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Marble

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This article is about the rock. For the toy, see Marble (toy). For other uses, see Marble
(disambiguation).

A block of marble

The Taj Mahal is entirely clad in marble.

Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most
commonly calcite or dolomite. Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to
metamorphosed limestone; however, stonemasons use the term more broadly to encompass
unmetamorphosed limestone.[1] Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a buildingmaterial.

Contents
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 1 Etymology
 2 Physical origins
 3 Types
 4 Uses
o 4.1 Sculpture
o 4.2 Construction marble
 5 Production
 6 Microbial degradation
 7 Cultural associations

the Greek muse of history.[3][4]perhaps from the verb μαρμαίρω (marmaírō). gleam".[2]from μάρμαρος (mármaros). Chile . Marble wall of Ruskeala. S. shining stone". P. 8 Artificial marble  9 Gallery  10 See also  11 References  12 External links Etymology[edit] Carlo Franzoni's sculptural marble chariot clock depicting Clio. Russia The word "marble" derives from theGreek μάρμαρον (mármaron). "crystalline rock. Republic of Karelia."[6] Folded and weathered marble atGeneral Carrera Lake. sparkle. "to flash. Beekes has suggested that a "Pre-Greek origin is probable.[5] R.

Danish and Swedishmarmor. South Aegean(Νοτίου . Welsh. These various impurities have been mobilized and recrystallized by the intense pressure and heat of the metamorphism. Physical origins[edit] Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks. Slove ne. Spanishmármol. meaning "marble-like. In Hungarian it is called márvány. sand. Green coloration is often due to serpentine resulting from originally high magnesium limestone or dolostone with silica impurities. Italian marmo. Portuguesemármore. Turkish mermer. Georgia States United Etowah marble pink. Dutch marmer. Primary sedimentary textures and structures of the original carbonate rock (protolith) have typically been modified or destroyed. iron oxides. rose Pickens County. Types[edit] Main article: List of types of marble Examples of historically notable marble varieties and locations: Marble Color Location Country Carrara marble white or blue-gray Carrara. Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the original carbonate mineral grains. County Galway Ireland marble United Creole marble white and blue/black Pickens County. Tuscany Italy Connemara green Connemara.Polish marmur. The resulting marble rock is typically composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate crystals.Norwegian.This stem is also the basis for the English word marmoreal. Czech mramor. or chert which were originally present as grains or layers in the limestone. Romanian marmură. German. most commonly limestone or dolomite rock. and Russianмрáмор (mramor). Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of a very pure (silicate-poor) limestone or dolomite protolith. salmon. The characteristic swirls and veins of many colored marble varieties are usually due to various mineral impurities such asclay. Georgia States United Murphy marble white Pickens and Gilmer Counties." While the English term resembles the French marbre. silt. Georgia States Parian marble Greece pure-white. most other European languages follow the original Greek — seePersian and Irish marmar. Island of Paros (Πάρος). fine.

Rajasthan India (Sangemarmar) . Pelagonia(Пелагониски) Macedonia Swedish green green near Kolmården. Nagaur district. pinkish. Poiana Ruscă Mountains. Caraș-Severin County marble[8] reddish Romania yellow with violet. Bavaria Germany marble Makrana marble white Makrana. Sienna marble[9] red. Vermont States United Yule marble uniform pure white near Marble. grained Αιγαίου) pure-white. Alabama marble States United Vermont marble white Proctor. Colorado States Wunsiedel white Wunsiedel. Attica(Ἀττική) semitranslucent United Purbeck marble Gray/brown Isle of Purbeck. Karelia(Карелия) Russia Rușchița white. blue or white near Siena. Dorset Kingdom Ruskeala marble white near Ruskeala (Рускеала). Tuscany Italy veins Bianco Sivec white near Prilep (Прилеп). Södermanland Sweden marble Sylacauga United white Talladega County. fine- Pentelic Mount Pentelicus (Πεντελικό grained Greece marble[7] όρος).

of which 6. Crushed marble production (for aggregate and industrial uses) in 2006 was 11. This preference has to do with its softness. which is why many sculptors preferred and still prefer marble for sculpting. specifically the dimension stone trade.Uses[edit] Ritual amphora of veined marble from Zakros. resulting in the characteristic waxy look which gives "life" to marble sculptures of any kind. For comparison.400 tons valued at $18. 2005 crushed marble production was 7. which made it easier to carve. of which 4. U.7 million.300 tons valued at $18. Construction marble[edit] Construction marble is a stone which is composed of calcite. Heraklion Archaeological Museum.8 million tons was finely ground calcium carbonate and the rest was construction aggregate. U. Also.[10] More generally in construction. New palace period (1500-1450 BC). compared to 72. dimension marble demand is about 1. Ashgabat. the term "marble" is used for any crystalline calcitic rock (and some non-calcitic rocks) useful as building stone.S.1 million.Philippines. dolomite or serpentine which is capable of taking a polish. Tennessee marble is really a dense granular fossiliferous gray to pink to maroon Ordovician limestone that geologists call the Holston Formation. The DSAN World Demand for (finished) Marble Index has shown a growth of 12% annually for .76 million tons valued at $58. Marble Products in Romblon.S.3 million tons.[11] Production[edit] According to the United States Geological Survey. For example.8 million tons valued at $116 million. was recorded in the 2013 Guinness Book of Records as having the world's highest concentration of white marble buildings. the lowindex of refraction of calcite allows light to penetrate several millimeters into the stone before being scattered out. and a relative resistance to shattering. Sculpture[edit] White marble has been prized for its use in sculptures since classical times. domestic marble production in 2006 was 46.9 million in 2005. relativeisotropy and homogeneity. Crete.5 million tons was finely ground calcium carbonate and the rest was construction aggregate. the capital city of Turkmenistan.

[13] Bacterial and fungal degradation was detected in four samples of marble from Milan cathedral. Italy is the world leader in marble production. Ohio. followed by Spain in fourth ranking position with 6% of world production. with 20% share in global marble production followed by China with 16% of world production. Its extremely varied and colorful patterns make it a favorite decorative material. Massachusetts. Colorado. They were brought to Britain by the Earl of Elgin.the 2000–2006 period.5% annually for the 2000–2005 period. Texas.[15] Cultural associations[edit] Jadwiga of Poland's sarcophagus by Antoni Madeyski. compared to 10. The largest dimension marble application is tile. Marble Arch. marble has become a cultural symbol of tradition and refined taste. Marble. etc. and the towns of Marble. Marble production is dominated by 4 countries that account for almost half of world production of marble and decorative stone. . Wawel Cathedral. Places named after the stone includeMarblehead. The appearance of marble can be simulated with faux marbling. The Elgin Marbles are marble sculptures from the Parthenon that are on display in the British Museum. Marble Falls. India is third ranking with 10% of world production. India's Marble Rocks. Marblehead. a painting technique that imitates the stone's color patterns. New York. blackCladosporium attacked dried acrylic resin[14] using melanin. andMarble Hill. London.[12] Microbial degradation[edit] The haloalkaliphilic methylotrophic bacterium Methylophaga murata was isolated from deteriorating marble in theKremlin. The other marble producing countries of the world represent the remaining other half of world marble production. the Sea of Marmara. and it is often imitated in background patterns for computer displays. Artificial marble[edit] Marble dust is combined with cement or synthetic resins to make reconstituted or cultured marble. Minnesota.Cracow Relief on the Marble Door of theHagia Sophia in Istanbul As the favorite medium for Greek and Roman sculptors and architects (seeclassical sculpture). Manhattan.

Gallery[edit] The Nike of Samothrace is made of Parian marble (c. 220–190 BC) Laocoön and His Sons in theVatican .

c. 51–52 AD Ancient marble columns in the prayer hall of the Mosque of Uqba. John the Baptist by Igor Mitoraj at Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiriin Rome . made from grey veined marble.The Praetorians Relief. in Kairouan. Tunisia Marble sculpture of St.

Rubbers and Sawyers. imitating marble with plasterwork.  Verd antique.  Scagliola. Slate and Stone Polishers. inlaying with marble and other stones.The Illinois Centennial Monument is cased inTennessee marble and rests in the center of the square named for American Civil War General John A.  faux marbling. Tile and Marble setters' Helpers and Marble Mosaic and Terrazzo Workers' Helpers. .  Marble sculpture  Paper marbling  Pietra dura. marble powder with a binder. The Marble Faun.  International Association of Marble. and is on display at the The Metropolitan Museum of Artin New York. painting surfaces to look like marble. sometimes (erroneously) called "serpentine marble". Loganin Chicago Cleopatra by William Wetmore Story was described and admired inNathaniel Hawthorne's romance. New York See also[edit]  Cultured marble.

Retrieved on 2011-09-30.022. 10. 7. Sorlini C (Jan 2007). Dimension  Marble Institute of America [hide]  V  T  E . Principi P. Trotsenko IuA. Dictionary of Geology. 2009.scitotenv. A Greek–English Lexicon.02220- 06. Askoxford. PMID 17658586. Retrieved on 2011- 09-30. Li TsD. References[edit] 1. Nosanchuk JD. on Perseus Digital Library 4. Brill. 15.com. Crushed  USGS 2006 Minerals Yearbook: Stone. Ivanova EG. 8. Domul din Milano a fost reconstruit cu marmură de Rușchița 9.  Ruin marble. Pedrazzani R.tunisianindustry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 907. Henry George Liddell. Philip (2001). Jump up^ μάρμαρος. Dimension  USGS 2006 Minerals Yearbook: Stone.nat. Casadevall A. Britannica. Jump up^ http://www. Robert Scott."Synthetic consolidants attacked by melanin-producing fungi: case study of the biodeterioration of Milan (Italy) cathedral marble treated with acrylics". nov. Jump up^ Pentelic marble. Borin S. Toniolo L. 2013-05-26. A Greek-English Lexicon. External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Marble. Mikrobiologiia 74 (4): 511–9. Jump up^ Cappitelli F. p. A Greek–English Lexicon. Jump up^ Kearey. "Bacterial and fungal deterioration of the Milan Cathedral marble treated with protective synthetic resins". London and New York. Jump up^ μαρμαίρω. "Methylophaga murata sp. PMID 16211855.pdf 13. Jump up^ "Turkmenistan enters record books for having the most white marble buildings | World news".PMC 1797126. Jump up^ μάρμαρον. on Perseus Digital Library 6. Jump up^ R. 163. 223 Glossary 11. Applied environmental microbiology 73 (1): 271–7. ISBN 978-0-14-051494-0 2. Retrieved 2013-11-24. Jump up^ Cappitelli F. Henry George Liddell.1016/j. Robert Scott. Henry George Liddell.06.tn/en/download/CEPI/IMCCV02.  Dimension Stone Statistics and Information – United States Geological Survey minerals information for dimension stone  USGS 2005 Minerals Yearbook: Stone.ISBN 9781108029742. Crushed  USGS 2005 Minerals Yearbook: Stone. Britannica Online Encyclopaedia. Toniolo L. Principi P. giving the impression of a ruined cityscape. Jump up^ Marble. Penguin Group. Jump up^ Doronina NV. Robert Scott. Compact Oxford English Dictionary. Jump up^ Raport de Tarǎ. Etymological Dictionary of Greek. Brusetti L. PMID 17071788..1128/AEM. Florio S. 14. marble that contains light and dark patterns.com.doi:10. (2005). 5.). 12. Jump up^ Marble Institute of America pp. System of Mineralogy (2 [Digital] ed. doi:10. S. Jump up^ Jameson first=Robert (2011).com. The science of the total environment 385 (1-3): 172–81. Beekes. P. London: theguardian.: a haloalkaliphilic aerobic methylotroph from deteriorating marble]".2007. Sorlini C (2007). p. on Perseus Digital Library 3.

Stonemasonry  Ashlar  Carving  Dry stone  Masonry Types Monumental  Rubble  Sculpture  Slipform  List of stone  Artificial stone  Brick  Cast stone  Decorative stones  Dimension stone  Fieldstone Materials Flagstone  Gabion  Granite  Marble  Mortar  Sandstone  Slate  Angle grinder  Bush hammer  Ceramic tile cutter  Chisel  Diamond blade Tools Lewis (lifting appliance)  Non-explosive demolition agents  Plug and feather  Stonemason's hammer  Straightedge  Brickwork  Knapping  Flushwork Techniques Repointing  Scabbling  Tuckpointing  Hardstone carving  Headstone Products Mosaic  Sculpture  Stone wall  International Union of Bricklayers and Allied Craftworkers  Master of Work to the Crown of Scotland Organizations Mason Contractors Association of America  Operative Plasterers' and Cement Masons' International Association  Worshipful Company of Masons .