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Majority of senators back anti-political dynasty bill
Patricia Lourdes Viray ( - March 22, 2018 - 12:14pm
MANILA, Philippines — Majority of senators approved the proposal to prohibit immediate and extended relatives from
running for public office to succeed an incumbent relative in the same area.

On Wednesday evening, 13 senators signed Senate Bill 1765, which is a consolidated bill banning political dynasties.

Among the senators who approved the bill were Sens. Sonny Angara, Bam Aquino, Nancy Binay, Leila de Lima,
Franklin Drilon, JV Ejercito, Sherwin Gatchalian, Risa Hontiveros, Panfilo Lacson, Loren Legarda, Francis Pangilinan,
Grace Poe and Ralph Recto.

The proposed measure limits the prohibition to second degree of consanguinity and covers spouses (legal and
common-law), siblings (full or half-blood), parents and children (legitimate, illegitimate and adopted) and the spouses
of these second-degree relatives.

Pangilinan and De Lima drafted the committee report of the Senate electoral reforms committee after holding
separate hearings. Pangilinan heads the Senate's constitutional amendments committee while De Lima chairs the
electoral reforms committee.

In a February 15 hearing, resource persons from the academe listed the reasons for banning political dynasties such
as the prohibition of the Constitution on political dynasties.

"Political dynasties don't allow others to serve as the way of picking leaders is biased toward political dynasties.
Younger, more able leaders are kept from joining politics due to political dynasties," a release from the office of
Pangilinan read.

President Rodrigo Duterte had expressed his support for the proposal to abolish political dynasties but said that he
doubts if the public would agree with it.

"A few of the principled men, I would say, want this kind of thing about dynasty is abolished. I am for it," Duterte said
on Tuesday.

The president also cast doubts if the proposal would pass through Congress

Sen. Bam challenges Congress to pass anti-
political dynasty law before any Cha-cha talks
Date: February 14, 2018

Senator Bam Aquino has filed a measure seeking to prohibit political dynasties in the country, stressing
that the passage of an anti-dynasty law is a necessary precursor to any moves to amend the 1987

“Kailangan nating ipasa ang anti-political dynasty law nang mabilisan, lalo na ngayong may banta ng
Cha-Cha at pinipilit ang Pederalismo,” said Sen. Bam, author of Senate Bill No. 1688.

“I call on Congress to pass the Anti-Political Dynasty Act before any moves towards Federalism,” Sen.
Bam added.

Sen. Bam said that no less than the 1987 Constitution itself prohibits political dynasties, but there is a
need for an implementing law to enforce it.

“There are already 6 anti-political dynasty bills filed and we have the Constitution on our side. I am
confident we will have the votes to pass an anti-political dynasty law in the Senate,” Sen. Bam affirmed.

If passed into law, Senate Bill No. 1688 will prohibit the spouse, or any person related within the third
degree of consanguinity or affinity to an incumbent elective official seeking re-election from holding or
running for any elective office in the same province in the same election.

If the incumbent elective official is a national one, the aforementioned relatives shall be disqualified from
running only within the same province where the former is registered voter.

If none of the candidates are related to an incumbent elective official but are related to one another within
the said prohibited degree, they and their spouses, shall be disqualified from holding or running for any
local elective office within the same province in the same election.

In all cases, no person within the prohibited civil degree of relationship to the incumbent official shall
immediately succeed to the position of the latter.

Sen. Bam hopes an anti-political dynasty law will give the Filipino people a greater variety of candidates
to vote for, with new names, faces, platforms and solutions for the country.

“We must encourage and empower more excellent Filipinos with a passion for service, to run for office
and change the Philippine government from within,” said Sen. Bam

Senate will pass anti-dynasty bill—

SENATE President Aquilino Pimentel 3rd called on the House of Representatives “accept
the reality” that the country would soon have an anti-political dynasty law.

He made the remark after 13 senators signed Senate Bill 1765 or the Anti-Political Dynasty
Act of 2018 which defines political dynasty as the “concentration, consolidation, and/or
perpetuation of public office and political powers by persons related to one another within
the second degree of consanguinity or affinity.”

Sen. Francis Pangilinan, chairman of the Senate Committee on Constitutional Amendments
and Revision of Codes, conducted public hearings to tackle several bills banning political

“We can pass that in the Senate. We will also incorporate a self-executing anti-political
dynasty provision in the new Constitution. Hence, the House has no choice but to accept
the reality that there will soon be an anti political dynasty law,” Pimentel said.

Aquino said it is time to pass an anti political dynasty bill.” “A wife or anyone in the second degree of consanguinity may not run for public office but mistresses and their relatives may?” Sotto said in a text message. as stated under the 1987 Constitution before amending the Constitution to shift to a federal form of government. Recto said he agreed with President Rodrigo Duterte that it would be “difficult” to pass an anti dynasty bill. Drilon said judging from the responses of resource persons during the public hearings on Charter change. adding that an anti political dynasty bill “is unfair to legitimate family members (of a politician). and children (legitimate. Leila de Lima. and Sen.” he sai . “There is a growing appeal for Congress to pass the enabling law that will ban or regulate political dynasty in the country. “Almost all experts say that federalism will not succeed if this measure is not passed. “Signing a committee report does not mean one is in favor. Sherwin “Win” Gatchalian. Paolo Benigno “Bam” Aquino 4th. Loren Legarda. Senate Majority Floorleader Vicente Sotto 3rd signed the committee report but gave a dissenting opinion. Filipinos wanted Congress to pass the anti-political dynasty law before proceeding with amending the Constitution that will pave the way for a shift to federalism. Joseph Victor “JV” Ejercito. Senate Minority Leader Franklin Drilon as well as Senators Juan Edgardo “Sonny” Angara. Nancy Binay. illegitimate.” he said. Grace Poe. “I signed it with amendments.” he said.” “I am thinking of a version that may be acceptable to the House and Palace so we can move it forward. and adopted) and the spouses of these second-degree relatives. The bill was signed by Senate President Pro Tempore Ralph Recto. Panfilo Lacson. Risa Hontiveros. parents. siblings (full or half-blood).” “That’s why proponents of federalism must also promote the proposed measure prohibiting political dynasty.The proposed anti-political dynasty law will cover spouses (legal and common-law).” Recto said. Must recall that we passed an anti-dynasty provision for the Sangguniang Kabataan (youth council) elections that was acceptable to all.

@inquirerdotnet Philippine Daily Inquirer / 09:33 PM November 04.http://opinion.inquirer.” The constitutional provision needs an implementing Let’s have an ‘Anti- Political Dynasty Movement’ By: Neal H. ADVERTISEMENT Read more: http://opinion. Decades after the passage of the Constitution. laws are written and passed by members of Congress many of whom are themselves members of political dynasties. Only a little common sense is needed to understand it. The trouble is the framers added the phrase “as may be defined by movement#ixzz5D6QXgXpL Follow us: @inquirerdotnet on Twitter | inquirerdotnet on Facebook . The State shall prohibit political dynasties to allow others (those who do not belong to political dynasties) to become public servants.”—1986 Constitution The Constitution is very clear. 2012 “The State shall guarantee equal access to opportunities for public service and prohibit political dynasties as may be defined by law. Cruz .inquirer. The other trouble is. we still have no defining law banning political dynasties.

parents. and children.rappler. 2018 Updated 3:26 PM.https://www. March 13 senators sign panel report approving bill vs dynasties The bill covers spouses. and the spouses of these second-degree relatives Camille Elemia @CamilleElemia Published 3:26 PM. siblings. 2018 Facebook Twitter Reddit Email . March 22.

SB 1765 or the Anti-Political Dynasty Act of 2018 defines political dynasty as the "concentration. Section 26 of the 1987 Constitution mandates the state to "guarantee equal access to opportunities for public service. filed Committee Report No. siblings (full or half- blood). At least 13 senators sign committee report pushing for a bill against political dynasties. 367 with consolidated Senate Bill No." (READ: How much of our country will we lose to political dynasties in 2016?) The proposed measure covers spouses (legal and common-law). Philippines – Thirteen of 23 senators have signed the committee report approving the bill seeking to ban political dynasties. and/or perpetuation of public office and political powers by persons related to one another within the second degree of consanguinity or affinity." Article 2. MANILA. parents. The bill prohibits these people from running for and holding public office under the following circumstances: .ANTI-DYNASTY. illegitimate. and adopted). Senator Francis Pangilinan. March 21. and prohibit political dynasties as may be defined by law. 1765 on Wednesday. chair of the Senate committee on constitutional amendments. and the spouses of these second-degree relatives. consolidation. and children (legitimate.

city. governor or district representative in any part of the country  If the incumbent is a barangay captain/mayor/governor or district representative. the Commission on Elections may deny the application for certificate of candidacy of any candidate found in a political dynasty relationship. the following senators signed the report: 1. Senate President Pro-Tempore Ralph Recto 2. Paolo Benigno Aquino IV 9.  To immediately succeed or replace the said incumbent  If the incumbent is an elective barangay official. the spouse and the concerned relatives are prohibited to run simultaneously for any position in the same barangay as well as in the barangays in municipalities or cities within the same legislative district  If the incumbent is an elective official of the municipality or city. Panfilo Lacson 6. Joseph Victor Ejercito 8. Under the bill. Nancy Binay . municipality. the spouse and above relatives are prohibited to run for or hold any elective office simultaneously with the incumbent within the same barangay. legislative district or province. legislative district or province  If the incumbent is a national elective official. Grace Poe 7. Minority Leader Franklin Drilon 3. Risa Hontiveros 4. the spouse and the above relatives are likewise prohibited to run simultaneously for any position in the national or local level as barangay captain. Loren Legarda 5. the spouse and the other concerned relatives are also prohibited to run simultaneously for any position in the national level Persons who are not holding public office shall also be prohibited from running in the same poll if their election will result in a political dynasty relationship. Aside from Pangilinan. mayor.

who also has relatives in public office. Leila de Lima 12. the counterpart measure remains pending in the committee level. as it still has to undergo a period of debates and amendments in the chamber. Gatchalian. which would still face scrutiny of senators . Sherwin Gatchalian Of the 13. which is fillied with his allies. Majority Leader Vicente Sotto III. President Rodrigo Duterte has said he supports the bill but doubts it will pass in Congress. Aquino. where the bill has met stronger opposition from lawmakers coming from dynasties. Binay. In the House. The fate of the measure is still unclear. Angara. 10. Here is the copy of the committee report. 6 are members of political families: Recto. Juen Edgardo Angara 11. Ejercito. signed the report but to express his dissent to the measure.

CNN Philippines Updated 13:26 PM PHT Thu.html Anti-political dynasty. a copy of which was obtained by CNN Philippines on Monday. January 9) — The elusive ban on political dynasties may finally be enforced once the country shifts to a federal form of government. Santos. 2018 Metro Manila (CNN Philippines.http://cnnphilippines. An anti-political dynasty provision is among the major political reforms in PDP-Laban's proposed Constitution for a Federal Republic. January 11. other political reforms in proposed federal constitution By Eimor .

eyes prime minister Although the 1987 Constitution explicitly prohibits political dynasties." "In order to democratize political power. even after three decades. consolidation or perpetuation of public office and political power by persons related to each other. and franchises. and local government units. The PDP-Laban's proposal states the creation of 11 regional governments."It is proposed that relatives of incumbent politicians up to the 2nd degree of affinity or consanguinity shall be prohibited from running for public office in the territorial jurisdiction where the incumbent was elected. five in Senate and two in the House of Representatives." the executive summary of the "PDP Laban Model of PH Federalism" stated. Anti-political dynasty bills are pending in the 17th Congress. The provision under Article 9. we propose to make the anti- dynasty provision in the Constitution self-executing. regional government. no law has been passed governing such. tourism. Related: Proposed charter for federal PH weakens Senate. Section 15 of the draft charter covers the President and all elected officials including members of the Federal Assembly and Senate." a pending Senate bill defines it as the "concentration. which will have legislative powers over basic services such as social welfare and development. Critics said it's because many lawmakers themselves come from political dynasties." PDP-Laban said. regional development planning. . among others. While there is yet to be a clear-cut definition of the term "political dynasty. This addresses concerns that a federal system could empower abusive political dynasties as regional governments would have more autonomy.

. said Ateneo School of Government Dean Ronald Mendoza. Section 13 of the draft constitution stated. subject to audit by the government." "This is to reduce or all together eliminate the influence of big business and drug and gambling lords in our politicians." Article 9. In the draft. In turn. Government-funded political parties The PDP-Laban's proposal further seeks to strengthen political parties. Controlling the expansion of dynasties is "a good first step. The draft charter also bans the switching of political parties. one year after the adoption of the constitution. "No elective public official may change his political party affiliation during his term of office and no candidate for any elective public office may change his political party affiliation within one year immediately preceding or following an election." but much more needs to be done." the proposal read. It found that the fattest dynasties – or those with the most number of family members in office – are concentrated in the poorest parts of the country. A 2015 study by the Asia Institute of Management Policy Center showed there are strong links between the existence of dynasties and poverty.Under the draft proposal." he said. "on the basis of their electoral performance in the previous election. political parties shall publicly account for the use of these funds. unlike in the current setup where 83 percent of revenue is controlled by the national government and only 17 percent is allocated to local governments. regional governments would also have control over 60 percent of its revenue. "(We need to build) a more inclusive development trajectory for the country because we see that when there are more poor people there will always be the tendency for traditional politics. the parliament shall provide state subsidy to registered political parties. Political dynasties in the Philippines From Wikipedia.wikipedia. Mendoza." he said. President Rodrigo Duterte's allies in Congress are proposing a constitutional assembly shortly after both houses resume session on January 15. said the reforms being pushed for by advocates of federalism are not to be treated like a silver bullet.a major platform of the Duterte administration. "What really needs to happen is they need to all click together to produce the better outcome.An elected official who violates this provision shall lose his position and be barred from public office. the free encyclopedia Philippines This article is part of a series on the politics and government of the Philippines Constitution[show] . The assembly will introduce changes in the Constitution to give way to a federal form of government . however.

who were mostly foreign expatriates or of Chinese origin. Members of such dynasties usually do not limit their involvement to strictly political activities. Over the years. Duterte. the power of the peninsulares'. political dynasties continued to adapt. the surviving members of the Spanish or Spanish-sanctioned landholding elite and the newly ascendant merchant elite. Following the defeat of the Spanish in the Spanish–American War. consolidated support base concentrated around the province in which they are dominant. Legislature[show] Executive[show] Judiciary[show] Constitutional commissions[show] Elections[show] Political parties[show] Administrative divisions[show] Related topics[show]  Other countries  Atlas  v  t  e Political dynasties have long been a feature of the Philippine political landscape. With the decline of Spain's economic power and international prestige in the 19th century. Political dynasties usually have a strong. The majority of the available positions in Philippine government are currently held by members of these political dynasties. Aristocracy survived and prospered under the American colonial regime. or Spanish-born aristocracy declined propitiously. the expansion of British and American influence around the world. Notable Philippine political dynasties include the Aquino. They are typically characterized as families that have established their political or economic dominance in a province and have coordinated efforts to move on to involvement in national government or other positions of national political prominence. formed a de facto aristocracy to replace the power vacuum the Spanish had left. Arroyo. and remained a permanent fixture in Philippine society even following the independence of the Philippines was finally confirmed following the devastation of the Philippines under the Japanese occupation of the Philippines during World War II. and have been found participating in business or culture-related activities. and the political current of emergent nationalism among the children of the economically enfranchised bourgeois. Marcos. and Roxas . Binay. as newer dynasties emerged to fill power vacuums left behind by the extinction of older dynasties." Political dynasties started emerging after the Philippine Revolution when the First Republic of the Philippines was established.

thus ensuring political dominance. The second way is for a number of family members to occupy government positions at the same time.[1] As of the moment. The closest explicit mention of political dynasties in Philippine law can be seen in Republic Act 7160 or the Local Government Code. and prohibit political dynasties as may be defined by law. Title Two. .6Roxas o 6. Philippine laws[edit] The 1987 Constitution of the Philippines states in Article II Section 26. Despite the negative reaction of the populace towards political dynasties and the association between dynastic activities and corruption. Chapter 1. There have been bills that attempt to define a political dynasty such as the Anti-Dynasty Bill." There has been a lot of debate regarding the effects political dynasties have on the political and economic status of Philippine society. which members of the family have led or represented for successive generations. This can occur in two ways. a relative of the incumbent will run in his stead. However.[1] there are no laws that restrict the presence of political dynasties in the Philippines. it does not include any limitations on the running of the incumbent's family relations or on the holding of multiple political positions by members of the same family. no law has been concerning the status of political dynasties in the Philippines. The group in question is usually associated with a certain province or city. Contents [hide]  1Definition  2Philippine laws  3Statistics of Philippine political dynasties  4Critical reception  5Influence o 5. 2016." Despite the provision in the Constitution.2Positive  6Notable Philippine political dynasties o 6.3Estrada o 6.5Ortega o 6. such attempt usually miscarry and end in failure. One way is for members of a family to occupy a same certain government position in every term. where Book I.7Duterte  7See also  8References Definition[edit] Political dynasties refer to family units with members involved in government activities. Once the term of the member of a political dynasty runs out.2Aquino o 6. families. political dynasties refer to groups of politicians who come from the same family. However. there are no legal documents or laws that officially define a political dynasty in the Philippines. "The State shall guarantee equal access to opportunities for public service. Section 43 states the term limit of local government officials. as proven by the defeat of the Anti-Dynasty Bill in Philippine Congress on February 2.4Marcos o 6. In the Philippines.1Ampatuan o 6.1Negative o 5.

a cousin. The bill disqualifies the following candidates from running for local government positions:  relatives of an incumbent elected official running for re-election up to the second degree of consanguinity. in the years 1995- 2007. ACT. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of service for the full term for which the elective official concerned was elected. (c) The term of office of Barangay officials and members of the Sangguniang kabataan shall be for three (3) years. The term "relative" here referring to anyone with a familial connection such as a wife. House Bill 172 filed on July 1. by representatives under the Bayan Muna. Several bills have been filed in relation to the prohibition of political dynasties. Many have called for the Congress to pass the Anti- Dynasty Law. and are currently pending to be approved by the Congress. which are similar in content to Senate Bill 2649: 1. and are planning to run in the province of origin of the elected official  persons that are not relatives of an elected official that are candidates to the same position in the same province in the same election but are related to each other up to the second degree of consanguinity. Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago filed Senate Bill 2649 which prohibits political dynasties from holding or running for elected local government positions. 2013. 2011. (b) No local elective official shall serve for more than three (3) consecutive terms in the same position. Anakpawis and Kabataan party lists. 1992 or such date as may be provided for by law. The bill also prohibits relatives within the prohibited civil degree of relationship of an incumbent from succeeding to the incumbent’s position. an average of 31. 36 of them were replaced by a relative in the succeeding elections. On January 24. 2. 1992. etc. In the 1995 elections. Three bills were filed in the House of Representatives which are also in relation to the prohibition of political dynasties. the people who . by Representative Oscar Rodriguez from the 3rd district of Pampanga.3% of all congressmen and 23. Gabriela. the House of Representatives Committee on Suffrage and Electoral Reforms agreed to replace the three House bills into a single bill filed as House Bill 3587. starting from noon of June 30. majority of the positions in government are held by politicians that are members of political dynasties. 2013. 2013. That all local officials first elected during the local elections immediately following the ratification of the 1987 Constitution shall serve until noon of June 30. In many of these cases. a son or daughter. Statistics of Philippine political dynasties[edit] Due to the increasing number of political dynasties in the Philippines. by Representative Erlinda Santiago of the 1-SAGIP party list. except that of elective Barangay officials: Provided. 2013. of the 83 congressmen elected on to their third term. In fact.1% of governors were replaced by relatives. which shall begin after the regular election of Barangay officials on the second Monday of May 1994. and are planning to run in the same province in the same election as the elected official  relatives of an incumbent elected official that holds a national position up to the second degree of consanguinity. 3. House Bill 2911 filed on September 18. House Bill 837 filed on July 2.(a) The term of office of all local elective officials elected after the effectivity of this Code shall be three (3) years. except for the positions of Punong Barangay and Sangguniang Barangay. On December 16. but this bill has been passed over by each Congress since 1987.

contrasted with dynasties that oversee a wider public. or 14th Congress Category 3: Those who share kinship with at least one person belonging to the 12th. and of the 84. categories were formed according to the number of familial ties each politician had to politicians belonging to previous Congresses: Category 1: Those with ties to the 12th. It is also said that 77% of legislators between the ages of 26-40 are also dynastic. Mendoza.would eventually go on to take their place had no previous political background or experience save their familial connection. where reception is mostly negative. or 2007 elections Category 4: Those with at least one relation in the 12th. Of those 155. and Yap.[3] Critical reception[edit] Various writers wrote articles that analyze and critique politicians that fall under the domain of a political dynasty.[5] The public support for the bill against political dynasties has steadily increased because the president. or 14th Congress or holding a local government unit (LGU) position in the elections in between 2001 and 2010 In a population of 229 legislators in the 15th Congress.[2] Another 2014 study done by Querubin of the Department of Politics in New York University indicated that an estimate 50-70% of all politicians are involved or associated in a political dynasty within the Philippines." Although the study found a correlation. this does not determine whether it is a causal relationship since poverty is multifaceted. it was estimated that 40% of all provinces in the Philippines have a provincial governor and congressman that are related in some way. 13th. Venida. including local government units. The "Carnegie Effect" is based on Carnegie’s decision to give all his wealth to non-family members. 13th. named after Andrew Carnegie. A study that used empirical data correlated political dynasty presence with socio-economic development. or at least one relative with a local government unit (LGU) position from the 2001.[3] In order to analyze patterns of political dynasties within the 15th Congress. while part of a dynasty himself. 155 of them are classified as belonging to the fourth category. 144 of them also belong to the third category.[6] In a provincial scale.[2] In a study done in 2012 by economists Beja. it was concluded that approximately 70% of all jurisdiction-based legislators in the current Congress are involved in a political dynasty. these articles hold these said persons and families in a critical light. This study stated that "this partial correlation coefficient finds a positive relationship between poverty incidence and the proportion of political dynasties in each province. 2004. the public has only recently started clamoring for a change in system. In the same study. Often. 14th and 15th Congress as well as at least one family member elected into a local government unit between the years 2001 and 2010 Category 2: Those with familial connections to at least one person belonging to the 12th. where he argues that his son might have less .[7] Influence[edit] Negative[edit] One of the more notable theories concerning the negative effects of political dynasties is a political "Carnegie Effect". or 14th dynasty. 10 belong to the first category. which indicates that the second and third generations of political dynasties in the Philippines have begun their political careers as well. 13th. fully supports the passage of the Anti-Dynasty Bill. 84 of the 144 belong in the second category.[4] Although political dynasties have already been present in the Philippines for a significant period of time. political dynasties are often held in higher regard. 13th. with 40% of them having ties to legislators who belonged to as far as 3 Congresses prior.

and their interests are overrepresented due to dynastic politics.[14] As a result of their connection. was elected Governor of Maguindanao in 2001.political dynasties often hold significant economic power in a province. Political dynasties also prevent challengers with potentially effective policy ideas from being able to take office. Notable Philippine political dynasties[edit] See also: List of political families in the Philippines Ampatuan[edit] The Ampatuan family has exercised political crowd control over the Maguindanao region since 2001. The victims had been on their way to file the candidacy . Based on Mancur Olson's theory of political governance or the "Roving Bandits vs.[10] Another negative effect of political dynasties is that political dynasties tend to be for the status quo and develop interests largely separate from the people they were supposed to be serving. Stationary Bandits" theory. Positive[edit] Political dynasties also have extra incentive to develop their own jurisdictions.incentive of working hard if he were to be assured of his father’s wealth.[8] This idea of inherited wealth and connections discouraging future generations to work hard can also be attributed to dynastic politicians. under this theory. His sons. the Ampatuans were generally unheard of outside of the region until the infamous 2009 Maguindanao Massacre.[9] There is also significant evidence to suggest that Philippine political dynasties use their political dominance over their respective regions to enrich themselves. Female politicians hailing from political dynasties can easily get into politics due to their connections. because of their reliance on dynastic connections rather than bureaucratic or academic competence for their position. to win elections when pitted against politicians with no such political networks. which presents conflict of interest problems. dynastic politicians are more likely to pursue long-term development oriented strategies since they expect to hold power and benefit from their position for longer. have less incentive to develop due to their limited term. Political dynasties can use this continuity by promoting and enacting laws and ordinances that are long term in nature. They are considered the main suspects behind the massacre that killed 57 people. This is usually set in contrast to non-dynastic politicians who would. Andal Ampatuan Jr. were the former mayor of Datu Unsay and former Governor of ARMM respectively.[13] The Ampatuans' rise to power is attributed to support received from former President Gloria Arroyo.. being almost exclusively from the upper classes. These kinds of situations arise as conflicts of interests. The family’s patriarch. with only a slim chance of other candidates outside of the dynasty interfering with the plans. which limits the capacity for bureaucratic responsiveness and administrative effectiveness and adaptation to new ideas.[11] Political dynasties have the advantage of continuity. Dynastic politicians have a significant advantage from the start of their political career They have a statistically higher probability. are naturally biased towards defending their own vested economic interests. the Ampatuans won Arroyo a large majority of votes from Maguindanao during the 2004 Presidential elections. due to factors like popularity and incumbency advantage.[12] 80 members of the Ampatuan clan ran for governmental positions during the 2013 elections. Andal Ampatuan Sr.[11] Political dynasties are also responsible for the increase in women’s political participation in politics. Political dynasties can gain benefits either directly or indirectly through their relatives. the more members of the family can occupy positions of power. with several of its members holding positions in government. The more control the family has over the government unit. and Zaldy Ampatuan.[15] Despite their prominence in Maguindanao. using methods such as graft or outright bribery of legislators. Dynastic politicians also have generally lower educational attainment. The Arroyo administration’s issuance of Executive Order 546 then allowed the Ampatuans to form their own private army. Dynastic candidates. also known as civilian volunteer organizations.

JV's mother. The dynasty began with Servillano Aquino. He later succeeded Fidelto be the 13th President of the Philippines. He was imprisoned and was sentenced to death but was pardoned and exiled to the US by President Ferdinand Marcos for his recovery after suffering from heart attack. Aquino[edit] The Aquinos are a political family that originated from Tarlac. Sr. She was a key figure during the People Power Revolution. he returned to the Philippines. the Aquinos are oftentimes viewed as opponents of the Marcos family.[18] 198 people. An estimated two million Filipinos attended his funeral procession.[22] Many other members of the Estrada dynasty are still active in politics. Other active politicians from the Aquino family include Paolo Benigno "Bam" Aquino. However. This resulted in the four-day-long Second People Power Revolution. However. who began as a successful film actor. After his death. He was charged and arrested for collaborating with the Japanese during World War II. Ilocos remains to be the Marcoses’ political stronghold today. his wife. served as Senator.[16][17] After the discovery of the mass graves. President Arroyo declared martial law in Maguindanao. became more active in politics. Loi Estrada. and Vice President from 1992-1998. Benigno "Igno" Aquino. Ninoy was assassinated on the tarmac in the Manila International Airport. Among these are his sons. On August 21. His son. is the current Mayor. was a Speaker in the House of Representatives during the Second Philippine Republic. won the 2010 presidential elections.[21] His resignation from presidency was declared soon afterwards. a general during the Philippine Revolution and delegate of the Malolos Congress. Her death in 2009 garnered widespread public support reminiscent of her husband’s. which was discontinued after the court voted against opening an envelope possibly containing incriminating evidence. who both served as Mayor of San Juan. including Andal Ampatuan Sr. Benigno "Noynoy" Aquino III. Senator from 1987-1992. Estrada[edit] The Estrada political dynasty began with Joseph "Erap" Ejercito Estrada. Despite this. Allegations of corruption under his administration led to an impeachment trial. Upon leaving the plane. He served as the Mayor of San Juan from 1969-1986. He is currently under trial for his alleged involvement in the multi-billion peso pork barrel scam. this support is one of the major reasons why her son. Corazon Aquino. He was also charged for collaborating with the Moro secessionist in Malaysia and held responsible for leading a communist insurgency in which leads to various of massacres. The dynasty started with Mariano Marcos. Estrada's wife and First Lady.[24] Marcos[edit] The Marcoses are one of the most well-known political dynasties in the Philippines. the youngest ever Senator in the 16th Philippine Congress. Cory later became the first female President of the Philippines after beating Ferdinand Marcos in the snap elections. particularly in San Juan. this is brought up oligarchy and democracy. The popularity Estrada gained from acting would prove to be valuable when he pursued a career in politics.[23] Jinggoy Estrada himself has been a member of the Senate since 2004.[20] The trial remains ongoing today. suspected to be the mastermind behind the massacre. some victims were also reported to have been raped. 2015. and Andal Ampatuan Jr. They were later abducted and murdered. few days upon his recovery and decision to run for presidency. Jinggoy Estrada and JV Ejercito. Guia Gomez. were charged with murder. Andal Ampatuan Sr. Jr.. died on July 17... Nowadays. 1983. mainly due to the actions of Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino. the absolute pardon given by former President Arroyo allowed Estrada to run for and eventually became the Mayor of Manila in 2013. a lawyer from Ilocos Norte who was a member of the House of Representatives back in 1925.of Esmael "Toto" Mangudadatu for the 2010 elections when they were stopped by an armed convoy. During his term. .[19] Charges against some of the suspects have been dropped in the years since. A former Governor of Tarlac who has his critical views against the Marcoses resulting to a family-political feud. he was convicted for murder and possession of firearms.

and consolidate power through the ratification of a new constitution. Mayor since 2016 (Vice Mayor 2007-2010. who was killed by a sniper while brushing his teeth at his home on September 20. Marcos’ daughter. Imee Marcos. Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos Jr. he served as the Governor of Capiz (now named Roxas City). He and his father.[26] Though they were exiled as a result of the People Power Revolution. However. Gerardo Roxas. he used it to suppress dissent. he is also related to the Zobel de Ayalas.[29] Roxas[edit] The Roxas political dynasty started with Manuel Roxas. Mayor of Davao City 2010-2013)  Paolo Duterte. is a governor of Ilocos Norte. Marcos family members also held several governmental positions during this period and were involved in the misuse of public funds. He lost the Vice Presidency in 2010. was a former Senator and Department of Interior and Local Government Secretary. Julio Nalundasan. were also convicted for the murder of their political rival. His grandson. President since 2016 (Mayor of Davao City 1988-1998. His son.. ruling over the province of La Union for over a century.The dynasty was at its most prominent during the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos. served as a representative of the First District of Capiz and Senator. Duterte[edit]  Rodrigo Duterte. the Marcos family has since regained power and is currently active in Philippine politics. and lost the Presidency in 2016 elections. As a descendant of Antonia Róxas y Ureta.[27] The Marcoses currently cannot set foot in any United States territory because of a contempt judgement regarding their human rights violations. son of Mariano Marcos. wife of Ferdinand and former first lady. due his declaration of martial law and the numerous human rights violations and rampant corruption of public funds during his rule. Mar Roxas.[28] Ortega[edit] The Ortega political clan is believed to be the Philippines' political dynasty with the longest unbroken political rule. Mariano Marcos. is currently a district representative of the second district of Ilocos Norte. was a former senator who was a candidate for vice president in the 2016 national elections.[25] Ferdinand Marcos supposedly declared Martial law to suppress the widespread of communism and civil strife. 2001-2010. Ferdinand is one of the most controversial figures in Philippine history. 2013–16)  Sara Duterte. the fifth President of the Philippines. His son. Before being President. Vice Mayor since 2013 . Imelda Marcos. a prominent business family. 1935.

one from the Asian Development Bank and the other from Bertelsmann Foundation of Germany. Bertelsmann Foundation. the ADB. in its newly released biennial Bertelsmann Transformation Index for this year. access to both economic and political power is often dominated by political clans.abs-cbn. The Philippine Constitution says that “the State shall guarantee equal access to opportunities for public service.” The German foundation.Two reports last week. or “dynasties” as they have come to be referred to. was quoted in a Philippine Daily Inquirer report as saying that “the dominance of entrenched family clans in politics and the economy should be reduced to make politics and economics more transparent and Congress must pass the anti-political dynasty bill now by Jose M.http://news. pointed out that “widening income gaps in developing Asia strengthen the case for government response. and prohibit political dynasties as may be defined by law. Galang Posted at Apr 23 2014 08:14 AM | Updated as of Apr 24 2014 12:08 AM Share  Save  Facebook  Twitter  GPlus  LinkedIn MANILA.” Bertelsmann specifically argued for congressional passage of an anti-dynasty legislation which has been debated since 1987. Philippines . Last week.” To this day. 27 years after the ratification of the Constitution. might seem unrelated but they both come out as new and urgent reasons for the Philippine Congress to act on proposals to ban political dynasties from public office. Various studies over the past few years have pointed out that one of the reasons that contribute to the big gap between the rich and the poor in the country is the domination of political families in elective posts — either simultaneously or in terms of office that succeed each other. in its newly released annual Asian Development Outlook for this year. Separately.” was reported to have said that “true progress in the Philippines would be out of reach unless the improbable was achieved: dismantling of oligarchies that control both politics and business. recognized worldwide for its work in promoting social change towards “society’s long-term viability. there has been no implementing law passed by Congress.” . In many towns and provinces around the country. the report said.

If the legislators really want a participative and transparent democracy to prevail in this country and make its economic growth touch the lives of a bigger number of Filipinos. A second anti-dynasty bill in the Senate was filed in November last year by Senator J. Congress will resume its session in the first week of quoted an ADB supplementary report. if not unchanging. links to banks and financial institutions.” In another study last year. the National Statistical Coordination Board presented last October findings from a study by economists at the Asian Institute of Management (AIM) showing that poverty was linked to the “prevalence of political dynasties. Quite clearly. triggers political repercussions and affects the crime and violence situation which in turn conditions the investment climate in a country. and tie- ups with foreign and local big businesses. there has been no movement even at the committee level. other industrial enterprises.” the AIM economists’ study said. mining. as saying. while a consolidated bill on political dynasties and electoral reforms has been approved at the committee level as early as November of last year report as saying “the gap between the rich and the poor in the country is still significantly high. “Alternative political candidates will need the support of political parties to convey their message of reform and non-traditional politics. According to Senator Miriam Defensor-Santiago. media. reduces middle class by leaving more people at the extreme ends of income distribution. At the Senate. “Given that the poor are most vulnerable to political patronage and manipulation as well as practical to sell their votes. the higher the prevalence of political dynasties” and that “areas with more poor people tend to have many political dynasties.” the ABS-CBNnews. sugar. after the bill she filed in the Senate in July last year went through its first reading and was referred to the committee on electoral reforms and peoples participation.“It is important to address inequality as this hampers economic growth itself. participation and accountability against patron-client relationships that thrive on poverty and inequality. In the House of Representatives. Center for People Empowerment in Governance (CenPEG) said that “94 percent of all provinces in the Philippines have political dynasties. accumulated the most political and financial capital. they must act on the anti-political dynasty bill and pass it when they go back to work. ADB deputy chief economist Juzhong Zhuang was quoted in the ABS-CBNnews. Now still on its summer recess. debilitates poverty reduction efforts. all these simply indicate that Congress has run out of excuses to not pass the bill banning political dynasties from public office. “Rising Inequality in Asia and Policy Implications”. and have the access to the largest political machineries.V. they would also be in the best position to take advantage of vulnerable economically disadvantaged voters.” Closer to home. be the families that have cultivated the most extensive networks of patronage.3 political families per province. in most situations. . CenPEG said. nothing has been heard about it. Without citing political dynasties as a factor behind this situation in the Philippines.” With this control of political power. the dynasties have entrenched themselves to dominant positions in land ownership. There seems to be no interest in putting the bill on the plenary’s calendar although Majority Leader Neptali Gonzales II has publicly stated that the anti-dynasty bill remains to be “part of the House agenda” for the remainder of the second regular session which ends in June.” The study cited empirical evidence showing “strong evidence that the more severe poverty is. real estate. on the other hand. built on empowerment. Ejercito but it too got lukewarm reception from the chamber. together with Edsel Beja Jr. with an average of 2.” The study was authored by economists Ronald Mendoza and David Yap of the AIM’s Policy Center. a worsening.” the study further said. tobacco. “Since the largest political dynasties would. “Political reforms will be critical in helping families and communities break out of the dynasty-poverty trap. logging.” the study concluded. and Victor Venida of the Ateneo de Manila University’s Department of Economics. there has since been a long delay in reporting it out to the plenary. poverty would be beneficial to political dynasties.

Various members of the same family often cycle through the same congressional. A possible solution is before the Philippine Congress right now—the Anti-Political Dynasty Bill. Although individuals may run once their relative’s term is up. one notorious political clan had 80 members running for office. in the Philippines. Bush won the race for Texas Land Commissioner. It is a drastic problem in need of a drastic solution. members of such families have been revered throughout history. gubernatorial. and his grandfather George H. In the Philippines. they may not immediately succeed that relative in the same elected office. siphon off public funding. and perpetuate their rule by cycling through the ranks. This bill would prohibit any spouse or first-degree relation (including parents. the bill may seem antidemocratic. as it (temporarily) suspends the rights of many individuals to seek elected office. and it’s not unusual to see an electoral race pitting two members of the same family against each other. During the last election. and mayoral seats in their home province. who. it’s quite easy for clans to organize local militias. and earlier this month George P. Although the idea of political royalty inheriting power seems to cut against equal opportunity. One might question how effective the investigation will be given that Binay’s two daughters are members of Congress. one study estimated that political dynasties comprised up to 70% of the last Philippine Congress (compared to 6% of the last U. Bush. deadly) means of monopolizing power.) At first blush. the centrality of dynasties to politics lowers the costs associated with committing corrupt acts.https://globalanticorruptionblog. In many ways. who has already announced his candidacy. carrying on the political legacy of his father Jeb Bush.S. and exacerbated the pervasiveness of corruption in government. political actors can continue to reap the benefits of power by having spouses or . The problem is even more pronounced in smaller localities.  Second. and children) of an incumbent elected official from seeking elected office.W. would be precluded from running for President. Bush. for the past few months. some well- known families have been in politics for generations—the Kennedys held an impressive 64- year streak in Congress until 2011 (and staged a comebackonly two years later).com/2014/12/01/the-philippines-must-break-the-power-of-political-dynasties/ Posted on December 1. (The bill would have a enormous effect on the upcoming 2016 elections—Vice President Jejomar Binay. Even if they face corruption or other criminal charges. the dynastic culture of politics has removed meaningful choice from the voters. and whose daughter’s term in the Senate runs until 2019. By packing every major office. his uncle George W. Congress). In the United States. where the concentration of political power has bred such a strong culture of corruption. 2014 by Beatriz Paterno Democratic systems are no strangers to political dynasties. has been under investigation by a Senate Blue Ribbon Committee for alleged corruption. political dynasties corrupt the system of checks and balances. But political dynasties present a much greater threat to democracy when they control a majority of power in the country. Indeed. Still. certain rights may need to be sacrificed. One recent example is Vice President Binay. Philippine political clans have evolved into the most efficient (and at times. There are several reasons why Congress should pass this bill and limit the influence of political families:  First. siblings.

For the first time ever. SHARE THIS: .  Third. Enacting an anti-dynasty law is no small task for a Congress overrun with the very families it seeks to preclude from office. and provide opportunities for talented. the bill reached the House plenary session. Article II. the continued success of political families despite corruption charges undermines the rule of law. energetic individuals to challenge the current state of Philippine politics. and prohibit political dynasties as may be defined by law. After one representative was found guilty of murdering the sons of his political rival. children take their seats. perhaps in part because of widespread public support the bill garnered after one of the largest corruption scandals in recent memory. But after 27 years.” Because the provision is not self-executing. ensuring that the family name remained relevant long enough for him to seek reelection after the appellate court cleared him of all charges. In his Fifth State of the Nation Address. and a Senate version was discussed during a committee hearing weeks later. Section 26 of the Constitution states that “[t]he State shall guarantee equal access to opportunities for public service. it would go a long way toward addressing the highly corrosive nature of political dynasties. leaving positions open to individuals who view government as an opportunity to amass more wealth and power. It’s important that Congress—and the electorate—seize this political moment to ensure the passage of the bill. the framers of the 1987 Constitution called upon Congress to pass a law to inhibit the power of political clans. And there is a particular reason that the anti-dynasty bill should be passed now. These issues have plagued Philippine politics for countless generations—in fact. his seat in the House was taken over by his wife. Well-intentioned individuals are deterred from seeking office. the President stated that he would immediately sign the Act if it successfully made it through Congress. efforts to pass such a law have come further than ever before. and perpetuates a system of corruption in government. Although this bill is quite controversial. however. it has remained largely meaningless for the past three decades.

in . despite the hardships and nuisances it may bring. political dynasties have been in the Philippine political arena and still are very much around today. and even wives of political figures have been seen to enter politics not for merit or expertise.ukessays. it is so easy for one to bend the rules in favor of their beloved "kapamilya" [2] . nephews and nieces. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. The same clannish trait of the Filipinos is one that is not forgotten in the arena of Philippine and grandparents all living together under one roof in the typical Filipino household. 2015 Last Edited: 8th June. 2017 Disclaimer: This essay has been submitted by a student.php Political Dynasty: Advantages and Disadvantages PRINT REFERENCE THIS Published: 23rd March. findings. Power. Sons and daughters. Being "clannish" [1] and family oriented people. aunts. political dynasty problems. Filipinos tend to give in to relatives and friends. conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays. It is not uncommon to see cousins. You can view samples of our professional work here. but simply because of affinity by blood to those who hold the political power. In the Filipino community. Any opinions. it can be seen how close families can be when they go as far as supporting even extended members of the family.https://www. Although it could very well serve as a positive trait that Filipinos have. it can also pose as a problem that no matter how principled one may be. political dynasty advantages Filipinos have always been proud of how much value is put into the concept of family. Since time immemorial. Keywords: political dynasty effects.

the likes of Senators Ramon "Bong" Revilla Jr.NET. would not be given an opportunity when running against someone with a name.It is undeniable that there are candidates who are voted into office simply because . 2007 elections. 2007). positions of power are usually dominated by a particular clan. Biazons. 2000). with Erap.. It creates a brain drain in the sense that the new and capable leader who could possibly perform better than those currently in office. the same candidates from powerful political families landed key positions in government. the political dynasty is said to monopolize the system of governance since it limits the chances of other common Filipinos to serve the people. With the set-up of the political dynasty. Former Mayor. with Ferdinand. Remullas and many others (Somosierra. and now DILG Secretary Jesse Robredo of Naga City. Influence and Power of Political Dynasties The political dynasty undoubtedly plays an influential role in Philippine society. Arguably. is handed from a seniority to his or her successor by means of a "padrino" [3] system where the successor is endorsed by an outgoing member of the family so that the successor would rake in the same support that the outgoing member had received from his supporters when he or she was in a position of power. Families of political dynasties are sitting side by side to deliberate on important legislations that will affect the future of more than 80 million Filipinos both young and old for generations to come (PHILIPPINEPOLITICS. Ordinary people who deserve to be empowered should be given the opportunity to serve the community. Jinggoy and JV (Joseph Victor) (PHILIPPINEPOLITICS. Among which included families like the Aquinos. Imelda. and Jinggoy Estrada were re-elected to the same position as they topped the list of winning senatorial candidates. "The right to serve does not belong to one family alone. 2000). include the Marcoses [4] . Roxases. In the May 14. as much as 53 candidates belonging to a background of political dynasties ran for office. Also in the recent May 10. Loi.NET. Ortegas. It has been often contended that political dynasties go against the values upheld by democracy since it does not provide an equal opportunity for people to hold offices of power and service. De Venecias. 2007). The most famous or infamous of which." [6] (Medel. 2010 elections. he believes.terms of how it is transferred from one family member to another. Rectos. In the municipal and provincial government. In the senatorial race. Imee and Bongbong. who has firmly stood against political dynasties. Senator Benigno Simeon "Noynoy" Aquino topped the presidential race while Makati City Mayor Jejomar Binay surprisingly bagged the position of vice president. and the Estradas or Ejercitos [5] . Family members simply take turns in alternating between various posts for as long as the term allows.. Here it is not seen that it is not merely a show of power but that there is an organized transfer of this same power that runs within these political dynasties that keep them surviving up until today. it seems as if positions of power are exclusively dominated by a particular clan or family.

one can see the display of the excessive use of power to punish Damiens for his actions. Sons." [8] (Focault. still exist in the Philippine political arena despite some rejections by others that it does not provide equal opportunities for other candidates to run for public office? What key elements existing in these political dynasties make them dominant in the political arena up until today? Does the existence of the political dynasty really help the Filipino people.NET.of their name and fame. Here we can see the sovereign's excessive use of power to punish a subject who attempted to challenge his sovereignty by attempting to take his life. The validity of the political dynasty has always remained a highly debatable matter. or is it just making the political maturity of the nation stagnant? (PHILIPPINEPOLITICS. but rather on the name carried by one who is running. to educate people to vote more responsibly in choosing a leader. As Foucault recounts the event. siblings and even wives of politicians . In this paper. 1977)..people who have no knowledge whatsoever of how to lead and serve. He stressed in his work that power is exercised in ways that it can be excessive to maintain order and discipline in society. Electoral votes are not so much based on the capability of one to serve. Despite the negative connotation brought about by political dynasties and its detrimental effects throughout Philippine history. but instead. I intend to find the factors that make political dynasties relevant today in the face of a democratic Philippine society by taking into consideration Michel Foucault's theory on power and Vladimir Lenin's theory on organization. in the pot containing boiling potion. are voted into office simply because of their connection to previous leaders. In line with what Michel Foucault mentioned in his work.. This symbolic power could be seen as a perpetuation of the power system that runs through a political dynasty since it plays a big role in a dynasty's continued existence and evolution. who was publicly tortured and executed for his attempt to assassinate the sovereign. which he poured liberally over each wound. Why do traditional political clans that which do not ground their resources based on their economic stance. raised his head and looked at himself. Francois Damiens' public torture and execution was made as an example to others . who cried out profusely. political dynasties are not entirely negative and can bring certain positive effects. It is quite obvious that the family name of an elected official or a potential candidate plays a big role in the success of one who falls under the category of being part of a political family. "Discipline and Punish".. the same executioner dipped an iron spoon. political dynasties in the Philippines are unique in a way that they possess dynamic qualities that keep them surviving up until today. The example would be that of Francois Damiens [7] . though without swearing. as seen in his recount wherein "…Damiens. 2000). It can be identified that power can be seen not only in exercises of excess but also in tangible things such as a candidate's family name. The solution to stop the negative effects linked to political dynasties is not to ban political dynasties in general.

Moreover.effect. it is the very ceremonial of justice being expressed in all its force. In the disappearance of punishment. 1977).that contesting the king's sovereignty would be subject to the same level of punishment or worse. it is in order to deprive the individual of a liberty that is regarded both as a right and as property" [9] (Focault. they have been led in their sentences to do something other than judge. The pain caused to the body was clearly not intended only for the body alone but rather reached out to those who have witnessed or heard about the execution. one can see that punishment no longer touched the body but rather as Foucault would state. through the form of torture. there is a focus on the effectivity of punishment rather than of spectacles. Negative Sides to Political Dynasties "The very excess of the violence employed is one of the elements of glory: the fact that the guilty man should moan and cry out under the blows is not a shameful side . doctors. In a span of a few decades. executioners served as the king's "hand" in punishing offenders. guidance counselors.that defined by the great codes of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries . The crime committed by Damiens was against the body of the king. therefore. The gravity of such an event still touches on modernity in a way that whoever reads or hears about such an event could still feel the gravity of the excessive use of power. there was a display of excessive torture on the body according to Michel Foucault. psychiatrists. This evolution of torture saw the disappearance of punishment on the body and a loosening of the hold of the sovereign over the body. it enters into the abstract consciousness of society rather than of perceptions. to other authorities than the judges of the offence. During the early 18th century. wherein it focuses only on visibility or intensity of punishment such as that of Foucault's account of Damiens' torture. the process of torture became a process of organized disciplinary action in the form of a penal justice system. In the spectacle of scaffolds. the punishment that was given to the violator was also against his body. On the loosening of hold of the sovereign on the body. ever since the new penal system . As time passed. Hence no doubt those . "To sum up. a general process has led judges to judge something other than crimes. What Michel Foucault was reiterating in his account of Damiens' torture is that power is primarily being exercised on the body as a means of strategizing the deployments of power rather than to punish the violator by causing physical pain. As Foucault aptly put it. "The body now serves as an instrument or intermediary: if one intervenes upon it to imprison it. or to make it work. The whole penal operation has taken on extra-juridical elements and personnel." [10] (Focault. judges and jail wardens now took over the executioner's role of administering punishment. and the power of judging has been transferred in part.has been in operation. 1977).

whose name has been thrust to the limelight after the event of the "Maguindanao Massacre" [13] where 58 individuals consisting of their family rival's. it all translates into the tarnished and dirty image that the political dynasty holds in today's society. theft. 2000). As Foucault mentions. This is exactly what Michel Foucault talks about in the spectacle of the scaffold wherein there is a display of an excessive use of power through torture. Last but not least. Alleged to have embezzled between US$5 billion and US$10 billion from the Philippines. surpassed only by former Indonesian President Suharto (Ferdinand Marcos: Killer File. uses the same theory but relates it to the phenomenon of political dynasties in the Philippines. Transparency International [12] has ranked Ferdinand Marcos at second on a list of the world's most corrupt political leaders of the past two decades. relatives and some journalists were shot and killed preventing them from filing their patron's certificate of candidacy. this paper. Singson's allegation caused an uproar across the nation. The second being that such pain is regulated in a way that suffering is maximized rather than imposing death immediately because this suffering would insure a more effective notice of change on the offender's part. bodies dragged on hurdles and exhibited at the roadside. 2000. which culminated in Estrada's impeachment trial by the House of Representatives in November 13. there are three criterions where punishment must follow in order to fall under the category of torture. A more recent example. would be that of the Ampatuans'. the Mangudadatus. Torture marking the individual means that there is a reclaiming of the sovereign by the ruler and that the making of the execution as a spectacle would serve as a public display . Regardless of whether these are proven or unproven. as well as 180 million pesos from the government price subsidy for the tobacco farmers' marketing cooperative. 1977) Similar to what Foucault had studied about power relations. the political dynasty has taken on a negative connotation. that it must manifest pain on a certain degree. it has taken on a detrimental role to society. perhaps the most important would be that torture marks the individual and that it should serve as a spectacle. alleged that he had personally given Estrada the sum of 400 million pesos as payoff from illegal gambling profits such as "jueteng". that could be seen in the example of Francois Damiens' torture.tortures that take place even after death: corpses burnt. murder and even rape. Luis "Chavit" Singson. Throughout Philippine history. ashes thrown to the winds. governor of the province of Ilocos Sur. Families linked to political dynasties flood the news with allegations of all sorts of crime ranging from corruption. corruption. Perhaps the most infamous of all would be the political dynasty of the Marcos family. Names like the Estradas/Ejercitos and the Singson families have also linked the image of the political dynasty to allegations of graft and corruption. and abuse of power. Often linked to problems like graft. The first being. Justice pursues the body beyond all possible pain" [11] (Focault.

In relation to the existence of political dynasties. he shows how the display of excessive power can serve as a negative connotation towards disciplining society. Organization. it also has its strengths. Such a public execution seeks to reach out to the whole of the society by letting the thought of punishment run through their consciousness making them aware of the total power of the sovereign. This is where Vladimir Lenin's theory on organization can come into play because power alone in a democratic society. statements. can clash with the values of democracy while power coupled with proper organization could compromise with the said values. this display of power actually runs through an internal organization of politicization and serves as a disciplining factor towards order. dispersed and used on the sovereign's subjects. despite the weaknesses that they are prone to. he states that "insofar as being the crime before everyone's eyes in all its severity. An organized exercise of power would mean that there is a proper system that is undergone where it is both regulated and directed towards achieving a goal rather than just a spectacle. As Foucault mentions how the Enlightenment period called torture as an atrocity. it must reproduce it in ceremonies that apply it to the body of the guilty person in the form of humiliation and pain. especially excessive power. 1977) Further. would tweak how power is distributed. Vladimir Lenin talks about the importance of organization to serve as a focusing of all efforts towards a certain goal. Political dynasties provide continuity and political stability . In the case of political dynasties. "What is to be done?". In the case of political dynasties where power is seen to be a tool used for political domination. inscription that make it public. which operates on behalf of and for the public rather than for itself and its interests. the punishment must take responsibility for this atrocity: it must bring to light by confessions. power alongside organization can produce an effective dynasty. The context of the logic of torture is that there is contempt for body. furthermore.which is particularly obvious in provinces such as those held by the Josons of Nueva Ecija. . In addition. Atrocity is that part of the crime that the punishment turns back as torture in order to display it in the full light of day" [15] (Focault. them serving as his subjects. wherein the body serves a possession of the sovereign. their display of excessive power by means of running private armies or reliance on coercion in order to establish and maintain their power.of the ruler's sovereignty. "atrocity is one of those that best designates the economy of public torture in the old penal practice." [14] (Focault. 1977) In light of Michel Foucault's study of power. Good Sides to Political Dynasties In his book. could very well serve as a detriment to public order as well as to their own existence. There is a political need for the sovereign to display his power which will serve as a recognition of his dominance over his subjects.

natural terrain conducive to tourism development and a people endowed with cultural and virtuous heritage of industry. 2000). Furthermore. among others. La Union is classified as a first class province (La Union. commerce. An example of a prosperous region. Ortega replies. an airport with viable capacity to accommodate international air traffic.77% employment rate. the City of San Fernando has emerged as the booming Metropolis of the North. is La Union. their continued existence help promote continued progress and development. so long as the succeeding leader is actually capable and not just voted for his namesake. Why punish people who deliver? Like in Frankfurt. "The family of Ortegas have occupied elective and appointed positions in the province since the 20th century. In addition. It is not an issue if you are in power for a long time." (San Fernando City).Ortegas of La Union. "It is not an issue. financial and educational institutions. 2007). In response to issues raised regarding the continued existence of a political dynasty in the region. a son who is to take the place of his father's position in office. this continuity assures that the desired goal is achieved overtime and will be implemented throughout a long-term establishment made by these dynasties.. investors can be assured that laws do not change mid-stream of an investor's project and that business agreements made in the past would still be upheld in the succeeding generations. This sparks an interest in terms of foreign corporations doing business in third world countries since it takes out premium on political instability insurance (PHILIPPINEPOLITICS. ten Ortegas were holding various elective posts in La Union" [16] (Medel. nationalism and aspiration for growth. For example. of how well the dynasty has managed. There is minimal political risk and this plays a huge role when it comes to investments. It is the quality of service that you give. would be able to benefit from the experience and guidance of his father. If the leader delivers. they would have a huge advantage in terms of leadership and experience. why punish him/ her? On the other hand. spirituality. which has been ruled under a political dynasty for over a century. From a "deep rooted potential of stable community governance. peace and prosperity.NET. they have a Mayor for 25 years and she keeps delivering. By this process of learning from the example of the previous generations. if you have . Look how developed Frankfurt is. It is not actually the length of service. Mayor Mary Jane C. In 2006. Boasting a 97% literacy rate and a 94. Assuming that the succeeding leader has been trained from early on by the example of good leaders who have also lead from his dynasty. and Dys of Isabela. The City of San Fernando is now the seat of national government agencies in Region I and center of trade. to international shipping. With the continuity offered by political dynasties. Joaquin Ortega was appointed governor by the US colonial administration. In 1901. 2007). The prosperity of the region speaks clearly. he would be able to emulate the good qualities and learn from mistakes made in the past as well as assure the constant upholding of the good qualities taught by his predecessors.

These are the leaders who prove that the political dynasty can be beneficial to society so long as it does not abuse its power. Barbers and Vergie Smith of Makati City. Villars. Despite his family's involvement in a political dynasty. After his congressional stint. free from regional bias and political patronage considerations. son of the illustrious Senator Gerry Roxas." (Senator Mar A. which ensures fair distribution of the education capital budget among all the provinces. Osmenas. Roxas) At the World Economic Forum in Davos. In another instance. the Singapore Government has awarded him as the 16th Lee Kuan Yew Fellow (Senator Mar A. Lyndon Barbers has made a clear stand against nepotism. In addition. Duavits. 2007). This gave life to his advocacy for fair and equitable access to education. relatives are banned from benefiting from any project on account of his position as Governor. Another example of a leader who has chosen to stick by his principles despite the temptations offered by that of a political dynasty is Governor Barbers. Mitras Plazas. and then in 2004. Mar's stint in the House is most noted for his principal authorship of RA 7880. he was appointed as Secretary of the Department of Trade and Industry. Espinas. there are many other families belonging to political dynasties that have also contributed a great deal into building the nation and serving its people. Barbers is the eldest son of Senator Robert "Bobby" Z." (Senator Mar A. also known as the Roxas Law. Mar was named as "one of the Global Leaders of Tomorrow who is expected to shape the future. Another respectable leader belonging to families with a background in political dynasties include Senator Mar Roxas. of Surigao del Norte and was succeeded by other family members who ran for governor in the province. the international community described Mar as "one of the young leaders in politics and business who will bring Asia and the Pacific to the forefront of world affairs. ." [17] (Medel. Cayetanos. Mar's public service life began in the House of Representatives in 1993. Biazons. Roxas). Owing to his record of accomplishments as a public servant and political leader. A relative of his was once caught operating a sand-gravel quarrying business without a license or permit and was brought to court. Gordons. His brother was second district Rep. a cousin of his was arrested for illegal gambling operations [18] (Medel.the largest ever obtained by a candidate in any Philippine election. and the grandson of the venerable President Manuel Roxas whose public service careers have greatly benefited the country. three years is too long kung hindi naman nagdedeliver. Governor Robert Lyndon S. This has been proven on several instances. Roxas) Recently. The family has a deep-rooted background in politics. Switzerland. Families like the Magsaysays. and Rectos have done a good job of keeping a clean image. Escuderos. he was elected to the Senate with a staggering 20 million votes . 2007).a term limitation. Madrigals.

The only law being actively enforced to prevent the abuse of power is the term limits on elective positions. There are examples of good political dynasties as well as bad ones. it is usually the faults of the political dynasty that are highlighted and scrutinized. This is what Vladimir Lenin is stresses when he mentions in his work that. In this quotation. The American Revolution. there is no clear definition of political dynasties and therefore the provision is none self-executing. More often than not. 1902). there can be ways wherein this power can be diverted into good reasons to achieve societal order and development. 26 of the Constitution says. This loophole in the law has allowed the political dynasty to continue up to the present day even if it is technically not allowed. being the presidents'. However. wherein towards the end. Art. This emergence of Napoleon from this disorganization is an opposite to that of an organized succession and transfer of power seen in the American Revolution. through proper organization. Lenin stresses that organizing a mass of people requires a strategic use of power as opposed to a fueling of the mobs emotions. plunder and whatnot. As a result of which. "Such workers. It is the most ignored policy by Congress due to certain reasons. 2007). although. Sec. A possible historical example would be that of the American Revolution in contrast to the French revolution. In the end. and prohibit political dynasties as may be defined by law. are capable of displaying enormous energy and self-sacrifice in strikes and in street. The transfer and succession of power from one president to another required organization as well as a regulation of their. average people of the masses.It cannot be discounted that one will not practice the use of power. "The State shall guarantee equal access to opportunities for public service. powers. To retain . and are capable (in fact. Napoleon Bonaparte's emergence to take hold of power was recognized. The French revolution had failed to recognize their freedom because they failed to organize their efforts of systemizing their revolution.but the struggle against the political police requires special qualities. gave birth to freedom. The framers left it to the congress to define political dynasties . many have turned to the solution of trying to ban political dynasties completely. battles with the police and the troops. II. liberty and equality among the states. However. Laws Regarding Political Dynasties In terms of the legality of political dynasties. The leaders of the French revolution relied solely on power and doing so led to the abuse and struggle of power. are alone capable) of determining the outcome of our entire movement . providing a term limit for elective officials is easily countered by having families pass on their power.which it has not done (Cruz." However. it requires professional revolutionaries" [19] (Lenin. the French revolution served as a spectacle of disorganization. The political dynasty has its own share of pros and cons. the news is filled with reports about charges of theft.

as these positions are vested executive power. 2007). sovereignty is held by the people. This is partly due to the fact that political dynasties have become so much a part of the current system of governance that it is almost impossible to change. a mistress. children. but not from positions where decision-making is made through deliberation and consensus (Bordadora. It will not affect those who are already currently holding positions. 2000). or a parent to occupy his position for one term. the emergence of political dynasties in the Philippines still operate well within the framework of so-called democracy (PHILIPPINEPOLITICS. 2007). mayor. After which. It is up to the Congress to decide whether this bill will be passed and it seems highly unlikely that they will do so. In an effort to ban political dynasties. which reads. it is possible to put an end to the bad political dynasties. 2007). No matter how much effort is put against the political dynasty. The bill also limits the definition of a political dynasty relationship as existing only among relatives up to the second degree of affinity or consanguinity. "Any person who has a political dynasty relationship with an incumbent elective official is disqualified from running for any elective public office within the same city and/or province where the elective public official is running. it will . Another distinct feature of this bill is that it allows relatives of the incumbent to run for posts such as board member or councilor where power is shared owing to the collegial nature of the office. vice mayor. there was an anti-dynasty bill that was filled by Majority Floor Leader Arthur Defensor of Iloilo. It would be impossible to ban all political dynasties in general. Instead of looking at something that is simply out of reach. siblings or parents of the incumbent are deemed disqualified and similar in-law relationship. Section Five of House Bill 783. At the end of the day. a forcibly retired official arranges to have his wife. he will be qualified again to run for office (Cruz.NET." stated Defensor regarding his opinion on possibility of the bill being passed (Bordadora. only the spouse. however. vice governor. No matter how strong a political dynasty may be. Solution to Problems Regarding Political Dynasties Although this new bill seems like a good and effective idea for countering the negative effects of the existence political dynasties. Like it or not." This bill will only be proactive. it is here to stay. it has yet to have been decided by legislators whether this will be fully implemented or not. Thus. People should realize that they are the ones who elect their leaders into office. It is simply futile to hope for any change regarding the current laws on political dynasties. one of his children. The bill disallows a relative of an incumbent from running for a position like governor.political hold on his constituents. people should realize that there lies a much simpler solution. "I don't think it has much of a chance under the present Congress.. The idea of the bill is to bar relatives from holding positions where power is concentrated in an individual. his own siblings.

We still have to go through an election. While progress continues to be delivered by these political clans to their constituents. They are quick to find faults in the system and demand for change. yet they do nothing to actually work for change. "At the end of the day. What are needed are the unified efforts of each and every individual to continually strive in building the nation into a better place. All in all. Ultimately. it is difficult to make a generalization whether the political dynasty is in fact good or bad since this would differ on a case-to-case basis. these traditional political dynasties. they are also responsible for allowing these dynasties to remain in power. 2007). the issue of whether a member of a political family should continue in office or not is a matter of public choice. is prone to error. 2004)." he said (Cusi. The political dynasty. . There are both good political dynasties and bad ones. On the other the people to decide whether or not a dynasty will be succeeded. After all. "Absolute power is when you have a dictatorship. According to then Representative of Tarlac and now President Benigno Aquino. no system of government is truly perfect. That being said. The people have the power. The electorate will be the ones to dictate who are the ones who will lead. problems will always arise. All this talk about outlawing political dynasties and its bad effects would not even be necessary if people were to vote more responsibly. people have the power to put a stop to political dynasties if the need arises. then they have the option to allow the dynasty to continue in the succeeding generations. yet beneficial on other cases. People need to realize that as much as the bad political dynasties are to blame. What is happening in today's society is that the people are the ones choosing to make themselves powerless. Each political dynasty has its own strengths and weaknesses and it is the duty of the people to be the judge. then that dynasty is bound to fail. are still existing up to this day because they don't just merely exercise power on behalf of their families but rather they direct this power towards an ordered use to improve the public's welfare which is the way it's supposed to be in a democratic society. if a dynasty is doing a good job. that which do not ground their resources based on their economic stance. if one lacks or exceeds in either their organization or exercise of power. On the other hand. not the officials" [20] (Medel. like any other system of leadership. then their dominance and relevance in the Philippine political arena and society will be here to stay. people deserve the government they get. they possess the power and responsibility to vote towards a change in leadership. If they see that a certain dynasty abuses their power. It can be detrimental to Philippine society on some instances.