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Graphite

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For other uses, see Graphite (disambiguation).

Graphite

Graphite specimen

General

Category Native element mineral

Formula C

(repeating unit)

Strunz 01.CB.05a

classification

Crystal symmetry Hexagonal dihexagonal dipyramidal

H-M symbol: (6/m 2/m 2/m)

Space group: P 63/mmc

Unit cell a = 2.461 Å, c = 6.708 Å; Z = 4

Identification

Color Iron-black to steel-gray; deep blue in
transmitted light

Graphite may be considered the . otherwise rough when not on cleavage Tenacity Flexible non-elastic. and an allotrope of carbon. granular to compacted masses Crystal system Hexagonal Twinning Present Cleavage Basal – perfect on {0001} Fracture Flaky. earthy Streak Black Diaphaneity Opaque. Therefore. Crystal habit Tabular. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions. greasy characteristics feel. electric conductor. it is used in thermochemistry as the standard statefor defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds. readily marks References [1][2][3] Graphite /ˈɡræfaɪt/ is made almost entirely of carbon atoms.23 g/cm3 Optical properties Uniaxial (–) Pleochroism Strong Solubility Molten Ni Other strongly anisotropic. is a semimetal native element mineral. and as withdiamond. transparent only in extremely thin flakes Density 2. six-sided foliatedmasses. sectile Mohs scalehardness 1–2 Luster Metallic.09–2.

4 Brake linings o 5.  Amorphous graphite: very fine flake graphite is sometimes called amorphous in the trade.5 Foundry facings and lubricants o 5.2 Scientific research o 6. .[6]  The name "graphite fiber" is also sometimes used to refer to carbon fiber or carbon fiber- reinforced polymer.8 Expanded graphite o 5. just above anthracite and alternatively called meta-anthracite.[5]  Highly ordered pyrolytic graphite or highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) refers to graphite with an angular spread between the graphite sheets of less than 1°.6 Other uses  7 Graphite mining.9 Intercalated graphite  6 Uses of synthetic graphite o 6.2 Other properties  4 History of natural graphite use o 4.1 Refractories o 5.7 Other uses o 5. flat.4 Powder and scrap o 6. highest grade of coal. Contents [hide]  1 Types and varieties  2 Occurrence  3 Properties o 3. and milling  8 Graphite recycling  9 See also  10 References  11 Further reading  12 External links Types and varieties[edit] There are three principal types of natural graphite.3 Steelmaking o 5. beneficiation.1 Structure o 3. although it is not normally used as fuel because it is difficult to ignite.6 Pencils o 5.1 Other names  5 Uses of natural graphite o 5.1 Invention of a process to produce synthetic graphite o 6.[4]  Lump graphite (also called vein graphite) occurs in fissure veins orfractures and appears as massive platy intergrowths of fibrous or acicular crystalline aggregates. each occurring in different types of ore deposit:  Crystalline flake graphite (or flake graphite for short) occurs as isolated.2 Batteries o 5. plate-like particles with hexagonal edges if unbroken and when broken the edges can be irregular or angular.5 Neutron moderator o 6. and is probably hydrothermal in origin.3 Electrodes o 6.

the carbon atoms are arranged in a honeycomb lattice with separation of 0. and the distance between planes is 0.[5] According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The two known forms of graphite.000 tonnes.[11]  Scanning tunneling microscope image of graphite surface atoms  Graphite's unit cell . India (150 kt).[10] The alpha form can be converted to the beta form through mechanical treatment and the beta form reverts to the alpha form when it is heated above 1300 °C.Occurrence[edit] Graphite output in 2005 Graphite occurs in metamorphic rocks as a result of the reduction ofsedimentary carbon compounds during metamorphism.335 nm.S. micas and tourmaline. Brazil (75 kt). alpha (hexagonal) and beta (rhombohedral).[9] The hexagonal graphite may be either flat or buckled. The fourth electron is free to migrate in the plane. except the graphene layers stack slightly differently. with only three of the four potential bonding sites satisfied. which allows layers of graphite to be easily separated. but U.[8] Atoms in the plane are bonded covalently.[7] Properties[edit] Structure[edit] Graphite has a layered. Bonding between layers is via weak van der Waals bonds. making graphite electrically conductive. It also occurs in igneous rocks and in meteorites. world production of natural graphite in 2012 was 1. of which the following major exporters are: China (750 kt).[3] Small graphitic crystals in meteoritic iron are called cliftonite. or to slide past each other.142 nm.calcite. Graphite is not mined in the United States.100. North Korea (30 kt) and Canada (26 kt). In each layer. In meteorites it occurs with troilite and silicate minerals. have very similar physical properties. production of synthetic graphite in 2010 was 134 kt valued at $1.07 billion. planar structure.[3] Minerals associated with graphite include quartz.

Baffin Island. 10-15 cm high.  Animated view of the unit cell in three layers of graphene (note that this is a slightly different unit cell from the one to the left)  Ball-and-stick model of graphite (two graphene layers)  Side view of layer stacking  Plane view of layer stacking  Rotating graphite stereogram Other properties[edit] Graphite plates and sheets. . Mineral specimen from Kimmirut.

History of natural graphite use[edit] In the 4th millennium B. such as air and water.[14] Recent studies suggest that an effect called superlubricity can also account for graphite's lubricating properties. and is used in blood contacting devices like mechanical heart valves and is called (pyrolytic carbon). There is a common belief that graphite's lubricating properties are solely due to the loose interlamellar coupling between sheets in the structure. brittleness and inconsistent mechanical properties. the US Air Force banned its use as a lubricant in aluminium aircraft. England. If it is made in a fluidized bed at 1000–1300 °C then it is isotropic turbostratic. sincephonons propagate quickly along the tightly-bound planes. the electricity is primarily conducted within the plane of the layers. For this reason. which are naturally adsorbed from the environment. These valence electrons are free to move. Borrowdale graphite was used as a refractory material to line moulds for cannonballs. thus it will float in mid-air above a strong magnet. so are able to conduct electricity.The acoustic and thermal properties of graphite are highly anisotropic.[citation needed] Natural and crystalline graphites are not often used in pure form as structural materials. Pyrolytic graphite.C. an enormous deposit of graphite was discovered on the approach to Grey Knotts from the hamlet of Seathwaite in Borrowdale parish.. It is sometimes called white graphite.[13] However.[citation needed] This observation led to the hypothesis that the lubrication is due to the presence of fluids between the layers. It can conduct electricity due to the vast electrondelocalization within the carbon layers (a phenomenon called aromaticity).[18] Even graphite pencil marks on aluminium parts may facilitate corrosion. The use of graphite is limited by its tendency to facilitate pitting corrosion in some stainless steel. it has been shown that in a vacuum environment (such as in technologies for use in space). graphite loses its lubrication properties and becomes what is known as pyrolytic graphite. which the locals found very useful for marking sheep. has the same molecular structure as graphite. the Mariţa culture used graphite in a ceramic paint for decorating pottery.[19] Another high-temperature lubricant. Graphite is an electric conductor. smoother balls that could be fired farther. Cumbria. and pyrolytic carbon are often confused but are very different materials. useful in such applications asarc lamp electrodes. graphite is a very poor lubricant.[20] Some time before 1565 (some sources say as early as 1500).[15][16] and to promote galvaniccorrosion between dissimilar metals (due to its electrical conductivity).[21][22] During the reign of Elizabeth 1 (1533–1603). Graphite and graphite powder are valued in industrial applications for their self-lubricating and dry lubricating properties. hexagonal boron nitride. and diamagnetic. pressure at room temperature. . during the Neolithic Age in southeastern Europe. It is also highly anisotropic. When a large number of crystallographic defects bind these planes together. However.[17] and discouraged its use in aluminium-containing automatic weapons. The conductive properties of powdered graphite[12] allows its use as pressure sensor in carbon microphones. but are slower to travel from one plane to another. due to its similar properties. It is also corrosive to aluminium in the presence of moisture. Molar volume vs. resulting in rounder. consequently. due to their shear-planes. This hypothesis has been refuted by studies showing that air and water are not absorbed. and is not diamagnetic.

expanded graphite. plants with flowers that resemble this colour. has unique physical properties and might be one of the strongest substances known. Alumina-graphite shapes are used as continuous casting ware. plumbago and blacklead after Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1778 proved that there are at least three different minerals.500 tonnes in 2010. Since much of the lost capacity was for carbon-magnesite brick. gave its name to the English term for this grey metallic-sheened mineral and even to the leadworts or plumbagos. and could easily be broken into sticks. The US and European refractories industry had a crisis in 2000–2003. however. steelmaking. graphite was called black lead or plumbago. Abraham Gottlob Werner coined the name graphite ("writing stone") in 1789. According to the USGS. this is now a minor part ofrefractories.[28] . matte black in color. graphite consumption within refractories area moved towards alumina-graphite shapes and monolithics. with an indifferent market for steel and a declining refractory consumption per tonne of steel underlying firm buyouts and many plant closures. and carbon magnesite bricks line steel converters and electric arc furnaces to withstand extreme temperatures. The term black lead usually refers to a powdered or processed graphite. and then crucibles.contributing to the strength of the English navy. Natural and synthetic graphite are used to construct the anode of all major battery technologies. brake linings. batteries. foundry facings and lubricants. plumbum. The Latin word for lead. US natural graphite consumption in refractories was 12. Because of its military importance. to convey the molten steel from ladle to mold.[7] The lithium-ion battery utilizes roughly twice the amount of graphite than lithium carbonate. Almost all of the above refractories are used to make steel and account for 75% of refractory consumption.[7] Batteries[edit] The use of graphite in batteries has been increasing in the last 30 years.[23] Other names [edit] Historically.[5][24] Plumbago was commonly used in its massive mineral form. Many of the plant closures resulted from the acquisition of Harbison-Walker Refractories by RHI AG and some plants had their equipment auctioned off. the carbon-magnesite brick became important.[7] Graphene. The major source of carbon-magnesite brick is now imports from China. and amorphous graphite is no longer restricted to low-end refractories. This particular deposit of graphite was extremely pure and soft. this unique mine and its production were strictly controlled by the Crown. High-purity monolithics are often used as a continuous furnace lining instead of the carbon-magnesite bricks. and carbon-magnesite brick requiring not quite so large flake graphite. particularly galena. Graphite Blocks are also used in parts of blast furnace linings where the high thermal conductivity of the graphite is critical. He attempted to clear up the confusion between molybdena. Scheele's analysis showed that the chemical compounds molybdenum sulfide (molybdenite). and a bit later the alumina-graphite shape. the rest is used by a variety of industries. the process of separating it from graphite will require some technological development before it is economically feasible to use it in industrial processes. such as cement. and away from the brick. lead(II) sulfide (galena) and graphite were three different soft black minerals. carbon-magnesite brick. In the mid-1980s.[25][26][27] Uses of natural graphite[edit] Natural graphite is mostly consumed for refractories. Crucibles began using very large flake graphite. Currently the order of importance is alumina-graphite shapes. which occurs naturally in graphite. monolithics (gunning and ramming mixes). Both of these names arise from confusion with the similar- appearing lead ores. Refractories[edit] This end-use began before 1900 with the graphite crucible used to hold molten metal. for these and others there is now much more flexibility in size of flake required. such as nozzles and troughs.

an antiseize agent. or as colloidal graphite (a permanent suspension in a liquid).[7] Foundry facings and lubricants[edit] A foundry facing mold wash is a water-based paint of amorphous or fine flake graphite. a lithium-ion battery in a fully electric Nissan Leaf contains nearly 40 kg of graphite. petroleum coke. Laptops. pencils are still a small but significant market for natural graphite. meaning to write/draw in Ancient Greek.500 tonnes were used in this fashion in 2005. Supplying carbon raisers is very competitive.[7] . It stems fromgraphein. as forging die lubricant.[7] Brake linings[edit] Natural amorphous and fine flake graphite are used in brake linings or brake shoes for heavier (nonautomotive) vehicles. Having low-grit graphite. Graphite lubricants are specialty items for use at very high or very low temperatures. Electric vehicle batteries are anticipated to increase graphite demand.200 tonnes was used in this fashion in 2005. in water or oil. and to lubricate locks. Painting the inside of a mold with it and letting it dry leaves a fine graphite coat that will ease separation of the object cast after the hot metal has cooled. As an example. therefore subject to cut-throat pricing from alternatives such as synthetic graphite powder. a gear lubricant for mining machinery. hence the continuation of the name. mobile phones. The termplumbago drawing is normally restricted to 17th and 18th century works.510 tonnes in 2005. nor has an indifferent automotive market.[5][29] Pencil lead is most commonly a mix of powdered graphite and clay. and became important with the need to substitute for asbestos.[7] Pencils[edit] Graphite pencils The ability to leave marks on paper and other objects gave graphite its name.The demand for batteries. or even better no-grit graphite (ultra high purity).[28] Low-quality amorphous graphite is used and sourced mainly from China. has caused a growth in graphite demand in the late 1980s and early 1990s. it was invented by Nicolas- Jacques Conté in 1795. and other forms of carbon. An estimate based on USGS graphite consumption statistics indicates that 2. Around 7% of the 1. typically as a lump of the mineral without a wood casing. but nonasbestos organic (NAO) compositions are beginning to cost graphite market share. According to theUSGS. and smartphone products have increased the demand for batteries. A brake-lining industry shake-out with some plant closures has not helped either. is highly desirable. This use has been important for quite some time. given in 1789 by German mineralogist Abraham Gottlob Werner. Steelmaking[edit] Natural graphite in this end use mostly goes into carbon raising in molten steel. such as portable CD players and power tools. primarily nickel-metal-hydride and lithium-ion batteries. US natural graphite consumption in brake linings was 6. tablet. Plumbago is another older term for natural graphite used fordrawing. This growth was driven by portable electronics. mostly portraits. An estimate based on USGS US graphite consumption statistics indicates that 10. It can be used as a dry powder.1 million tonnes produced in 2011 was used to make pencils. whose ores had a similar appearance. Today. although it can be used to lubricate the dies used to extrude hot steel. A carbon raiser is added to increase the carbon content of the steel to the specified level.[30][31] It is chemically unrelated to the metal lead.

Acheson discovered that overheating carborundum. which he is also credited with discovering. in electric motor brushes. the graphite expands and chars to resist fire penetration and spread). Graphite of various hardness or softness results in different qualities and tones when used as an artistic medium.1 K at 8 GPa). denoted by the formula KC8.5 K is achieved in CaC6. or to make high- performance gasket material for high-temperature use. While studying the effects of high temperature on carborundum. and it further increases under applied pressure (15.[32] Railroads would often mix powdered graphite with waste oil or linseed oil to create a heat resistant protective coating for the exposed portions of a steam locomotive's boiler. which forces the crystal lattice planes apart. resulting in a type of compounds with variable stoichiometry.[34] Uses of synthetic graphite[edit] Invention of a process to produce synthetic graphite[edit] A process to make synthetic graphite was invented by Edward Goodrich Acheson (1856–1931).[5] In 1896 Acheson received a patent for his method of synthesizing graphite. A prominent example of an intercalation compound is potassium graphite.[5] The Acheson Graphite Co.[7] Intercalated graphite[edit] Main article: Graphite intercalation compound Structure of CaC6 Graphite forms intercalation compounds with some metals and small molecules.[33] Expanded graphite[edit] Expanded graphite is made by immersing natural flake graphite in a bath of chromic acid. he had found that silicon vaporizes at about 4.500 °F). thus expanding the graphite. such as the smokebox or lower part of the firebox. In these compounds. and it became extremely valuable and helpful as a lubricant. After being made into graphite foil.Other uses[edit] Natural graphite has found uses in zinc-carbon batteries. Old-style packings are now a minor member of this grouping: fine flake graphite in oils or greases for uses requiring heat resistance. the foil is machined and assembled into the bipolar plates in fuel cells. The highest transition temperature (by June 2009) Tc = 11. and sticks for the purpose of writing or drawing. and is made into a foil laminate that can be used in valve packings or made into gaskets. This graphite was another major discovery for him.[35] and in 1897 started commercial production. The expanded graphite can be used to make graphite foil or used directly as "hot top" compound to insulate molten metal in a ladle or red-hot steel ingots and decrease heat loss. then concentrated sulfuric acid. A GAN estimate of current US natural graphite consumption in this end use is 7. Graphite intercalation compounds aresuperconductors. the host molecule or atom gets "sandwiched" between the graphite layers. Acheson also . The foil is made into heat sinks for laptop computers which keeps them cool while saving weight. or as firestops fitted around a fire door or in sheet metal collars surrounding plastic pipe (during a fire. In 1928 this company was merged with National Carbon Company (now GrafTech International). In the mid-1890s. produced almost pure graphite. and various specialized applications.500 tonnes.150 °C (7. leaving behind graphitic carbon. Graphite is also commonly used in the form of powders. was formed in 1899.

The graphite scrap comes from pieces of unusable electrode material (in the manufacturing stage or after use) and lathe turnings. bicycle frames. They are then extruded and shaped. They are made from petroleum coke after it is mixed with coal tar pitch. (now Acheson Industries. while the term "composite" is used for composite materials with additional ingredients. making more steel per tonne of electrode. In this context. the fuselage of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner and pool cue sticks and have been successfully employed in reinforced concrete. in particular. the term "(100%) graphite" is often loosely used to refer to a pure mixture of carbon reinforcement and resin. US synthetic graphite powder and scrap production was 95. sports car body panels.000 tonnes in 2005. . as a length standard for scanner calibration of scanning probe microscope. baked to carbonize the binder (pitch). Commercial structures made from carbon fiber graphite composites include fishing rods. sometimes with minor modifications.developed a variety of colloidal graphite products including Oildag and Aquadag. Graphite has been used in at least three radar absorbent materials. widely used as the seed electrode in commercial graphite deposition systems—this caused the failure of the Germans' World War II graphite-based nuclear reactors. usually after crushing and sizing. Care must be taken that reactor-grade graphite is free of neutron absorbing materials such as boron. graphite is also used for making electrodes for electrical discharge machining (EDM). The mechanical properties of carbon fiber graphite-reinforced plastic composites and grey cast iron are strongly influenced by the role of graphite in these materials.[36] Electrodes[edit] Graphite electrodes carry the electricity that melts scrap iron and steel (and sometimes direct- reduced iron: DRI) inelectric arc furnaces. It was also used in tiles on early F-117 Nighthawk (1983)s. Other uses[edit] Graphite (carbon) fiber and carbon nanotubes are also used in carbon fiber reinforced plastics. at which the carbon atoms arrange into graphite. golf club shafts. in diameter. and finally graphitized by heating it to temperatures approaching 3000 °C. which were used on U-boat snorkels to reduce their radar cross section. and the electric arc furnace itself is getting more efficient. An increasing proportion of global steel is made using electric arc furnaces. It is used in scientific research. with some used in batteries and brake linings. Powder and scrap[edit] The powder is made by heating powdered petroleum coke above the temperature of graphitization. and in heat-resistant composites such as reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC).[37] Modern smokeless powder is coated in graphite to prevent the buildup of static charge.[7] Neutron moderator[edit] Main article: Nuclear graphite Special grades of synthetic graphite also find use as a matrix and neutron moderator within nuclear reactors. These were later manufactured by the Acheson Colloids Co.000 tonnes in 2001 (latest data). They can vary in size up to 11 ft. which are the vast majority of steel furnaces. long and 30 in. It was mixed with rubber in Sumpf and Schornsteinfeger. Graphite used for nuclear reactors is often referred to as nuclear graphite. An estimate based onUSGS data indicates that graphite electrode consumption was 197. According to the USGS. a unit of Henkel AG). Most synthetic graphite powder goes to carbon raising in steel (competing with natural graphite).[7] On a much smaller scale. commonly used to make plastic injection molds. Since they could not isolate the difficulty they were forced to use far more expensive heavy water moderators. Scientific research[edit] Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) is the highest-quality synthetic form of graphite. Its lowneutron cross-section also recommends it for use in proposed fusion reactors.

and milling[edit] Graphite is mined by both open pit and underground methods. the volume of crucibles used and then recycled is very small. lime-rich slag. Environmental impacts from graphite mills consist of air pollution including fine particulate exposure of workers and also soil contamination from powder spillages leading to heavy metals contaminations of soil. In milling. The best recovery process uses hydraulic classification (which utilizes a flow of water to separate minerals by specific gravity: graphite is light and settles nearly last) to get a 70% graphite rough concentrate. the incoming graphite products and concentrates can be ground before being classified (sized or screened). but often not because of their graphite: the largest- volume items. While crucibles have a high graphite content. carbon raiser in the steelindustry (Synthetic graphite powder and powdered petroleum coke can also be used as carbon raiser). some recycled carbon-magnesite brick is used as the basis for furnace-repair materials. such as carbon-magnesite bricks that contain only 15–25% graphite. and then the carbon contents are determined. This makes the "marked" gangue particles float off with the graphite. Leaching this concentrate with hydrochloric acid gives a 95% graphite product with a flake size ranging from 10 mesh down. Graphite recycling[edit] The most common way of recycling graphite occurs when synthetic graphite electrodes are either manufactured and pieces are cut off or lathe turnings are discarded. beneficiation. each with a certain flake size distribution and carbon content.Graphite mining. and consists of a mix of graphite (precipitated out of the supersaturated iron). usually contain too little graphite. A high-quality flake graphite product that closely resembles natural flake graphite can be made from steelmaking kish. Typical end products include a fine powder for use as a slurry in oil drilling and coatings for foundry molds. 8–20 mesh. Custom blends can also be made for individual customers who want a certain flake size distribution and carbon content. This may be carried out by hand-picking the pieces of gangue (rock) and hand-screening the product or by crushing the rock and floating out the graphite. Some standard blends can be prepared from the different fractions. However. and also crushed carbon-magnesite brick is used in slag conditioners. Graphite usually needs beneficiation. Beneficiation by flotation encounters the difficulty that graphite is very soft and "marks" (coats) the particles of gangue. or the electrode (or other) are used all the way down to the electrode holder. leaving a mixture of graphite and slag. yielding impure concentrate. This is crushed and sized. or by acid leaching (dissolving) the gangue with hydrofluoric acid (for a silicate gangue) or hydrochloric acid (for a carbonate gangue). but a sizeable piece of the old electrode remains. 20–50 mesh) carefully preserved. A new electrode replaces the old one. There are two ways of obtaining a commercial concentrate or product: repeated regrinding and floating (up to seven times) to purify the concentrate. with the coarser flake size fractions (below 8 mesh. the concentrate can be ground more freely. and the resulting graphite powder is mostly used to raise the carbon content of molten steel. The iron is recycled on site. and some iron. If flake size is unimportant. Graphite-containing refractories are sometimes also recycled. Kish is a large-volume near-molten waste skimmed from the molten iron feed to a basic oxygen furnace. See also[edit]  Acheson process  Carbon fiber  Carbon nanotube  Diamond  Exfoliated graphite nano-platelets  Fullerene  Graphene  Graphite intercalation compound .

p. 6. Jump up^ "Good Engineering Practice/Corrosion". Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF). Sulfides. September 16.ISBN 0962209708. 3. "Old Cumbria Gazetteer. doi:10.. 7. 13. Jump up^ Graphite. CRC Press. D. Retrieved February 29. (2001). 5. 132. John W. Stokes. Vasilis (1957). Jump up^ Jones. (1988). 2005. 26. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics (Institute of Physics) 21 (1): 101. (1908). Webmineral. (the "Gold Book") (1997). 31–32.Bibcode:1988JPhD. H. McLachlan. Compendium of Chemical Terminology. I (Elements.ISBN 0521224969. Vol. SLAC-PUB-10429 (Report). Jump up^ Deprez.1467- 968X. Chantilly.... 23. "The Neolithic-Eneolithic Period". Richard A.. A. Origin of low-friction behavior in graphite investigated by surface x-ray diffraction. John. Nature 149 (3777): 328. Jump up^ IUPAC. A Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells. Jump up^ Yen. ISBN 0-7112-2460-9. New York. Jump up^ Norgate. doi:10. Archived from the original on 2007-10-15. 24. Jump up^ "Weapons Lubricant in the Desert". Alfred (2005). Spons' Workshop Receipts.. John W. edit 10. CIM Bulletin 83 (940): 85–89. Seathwaite". 25. 19...1908. Birgit (2004). Retrieved 2008-05-19. 14. Sulfosalts). S. David M. Atlas Specialty Metals. to the . 2nd ed. Crusius. The Cambridge ancient history.34. London: Frances Lincoln. Volume 3. VA. Jump up^ The Statutes at Large: From the . Geography Department. 2012. 20. II: Dyeing to Japanning. Jump up^ Widenmann. Jump up^ Delhaes.tb00513. and Nichols. Bing. Jump up^ Evans. USGS. R. ed. 415. .. Journal of Chemical Education 34 (5): 240. "Graphite".. Online corrected version: (2006–) "Rhombohedral graphite". Jump up^ Lavrakas. 9. Portsmouth University (2008).org. Retrieved March 15. Year of the Reign of . Jump up^ Sutphin. ISBN 90-5699-228-7. N. Graphite and Precursors. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k "Graphite Statistics and Information". Jump up^ Galvanic Corrosion. Crystal Structures. Monte C.G. (1990)..1088/0022- 3727/21/1/015. pp. Retrieved 2009-06-06. p. "A New Structure of Carbon". "Disseminated flake graphite and amorphous graphite deposit types.[dead link] 21. Bibcode:1957JChEd. "V. "The analysis of the electrical conductivity of graphite conductivity of graphite powders during compaction". Western Fells. Transactions of the Philological Society 26 (2): 133. 12. Rick (USAF-Retired) Better Lubricants than Graphite.. black lead mine. Jump up^ Graphite. Bliss (August 1990). W. (1963). Jump up^ Electro-Plating on Non-Metallic Substances..com 16. 1921.org 18. Jump up^ "ASM Tech Notes – TN7-0506 – Galvanic Corrosion". Spon. Jump up^ Wyckoff. Compendium of Chemical Terminology. Handbuch des oryktognostischen Theils der Mineralogie: Mit einer Farbentabelle und einer Kupfertafel. 4.21. 2.— the Meanings and Synonyms of Plumbago".. Jump up^ Boardman.1038/149328a0. London: John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved 2009-09-09. 17. US: Mineralogical Society of America. Online corrected version: (2006–) "highly oriented pyrolytic graphite".1111/j. doi:10. Jump up^ Lipson. Jump up^ Wainwright. (1942). Intumescent  Lonsdaleite  Passive fire protection  Plumbago drawing  Pyrolytic carbon References[edit] 1. an analysis using grade and tonnage models". doi:10. P. 8.240L. 653.. Schwickert. Mindat. 11. James D. 22.. Bladh.. Martin and Norgate.101D. Year of the Reign of . Kenneth W. Bideaux. Archived from the original on 2009-02-27. Jump up^ IUPAC. 1764. "Textbook errors: Guest column. Retrieved2009-06-06. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2nd ed.. Johann Friedrich Wilhelm (1794). (the "Gold Book") (1997). p. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f graphite.1021/ed034p240. graflex. Part 1. ^ Jump up to:a b c Anthony.com. ISBN 0-88275-800-4. Jean. keytometals. XII: The lubricating properties of graphite". 15. 2013.x.

G. Jr. Industrial Minerals and Rocks (7th ed.doi:10.Michael Hogan. Harold A.). Marc Papineau et al. 2011. doi:10. Jump up^ "The History of the Pencil". 29. Financial Times Executive Commodity Reports. Mater.Molybdaena". "Synthesis and superconducting properties of CaC6". Philippe (2008). Adv. Steve (October 15.1063/1.about.  Taylor. 2001).  Taylor. Retrieved 2 April 2012. CO: AIME-Society of Mining Engineers. Hurlbut. (1779). 34. Jump up^ Scheele. Jump up^ Emery. 2426–2500 Kirkham Street. University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. "graphite".1149091. E. Jump up^ "Module 6: Media for 2-D Art". Phase I Environmental Site Assessment. Lapshin (1998). K. (free-download pdf) 9 (4): 044102... "Manufacture of Graphite".com. Svenska vetensk. C. Littleton. (2005). Jeff. What is the best material for a tennis racquet?. ^ Jump up to:a b "Electric Graphite Growing Demand From Electric Vehicles & Mobile Electronics". Jean-François. (2000).org. ISBN 0-87335-233-5. Jump up^ R. Academ.1088/1468-6996/9/4/044102. Marêché. Claire. Patent 568. List. Jump up^ Acheson. ISBN 1-84083-332-7. Cornelis and Cornelius S. Online Etymology Dictionary. ISSN 0034-6748. . tennis. U. American Chemical Society. or Smokebox colors. (1985). 1896. Retrieved on 2013-04-15. Jump up^ Ritter. 35. Manual of Mineralogy: after Dana (20th ed. "Automatic lateral calibration of tunneling microscope scanners" (PDF). ISBN 0-471-80580-7.). V.9d4102E.  Klein. Bibcode:2008STAdM. California. Graphite. Technol. Sci. Earth Metrics report 10292.323. 30. Graphite. Jump up^ Harper. Saylor. Review of Scientific Instruments (USA: AIP) 69 (9): 3268– 3276. Asbury Graphite Mill.001 (Report).nwhs. 32. W. 33. July 20. Douglas. galaxycapitalcorp. (December 18. issued September 29. 27. Nicolas. 31. Jump up^ True color/appearance of the "Graphite. Lagrange. Oakland. 1989). 37. London: Mining Journal Books ltd.com Further reading[edit]  C. Handlingar 40: 238. 36. 28.org.S. "Pencils & Pencil Lead". Jump up^ Cooper. Hérold. Harold A. "Versuche mit Wasserbley.