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Firewood, Wood chips,
Pellets, animal waste,
Forest and crop residues, Primary Secondary
Landfill gas.

1st generation 2nd generation 3rd generation

Substrate: Seeds, grains or sugars Substrate: Lignocellulosic biomass Substrate: Algae, sea weeds

Bioethanol or butanol by Bioethanol or butanol by enzymatic
Fermentation of starch hydrolysis
(wheat, barley, corn, potato) or
sugars (sugar cane, sugar beet, etc.) Methanol, Fischer-Tropsch gasoline
and diesel, mixed alcohol, dimethyl
Biodiesel by transesterification of ether and green diesel by
plant oils (rapeseed, soy beans, thermochemical processes
sunflower, palm, coconut, jatropha,
used cooking oil, animal fats, etc.) Biomethane by anaerobic digestion