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INTRODUCTION

Blocks of clay that have been hardened through being fired in a kiln or dried in the sun is
called as a brick. Bricks have been used over 5000 years ago, Commonly, the term brick
referred to a unit composed of clay, but it is now used to denote any rectangular unit laid in
mortar. Clay bricks is made from mudstone, shale and slate. Bricks is usually produced in a
wide variety of colours, shapes and textures. The materials used for clay bricks range from
soft and plastic surface deposits to hard mudstone, shales and even some of the softer
varieties of slate. The shape that has been obtained should retained without undue
shrinkage, warping or cracking when the bricks are dried and fired.
Clay bricks is the most frequently used in industry than other common type of bricks. In
order to make clay bricks, press the prepared sample into a mould, extracting the formed
unit immediately and heating it in order to sinter the clay. Many different types of bricks may
be produced depending on the type of clay used, the moulding and firing process.
There are three basic subdivision of type:
Common brick : This is the cheapest brick because this is ordinary brick that are
not designed to provide good finished appearance or high
strength.
Facing brick : This bricks are design to be free from imperfections such as
cracks to give attractive appearance.
Engineering brick : This brick usually designed to give extra strength and durability.

The clay brick is being prepared by stages of weathering and tempering. During weathering,
clay is being exposed to atmosphere condition for about a month to a full season. The main
objective of this operation is to break bog boulders of clay under the action of atmosphere
agencies to obtain uniform mass. The next process is the process of tempering, the obtained
mass is then mixed with the required quantity of water to attain proper consistency and
make it fit for the next operation. To modify the composition of the clay, sand and other
addictive may be added at this stage. The whole mass kneaded with spades or pressed
under the feet of men or cattle into a plastic mass.
The obtained clay is then being moulded into the shape of bricks either by hands or by
machine. Hand moulding is generally done for soft clay using wooden or steel moulds.
Machine moulding is usually used for hard and strong clay. The bricks is then being dried so
that it get uniform shrinkage. It is done to prevent cracking and distortion during firing.
Bricks can be naturally or artificially dried. Usually it takes 3 to 10 days for the bricks to dry.
After that, the bricks are burnt in clamps or kilns. Bricks are burnt to remove the moisture
present in the clay. It imparts strength and hardness and makes them dense and durable.
The bricks should be burnt properly. If the bricks is over burnt, they will be brittle and break
easily. If it is under burnt, they will be soft and cannot carry loads.

columns. Bricks are normally so impervious and absorb very little moisture and usually used for load bearing members. arches and column. fireplace.5 x 65 mm. dense. This is because bricks are very hard. PROPERTIES OF BRICKS IN CONSTRUCTION . The reasons why engineer used bricks is because. cladding and facings and even for the complex features such as chimneys. bricks are still in common use for the construction of walls. and true in shape. low water absorption and low maintenance.The size of standard bricks that are commonly being used are 215 x 102. Nowadays. bricks are very strong in compression.

the increasing of temperature can also cause the colour change from dark red. the physical properties of bricks in construction. physical properties is something that we can observed or measured which describe about physical state of a material without changing the material’s composition or substance. shape. colour. the result of a pink bricks is high iron content. purple. white or yellow bricks have higher lime content. resistance. water absorption. porosity. However. As we know. Density mostly influenced the physical properties of a bricks. The second physical properties is the colour and texture of bricks. brown or grey at 1300. there are many types of bricks. hardness and many more.PHYSICAL PROPERTIES As we know. STOCK TUMBLED A traditional-looking brick Retro bricks irregular in with handmade appearance. water permeability. Moreover. For example. Table below shows the density of different types of common bricks. Texture and colour plays a vital role in this process which reflect the look of existing legacy brickwork. BRICK DENSITY (kg/) Blue 2405 Diatomaceous 480 Engineering 2165 Fibre brick 1890 Flettons 1795 London stock 1845 Red facings 1765 Sand cement 2085 Sand lime 1845 Density of bricks represents the compactness of material where high density is more compacted compare to low density. achieving the old . Density is known as the ratio of mass of the material to its volume. This all concern about the material that can be used during the construction. It also help to find out the quantity of material needed for particular space. Below are the example of different texture and colour. there are a few properties such as density. The first physical properties is density of a bricks. texture. Different bricks have different density. Variety of bricks have different textures and colour which based on the material use.

indentations. The smaller amount of water absorption. . world charm. The third physical properties is hardness of bricks. slightly irregular shape. The sound shows the quality of the bricks. the greater the durability. different types of bricks will give off different sorts of sound and dull sound when struck may possible be hard burned. It is commonly used as description of bricks. through printed irregularities to a rippled wave effect. Water absorption is the amount of water that a brick can absorb which define as an increasing weight of brick due to water and expressed in percentage. A well bricks should be a dull ringing tone and not a dull thud. Clearly. The fourth physical properties is the water absorption. This properties will surely affects the durability of bricks. When there is no sign of remark during tapping the bricks shows a high grade quality of bricks. For example. reasonable resistance of saturation and sufficient resistance to disruptive action of frost. creased texture HEAVY TEXTURED LIGHT TEXTURE Rougher texture from the bark The textures vary from small like effect of a rusticated brick. Hardness of bricks related to how moderately well the compressive strength. It can be determine by a method of testing for hardness where the brick is hold by one hand and tapped lightly with a hammer. an underburned bricks may absorb water as much as one-third of their weight where a well and hard bricks absorb less than 10 % of water.

The pressure value of material when reach failure is noted and it is expressed as newtons per mm of surface area. Below are the example for compressive strength of some common bricks.MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Mechanical properties is a properties that involve the response of the material to external forces.5 N/m while for soft facing bricks commonly up to 140 N/m. The first mechanical properties is the compressive strength of a bricks. BRICKS COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (N/m) Mild (soft) stocks 3. The range of the different types of bricks usually from about 3. ductility and strength. It also determine the range of usefulness of a material and establish the service life that can be expected as well as to help classify and identify material. It can be determine from the compressive strength test where 12 bricks are crush individually until they are fail or crushes. The most common mechanical properties are toughness.5 Hard stocks 17.5 Flettons 21 Southwater A 70 .

method of manufacture and also the degree of burning. The second mechanical properties is the durability of bricks. Almost durability problems are associated with moisture penetration and it is therefore of paramount importance that bricks be suited to the degree of exposure likely to be found.Note down its value. 4.Weight the wet brick.The bricks are placed in water for 24 hours. . the brick selected should be adequate for this degree of exposure. A good brick does not absorb water greater than one-seventh of its weight. In any one structure the most exposed position should be identified and assuming that the same brick type is to be used throughout. 3. Absorption Test on Bricks Water absorption of bricks depend upon their porosity. Based on the table above. different types of bricks have different strength which basically depends on the composition of the clay. Objective: To find out the amount of moisture content absorbed by brick under extreme conditions Procedure: 1. TESTING ON BRICKS A.Sample dry bricks are taken and weighed 2. The durability of brick is likely to be more of a problem than its strength.

Select 20bricks randomly. as AA. Crushing Strength or Compressive Strength Test on Bricks Procedure: 1. the results should be within the following permissible limits. the minimum crushing or compressive strength of bricks is 3.Place brick in compression testing machine.  For good quality bricks. Shape.Apply load until it is break. The shape of bricks should be purely rectangular with sharp edges. then it is not useful for construction purpose. The bricks are qualified for construction work.Note down the value of failure load.50 N/mm2. Standard brick size consists length x breadth x height as 19cm x 9cm x 9cm 3.Use sharp tool or finger nail to make a scratch on brick. if it is less than 3.Calculate the crushing strength value of brick  As per BIS: 1077-1957. A good brick should possess bright and uniform colour throughout its body. breadth and height then compare. Size and Colour Test on Bricks 1. The bricks with crushing strength of 7 to 14 N/mm2 are graded as A and those having above 14 N/mm2 are graded. .50 N/mm2. B. Hardness Test on Bricks Procedure: 1. 2. All bricks used for construction should be of same size. If that doesn't leave any impression on brick then that is good quality brick.  Water absorption: The difference between dry and wet brick weights  For a good quality brick the amount of water absorption should not exceed 20% of weight of dry brick.Inspect the bricks to check if it has a sharp edge. 3. 4. 2. D. C.Stack them along its length.

3.Pick one brick randomly.Immerse a brick in a fresh water for 24 hours.Take the brick out from the water. It is generally common in new brickwork. 3. well-ventilated room until all water is evaporated.Struck the bricks with each other  The bricks should not break and a clear ringing sound should be produced. but may also be formed on the face of old external wall that are subjected to excessive dampness. Procedure: 1. then it will cause efflorescence on brick surfaces. G.Examine the structure of the brick. Efflorescence Test on Bricks Efflorescence due to the presence of soluble salts (such as sulphates of sodium and potassium) in the brick.  It should be free from lumps and homogeneous. . Soundness Test of Bricks It shows the nature of bricks against sudden impact.E.2 bricks are chosen randomly. Then it is said to be good brick. 2. If soluble salts are there.Break the brick. Procedure: 1. A good quality brick should not contain any soluble salts in it. The partially soaked brick is now placed in a warm (20°C to 30°C). 2. If there are any flows. F. Structure of Bricks Procedure: 1. 2. cracks or holes present on that broken face then that isn't good quality brick.

if present on the brick.4. the efflorescence is said to be slight and it is considered as moderate. you need to tackle a whole new set of problems. while on a hot summer day they have a cooling effect. as they store heat and cool air. you’ll spend many hours’ inside it. Houses made entirely out of brickwork costless in the long run. One thing is sure that when you finish your house for example. when such deposits are converted into powdery mass. Research has proved that bricks for internal walls are best suited to household with . The bricks are now examined for efflorescence by measuring the area of white patches. Interior walls made of bricks help adjust the building’s temperature.  Depending upon the size of white patches on the brick. efflorescence can be stated as follows: Nil : When there is no perceptible deposit of efflorescence Slight : When not more than 10 percent of the area of the brick is covered with a thin deposit of salt Moderate : When there is a heavier deposit than mentioned under slight and covering up to 50 percent of the exposed area of the brick surface but unaccompanied by powdering or flaking of the surface Heavy : When there are heavy deposit of salts covering 50 percent or more of the exposed area of brick surface but unaccompanied by powdering or flaking of the surface Serious : When there are heavy deposit of salts accompanied by powdering and/or flaking of the exposed surface  If the white deposits cover about 10 per cent surface. because they need less energy for heating. Building a house exclusively of bricks can be costly. a building made of bricks also has some financial advantages. when the white deposits cover about 50 per cent of surface. Besides comfort. the walls offer warmth. But it’s a sensible investment that pays off. So. ADVANTAGES OF BRICKS IN CONSTRUCTION When you build a house or building. This creates a pleasant indoor climate. If grey or white deposits are found on more than 50 per cent of surface. the efflorescence becomes heavy and it is treated as serious. there are advantages by using the bricks for your construction. which means healthy houses. In winter.

Noise coming from outside is likewise insulated. Other advantages of bricks is have a good heat resistance where it can withstand heat thus giving good fire protection to the house and building. as the walls efficiently support the house’s heating system and also absorb humidity that cannot escape through efficient climate shielding. DISADVATAGES OF BRICKS IN CONSTRUCTION There are several disadvantages of bricks in construction. it is unable to repair the part that only damage. when the bricks show some damage. 1 . thanks to thick walls. it may cause degradation of the surface walls due to the frost damage. but we need to remove all the entire walls section which needs larger cost plus material that are used is most of its are related. its adds a lot of weight to the foundation. since the bricks is a heavy material which offers the best noises absorption between the individual’s rooms. Bricks are fired at temperatures so high that organic materials are eradicated.1 Secondly.passive and lower energy consumption. It has a higher durability and reduces the risk of cracks. In terms of sound performance for the bricks. It won’t burn or rot like others finish material with easily. It’s not a good condition for a long-term construction otherwise the building will easy cracks. The real benefits for bricks is it’s an interior wall that does not deteriorate as quickly as other materials. Thirdly. Bricks also classify as a clean natural material that doesn’t impact on the environment. during extreme weather. Firstly. therefore it increases the stress of the foundation which the stronger of foundation is needed to support this bricks from cracks.

In humid climates. porous bricks invite mould. Its suffer damage where water and ice expand and contract in its pores. .