You are on page 1of 6


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Fibers)

For other uses, see Fiber (disambiguation).

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this
article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be
challenged and removed. (April 2009)

Part of a series on


Natural fibers




Man-made fibers

Regenerated fibers[show]

Semi-synthetic fibers[show]

Synthetic fibers[show]

 Agriculture and Agronomy portal
 Engineering portal
 Category: Fibers

papyrus.2.  V  T  E A bundle of optical fibers Fiber (or fibre. from the Latin fibra[1]) is a natural or synthetic string or used as a component of composite materials.2.1.[2] Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. for example carbon fiber and ultra-high- molecular-weight polyethylene. when matted into sheets. or felt. such as comfort.3 Silicon carbide fiber  3. or.2. The strongest engineering materials often incorporate fibers.2.1 Cellulose regenerated fibers o 3.2. Contents [hide]  1 Textile fiber  2 Natural fibers  3 Man-made fibers o 3. but for clothing natural fibers can give some benefits.1 Semi-synthetic fibers  3.2. over their synthetic counterparts.7 Microfibers  4 See also  5 References .1 Metallic fibers  3. used to make products such as paper.5 Mineral fibers  3.2 Carbon fiber  3.2 Synthetic fibers  3.4 Fiberglass  3.6 Polymer fibers  3. Synthetic fibers can often be produced very cheaply and in large amounts compared to natural fibers.2.

thermomechanical pulp (TMP) and bleached or unbleached kraft or sulfite pulps. crocidolite. bamboo fiber from bamboo. muscle proteins like actin.[4] Man-made fibers consist of regenerated fibers and synthetic fibers.  Biological fibers also known as fibrous proteins or protein filaments consist largely of biologically relevant and biologically very important proteins. Short. anthophyllite and actinolite. rabbit. jute. mink. Natural fibers[edit] Main article: Natural fiber Natural fibers include those produced by plants. sinew. Semi-synthetic fibers[edit] Semi-synthetic fibers are made from raw materials with naturally long-chain polymer structure and are only modified and partially degraded by chemical processes. fur such as sheepskin. wool. spider silk. Asbestos is the only naturally occurring long mineral fiber. fox. sinew and hair etc. the cellulose is reduced to a fairly pure form as a viscous mass and formed into fibers by extrusion through spinnerets. structure. The earliest semi-synthetic fiber is the cellulose regenerated fiber. Forms include groundwood. and dietary fiber is an important component of human nutrition. which the chemist synthesizes from low-molecular weight compounds by polymerization (chain-building) reactions. ramie.  Wood fiber. beaver. Six minerals have been classified as "asbestos" including chrysotile of the serpentine class and those belonging to the amphiboleclass: amosite. tendon.spider silk. sea silk and hair such as cashmere wool.  Animal fibers consist largely of particular proteins. is from tree sources. and banana. seacell from seaweed. Man-made fibers[edit] Man-made fibers or chemical fibers are fibers whose chemical composition.  Mineral fibers include the asbestos group. Modal from beech trees. bagasse. mohair and angora.[5] Most semi-synthetic fibers are cellulose regenerated fibers. fiber- like minerals include wollastonite andpalygorskite. rayon. Some examples are: . catgut. Plant fibers are employed in the manufacture of paper andtextile (cloth). mutations or other genetic defects can lead to severe diseases. the manufacturing process leaves few characteristics distinctive of the natural source material in the finished product. Cellulose regenerated fibers[edit] Cellulose fibers are a subset of man-made fibers. hemp. cell proteins like microtubules and many others. etc. The cellulose comes from various sources: rayon from tree wood fiber. in contrast to completely synthetic fibers such as nylon (polyamide) ordacron (polyester). tremolite. Instances arecollagen[3] family of proteins. regenerated from natural cellulose. and properties are significantly modified during the manufacturing process. animals. Therefore. often with lignin: examples include cotton. flax. etc. Kraft and sulfite. and geological processes and can be classified according to their origin:  Vegetable fibers are generally based on arrangements of cellulose. In the production of these fibers.Textile fiber[edit] A unit in which many complicated textile structures are built up is said to betextile fiber. distinguished from vegetable fiber. also called sulphite. sisal. thus freeing the fibers for use in paper and engineered wood products such as fiberboard. refer to the type of pulping process used to remove the lignin bonding the original wood structure. Instances are silkworm silk.

Synthetic fibers[edit] Main article: Synthetic fiber Synthetic come entirely from synthetic materials such as petrochemicals. and (ii) long fibers. also known as continuous fibers. using beech trees as input  diacetate fiber  triacetate fiber. See also Stainless steel fibers. including mostly other elements like oxygen. a brand of rayon  Modal.[8] Polymer fibers[edit]  Polymer fibers are a subset of man-made fibers. cellulose diacetate and -triacetate were classified under the term rayon. Historically. but with mechanical properties very similar to those of carbon fibers. which are based on synthetic chemicals (often from petrochemicalsources) rather than arising from natural materials by a purely physical process. the general aspect ratio is between 200 to 500. but are now considered distinct materials. with a general aspect ratio (defined as the ratio of fiber length to diameter) between 20 to 60. so-called poly-carbo-silanes. or aluminium. and optical fiber. The pyrolysis yields an amorphous silicon carbide. are also man-made fibers that come from natural raw materials. where about 50% of the carbon atoms are replaced by silicon atoms. made from sodium silicate (water glass) and basalt fiber made from melted basalt.[6] Fiber classification in reinforced plastics falls into two classes: (i) short fibers. asbestos is a common one. silica fiber. rayon  bamboo fiber  Lyocell. pure polyester PAN fibers are used to make carbon fiber by roasting them in a low oxygen environment.[7] Metallic fibers[edit] Metallic fibers can be drawn from ductile metals such as copper. aluminum or iron. gold or silver and extruded or deposited from more brittle ones. also known as discontinuous fibers. where the basic polymers are not hydrocarbons but polymers. unlike those man-made fibers derived from such natural substances as cellulose or protein. such as nickel. Traditional acrylic fiber is used more often as a . made from purified natural quartz. Silicon carbide fiber[edit] Silicon carbide fibers. Mineral fibers[edit] Mineral fibers can be particularly strong because they are formed with a low number of surface defects. but the end product is almost pure carbon. made from specific glass. Carbon fiber[edit] Carbon fibers are often based on oxydized and via pyrolysis carbonized polymers like PAN. Fiberglass[edit] Fiberglass. titanium. These fibers are made from:  polyamide nylon  PET or PBT polyester  phenol-formaldehyde (PF)  polyvinyl chloride fiber (PVC) vinyon  polyolefins (PP and PE) olefin fiber  acrylic polyesters.

oval.  polyurethane fiber  Elastolefin  Coextruded fibers have two distinct polymers forming the fiber. If the fiber density is known. e. Microfibers in technical fibers refer to ultra fine fibers (glass or meltblown thermoplastics) often used in filtration.php?term=fiber 2.  aromatic polyamids (aramids) such as Twaron. Jump up^ Saad. Very short and/or irregular fibers have been called 3. Jump up^ http://www. otherwise it is simpler to measure diameters in micrometers.  Elastomers can even be used.5 denier). Jump up^ http://www. spandex although urethane fibers are starting to replace spandex technology. Dyneema or Spectra). Coated fibers exist such as nickel-coated to provide static elimination. Carbon fibers and PF fibers are noted as two resin-based fibers that are not thermoplastic. Synthetic textile fibers are often crimped to provide bulk in a woven. Dull surfaces reflect more light while bright tends to transmit light and make the fiber more transparent. you also have a fiber diameter. but special designs can be hollow. silver- coated to provide anti-bacterial properties and aluminum-coated to provide RF deflection for radar chaff. Microfibers[edit] Microfibers in textiles refer to sub-denier fiber (such as polyester drawn to 0. Newer fiber designs include extruding fiber that splits into multiple finer fibers. Denier and Dtex are two measurements of fiber yield based on weight and length.merriam-webster. The latter design provides more optically reflective properties. Structure factors . Kevlar and Nomex thermally degrade at high temperatures and do not melt. usually as a core-sheath or side-by-side. These fibers have strong bonding between polymer chains  polyethylene (PE).  Ceramic matrix composite  Dietary fiber  Fibers in Differential Geometry  Fiber crop  Molded fiber  Nerve fiber  Optical fiber References[edit] 1.g. Fiber surfaces can also be dull or bright. An aircraft-mounted high speed cutter chops it up as it spews from a moving aircraft to confuse radar signals.[9] See also[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fibers. show smaller fibrils jutting out and away from the main fiber eventually with extremely long chains / HMPE (e. such as cotton or bleached kraft. Most synthetic fibers are round in cross-section. Mohamed (Oct 1994). star-shaped or trilobal. non woven or knitted structure. most others can be melted.g. Low resolution structure and packing investigations of collagen crystalline domains in tendon using Synchrotron Radiation X-rays. Radar chaff is actually a spool of continuous glass tow that has been aluminum coated. synthetic replacement for wool. Natural cellulose.

evaluation of Isomorphous Replacement methods and other modeling.13140/2. Journal of Chemical Education 70 (11): 887. pp. 2009 ISBN 3-86641-163-4 . The new science of strong materials. 9. Encyclopædia Britannica. 7. Encyclopædia Britannica. ISBN 978-0-691-12548-0. Jump up^ "synthetic fibre". 4th Ed. ISBN 0-13-017440-8. "Manufacturing Engineering and Technology". Inc. doi:10. 8.70. 2013.1021/ed070p887. Second edition. Deutscher Fachverlag.Bibcode:1993JChEd. 6. "Rayon: the first semi-synthetic fiber product".887K.4776. doi:10. Why you don't fall through the floor.1. George B. 1–221.7844. Koslowski. Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble I. 5. Jump up^ Serope Kalpakjian. Jump up^ "man-made fibre".. Jump up^ James Edward Gordon. determination. Prentice Hall. PhD Thesis. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2001. Philip Ball (2006). "Man-Made Fibers Dictionary". Steven R Schmid. Jump up^ Hans-J. Jump up^ Kauffman. Encyclopædia Britannica.. International edition. Princeton University Press. 2013. Inc. Retrieved 28 October 2011. (1993). or. Inc. 4.