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Dolomite

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the rock and mineral. For other uses, see Dolomite (disambiguation).

Dolomite

Dolomite and magnesite – Spain

General

Category Carbonate mineral

Formula CaMg(CO3)2

(repeating unit)

Strunz classification 05.AB.10

Crystal symmetry Trigonal rhombohedral, 3

Unit cell a = 4.8012(1) Å, c = 16.002 Å; Z = 3

Identification

Color White, gray to pink

Crystal habit Tabular crystals, often with curved faces, also

columnar, stalactitic, granular, massive.

Crystal system Trigonal

rhombohedral cleavage Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 3.181 Solubility Poorly soluble in dilute HCl Other May fluoresce white to pink under UV. The word dolomite is also used to describe the sedimentary carbonate rock.681 nε = 1. Contents [hide]  1 History  2 Properties  3 Formation  4 Uses . References [1][2][3][4] Dolomite /ˈdɒləmaɪt/ is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed ofcalcium magnesium carbonate.679–1.84–2. which is composed predominantly of the mineral dolomite (also known as dolostone). characteristics triboluminescent. Twinning Common as simple contact twins Cleavage Perfect on {1011}. ideally CaMg(CO3)2.86 Optical properties Uniaxial (-) Refractive index nω = 1.179–0.500 Birefringence δ = 0.5 to 4 Luster Vitreous to pearly Streak White Specific gravity 2.

Lead. 5 See also  6 References History[edit] Most probably the mineral dolomite was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1768.[9]which may have contributed to De Dolomieu's work.g. Solid solution exists between dolomite.[7] Properties[edit] The mineral dolomite crystallizes in the trigonal-rhombohedral system. Crystal twinning is common. A high manganese content gives the crystals a rosy pink color. Vast deposits of dolomite are present in the geological record.[11] Formation[edit] Recent research has found modern dolomite formation under anaerobicconditions in supersaturated saline lagoons along the Rio de Janeiro coast of Brazil. It does not rapidly dissolve or effervesce (fizz) in dilute hydrochloric acid as calcite does. Those laboratory experiments showed how the initial precipitation of a metastable "precursor" (such as magnesium calcite) will change gradually into more and more of the stable phase (such as dolomite or magnesite) during periodical intervals of dissolution and re-precipitation. inorganic low-temperature syntheses of dolomite and magnesite were published for the first time in 1999. This occurs as a result of magnesium complexation by carboxyl groups associated with organic matter. tan.[8] Hacquet and Dolomieu met in Laibach (Ljubljana) in 1784. It is often thought that dolomite will develop only with the help of sulfate-reducing bacteria (e. it was described by the Austrian naturalist Belsazar Hacquet as the "stinking stone" (German: Stinkstein. Desulfovibrio brasiliensis).[14] .[10] Small amounts of iron in the structure give the crystals a yellow to brown tint. the iron-dominant ankerite and themanganese- dominant kutnohorite. and cobalt also substitute in the structure for magnesium. promising new research on low-temperature dolomite formation indicates that low-temperature dolomite may occur in natural environments rich in organic matter and microbial cell surfaces. Dolomite is a double carbonate. namely. The mineral dolomite is closely related to huntite Mg3Ca(CO3)4. Latin: lapis suillus). Because dolomite can be dissolved by slightly acidic water. It forms white. Reproducible. it was described as a rock by the French naturalistand geologist.[13] Dolomite. having an alternating structural arrangement of calcium and magnesium ions.[12] However. but the mineral is relatively rare in modern environments. naming it after De Dolomieu. areas of dolomite are important as aquifers and contribute to karst terrain formation. or pink crystals. The mineral was given its name in March 1792 by Nicolas de Saussure. The general principle governing the course of this irreversible geochemical reaction has been coined "breaking Ostwald's step rule".[6][7] In 1791. zinc. Manganese substitutes in the structure also up to about three percent MnO. Lagoa Vermelha and Brejo do Espinho.[5] In 1778. gray. Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu (1750–1801) first from buildings in the old city of Rome and later as samples collected in what is now known as the Dolomite Alps of northern Italy.

[15] Uses[edit] Dolomite with chalcopyrite from theTri-state district. possibly as the result of an illness or infection.  Dolomitization  Evaporite  List of minerals  Magnesian Limestone  Main Dolomite References[edit] . dolomite and dolomitic limestone are added to soils and soilless potting mixes as a pH buffer and as a magnesium source.[16] Particle physics researchers like to build particle detectors under layers of dolomite to enable the detectors to detect the highest possible number of exotic particles. zinc. Calcined dolomite is also used as a catalyst for destruction of tar in the gasification of biomass at high temperature. In horticulture. as well as in the Pidgeon process for the production ofmagnesium. Dolomite is used in the ceramic industry and in studio pottery as a glaze ingredient.There is some evidence for a biogenic occurrence of dolomite. Large quantities of processed dolomite are used in the production of float glass. and serves as the host rock for large strata-bound Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) ore deposits of base metals such as lead.4×7. Home and container gardening are common examples of this use. and copper.[17] Dolomite is a popular choice for motorcycle speedway tracks throughout Australia and New Zealand. and a source of magnesium oxide.6 cm) Dolomite is used as an ornamental stone. Where calcite limestone is uncommon or too costly. Kansas (size: 11. See also[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dolomite. dolomite is sometimes used in its place as a flux for the smelting of iron and steel. a concrete aggregate. It is an important petroleum reservoir rock. Cherokee County. One example is that of the formation of dolomite in theurinary bladder of a Dalmatian dog. it can insulate against interference from cosmic rays without adding to background radiation levels. Dolomite is also used as the substrate in marine (saltwater) aquariums to help buffer changes in pH of the water.2×4. Because dolomite contains relatively minor quantities of radioactive materials.

that it reminded him of the "Marmor tardum" described earlier by Linnaeus (which decides about the priority of the discovery of the mineral that later became known as "dolomite"). D. Charles F.. W. R..doi:10. Howie and J. Istrien und zum Theil der benachbarten Länder. Bibcode:1995Natur. Webmineral. 8. 20th ed.ISBN 0-582-44210-9. 2.C. Retrieved on 2011-10-10. (1999): "Low-temperature nucleation of magnesite and dolomite". Janez (2001). doi:10. Jump up^ Saussure le fils. James. published in 1781.. Gonzalez. "Microbial mediation as a possible mechanism for natural dolomite formation at low temperatures". effervesce with "aqua forti"". but it is different in that it does not.1016/0016-7037(80)90264-1. "A urolith of biogenic dolomite – another clue in the dolomite mystery". R.44.1305403110. Fowle. Jump up^ Kaufmann. white and transparent with barely discernable particles. Bernasconi S. Jump up^ Deelman.. USGS Fact Sheet.5 finding a fine. D.. with an English abstract) (Association of Slovenian Historical Societies.com (2011-09-05). J. Handbook of Mineralogy. Jump up^ Dolomite. J. Retrieved on 2011-10-10.. doi:10. I.377..161-173. pp.1073/pnas. Breitkopf. pp. Hacquet mentioned on p.Marble. Hoc simile quartzo durum. Zussman (1966) An Introduction to the Rock Forming Minerals. Jump up^ Dolomite. S. Section for the History of Places) 49 (1/2): 65–72. Proceedings of the National Academies of Science of the United States of America. Hacquet (1781) stated. Monatshefte. J. G. "Balthasar Hacquet (1739/40-1815). 6. 3. Retrieved on 2013-9-10. A. effervescens. . Acta Carsologica35 (2). (1980). and Moore. Jump up^ On p. 16. Jump up^ Dolomite. 289–302. Nature 337: 220–222. Newscientist. distinctum quod cum aqua forti non... Cornelis and Cornelius S. Tien A. (1995). This is as hard as quartz. 15. de (1792): Analyse de la dolomie. p. Jr. 14. J. white powder that would not react with acid. Leipzig. A. ISSN 0023-4923. 17. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 44 (6): 829– 839. L. 13. Jump up^ Deer.. 10. "Žiga Zois in Déodat de Dolomieu". (PDF) .. 5.org. A. 12. oder physikalische Erdbeschreibung des Herzogthums Krain.40. (1778): Oryctographia Carniola. Grujic D. McKenzie J.. 9.. 7. A.. P. vol. 162 p. Wiley. Jump up^ Hacquet. Jump up^ Šumrada. This lack of a reaction with (dilute) acid was remarkable because the powder had originated from the underlying limestone. Jump up^ Vasconcelos C. In Volume 2 of this same book.1. Manual of Mineralogy. Retrieved on 2011-10-10. 4. 339-340 ISBN 0-471-80580-7 11. Jump up^ Short Sharp Science: Particle quest: Hunting for Italian WIMPs underground. 489–493. Sinkholes. Journal de Physique.Marmor paticulis subimpalpabilibus album diaphanum. Jump up^ Klein. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie. A. Bibcode:1980GeCoA. M. B. Hurlbut. Jump up^ A Review of the Literature on Catalytic Biomass Tar Destruction National Renewable Energy Laboratory." In translation: "Slow marble .1038/377220a0. (1980). Kronika: časopis za slovensko krajevno zgodovino [The Chronicle: the Newspaper for the Slovenian History of Places] (in Slovene. Andrej (2006).41 of part 3 of his book "Systema naturae per regna tria naturae etc. A.. Longman. Retrieved on 2011-10-10." (1768). Jump up^ Mansfield.829M. Jump up^ Roberts.220V. the Pioneer of Karst Geomorphologists". "Surface chemistry allows for abiotic precipitation of dolomite at low temperature".Kenward. Mindat. unless after a few minutes. Goldstein. pp. Linnaeus stated: "Marmor tardum . H. A. nisi post aliquot minuta & fero. ^ Jump up to:a b Kranjc.