given x,y location, it stores only a single Z value as

opposed to multiple Z values. Functional surfaces are continuous because

an x,y location has one and only one Z value regardless of the direction )NTERPOLATION-ETHODS

from which the x,y point is approached. Functional surfaces are 2.5-di- To create a surface grid in ArcGIS, the Spatial Analyst extension employs

mensional surfaces, not true three-dimensional surfaces. one of several interpolation tools. Interpolation is a procedure used to

Functional surfaces can be used to represent terrestrial surfaces that predict the values of cells at locations that lack sampled points. It is based

depict the earthʼs surface, statistical surfaces that describe demographic on the principle of spatial autocorrelation or spatial dependence, which

and other types of data, and mathematical surfaces that are based on arith- measures degree of relationship/dependence between near and distant

metic expressions. Surface representation in its simplest form is done objects.

by storing x,y and Z values that deﬁne the location of a sample and the Spatial autocorrelation determines if values are interrelated. If values

change characteristic represented by the Z value. are interrelated, it determines if there is a spatial pattern. This correlation

Contours or isolines are used to deﬁne a common characteristic along is used to measure

a line. Technically, contours join locations of equal value to each other. n Similarity of objects within an area

In the case of a contour line representing height, it is a line drawn on a n The degree to which a spatial phenomenon is correlated to itself in

map that connects points of equal elevation above a datum that usually space

represents mean sea level. n The level of interdependence between the variables

A triangulated irregular network (TIN) is a vector data structure used n Nature and strength of the interdependence

to store and display surface models. A TIN partitions geographic space Different interpolation methods will almost always produce different results.

using a set of irregularly spaced data points, each of which has x-, y-,

and Z-values. These points are connected by edges that form contiguous, +NOWN2AINFALL6ALUES

**nonoverlapping triangles and create a continuous surface that represents
**

Interpolation is the proce-

the terrain.

dure used to predict cell

A grid is a spatial data structure that deﬁnes space as an array of cells

values for locations that

of equal size that are arranged in rows and columns. In the case of a grid )NTERPOLATED2AINFALL

lack sampled points.

that represents a surface, each cell contains an attribute value that repre-

sents a change in Z value. The location of the cell in geographic space is

obtained from its position relative to the gridʼs origin.

-ILE

!RC5SER*ULYn3EPTEMBER WWWESRICOM

Deterministic interpolation techniques create surfaces CONTROLLEDBYLIMITINGTHEINPUTPOINTSUSEDINTHE based on measured points or mathematical formulas. Alternatively. points within that radius. that specifying a maximum number of points. $EVELOPERS#ORNER -AXIMUM. cliffs. IDW and Kriging support the use of barriers. changes in nearest points until that maximum number of points is reached. cliffs. levees. also control how surfaces are generated. streams. Methods such as Inverse Distance Weight (IDW) are based on the extent of similarity of CALCULATIONOFOUTPUTCELLVALUES cells while methods such as Trend ﬁt a smooth surface deﬁned by a math- ematical function. and other features that create linear discontinuity in surfaces.3 Spatial Analyst. and streams. By using barriers. a radius can be speciﬁed in map units. Natural Neighbors. Spline. limiting the input points used in the calculation of output cell values. although Trend was only accessible location until the maximum number is reached. The most appropriate method will depend on distance from the center of the output cell unless there are not enough the distribution of sample points and the phenomenon being studied.UMBER 7ITH"ARRIER 7ITHOUT"ARRIER &IXED2ADIUS Barriers. Points can be limited by formed across features. Specifying the maximum number ArcGIS 8. Geostatistical interpolation techniques such as Kriging are based on statistics and are used for more advanced prediction surface modeling that also includes some measure of the certainty or accuracy of !VAILABLE)NTERPOLATION/PTIONS predictions. such as fault lines. which will select the create a linear discontinuity in the surface. Continued on page 34 WWWESRICOM !RC5SER*ULYn3EPTEMBER . Natural Neighbor and Trend methods were of points to be sampled will return the points closest to the output cell available in ArcGIS 8. ArcGIS Spatial Analyst at version 9 offers several interpolation tools for The characteristics of an interpolated surface can be controlled by generating surface grids from point data. Many interpolation tools incorporate barriers that deﬁne and control surface behavior in terms of smoothness and continuity. PointInterp.3 3D Analyst. Alternatively. the behavior of the surface can be described and enforced. Each method uses a different approach for determin- a ﬁxed radius in map units will select only input points within the radius ing the output cell values. There are two categories of interpolation techniques: deterministic 4HECHARACTERISTICSOFANINTERPOLATEDSURFACECANBE and geostatistical. which reﬂect the presence of fault lines. specifying programmatically. and Trend methods and the Topo to Raster command have been added to This can be done by limiting the number of points sampled or the area the IDW. and Kriging interpolation methods that were available in from which sampled points are taken. Barriers are The characteristics of an interpolated surface can be controlled needed because sometimes interpolation operations should not be per- by limiting the input points used.

and the surface does not pass through samples. Universal Kriging does assume that an overrid- ing trend exists in the data and that it can be modeled. geochemistry. )NTERPOLATING3URFACESIN!RC')33PATIAL!NALYST Continued from page 33 )$7 +RIGING The IDW function should be used when the set of points is dense enough A powerful statistical interpolation method used for diverse applications to capture the extent of local surface variation needed for analysis. control over the sampling neighborhood. The inﬂuence of a particular sample on the interpolated grid cell value depends on whether the sample point is in the cellʼs neighborhood and how far from the cell being inter- 3PLINE polated it is located. The generated cell values can exceed value range of samples.. +RIGING 3PLINE Spline estimates values using a mathematical function that minimizes overall surface curvature. and third derivative (rate of change in the sec- ond derivative) into its minimization calculations. Kriging is most appropriate when a spatially correlated distance or directional bias in the data is known and is often used for applications in soil science )NVERSE$ISTANCE7EIGHTED and geology. it includes more points in 0OINT)NTERP the spline calculations. Ordinary Kriging. The weight assigned is a function of the distance of an input point spatial correlation that can be used to explain variation in the surface. The predicted values are derived from the measure of relationship in samples using sophisticated weighted average technique. This results in a smooth surface that passes exactly through the input points. and pollution modeling. Although a tension spline uses only ﬁrst and second derivatives.e. assumes that there is no constant mean for the data over an area mean (i. the less inﬂuence It ﬁts a function to a speciﬁed number of points or all points within a the cell has on the output value. A regu- larized spline incorporates the ﬁrst derivative (slope). from the output cell location. Points outside the neighborhood have no inﬂuence. speciﬁed radius to determine the output value for each location. Conceptually. A method that is similar to IDW. 0OINT)NTERP !RC5SER*ULYn3EPTEMBER WWWESRICOM . Kriging determines cell values using a linear-weighted combination set of sample assumes that the distance or direction between sample points reﬂects a points. IDW such as health sciences. There are two variations of spline—regularized and tension. It can predict ridges and valleys in the data and is the best method for representing the smoothly varying surfaces of phe- nomena such as temperature. There are several types of Kriging. The greater the distance. It uses a search radius that can be ﬁxed or variable. the PointInterp function allows more creases computation time. it is like bending a sheet of rubber so that it passes through the points while minimizing the total curvature of the surface. no trend). which usually creates smoother surfaces but in. the most com- mon method. second derivative (rate of change in slope).

the variance) will be as small as possible. It is an inexact interpolator.e. This results in a surface that minimizes surface vari.ATURAL. can be used for both interpolation and extrapolation.. annuluses. METHODBASEDONTHEDISTRIBUTIONOFSAMPLEPOINTS ANDTHEPHENOMENONBEINGSTUDIED . It ﬁts one polynomial equation sample point. More in- 4REND formation on how to perform spatial data analysis and applications for the tools in ArcGIS 9 Spatial Analyst may be found in the product manual. the Topo to Raster method tion used in natural neighbor interpolation is identical to the one used in imposes constraints that ensure a hydrologically correct digital elevation IDW interpolation. Using ArcGIS Spatial Analyst. 4OPOTO2ASTER tered scatter points. $EVELOPERS#ORNER The weighted value of points inside the neighborhood is calculated us- ing an inverse distance weighted interpolation or inverse exponential %ACHOFTHEINTERPOLATIONMETHODSAVAILABLEINTHE distance interpolation. !RC')33PATIAL!NALYSTEXTENSIONUSESADIFFERENT tures but allows for different types of neighborhoods. local coordinates de.com/geostatisticalanalyst. an IDW will pass through none of the points. This method can efﬁciently handle large input point model that contains a connected drainage structure and correctly repre- datasets. It uses an iterative ﬁ- ﬁne the amount of inﬂuence any scatter point will have on output cells.EIGHBOR Natural neighbor interpolation has many positive features. the basic equa. However. while a spline surface passes exactly through each points using a least-squares regression ﬁt. and generally works well with clus. When using the Natural Neighbor method. irregular polygons. Papers that provide background informa- tion on interpolation methods and their application in various industries and disciplines can be found at www. The surface is constructed so that for predicting values derived from the measure of relationship in samples every input point. and the estimated values (i. +RIGE 3PLINE )$7 : VALUE $ISTANCE IDW and Spline are two deterministic methods that create surfaces 4REND from samples based on the extent of similarity or degree of smooth- Trend is a statistical method that ﬁnds the surface that ﬁts the sample ing. this method detects trends in the sample data This brief introduction supplies a framework for exploring the interpola- and is similar to natural phenomena that typically vary smoothly. This method interpolates a raster using point fea. A more robust and com- prehensive arsenal of tools for data exploration and spatial data analysis is available from the ArcGIS 9 Geostatistical Analyst extension. sents ridges and streams from input contour data. rectangles. By interpolating elevation values for a raster.EIGHBOR with contour inputs. Kriging is to the entire surface. However. Neighborhoods can have shapes such as circles. and the resulting surface rarely passes through #ONCLUSION the input points. tion tools available in ArcGIS 9 Spatial Analyst. WWWESRICOM !RC5SER*ULYn3EPTEMBER . the total of the differences between the actual values and employs sophisticated weighted average techniques. nite difference interpolation technique that optimizes the computational efﬁciency of local interpolation without losing the surface continuity of global interpolation.esri. Another weighted-average method. or APPROACHFORDETERMININGOUTPUTCELLS#HOOSEA wedges.ATURAL. a geostatistical method that uses a powerful statistical technique for ance in relation to the input values. It was speciﬁcally designed to work intelligently .

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